Sample records for level design space

  1. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  2. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  3. Exploiting Domain Knowledge in System-level MPSoC Design Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded multimedia systems. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, and the mapping of

  4. Interleaving methods for hybrid system-level MPSoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.; McAllister, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  5. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  6. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten


    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  7. Requirements for High Level Models Supporting Design Space Exploration in Model-based Systems Engineering


    Haveman, Steven P.; Bonnema, G. Maarten


    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during detailed design. In this paper, we define requirements for a high level model that is firstly driven by key systems engineering challenges present in industry and secondly connects to several formal and d...

  8. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.


    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  9. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix


    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  10. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zeng


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  11. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex


    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The

  12. A System-level Infrastructure for Multi-dimensional MP-SoC Design Space Co-exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Bautista, T.; Nunez, A.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.


    In this article, we present a flexible and extensible system-level MP-SoC design space exploration (DSE) infrastructure, called NASA. This highly modular framework uses well-defined interfaces to easily integrate different system-level simulation tools as well as different combinations of search

  13. Learning Space Service Design (United States)

    Felix, Elliot


    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  14. Space Station galley design (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.


    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  15. Temporary Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe


    For more than 40 years designers, researchers and engineers have used prototypes and other types of materiality to involve a great number of diverse actors in co-design processes. Researchers such as Blanco, Boujout, Vinck and Jeantet (Blanco & Boujut, 2003; Vinck & Jeantet, 1995) has promoted...... the concept of intermediary objects focusing on direct interactions centred around prototypes. However, not on-ly the prototype foster production and translation of knowledge in design processes, which is why this article introduces the concept of intermediary spaces to broaden the perspective. Intermediary...... spaces offer a framework for analysing design pro-cesses and following the translation and navigation of knowledge and actors from one space to the next. The framework can be used analytically to follow the translation and transformation of knowledge and actors and practically for designers to stage...

  16. The Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heape, Chris

    was to also understand what was meaningful to the students in their process of designing, a hermeneutic phenomenological research perspective was also adopted throughout this study, where human actions and language are considered as expressions of meaning in the context within which they occur. From......, the one effecting the other. As much as the processes of construction, exploration and expansion of a Design Space can be described in general terms as social and as design activities, it also emerged that there are a number of interrelated processes, sensibilities and skills in constant transaction...... the shifting flow of adjustments and perspectives necessary to relate to the ongoing contingency of a design task. From these interweavings a design proposal is gradually pulled to the fore as an emergent composition, a figure of parts that is directly related to the structure and ground of a Design Space...

  17. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik


    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide....... This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. I will examine how games make use of space, and show that the magic circle not only is a viable, though criticized, concept but should be understood as a spatial concept. In order to do this several games are examined, leading...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games....

  18. Space Station Engineering Design Issues (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.


    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  19. Level Design as Model Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormans, Joris


    This paper frames the process of designing a level in a game as a series of model transformations. The transformations correspond to the application of particular design principles, such as the use of locks and keys to transform a linear mission into a branching space. It shows that by using rewrite

  20. Evaluations of average level spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, H.I.


    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of 168 Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables

  1. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne


    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will focus on the usage of the body as an interaction device. Furthermore, the project will involve a dramaturgic take on communication and design of interactive systems in the pursuit of new ways to stage the interactive contexts. The outcome of the project will be guidelines and conceptual frameworks which...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  2. Designing New Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    We are moving towards new learning spaces merging the digital and the physical world. Real world objects get augmented by information streams and real world activities are measured with sensor technology to be reviewed afterwards or in real time. A variety of links is currently created to link

  3. High-Level Design Space and Flexibility Exploration for Adaptive, Energy-Efficient WCDMA Channel Estimation Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Endre Rákossy


    Full Text Available Due to the fast changing wireless communication standards coupled with strict performance constraints, the demand for flexible yet high-performance architectures is increasing. To tackle the flexibility requirement, software-defined radio (SDR is emerging as an obvious solution, where the underlying hardware implementation is tuned via software layers to the varied standards depending on power-performance and quality requirements leading to adaptable, cognitive radio. In this paper, we conduct a case study for representatives of two complexity classes of WCDMA channel estimation algorithms and explore the effect of flexibility on energy efficiency using different implementation options. Furthermore, we propose new design guidelines for both highly specialized architectures and highly flexible architectures using high-level synthesis, to enable the required performance and flexibility to support multiple applications. Our experiments with various design points show that the resulting architectures meet the performance constraints of WCDMA and a wide range of options are offered for tuning such architectures depending on power/performance/area constraints of SDR.

  4. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej


    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... in existing hospital complexes only half the size of these new ones is already recognized as a big problem: How can we avoid the wayfinding-problem of the new complexes to grow to the double with the doubling of the complex size ? What kind of design application can improve the accessibility of future...

  5. Digital Levelling in Subterranean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jiřikovský


    Full Text Available For precision levelling works are now more often used digital levels and code-scale staffs. Advantages in (and problems with their application to the regular line-levelling are well known and described. However, when using the digital levelling for measurements in specific local geodetic networks, monitoring networks and inside of buildings and underground spaces, new problems appear with the signalisation of the observed points, readability of the code (non-uniform illumination, temperature changes etc. The article informs about the application of two types of digital levels (Sokkia SDL-2, Trimble Zeiss DiNi 12T in the experimental subterranean levelling network for the basement settlement monitoring of a ten-floor building; the solution of marking of the points, field calibration and the system calibration of digital levels.

  6. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej


    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... hospital complexes ? The article will explore the fundament of wayshowing on the basis of prior research as well as on the basis of the results of a case study in a large existing danish hospital complex. The result points to signage being an inevitable factor but also that it is a factor that is not very...

  7. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)


    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  8. Requirements for Space Settlement Design (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.


    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  9. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver


    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...... layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  10. A design space of visualization tasks. (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Nocke, Thomas; Heitzler, Magnus; Schumann, Heidrun


    Knowledge about visualization tasks plays an important role in choosing or building suitable visual representations to pursue them. Yet, tasks are a multi-faceted concept and it is thus not surprising that the many existing task taxonomies and models all describe different aspects of tasks, depending on what these task descriptions aim to capture. This results in a clear need to bring these different aspects together under the common hood of a general design space of visualization tasks, which we propose in this paper. Our design space consists of five design dimensions that characterize the main aspects of tasks and that have so far been distributed across different task descriptions. We exemplify its concrete use by applying our design space in the domain of climate impact research. To this end, we propose interfaces to our design space for different user roles (developers, authors, and end users) that allow users of different levels of expertise to work with it.

  11. The Information Infrastructures Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Rapti, Charikleia; Jensen, Thomas


    This paper develops a framework for characterising the design space of Information Infrastructures (IIs). Existing research has generally sought to unravel the convergent characteristics and mechanisms uniting IIs across a wide range of manifestations. In this research, we explore this divergence...... within the II design space. We do so by reviewing the II literature, focusing on the two domains of design situation and design resolution. Design situation refers to the relevant dimensions of the context in which an II is employed. Design resolution covers the dimensions along which the socio......-technical constituents can be assembled to form an effective solution. The resulting framework allows for the comparing and contrasting of II initiatives, and contributes towards a cumulative knowledge process aimed at a more refined understanding of how an II can be configured to address the specific problem at hand....

  12. Comparison of different hip prosthesis shapes considering micro-level bone remodeling and stress-shielding criteria using three-dimensional design space topology optimization. (United States)

    Boyle, Christopher; Kim, Il Yong


    Since the late 1980s, computational analysis of total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis components has been completed using macro-level bone remodeling algorithms. The utilization of macro-sized elements requires apparent bone densities to predict cancellous bone strength, thereby, preventing visualization and analysis of realistic trabecular architecture. In this study, we utilized a recently developed structural optimization algorithm, design space optimization (DSO), to perform a micro-level three-dimensional finite element bone remodeling simulation on the human proximal femur pre- and post-THA. The computational simulation facilitated direct performance comparison between two commercially available prosthetic implant stems from Zimmer Inc.: the Alloclassic and the Mayo conservative. The novel micro-level approach allowed the unique ability to visualize the trabecular bone adaption post-operation and to quantify the changes in bone mineral content by region. Stress-shielding and strain energy distribution were also quantified for the immediate post-operation and the stably fixated, post-remodeling conditions. Stress-shielding was highest in the proximal region and remained unchanged post-remodeling; conversely, the mid and distal portions show large increases in stress, suggesting a distal shift in the loadpath. The Mayo design conserves bone mass, while simultaneously reducing the incidence of stress-shielding compared to the Alloclassic, revealing a key benefit of the distinctive geometry. Several important factors for stable fixation, determined in clinical evaluations from the literature, were evident in both designs: high levels of proximal bone loss and distal bone densification. The results suggest this novel computational framework can be utilized for comparative hip prosthesis shape, uniquely considering the post-operation bone remodeling as a design criterion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.


    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  14. Design course in space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A J; Perez-Fournon, I


    The aim of this course is to provide direct experience of collaboration with other European astronomy/space science students and to gain an insight into the establishment of ESA space science programmes. The first half of the course takes place in Southampton. The Southampton students work as a team to track a past ESA space science mission from initial conception through to final realization and operations. This is achieved through the study of the high quality documentation available in the form of ESA reports. Each student has well defined responsibilities within the team. The second half of the course takes place in Tenerife, at the University of La Laguna. Again the students are expected to complete a team study of a space science mission. This time, however, there are important differences: the study teams are now international, approximately half Southampton and half University of La Laguna students; and this time they are expected to design a completely new space astronomy mission with clearly specified scientific objectives and operational constraints

  15. Space shuttle booster separation motor design (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.


    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  16. Space in Space: Designing for Privacy in the Workplace (United States)

    Akin, Jonie


    Privacy is cultural, socially embedded in the spatial, temporal, and material aspects of the lived experience. Definitions of privacy are as varied among scholars as they are among those who fight for their personal rights in the home and the workplace. Privacy in the workplace has become a topic of interest in recent years, as evident in discussions on Big Data as well as the shrinking office spaces in which people work. An article in The New York Times published in February of this year noted that "many companies are looking to cut costs, and one way to do that is by trimming personal space". Increasingly, organizations ranging from tech start-ups to large corporations are downsizing square footage and opting for open-office floorplans hoping to trim the budget and spark creative, productive communication among their employees. The question of how much is too much to trim when it comes to privacy, is one that is being actively addressed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as they explore habitat designs for future space missions. NASA recognizes privacy as a design-related stressor impacting human health and performance. Given the challenges of sustaining life in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment such as Mars, NASA deems it necessary to determine the acceptable minimal amount for habitable volume for activities requiring at least some level of privacy in order to support optimal crew performance. Ethnographic research was conducted in 2013 to explore perceptions of privacy and privacy needs among astronauts living and working in space as part of a long-distance, long-duration mission. The allocation of space, or habitable volume, becomes an increasingly complex issue in outer space due to the costs associated with maintaining an artificial, confined environment bounded by limitations of mass while located in an extreme environment. Privacy in space, or space in space, provides a unique case study of the complex notions of

  17. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification (United States)


    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  18. Constructive approaches to the space NPP designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, A.G.; Korobkov, L.S.; Matveev, A.V.; Trukhanov, Yu.L.; Pyshko, A.P.


    An example of designing a space NPP intended for power supply of telecommunication satellite is considered. It is shown that the designing approach based on the introduction of a leading criterion and dividing the design problems in two independent groups (reactor with radiation shield and equipment module) permits to develop the optimal design of a space NPP [ru

  19. Lost in Space: Designing for Learning (United States)

    La Marca, Susan


    The design of a learning space, and the many factors that come together to create that space, impact on how we feel and behave in that space and ultimately how we learn. This paper will discuss the importance of mission statements, policy and planning in light of how we create spaces that are learning-driven, human-centred and flexible. Of…

  20. Worship space acoustics 3 decades of design

    CERN Document Server

    Ryherd, Erica; Ronsse, Lauren


    This book takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour through churches, synagogues, mosques, and other worship spaces designed during the past 30 years. The book begins with a series of essays on topics ranging from the soundscape of worship spaces to ecclesiastical design at the turn of the 21st Century. Perspective pieces from an architect, audio designer, music director, and worship space owner are also included. The core of the book presents the acoustical and architectural design of a wide variety of individual worship space venues. Acoustical consulting firms, architects, and worship space designers from across the world contributed their recent innovative works in the area of worship space acoustics. The contributions include detailed renderings and architectural drawings, as well as informative acoustic data graphs and evocative descriptions of the spaces. Filled with beautiful photography and fascinating modern design, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in religious architecture, acoustical d...

  1. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration (United States)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri


    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  2. Designing informal learning spaces using student perspectives


    Matthew David Riddle; Kay Souter


    This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectiv...

  3. Designing informal learning spaces using student perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Riddle


    Full Text Available This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectives and principles developed through applied research in teaching and learning can inform real world learning space design projects in a higher education context.

  4. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design (United States)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.


    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  5. Deep Space Habitat ECLSS Design Concept (United States)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly S.; Rotter, Henry


    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over because the mission definition has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  6. Deep Space Habitat ECLS Design Concept (United States)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank


    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over as the mission definition also has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  7. Design spaces in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Hellström, Maria


    to an increasing extent have to face challenges of the conventional conceiption of design as "a means to convey symbolic meaning through physical form". The "designer" is nog longer the outstanding, creative individual bringing artifacts into the world, but rather a member of a collaborative design team engaging...... will emerge. Whether taking the form of an almost canned experience - as in amusement parks or densely narrated fashion sportswear - or providing for endless interpretations and re-configurations - as in mobile phones or open-source software packages, the design itself becomes yet more open...

  8. Reliable avionics design for deep space (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    The technical and organizational problems posed by the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are discussed, and some possible solutions are examined. It is pointed out that SEI poses a whole new set of challenging problems in the design of reliable systems. These missions and their corresponding systems are far more complex than current systems. The initiative requires a set of vehicles and systems which must have very high levels of autonomy, reliability, and operability for long periods of time. It is emphasized that to achieve these goals in the face of great complexity, new technologies and organizational techniques will be necessary. It is noted that the key to a good design is good people. Not only must good people be found, but they must be placed in positions appropriate to their skills. It is argued that the atomistic and autocratic paradigm of vertical organizations must be replaced with more team-oriented and democratic structures.

  9. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  10. NASA universities advanced space design program, focus on nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F. III; George, J.A.; Alred, J.W.; Peddicord, K.L.


    In January 1985, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in affiliation with the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), inaugurated the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program. The purpose of the program was to encourage participating universities to utilize design projects for the senior and graduate level design courses that would focus on topics relevant to the nation's space program. The activities and projects being carried out under the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program are excellent experiences for the participants. This program is a well-conceived, well-planned effort to achieve the maximum benefit out of not only the university design experience but also of the subsequent summer programs. The students in the university design classes have the opportunity to investigate dramatic and new concepts, which at the same time have a place in a program of national importance. This program could serve as a very useful model for the development of university interaction with other federal agencies

  11. The Personal Health Technology Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads


    . To enable designers to make informed and well-articulated design decision, the authors propose a design space for personal health technologies. This space consists of 10 dimensions related to the design of data sampling strategies, visualization and feedback approaches, treatment models, and regulatory......Interest is increasing in personal health technologies that utilize mobile platforms for improved health and well-being. However, although a wide variety of these systems exist, each is designed quite differently and materializes many different and more or less explicit design assumptions...

  12. Designing the robot inclusive space challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan


    Full Text Available A novel robotic challenge, namely the robot inclusive spaces (RIS challenge, is proposed in this paper, which is a cross disciplinary and design focused initiative. It aims to foster the roboticists, architects, and designers towards realizing robot friendly social spaces. Contrary to conventional robotics competitions focusing on designing robots and its component technologies, robot inclusive spaces challenge adopts an interdisciplinary “design for robots” strategy to overcome the traditional research problem in real world deployments of social robots. In order to realize the RIS, various architectural elements must be adapted including: design principles for inclusive spaces, lighting schemes, furniture choices and arrangement, wall and floor surfaces, pathways among others. This paper introduces the format and design principles of RIS challenge, presents a first run of the challenge, and gives the corresponding analysis.

  13. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N


    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  14. Design of Urban Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mikkel; Martin, W Mike; Stewart, Tom


    knowledge, and that expert knowledge was chosen randomly. These findings point to a systematic lack of evidence-based practice when designing sport and recreational facilities. This article has implications for landscape architects and urban planners; a new method must be developed to embed...

  15. Translating material and design space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Joseffson, Kristoffer


    This paper shares findings from the project DevA (Developable surfaces in Architecture), a research by design based project developed a collaboration between academic and industry partners. The project aims to investigate the use of curved sheet material in architecture using hybridised 3D...

  16. An Argument for Design Space Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Halskov, Kim; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen


    We argue that documenting, revisiting and reflecting on the design space of a project provides three important benefits. First it increases our awareness of the constraints introduced by particular design choices. Second, this qualifies our understanding of the way a design space has been filtered...... by design activities. Third we are prompted to challenge these constraints and reconsider disregarded opportunities. To support this argument, we revisit key activities from two projects in our interaction design lab’s portfolio, selected because of the detailed documentation available. We also introduce...... SnapShot, the web-based tool we are developing for this method of design space reflection. Based on these examples, we present a critical discussion and outline areas of future research....

  17. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley


    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  18. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan


    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  19. Blended Interaction Spaces for Collaborative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    During the past five years, we have explored the use, potentials and challenges of Blended Interaction spaces. In addition, we have a long background in developing and exploring methods for collaborative design. In this workshop paper, we give an overview of our work and present our visions...... and ongoing research in developing Blended Interaction spaces for collaborative design. We then identify key themes and challenges pertinent for the workshop....

  20. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.


    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  1. Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    Hans Kiib Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark - a survey on 100 Danish projects from 2002 – 2010. This article is based on an evaluation of 100 Danish open space projects form 2000 – 2010. The projects was initially proposals from Danish municipalities for the Campaign on Better Open...... Spaces (Bedre Byrums Kampagne) run by Realdania stating in 2002. These projects are all proposed just after 2002. Based on the quality of the projects including the goals for the proposal, the quality of the proposed design, and finally to what extent the projects contributed to new concepts...... and perspectives in open space design, 24 proposals were selected for further development. These projects were developed in the period from 2003 – 2007 with support from consultants. The evaluation has been carried out in 2011. It categorizes the initial 100 projects in relation to location, goals, concepts, scale...

  2. Design methodology and projects for space engineering (United States)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.


    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  3. Urban public space materials. Maintenance and design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias Campos


    Full Text Available In this paper, certain aspects related to the conservation of materials commonly used in the design of public spaces are analysed and discussed from a starting point of maintenance definition. The main area of discussion is whether materials selection for pavements and urban furniture, and their placement in the designed space, take into account their maintenance needs. Here the definition of maintenance is the cleaning and repair done by municipal services that is always necessary after construction. From certain examples it can be concluded that, in several cases, the form, the organization and the distribution of the different elements within the public space can cause difficulties for its appropriate conservation, giving rise to alterations and consequently having a negative impact on the durability of this space.

  4. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay


    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  5. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry


    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  6. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space. (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A


    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  7. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition (United States)

    Haines, R. F.


    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  8. Universal design of public open spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner


    Full Text Available Urban open spaces are public places that must assure access for all users. They should be designed for equal use despite disabilities and special recreational needs. Their design must be functional and must meet user’s special requirements, either everyday functional or special (recreational needs. It is not just about overcoming architectural obstacles by building ramps of suitable slope and size; it is about inclusive, universal landscape design of urban space made for all citizens. For this matter, different ways of public use for each group of users is defined, functional criteria are determined, and examples of good and bad design are assembled to present the differences between technically accomplished ramps, and slope paths that include quality landscape inclusive design. To prove the unsuitability of public open spaces in Ljubljana, various analyses were made, including the measurement of steepness, lengths and wideness of certain urban elements. As an application of results, the universal designing principles are summarized in new proposal for entrance into Tivoli Park.

  9. Missing level corrections using neutron spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.


    Nuclear level densities are very important for a wide variety of pure and applied neutron physics. Most of the relevant information is obtained from neutron resonance data. The key correction to the raw experimental data is for missing levels. All of the standard correction methods assume that the neutron resonances obey the predictions of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble version of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and utilize comparison with the Porter-Thomas distribution of reduced widths in order to determine the fraction of missing levels. Here we adopt an alternate approach, comparing the neutron data with the predictions of RMT for eigenvalue statistics. Since in RMT the widths and eigenvalues are independent, analysis of the eigenvalues provides an independent analysis of the same data set. We summarize recent work in this area using the nearest neighbour spacing distribution, and we also develop tests that utilize several other eigenvalue statistics to provide additional estimates of the missing fraction of levels. These additional statistics include the key test for long range order - the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic - as well as the thermodynamic energy (that arises from Dyson's Circular Orthogonal Ensemble), the linear correlation coefficient of adjacent spacings (a measure of short range anti-correlation), and a statistic related to the Q statistic defined by Dyson and Mehta in the early 1960s. Developed FORTRAN code is available at These tests are applied to the s-wave neutron resonances in n + 238 U and n + 232 Th. The results for 238 U are consistent with each other and raise some issues concerning data purity. For the 232 Th data, all of the tests are in excellent agreement. (author)

  10. The Design Space of Information Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Petersen, Johannes


    A semiotic approach to the design space of information presentation is presented in which Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is used to represent and explore attributes of abstract sign types and the media (graphical, haptic, acoustic, gestic) through which they are presented as specific...

  11. Public Space Design between Alienation and Appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley; Steinø, Nicolai


    Urban public space in a Western context has become increasingly functionalized and pre-determined. Designations for use, and by whom, have become more prolific – often in the name of practicality or safety – and have introduced more or less formalised codes of accepted behaviour. This represents ...

  12. Public Space Design Between Alienation and Approporiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley; Steinø, Nicolai


    Urban public space in a Western context has become increasingly functionalized and pre-determined. Designations for use, and by whom, have become more prolific – often in the name of practicality or safety – and have introduced more or less formalized codes of accepted behaviour. This represents ...

  13. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.


    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  14. Design and comfort in office space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M. Lepore


    Full Text Available The theme of office space is of particular interest because it is a sector strongly involved by technological development. The high concentration of plant engineering systems makes it essential to the attention to environmental parameters and to research on the quality of the relationship which binds man to artificial dimension of built space. In the design of office spaces, the general objective must be to be able to achieve a new working environment relationship. A ratio in which optimal balance is always sought in terms of igrothermal, acoustic and luminous comfort conditions, without noting that the psychological and sociological component plays an important role among the environmental factors, and this significantly interferes with the conditions of physiological comfort. The following work is an essay on the subject.

  15. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia


    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  16. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui


    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  17. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Wonka, Peter


    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries among its workforce. This research assessed work-space (WsD) and work-method designs (WmD), level of compliance with recommended standards (RSs) and effects on workers' wellbeing. Clearances for services in 55 supine ...

  19. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron


    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  20. Which Space? Whose Space? An Experience in Involving Students and Teachers in Space Design (United States)

    Casanova, Diogo; Di Napoli, Roberto; Leijon, Marie


    To date, learning spaces in higher education have been designed with little engagement on the part of their most important users: students and teachers. In this paper, we present the results of research carried out in a UK university. The research aimed to understand how students and teachers conceptualise learning spaces when they are given the…

  1. Space tourism optimized reusable spaceplane design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.P.; Lindley, C.A. [The Aerospace Corporation El Segundo, California90245-4691 (United States)


    Market surveys suggest that a viable space tourism industry will require flight rates about two orders of magnitude higher than those required for conventional spacelift. Although enabling round-trip cost goals for a viable space tourism business are about {dollar_sign}240 per pound ({dollar_sign}529/kg), or {dollar_sign}72,000 per passenger round-trip, goals should be about {dollar_sign}50 per pound ({dollar_sign}110/kg) or approximately {dollar_sign}15,000 for a typical passenger and baggage. The lower price will probably open space tourism to the general population. Vehicle reliabilities must approach those of commercial aircraft as closely as possible. This paper addresses the development of spaceplanes optimized for the ultra-high flight rate and high reliability demands of the space tourism mission. It addresses the fundamental operability, reliability, and cost drivers needed to satisfy this mission need. Figures of merit similar to those used to evaluate the economic viability of conventional commercial aircraft are developed, including items such as payload/vehicle dry weight, turnaround time, propellant cost per passenger, and insurance and depreciation costs, which show that infrastructure can be developed for a viable space tourism industry. A reference spaceplane design optimized for space tourism is described. Subsystem allocations for reliability, operability, and costs are made and a route to developing such a capability is discussed. The vehicle{close_quote}s ability to also satisfy the traditional spacelift market is shown. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.


    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  3. Model-Based Engineering Design for Trade Space Exploration throughout the Design Cycle (United States)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Wall, Stephen D.; Easter, Robert W.


    This paper presents ongoing work to standardize model-based system engineering as a complement to point design development in the conceptual design phase of deep space missions. It summarizes two first steps towards practical application of this capability within the framework of concurrent engineering design teams and their customers. The first step is standard generation of system sensitivities models as the output of concurrent engineering design sessions, representing the local trade space around a point design. A review of the chosen model development process, and the results of three case study examples, demonstrate that a simple update to the concurrent engineering design process can easily capture sensitivities to key requirements. It can serve as a valuable tool to analyze design drivers and uncover breakpoints in the design. The second step is development of rough-order- of-magnitude, broad-range-of-validity design models for rapid exploration of the trade space, before selection of a point design. At least one case study demonstrated the feasibility to generate such models in a concurrent engineering session. The experiment indicated that such a capability could yield valid system-level conclusions for a trade space composed of understood elements. Ongoing efforts are assessing the practicality of developing end-to-end system-level design models for use before even convening the first concurrent engineering session, starting with modeling an end-to-end Mars architecture.

  4. Using the Phase Space to Design Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil


    Architecture that is responsive, adaptive, or interactive can contain active architectural elements or robotic sensor-actuator systems. The consideration of architectural robotic elements that utilize distributed control and distributed communication allows for self-organization, emergence...... with materializations left by robot swarms or elements, rather than robots' internal states. We detail a case study examination of design methodology using the formation space concept for assessment and decision-making in the design of active architectural artifacts......., and evolution on site in real-time. The potential complexity of behaviors in such architectural robotic systems requires design methodology able to encompass a range of possible outcomes, rather than a single solution. We present an approach of adopting an aspect of complexity science and applying...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ümran TOPÇU


    Full Text Available Learning is a central part of everyone’s life that is often associated with school and  classrooms. Today’ classroom looks and functions like the classroom of an earlier century. Desks lined up in neat rows, facing the teacher and a board or screen is the general condition in many educational institutions. Most of us have sat through classes in plain, hard rooms. Although they did not look very pleasant, we all coped with them. If they could be designed slightly more tolerable, would they help in the betterment of education and learning in any measurable way? This paper aims at describing an attempt to design an alternative classroom. Based on several years of experience, it is observed that there is a demand among students for softer, warmer and more intimate instructional spaces. Students of “People and Environment” Course were asked to select a suitable space to redesign as a “Soft Classroom” within Bahçeşehir University Besiktas Campus  premises. This case study presented a potential research project to etter understand,  how student engagement can be increased by changing learning spaces.

  6. Software Design Level Security Vulnerabilities


    S. Rehman; K. Mustafa


    Several thousand software design vulnerabilities have been reported through established databases. But they need to be structured and classified to be optimally usable in the pursuit of minimal and effective mitigation mechanism. In order we developed a criterion set for a communicative description of the same to serve the purpose as a taxonomic description of security vulnerabilities, arising in the design phase of Software development lifecycle. This description is a part of an effort to id...

  7. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.


    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  8. An architectural approach to level design

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, Christopher W


    Explore Level Design through the Lens of Architectural and Spatial Experience TheoryWritten by a game developer and professor trained in architecture, An Architectural Approach to Level Design is one of the first books to integrate architectural and spatial design theory with the field of level design. It explores the principles of level design through the context and history of architecture, providing information useful to both academics and game development professionals.Understand Spatial Design Principles for Game Levels in 2D, 3D, and Multiplayer ApplicationsThe book presents architectura

  9. Designing Interfaces for Astronaut Autonomy in Space (United States)

    Hillenius, Steve


    As we move towards human deep space missions, astronauts will no longer be able to say, Houston, we have a problem. The restricted contact with mission control because of the incredible distance from Earth will require astronauts to make autonomous decisions. How will astronauts take on the roles of mission control? This is an area of active research that has far reaching implications for the future of distant spaceflight. Come to this talk to hear how we are using design and user research to come up with innovative solutions for astronauts to effectively explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  10. space vector pulse width modulation of a multi-level diode clamped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    step by step development of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector ..... Pulse Width Mod. of Multi-Level Diode Clamped Converter 119 powergui. Discrete, .... Load. Figure 22: Block diagram of the three level DCC design. 3 LEVEL ...

  11. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.


    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  12. A Design Space for Virtuality-Introduced Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Gushima


    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR and virtual reality (VR technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information technologies will enable the physical world to be fused with the virtual world. These digital services will be advanced via virtuality, which means that things that do not physically exist make people believe in their existence. We propose a design space for digital services that are enhanced via virtuality based on insights extracted from three case studies that we have developed and from discussions in focus groups that analyze how existing commercial IoT products proposed in a commercial crowdfunding platform, Kickstarter, could be enhanced through virtuality. The derived design space offers three dimensions to design a digital service to fuse IoT technologies with virtuality: (1 Taxonomy of IoT; (2 Visualizing Level, and (3 Virtuality Level. The design space will help IoT-based digital service designers to develop advanced future IoT products that incorporate virtuality.

  13. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul


    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  14. Space-Time Code Designs for Broadband Wireless Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Xiang-Gen


    The goal of this research is to design new space AND time codes, such as complex orthogonal space AND time block codes with rate above 1/2 from complex orthogonal designs for QAM, PSK, and CPM signals...

  15. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture. (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A


    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  16. Application of Bayesian approach to estimate average level spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhongfu; Zhao Zhixiang


    A method to estimate average level spacing from a set of resolved resonance parameters by using Bayesian approach is given. Using the information given in the distributions of both levels spacing and neutron width, the level missing in measured sample can be corrected more precisely so that better estimate for average level spacing can be obtained by this method. The calculation of s-wave resonance has been done and comparison with other work was carried out

  17. Introducing GIS across Levels: Designing for Diversity (United States)

    Barros, Joana


    The paper proposes a strategy for designing introductory GIS modules at Birkbeck, University of London. Seven design aspects or elements (content, practical exercises, assessment, pace, mode, level of support, and level of difficulty) for tailoring modules at appropriate levels and for diversity are introduced and their application in Birkbeck's…

  18. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf


    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  19. BCFT moduli space in level truncation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrna, Matěj; Maccaferri, C.


    Roč. 2016, č. 4 (2016), 1-33, č. článku 057. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : deformation: marginal * field theory: string * tachyon: potential * string: open * moduli space * effective potential * nonperturbative * toy model Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016

  20. The Influence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Design on Sound Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Li Chen


    Conclusion: The sound level measured in the enclosed space was quieter than in the open space. The design of bed space should be taken into consideration when building a new NICU. Besides the design of NICU architecture, continuous monitoring of sound level in the NICU is important to maintain a quiet environment.

  1. Top Level Space Cost Methodology (TLSCM) (United States)


    Software 7 6. ACEIT . 7 C. Ground Rules and Assumptions 7 D. Typical Life Cycle Cost Distribution 7 E. Methodologies 7 1. Cost/budget Threshold 9 2. Analogy...which is based on real-time Air Force and space programs. Ref.(25:2- 8, 2-9) 6. ACEIT : Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools( ACEIT ), Tecolote...Research, Inc. There is a way to use the ACEIT cost program to get a print-out of an expanded WBS. Therefore, find someone that has ACEIT experience and

  2. A Constraint-Based Understanding of Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    space schema, can identify the properties of the prospective product that s/he can form. Through a case study, we show how design space schemas can support designers in various ways, including gaining an overview of the design process, documenting it, reflecting on it, and developing design concepts...

  3. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space (United States)

    Twyford, Evan


    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  4. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny


    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  5. Structural design considerations for an 8-m space telescope (United States)

    Arnold, William r., Sr.; Stahl, H. Philip


    NASA's upcoming ARES V launch vehicle, with its' immense payload capacities (both volume and mass) has opened the possibilities for a whole new paradigm of space observatories. It becomes practical to consider a monolith mirror of sufficient size to permit significant scientific advantages, both in collection area and smoothness or figure at a reasonable price. The technologies and engineering to manufacture and test 8 meter class monoliths is mature, with nearly a dozen of such mirrors already in operation around the world. This paper will discuss the design requirements to adapt an 8m meniscus mirror into a Space Telescope System, both launch and operational considerations are included. With objects this massive and structurally sensitive, the mirror design must include all stages of the process. Based upon the experiences of the Hubble Space Telescope, testing and verification at both component and integrated system levels are considered vital to mission success. To this end, two different component level test methods for gravity sag (the so call zero- gravity simulation or test mount) are proposed, with one of these methods suitable for the full up system level testing as well.

  6. Space shuttle OMS helium regulator design and development (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Kelly, T. L.; Lynch, R.


    Analysis, design, fabrication and design verification testing was conducted on the technological feasiblity of the helium pressurization regulator for the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system application. A prototype regulator was fabricated which was a single-stage design featuring the most reliable and lowest cost concept. A tradeoff study on regulator concepts indicated that a single-stage regulator with a lever arm between the valve and the actuator section would offer significant weight savings. Damping concepts were tested to determine the amount of damping required to restrict actuator travel during vibration. Component design parameters such as spring rates, effective area, contamination cutting, and damping were determined by test prior to regulator final assembly. The unit was subjected to performance testing at widely ranging flow rates, temperatures, inlet pressures, and random vibration levels. A test plan for propellant compatibility and extended life tests is included.

  7. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack


    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  8. Shnirelman peak in the level spacing statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, B.V.; Shepelyanskij, D.L.


    The first results on the statistical properties of the quantum quasidegeneracy are presented. A physical interpretation of the Shnirelman theorem predicted the bulk quasidegeneracy is given. The conditions for the strong impact of the degeneracy on the quantum level statistics are formulated which allows to extend the application of the Shnirelman theorem into a broad class of quantum systems. 14 refs., 3 figs

  9. Mechanical design of a lidar system for space applications - LITE (United States)

    Crockett, Sharon K.


    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a Shuttle experiment that will demonstrate the first use of a lidar system in space. Its design process must take into account not only the system design but also the unique design requirements for spaceborne experiment.

  10. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs designs for future segmented space telescopes (United States)

    St. Laurent, Kathryn; Fogarty, Kevin; Zimmerman, Neil; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Stark, Chris; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Pueyo, Laurent; Vanderbei, Robert; Soummer, Remi


    A coronagraphic starlight suppression system situated on a future flagship space observatory offers a promising avenue to image Earth-like exoplanets and search for biomarkers in their atmospheric spectra. One NASA mission concept that could serve as the platform to realize this scientific breakthrough is the Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR). Such a mission would also address a broad range of topics in astrophysics with a multi-wavelength suite of instruments.In support of the community’s assessment of the scientific capability of a LUVOIR mission, the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) has launched a multi-team technical study: Segmented Coronagraph Design and Analysis (SCDA). The goal of this study is to develop viable coronagraph instrument concepts for a LUVOIR-type mission. Results of the SCDA effort will directly inform the mission concept evaluation being carried out by the LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team. The apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) is one of several coronagraph design families that the SCDA study is assessing. The APLC is a Lyot-style coronagraph that suppresses starlight through a series of amplitude operations on the on-axis field. Given a suite of seven plausible segmented telescope apertures, we have developed an object-oriented software toolkit to automate the exploration of thousands of APLC design parameter combinations. In the course of exploring this parameter space we have established relationships between APLC throughput and telescope aperture geometry, Lyot stop, inner working angle, bandwidth, and contrast level. In parallel with the parameter space exploration, we have investigated several strategies to improve the robustness of APLC designs to fabrication and alignment errors and integrated a Design Reference Mission framework to evaluate designs with scientific yield metrics.

  11. System level ESD co-design

    CERN Document Server

    Gossner, Harald


    An effective and cost efficient protection of electronic system against ESD stress pulses specified by IEC 61000-4-2 is paramount for any system design. This pioneering book presents the collective knowledge of system designers and system testing experts and state-of-the-art techniques for achieving efficient system-level ESD protection, with minimum impact on the system performance. All categories of system failures ranging from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ types are considered to review simulation and tool applications that can be used. The principal focus of System Level ESD Co-Design is defining and establishing the importance of co-design efforts from both IC supplier and system builder perspectives. ESD designers often face challenges in meeting customers' system-level ESD requirements and, therefore, a clear understanding of the techniques presented here will facilitate effective simulation approaches leading to better solutions without compromising system performance. With contributions from Robert Asht...

  12. Theory and design methods of special space orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun


    This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.

  13. Mission Trade Space Evaluation through Multiphysics Design and Optimization (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent years, modeling and simulation tools have enabled engineers to design highly complex systems while taking into consideration constraints across multiple...

  14. The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian


    games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props...... the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing...

  15. An Opening: Graphic Design's Discursive Spaces. (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew


    Introduces a special issue on critical histories of graphic design with a review of the particular problems identified with the history of graphic design as a field of study and the emerging discipline of graphic design history. Makes a case for the examination of graphic design through its relationships with larger discourses. (SR)

  16. Scientific, statistical, practical, and regulatory considerations in design space development. (United States)

    Debevec, Veronika; Srčič, Stanko; Horvat, Matej


    The quality by design (QbD) paradigm guides the pharmaceutical industry towards improved understanding of products and processes, and at the same time facilitates a high degree of manufacturing and regulatory flexibility throughout the establishment of the design space. This review article presents scientific, statistical and regulatory considerations in design space development. All key development milestones, starting with planning, selection of factors, experimental execution, data analysis, model development and assessment, verification, and validation, and ending with design space submission, are presented and discussed. The focus is especially on frequently ignored topics, like management of factors and CQAs that will not be included in experimental design, evaluation of risk of failure on design space edges, or modeling scale-up strategy. Moreover, development of a design space that is independent of manufacturing scale is proposed as the preferred approach.

  17. Monolithic Compliant Space Mechanisms Design Strategies (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New additive manufacturing technologies such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering and Electron Beam Melting now allow 3D printing of complex geometries. These processes...

  18. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.


    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  19. Space mapping optimization algorithms for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj


    A simple, efficient optimization algorithm based on space mapping (SM) is presented. It utilizes input SM to reduce the misalignment between the coarse and fine models of the optimized object over a region of interest, and output space mapping (OSM) to ensure matching of response and first...... to a benchmark problem. In comparison with SMIS, the models presented are simple and have a small number of parameters that need to be extracted. The new algorithm is applied to the optimization of coupled-line band-pass filter....

  20. Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Stage, Jan


    In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models...

  1. The role of urban space design characteristics in influencing social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study carried out in Old Town Mombasa, a Swahili city in Kenya, situated along the East African Coast. Its focus is on social life of the town's street system as a correlate of urban space design characteristics. Urban design elements within the streets have been disregarded resulting in spaces that do ...

  2. Conceptual designs for 100-MW space radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Sullivan, J.A.


    A description and comparison of heat rejection systems for multimegawatt space-based power supplies is given. Current concepts are described, and through a common performance parameter, these are compared with three advanced radiator concepts. The comparison is based on a power system that rejects 100 MW of heat while generating 10 MW of electrical power

  3. Universality in level spacing fluctuations of a chaotic optical billiard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laprise, J.F.; Hosseinizadeh, A.; Lamy-Poirier, J. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Zomorrodi, R. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [Physics Department and Center for Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Kroeger, H., E-mail: hkroger@phy.ulaval.c [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Functional Neurobiology, University of Utrecht, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We study chaotic behavior of a classical optical stadium billiard model. We construct a matrix of time-of-travel along trajectories corresponding to a set of boundary points. We carry out a level spacing fluctuation analysis and compute the Dyson-Mehta spectral rigidity. The distribution of time-of-travel is approximately described by a Gaussian. The results for level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity show universal behavior.

  4. Information Architecture the Design of Digital Information Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Wei


    Information Architecture is about organizing and simplifying information, designing and integrating information spaces/systems, and creating ways for people to find and interact with information content. Its goal is to help people understand and manage information and make right decisions accordingly. In the ever-changing social, organizational and technological contexts, Information Architects not only design individual information spaces (e.g., individual websites, software applications, and mobile devices), but also tackle strategic aggregation and integration of multiple information spaces

  5. Funky-Design-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés


    Research in surface computing has traditionally been driven by technology. A project that explored ways to provide support for professional users in their work with novel technology by focusing on people instead is presented. A co-design approach was applied by systematically involving end users ...... the creation of mood boards was co-designed, brought to life in two prototypes, and evaluated with designers. The results suggest these environments could stimulate designers to break away from their desks and encourage collaboration with more people....

  6. Space Transportation Analysis and Design (Reissue A) (United States)


    RECOVERABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES ..................... 3-12 1. Domestic (STS Space Shuttle) ....................................... 3-12 2. Foreign (CIS Energia ...affects solar heating of the spacecraft and the availability of solar energy for generating spacecraft power. 2-1 Table 2-1. Typical Orbits and...Foreign (CIS Energia Buran) The CIS Energia , which became operational in 1987, was developed to launch a variety of heavy payloads including the Buran

  7. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space & Earth (United States)

    Shutts, Stacy; Ewert, Mike; Bacon, Jack


    Anaerobic digestion converts organic waste into methane gas and fertilizer effluent. The ICA-developed prototype system is designed for planetary surface operation. It uses passive hydrostatic control for reliability, and is modular and redundant. The serpentine configuration accommodates tight geometric constraints similar to the ISS ECLSS rack architectures. Its shallow, low-tilt design enables (variable) lower-g convection than standard Earth (1 g) digesters. This technology will reuse and recycle materials including human waste, excess food, as well as packaging (if biodegradable bags are used).

  8. Space Mapping With Adaptive Response Correction for Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, S.; Bandler, J.W.; Madsen, Kaj


    at which the term was calculated, as in the surrogate model optimization process. In this paper, an adaptive response correction scheme is presented to work in conjunction with space-mapping optimization algorithms. This technique is designed to alleviate the difficulties of the standard output space......Output space mapping is a technique introduced to enhance the robustness of the space-mapping optimization process in case the space-mapped coarse model cannot provide sufficient matching with the fine model. The technique often works very well; however, in some cases it fails. Especially...

  9. Utilizing Uncertainty Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Conceptual Design of Space Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Guo, J.; Chen, X.; Van Tooren, M.


    With progress of space technology and increase of space mission demand, requirements for robustness and reliability of space systems are ever-increasing. For the whole space mission life cycle, the most important decisions are made in the conceptual design phase, so it is very crucial to take

  10. Scenarios and design: Scoping the dialogue space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea; Kimbell, Lucy; Ramirez, Rafael


    This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinar......'s contribution is to suggest how scenario planning can engage with design, resulting in new opportunities for research and projects. These modes of engagement provide a framing to explore dialogues between other management disciplines.......This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinary...... management research, which struggles to connect research and practice. The authors describe how they brought the two fields together. We outline how we convened, designed and facilitated the fourth Oxford Futures Forum held in May 2014. This event brought together leading practitioners and researchers...

  11. Enabling MPSoC design space exploration on FPGAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabbir, A.; Kumar, A.; Mesman, B.; Corporaal, H.; Hussain, D.M.A.; Rajput, A.Q.K.; Chowdhry, B.S.; Gee, Q.


    Future applications for embedded systems demand chip multiprocessor designs to meet real-time deadlines. These multiprocessors are increasingly becoming heterogeneous for reasons of cost and power. Design space exploration (DSE) of application mapping becomes a major design decision in such systems.

  12. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts (United States)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.


    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  13. Dynamics and design of space nets for orbital capture

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Leping; Zhen, Ming; Liu, Haitao


    This book covers the topics of theoretical principles, dynamics model and algorithm, mission analysis, system design and experimental studies of space nets system, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for those interested. Space nets system represents a forefront field in future development of aerospace technologies. However, it involves new challenges and problems such as nonlinear and distorted nets structure, complex rigid flexible coupling dynamics, orbital transfer of space flexible composite and dynamics control. Currently, no comprehensive books on space nets dynamics and design are available, so potential readers can get to know the working mechanism, dynamics elements, and mission design of the space nets system from a Chinese perspective.

  14. Designing Personalized Spaces that Impact Student Achievement (United States)

    Fielding, Randy


    "Yes we can!" Those famous three words of the Obama campaign could serve as the theme for the culture of hope and excellence at the Cristo Rey Jesuit High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Many of the students arrive in the 9th grade with reading and math skills at an early elementary school level. Others lack the basic life skills to…

  15. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza


    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  16. Design Optimization of Space Launch Vehicles Using a Genetic Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayley, Douglas J


    .... A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost...

  17. Communal space design as student interaction in polnep campus (United States)

    Hasriyanti, N.; Zulestari, A.; Judhi, J.; Ikayanti, P.


    Communal space is a means to do for social interaction, from private to the public. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of communal space setting of Pontianak State Polytechnic students from 8 departments of study both indoor and outdoor spaces. The research method used is a rationalistic study. The planned activities to be undertaken include the determination of communal places (indoor and outdoor), sample determination, data collection with surveys and interviews, presenting data and analysis and drawing conclusions as a basis for designing communal space for Polnep students. The research were analyzed of building and space character, analysis of space organization and circulation, space requirement analysis, material and color analysis, site analysis, and analysis of inner space elements and outer space elements. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that Polnep campus environment requires the addition of public space for students in conducting formal activities outside lectures. Some activity which to do some student such as activity to waiting lecturer, do some coursework, discussion, relaxation, extracurricular activities, and other informal activities still require adequate space infrastructure and are equipped with street furnitures such as garden lights, benches, outer space markers and shade vegetation.

  18. Supporting Space Systems Design via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology (United States)

    Guariniello, Cesare

    The increasing size and complexity of space systems and space missions pose severe challenges to space systems engineers. When complex systems and Systems-of-Systems are involved, the behavior of the whole entity is not only due to that of the individual systems involved but also to the interactions and dependencies between the systems. Dependencies can be varied and complex, and designers usually do not perform analysis of the impact of dependencies at the level of complex systems, or this analysis involves excessive computational cost, or occurs at a later stage of the design process, after designers have already set detailed requirements, following a bottom-up approach. While classical systems engineering attempts to integrate the perspectives involved across the variety of engineering disciplines and the objectives of multiple stakeholders, there is still a need for more effective tools and methods capable to identify, analyze and quantify properties of the complex system as a whole and to model explicitly the effect of some of the features that characterize complex systems. This research describes the development and usage of Systems Operational Dependency Analysis and Systems Developmental Dependency Analysis, two methods based on parametric models of the behavior of complex systems, one in the operational domain and one in the developmental domain. The parameters of the developed models have intuitive meaning, are usable with subjective and quantitative data alike, and give direct insight into the causes of observed, and possibly emergent, behavior. The approach proposed in this dissertation combines models of one-to-one dependencies among systems and between systems and capabilities, to analyze and evaluate the impact of failures or delays on the outcome of the whole complex system. The analysis accounts for cascading effects, partial operational failures, multiple failures or delays, and partial developmental dependencies. The user of these methods can

  19. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design (United States)


    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  20. SEP Mission Design Space for Mars Orbiters (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.


    The advancement of solar-electric propulsion (SEP) technologies and larger, light-weight solar arrays offer a tremendous advantage to Mars orbiters in terms of both mass and timeline flexibility. These advantages are multiplied for round-trip orbiters (e.g. potential Mars sample return) where a large total Delta V would be required. In this paper we investigate the mission design characteristics of mission concepts utilizing various combinations and types of SEP thrusters, solar arrays, launch vehicles, launch dates, arrival dates, etc. SEP allows for greater than 50% more mass delivered and launch windows of months to years. We also present the SEP analog to the ballistic Porkchop plot - the "Bacon" plot.

  1. Design space of electrostatic chuck in etching chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuchun; Cheng Jia; Lu Yijia; Hou Yuemin; Ji Linhong


    One of the core semiconductor devices is the electrostatic chuck. It has been widely used in plasma-based and vacuum-based semiconductor processing. The electrostatic chuck plays an important role in adsorbing and cooling/heating wafers, and has technical advantages on non-edge exclusion, high reliability, wafer planarity, particles reduction and so on. This article extracts key design elements from the existing knowledge and techniques of electrostatic chuck by the method proposed by Paul and Beitz, and establishes a design space systematically. The design space is composed of working objects, working principles and working structures. The working objects involve electrostatic chuck components and materials, classifications, and relevant properties; the working principles involve clamping force, residual force, and temperature control; the working structures describe how to compose an electrostatic chuck and to fulfill the overall functions. The systematic design space exhibits the main issues during electrostatic chuck design. The design space will facilitate and inspire designers to improve the design quality and shorten the design time in the conceptual design. (paper)

  2. Design of Urban Public Spaces: Intent vs. Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Hjort


    Full Text Available This study investigated how two public spaces for sport and recreation were utilized by different user groups, and how this aligned with the initial design objectives for these spaces. Two newly built urban spaces situated in Copenhagen, Denmark, provided the context for this investigation. The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC was used to examine the physical activity of users in these two urban spaces. The architects responsible for designing each space were interviewed to ascertain the intended target group of each space and to unravel the reasons behind the design decisions. The SOPARC observations revealed that males were more vigorously active than females when using the recreation facilities, and the observed users did not align with the intended target groups. The interviews suggested that design decisions were based on minimal interdisciplinary knowledge, and that expert knowledge was chosen randomly. These findings point to a systematic lack of evidence-based practice when designing sport and recreational facilities. This article has implications for landscape architects and urban planners; a new method must be developed to embed interdisciplinary knowledge in the planning process of future sport and recreation projects. This must be done in a systematic way to make the design process transparent.

  3. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.


    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  4. Design Space Exploration and Optimization Using Modern Ship Design Tools (United States)


    Model Editor will open again. Aviation Facilities Indicator should be set to MINOR AVN since we are required to have two helicopters in our design. The...other options are NONE and MAJOR AVN . The former should be selected if no aviation facilities are required and the latter should be chosen only for

  5. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III


    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  6. Joint Curriculum Developments in the Field of Virtual Space Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Zupancic, Tadeja; Juvancic, Matevz


    initiates a discussion-forum to raise and discuss open questions of joint curriculum development in the field of virtual space design, especially where CVE-s take the key role within the educational process. The starting points of the discussion can be found in the ongoing endeavours of the e......The topic of joint degrees is high on the higher education policy agenda. The eCAADe 2006 theme offers the opportunity to investigate the topic from the aspect of virtual space design, especially within the second conference topic: communicating within mediated spaces (CVE-s). The paper proposed...

  7. New design for a space cryo-mechanism (United States)

    Durand, Gilles; Amiaux, Jérôme; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Carty, Michael; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Bouzat, Marylène; Duboué, Bruno; Lagage, Pierre Olivier; Lebeuf, Didier; Lepage, Erwan; Lemer, Isabelle; Marlaguey, Nathalie Peydrol; Poupar, Sébastien


    Based on its experience of space application instrument and its development of cryomechanism for astronomical ground based instrument VLT / VISIR, CEA Saclay is proposing a new concept of Space Cryomechanism. This design is based on VLT/VISIR cryo-mechanism design adapted to space requirements taking into account all the specification of space environment (vibrations at launch, cryogenic vacuum, materials, radiations, ...). The original concept of the design is based on the association of the key elements: a dog-clutch with Hirth teeth jaws coupled to a step-by-step space qualified cryo-motor, a bellows that allows for separation of indexing and rotating functions, and enlarged bearings design in "O" arrangement that increase robustness to vibration. The actuator has 360 steady positions that can be reached within les than a second with repeatability of 5 arcsec peak to peak. After a presentation of the details of the concept and of its benefits to robustness to space environment, the paper describes the thoroughly qualification program of the cryo-mechanism with respect to space requirements (cryo-cycling, indexing accuracy, power consumption, heat dissipation, motorisation margins, vibrations). This cryo-mechanism may be built in 3 different sizes for wheels up to 10 kg.

  8. Visual space perception at different levels of depth description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal


    Roč. 77, č. 6 (2015), 2098–2107 ISSN 1943-3921 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : visual space perception * Depth scales * Level of description Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2015

  9. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian


    practices of visitors and museum knowledge. The second and larger part of the contribution addresses the issue of shaping design inquiries. This part is summarized through the overarching notion of fictional space denoting a perspective on the creation of a design space where established norms...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...... in exhibition spaces and shaping design inquiries around the notion of engaging interactive environments. The first part of the contribution relates to conceptualising aspects of engagement in relation to interactive environments. The perspective of participatory engagement is presented as an overarching...

  10. Designing astrophysics missions for NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.


    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultrahigh-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and an LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8- or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45 mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper introduces the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, provides a simple mass allocation recipe for designing large space telescope missions to this capacity, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope, and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  11. Software design space exploration for exascale combustion co-design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Cy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Unat, Didem [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lijewski, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Weiqun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bell, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The design of hardware for next-generation exascale computing systems will require a deep understanding of how software optimizations impact hardware design trade-offs. In order to characterize how co-tuning hardware and software parameters affects the performance of combustion simulation codes, we created ExaSAT, a compiler-driven static analysis and performance modeling framework. Our framework can evaluate hundreds of hardware/software configurations in seconds, providing an essential speed advantage over simulators and dynamic analysis techniques during the co-design process. Our analytic performance model shows that advanced code transformations, such as cache blocking and loop fusion, can have a significant impact on choices for cache and memory architecture. Our modeling helped us identify tuned configurations that achieve a 90% reduction in memory traffic, which could significantly improve performance and reduce energy consumption. These techniques will also be useful for the development of advanced programming models and runtimes, which must reason about these optimizations to deliver better performance and energy efficiency.

  12. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators (United States)

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.


    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  13. Using Typography to Expand the Design Space of Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brath

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic exploration and expansion of the data visualization design space focusing on the role of text. A critical analysis of text usage in data visualizations reveals gaps in existing frameworks and practice. A cross-disciplinary review including the fields of typography, cartography, and coding interfaces yields various typographic techniques to encode data into text, and provides scope for an expanded design space. Mapping new attributes back to well understood principles frames the expanded design space and suggests potential areas of application. From ongoing research created with our framework, we show the design, implementation, and evaluation of six new visualization techniques. Finally, a broad evaluation of a number of visualizations, including critiques from several disciplinary experts, reveals opportunities as well as areas of concern, and points towards additional research with our framework.

  14. Two-level method with coarse space size independent convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Tezaur, R.; Krizkova, J. [UWB, Plzen (Czech Republic)


    The basic disadvantage of the standard two-level method is the strong dependence of its convergence rate on the size of the coarse-level problem. In order to obtain the optimal convergence result, one is limited to using a coarse space which is only a few times smaller than the size of the fine-level one. Consequently, the asymptotic cost of the resulting method is the same as in the case of using a coarse-level solver for the original problem. Today`s two-level domain decomposition methods typically offer an improvement by yielding a rate of convergence which depends on the ratio of fine and coarse level only polylogarithmically. However, these methods require the use of local subdomain solvers for which straightforward application of iterative methods is problematic, while the usual application of direct solvers is expensive. We suggest a method diminishing significantly these difficulties.

  15. Interior design as a motivation for creating creative spaces


    Weiner, Nina


    The thesis underlines the importance of a thoughtful, systematic and modern way of designing classrooms due to its effects on productivity and creativity of pupils. The theoretical part focuses on the relationship between creativity and art classroom; a particular attention is given to the elements of interior design of art classrooms, enabling such organisation of space that fosters creativity in pupils. The emphasis is given on colour and lights as essential elements of interior design. In ...

  16. Gamers as Designers: A Framework for Investigating Design in Gaming Affinity Spaces (United States)

    Duncan, Sean C.


    This article addresses recent approaches to uncovering and theorizing the design activities that occur in online gaming affinity spaces. Examples are presented of productive d/Discourse present within online forums around three video game series, video games, or game platforms, and key design practices engaged upon by gamers in these spaces. It is…

  17. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger


    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  18. Space Mapping and Beyond: Knowledge-Driven Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Madsen, Kaj


    in such a low-fidelity model allows us to dramatically reduce the number of EM simulations necessary to find a satisfactory design. Here, we review the concept of knowledge-driven design as well as specific design techniques, including space mapping, simulation-based tuning, and various response correction...... models that can replace the CPU-intensive EM-simulated structure of interest in the search for optimum design. The surrogate models exploiting physically-based low-fidelity models (e.g., circuit equivalents) can be particularly efficient: the knowledge about the structure under design embedded...

  19. Characteristics of level-spacing statistics in chaotic graphene billiards. (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso


    A fundamental result in nonrelativistic quantum nonlinear dynamics is that the spectral statistics of quantum systems that possess no geometric symmetry, but whose classical dynamics are chaotic, are described by those of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) or the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), in the presence or absence of time-reversal symmetry, respectively. For massless spin-half particles such as neutrinos in relativistic quantum mechanics in a chaotic billiard, the seminal work of Berry and Mondragon established the GUE nature of the level-spacing statistics, due to the combination of the chirality of Dirac particles and the confinement, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. A question is whether the GOE or the GUE statistics can be observed in experimentally accessible, relativistic quantum systems. We demonstrate, using graphene confinements in which the quasiparticle motions are governed by the Dirac equation in the low-energy regime, that the level-spacing statistics are persistently those of GOE random matrices. We present extensive numerical evidence obtained from the tight-binding approach and a physical explanation for the GOE statistics. We also find that the presence of a weak magnetic field switches the statistics to those of GUE. For a strong magnetic field, Landau levels become influential, causing the level-spacing distribution to deviate markedly from the random-matrix predictions. Issues addressed also include the effects of a number of realistic factors on level-spacing statistics such as next nearest-neighbor interactions, different lattice orientations, enhanced hopping energy for atoms on the boundary, and staggered potential due to graphene-substrate interactions.

  20. Socio-technical Spaces: Guiding Politics, Staging Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka


    This article addresses how insights from the social shaping tradition and political process theory may contribute to an understanding of the sociotechnical design and implementation of change. This idea is pursued through the notion of 'socio-technical spaces' and its delineation, with respect...... political concerns. The paper tentatively points to some analytical implications and to challenges and possibilities for the 'bridging' between spaces otherwise rendered distinct....

  1. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space (United States)


    Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace...NUMBERS Automation Desing of a Maglev Controller in State Space N00014-89-J-3202 MIP-9001651 6. AUTHOR(S) Feng Zhao and Richard Thornton 7. PERFORMING

  2. Space Station services and design features for users (United States)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.; Mckinney, Royce L.


    The operational design features and services planned for the NASA Space Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities and facilities, lower costs through interface standardization and automation and faster access by means of computer-aided integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station will possess industrial production and operational services capabilities that may be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft assembly and launch facilities.

  3. Design of Urban Public Spaces: Intent vs. Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mikkel; Martin, W Mike; Stewart, Tom


    knowledge, and that expert knowledge was chosen randomly. These findings point to a systematic lack of evidence-based practice when designing sport and recreational facilities. This article has implications for landscape architects and urban planners; a new method must be developed to embed......This study investigated how two public spaces for sport and recreation were utilized by different user groups, and how this aligned with the initial design objectives for these spaces. Two newly built urban spaces situated in Copenhagen, Denmark, provided the context for this investigation...... interdisciplinary knowledge in the planning process of future sport and recreation projects. This must be done in a systematic way to make the design process transparent....

  4. Designing for competence: spaces that enhance collaboration readiness in healthcare. (United States)

    Lamb, Gerri; Shraiky, James


    Many universities in the United States are investing in classrooms and campuses designed to increase collaboration and teamwork among the health professions. To date, we know little about whether these learning spaces are having the intended impact on student performance. Recent advances in the identification of interprofessional teamwork competencies provide a much-needed step toward a defined outcome metric. Rigorous study of the relationship between design and student competence in collaboration also requires clear specification of design concepts and development of testable frameworks. Such theory-based evaluation is crucial for design to become an integral part of interprofessional education strategies and initiatives. Current classroom and campus designs were analyzed for common themes and features in collaborative spaces as a starting place for specification of design concepts and model development. Four major themes were identified: flexibility, visual transparency/proximity, technology and environmental infrastructure. Potential models linking this preliminary set of design concepts to student competencies are proposed and used to generate hypotheses for future study of the impact of collaborative design spaces on student outcomes.

  5. Materials and design concepts for space-resilient structures (United States)

    Naser, Mohannad Z.; Chehab, Alaa I.


    Space exploration and terraforming nearby planets have been fascinating concepts for the longest time. Nowadays, that technological advancements with regard to space exploration are thriving, it is only a matter of time before humans can start colonizing nearby moons and planets. This paper presents a state-of-the-art literature review on recent developments of "space-native" construction materials, and highlights evolutionary design concepts for "space-resilient" structures (i.e., colonies and habitats). This paper also details effects of harsh (and unique) space environments on various terrestrial and extraterrestrial construction materials, as well as on space infrastructure and structural systems. The feasibility of exploiting available space resources in terms of "in-situ resource utilization" and "harvesting of elements and compounds", as well as emergence of enabling technologies such as "cultured (lab-grown)" space construction materials are discussed. Towards the end of the present review, number of limitations and challenges facing Lunar and Martian exploration, and venues in-need for urgent research are identified and examined.

  6. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm (United States)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  7. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie


    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing ......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  8. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken


    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing i......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  9. Expert systems for space power supply: design, analysis, and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.S.; Thomson, M.K.; Hoshor, A.


    The authors evaluated the feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general. To do this, they analyzed the space power supply design process and in associated knowledge base, and characterized them in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. They applied some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain to create a deep system for handling the complex design problem. They authors developed, programmed and tested NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, as a concrete feasibility demonstration

  10. Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng


    Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design introduces original design methods to achieve interference cancellation, low-complexity decoding and full diversity for a series of multi-user systems. In multi-user environments, co-channel interference will diminish the performance of wireless communications systems. In this book, we investigate how to design robust space-time codes and pre-coders to suppress the co-channel interference when multiple antennas are available.   This book offers a valuable reference work for graduate students, academic researchers and engineers who are interested in interference cancellation in wireless communications. Rigorous performance analysis and various simulation illustrations are included for each design method.   Dr. Feng Li is a scientific researcher at Cornell University.

  11. Space-time design of the public city

    CERN Document Server

    Thomaier, Susanne; Könecke, Benjamin; Zedda, Roberto; Stabilini, Stefano


    Time has become an increasingly important topic in urban studies and urban planning. The spatial-temporal interplay is not only of relevance for the theory of urban development and urban politics, but also for urban planning and governance. The space-time approach focuses on the human being with its various habits and routines in the city. Understanding and taking those habits into account in urban planning and public policies offers a new way to improve the quality of life in our cities. Adapting the supply and accessibility of public spaces and services to the inhabitants’ space-time needs calls for an integrated approach to the physical design of urban space and to the organization of cities. In the last two decades the body of practical and theoretical work on urban space-time topics has grown substantially. The book offers a state of the art overview of the theoretical reasoning, the development of new analytical tools, and practical experience of the space-time design of public cities in major Europea...

  12. Emotion and interior space design: an ergonomic perspective. (United States)

    Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata


    Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery design (United States)

    Nawrocki, D. E.; Armantrout, J. D.; Standlee, D. J.; Baker, R. C.; Lanier, J. R.


    Details are presented of the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) battery cell, battery package, and module mechanical and electrical designs. Also included are a summary of acceptance, qualification, and vibration tests and thermal vacuum testing. Unique details of battery cell charge retention performance characteristics associated with prelaunch hold conditions are discussed. Special charge control methods to minimize thermal dissipation during pad charging operations are summarized. This module design meets all NASA fracture control requirements for manned missions.

  14. The influence of neonatal intensive care unit design on sound level. (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Li; Chen, Chao-Huei; Wu, Chih-Chao; Huang, Hsiu-Jung; Wang, Teh-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Chi


    Excessive noise in nurseries has been found to cause adverse effects in infants, especially preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The NICU design may influence the background sound level. We compared the sound level in two differently designed spaces in one NICU. We hypothesized that the sound level in an enclosed space would be quieter than in an open space. Sound levels were measured continuously 24 hours a day in two separate spaces at the same time, one enclosed and one open. Sound-level meters were placed near beds in each room. Sound levels were expressed as decibels, A-weighted (dBA) and presented as hourly L(eq), L(max), L(10), and L(90). The hourly L(eq) in the open space (50.8-57.2dB) was greater than that of the enclosed space (45.9-51.7dB), with a difference of 0.4-10.4dB, and a mean difference of 4.5dB (p<0.0001). The hourly L(10), L(90), and L(max) in the open space also exceeded that in the enclosed space (p<0.0001). The sound level measured in the enclosed space was quieter than in the open space. The design of bed space should be taken into consideration when building a new NICU. Besides the design of NICU architecture, continuous monitoring of sound level in the NICU is important to maintain a quiet environment.

  15. Robonaut: a robot designed to work with humans in space (United States)

    Bluethmann, William; Ambrose, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Askew, Scott; Huber, Eric; Goza, Michael; Rehnmark, Fredrik; Lovchik, Chris; Magruder, Darby


    The Robotics Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing robotic systems to assist astronauts in space. One such system, Robonaut, is a humanoid robot with the dexterity approaching that of a suited astronaut. Robonaut currently has two dexterous arms and hands, a three degree-of-freedom articulating waist, and a two degree-of-freedom neck used as a camera and sensor platform. In contrast to other space manipulator systems, Robonaut is designed to work within existing corridors and use the same tools as space walking astronauts. Robonaut is envisioned as working with astronauts, both autonomously and by teleoperation, performing a variety of tasks including, routine maintenance, setting up and breaking down worksites, assisting crew members while outside of spacecraft, and serving in a rapid response capacity.

  16. Thermal Control Subsystem Design for the Avionics of a Space Station Payload (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.


    A case study of the thermal control subsystem development for a space based payload is presented from the concept stage through preliminary design. This payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 (SAMS-2), will measure the acceleration environment at select locations within the International Space Station. Its thermal control subsystem must maintain component temperatures within an acceptable range over a 10 year life span, while restricting accessible surfaces to touch temperature limits and insuring fail safe conditions in the event of loss of cooling. In addition to these primary design objectives, system level requirements and constraints are imposed on the payload, many of which are driven by multidisciplinary issues. Blending these issues into the overall system design required concurrent design sessions with the project team, iterative conceptual design layouts, thermal analysis and modeling, and hardware testing. Multiple tradeoff studies were also performed to investigate the many options which surfaced during the development cycle.

  17. The chatter door, designing for in-between spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duel, T.; Levy, P.


    The project presented in this paper is part of a broader research addressing in-between spaces and the designing of experiences taking place there. The project focuses on door frames, and inquires the way to improve social interactions taking place 'at the door'. To do so, the approach is structured

  18. A critical systems perspective on the design of organizational space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, Mark P.


    This paper is the first to introduce critical systems thinking into a new emerging research strand: the design of organizational space. The study revealed two things. First, critical systems thinking provides a thorough framework to understand the possibilities to connect organization and building;


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gasii


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify main trends in the development of space grid structures. In order to reach the purpose it is necessary to conduct a review of the known structural concepts, nodal connections and specifics of the space grid structures and to make conclusions on feasibility improvement of the considered structural concepts that make it possible to develop new solutions without disadvantages residing in the analogues. Analysis of papers written by foreign and national scientists and devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of stress-strain state, influence of different factors on it and geometrical optimization and designing of space grid structures has been conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Space grid structures and, in particular, flat double-layer grid and most frequent nodes have been studied in the paper. The paper contains a short review of the history on development of space grid structures. It has been found that a rapid development of structural designs was caused by scientific and technical progress and, in particular, improvement of physical and mechanical properties of materials, development of calculation methods, application of software systems for simulating behavior of the structure under load, which significantly increased the calculation accuracy and reduced complexity of design. It has been also established that main parameters that have influence on effectiveness of a structural design are geometric dimensions of its modular elements, ratio of its depth to the span. The world experience on development of connection components has been studied in the paper. The paper presents general classification of nodal connections. Main advantages and disadvantages of existing space grid structures are highlighted and it allows to determine possible methods for their improvement. Theoretical research has permitted to establish that the main direction of spatial grid structures improvement

  20. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank


    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  1. A Probabilistic Approach for the System-Level Design of Multi-ASIP Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura

    introduce a system-level Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the very early phases of the design that automatizes part of the multi-ASIP design flow. Our DSE is responsible for assigning the tasks to the different ASIPs exploring different platform alternatives. We perform a schedulability analysis for each...

  2. Design of space-type electronic power transformers (United States)

    Ahearn, J. F.; Lagadinos, J. C.


    Both open and encapsulated varieties of high reliability, low weight, and high efficiency moderate and high voltage transformers were investigated to determine the advantages and limitations of their construction in the ranges of power and voltage required for operation in the hard vacuum environment of space. Topics covered include: (1) selection of the core material; (2) preliminary calculation of core dimensions; (3) selection of insulating materials including magnet wire insulation, coil forms, and layer and interwinding insulation; (4) coil design; (5) calculation of copper losses, core losses and efficiency; (6) calculation of temperature rise; and (7) optimization of design with changes in core selection or coil design as required to meet specifications.

  3. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Yang


    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  4. Timelines Revisited: A Design Space and Considerations for Expressive Storytelling. (United States)

    Brehmer, Matthew; Lee, Bongshin; Bach, Benjamin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Munzner, Tamara


    There are many ways to visualize event sequences as timelines. In a storytelling context where the intent is to convey multiple narrative points, a richer set of timeline designs may be more appropriate than the narrow range that has been used for exploratory data analysis by the research community. Informed by a survey of 263 timelines, we present a design space for storytelling with timelines that balances expressiveness and effectiveness, identifying 14 design choices characterized by three dimensions: representation, scale, and layout. Twenty combinations of these choices are viable timeline designs that can be matched to different narrative points, while smooth animated transitions between narrative points allow for the presentation of a cohesive story, an important aspect of both interactive storytelling and data videos. We further validate this design space by realizing the full set of viable timeline designs and transitions in a proof-of-concept sandbox implementation that we used to produce seven example timeline stories. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform and inspire the design of future tools for storytelling with timelines.

  5. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.


    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  6. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.


    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  7. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces. (United States)

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene


    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  8. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches (United States)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  9. The Design Space of Multi-Language Development Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej


    Non-trivial software systems integrate many artifacts expressed in multiple modeling and program- ming languages. However, even though these artifacts heavily depend on each other, existing development envi- ronments do not sufficiently support handling relations between artifacts in different...... languages. By means of a literature survey, tool prototyping and experiments we study the design space of multi-language development environments (MLDEs)—tools that consider the cross-language relations as first artifacts. We ask: what is the state of the art in the MLDE space? What are the design choices...... and challenges faced by tool builders? To what extent MLDEs are desired by users, and for what support features? Our main conclusions are that (a) cross-language re- lations are ubiquitous and troublesome in multi-language systems, (b) users highly appreciated cross-language sup- port mechanisms of MLDEs and (c...

  10. Architectural Design Space Exploration of an FPGA-based Compressed Sampling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mohammad; Koch, Peter; Le Moullec, Yannick


    We present the architectural design space exploration of a compressed sampling engine for use in a wireless heart-rate monitoring system. We show how parallelism affects execution time at the register transfer level. Furthermore, two example solutions (modified semi-parallel and full...

  11. Exploring the Design Space of Longitudinal Censorship Measurement Platforms


    Razaghpanah, Abbas; Li, Anke; Filastò, Arturo; Nithyanand, Rishab; Ververis, Vasilis; Scott, Will; Gill, Phillipa


    Despite the high perceived value and increasing severity of online information controls, a data-driven understanding of the phenomenon has remained elusive. In this paper, we consider two design points in the space of Internet censorship measurement with particular emphasis on how they address the challenges of locating vantage points, choosing content to test, and analyzing results. We discuss the trade offs of decisions made by each platform and show how the resulting data provides compleme...

  12. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D


    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  13. Novel Design Aspects of the Space Technology 5 Mechanical Subsystem (United States)

    Rossoni, Peter; McGill, William


    This paper describes several novel design elements of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft mechanical subsystem. The spacecraft structure itself takes a significant step in integrating electronics into the primary structure. The deployment system restrains the spacecraft during launch and imparts a predetermined spin rate upon release from its secondary payload accommodations. The deployable instrument boom incorporates some traditional as well as new techniques for lightweight and stiffness. Analysis and test techniques used to validate these technologies are described. Numerous design choices were necessitated due to the compact spacecraft size and strict mechanical subsystem requirements.

  14. System-level design methodologies for telecommunication

    CERN Document Server

    Sklavos, Nicolas; Goehringer, Diana; Kitsos, Paris


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern networks design, from specifications and modeling to implementations and test procedures, including the design and implementation of modern networks on chip, in both wireless and mobile applications.  Topical coverage includes algorithms and methodologies, telecommunications, hardware (including networks on chip), security and privacy, wireless and mobile networks and a variety of modern applications, such as VoLTE and the internet of things.

  15. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen


    simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...... in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring......Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...

  16. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen


    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  17. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert


    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  18. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu


    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  19. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary


    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  20. Morphological Control: A Design Principal for Applications in Space Science (United States)

    Füchslin, R. M.; Dumont, E.; Flumini, D.; Fuchs, H. U.; Hauser, H.; Jaeger, C.; Scheidegger, S.; Schönenberger-Deuel, J.; Lichtensteiger, L.; Luchsinger, R.; Weyland, M.

    Designing robots for applications in space flight requires a different prioritization of design criteria than for systems operating on Earth. In this article, we argue that the field of soft robotics offers novel approaches meeting the specific requirements of space flight. We present one especially promising construction principle, so called Tensairity, in some detail. Tensairity, as the name suggests, takes ideas from Tensegrity, but uses inflatable structures instead of cables and struts. Soft robots pose substantial challenges with respect to control. One way to meet these challenges is given by the concept of morphological computation and control. Morphological computation can be loosely defined as the exploitation of the shape, material properties, and dynamics of a physical system to improve the efficiency of computation and to deal with systems for which it is difficult to construct a virtual representation using a kinematic model. We discuss fundamental aspects of morphological control and their relevance for space flight. Besides low weight, small consumption of space in the inactive state and advantageous properties with respect to intrinsic safety and energy consumption, we discuss how the blurring of the discrimination of hard- and software leads to control strategies that require only very little and very simple electronic circuitry (which is beneficial in an environment with high irradiation). Finally, we present a research strategy that bundles activities in space flight with research and development in medicine, especially for support systems for an aging population, that are faced with similar morphological computing challenges to astronauts. Such a combination meets the demands for research that is not only effective, but also efficient with respect to economic resources.

  1. Space Launch Systems Block 1B Preliminary Navigation System Design (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Park, Thomas; Anzalone, Evan; Smith, Austin; Strickland, Dennis; Patrick, Sean


    NASA is currently building the Space Launch Systems (SLS) Block 1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. In parallel, NASA is also designing the Block 1B launch vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle is an evolution of the Block 1 vehicle and extends the capability of the NASA launch vehicle. This evolution replaces the Interim Cryogenic Propulsive Stage (ICPS) with the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). As the vehicle evolves to provide greater lift capability, increased robustness for manned missions, and the capability to execute more demanding missions so must the SLS Integrated Navigation System evolved to support those missions. This paper describes the preliminary navigation systems design for the SLS Block 1B vehicle. The evolution of the navigation hard-ware and algorithms from an inertial-only navigation system for Block 1 ascent flight to a tightly coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation system for Block 1B is described. The Block 1 GN&C system has been designed to meet a LEO insertion target with a specified accuracy. The Block 1B vehicle navigation system is de-signed to support the Block 1 LEO target accuracy as well as trans-lunar or trans-planetary injection accuracy. Additionally, the Block 1B vehicle is designed to support human exploration and thus is designed to minimize the probability of Loss of Crew (LOC) through high-quality inertial instruments and robust algorithm design, including Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) logic.

  2. On designing low pressure loss working spaces for a planar Stirling micromachine (United States)

    Hachey, M.-A.; Léveillé, É.; Fréchette, L. G.; Formosa, F.


    In this paper, research was undertaken with the objective to design low pressure loss working spaces for a Stirling cycle micro heat engine operating from low temperature waste heat. This planar free-piston heat engine is anticipated to operate at the kHz level with mm3 displacement. Given the resonant nature of the free-piston configuration, the complexity of its working gas’ flow geometry and its projected high operating frequency, flow analysis is relatively complex. Design considerations were thus based on fast prototyping and experimentation. Results show that geometrical features, such as a sharp 90° corner between the regenerator and working spaces, are strong contributors to pressure losses. This research culminated into a promising revised working space configuration for engine start-up, as it considerably reduced total pressure losses, more than 80% at Re = 700, from the original design.

  3. A Markovian state-space framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    The past decades have seen the state of the art in aerospace system design progress from a scope of simple optimization to one including robustness, with the objective of permitting a single system to perform well even in off-nominal future environments. Integrating flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to changing environments, into system design represents a further step forward. One challenge in accomplishing this rests in that the decision-maker must consider not only the present system design decision, but also sequential future design and operation decisions. Despite extensive interest in the topic, the state of the art in designing flexibility into aerospace systems, and particularly space systems, tends to be limited to analyses that are qualitative, deterministic, single-objective, and/or limited to consider a single future time period. To address these gaps, this thesis develops a stochastic, multi-objective, and multi-period framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions. Central to the framework are five steps. First, system configuration options are identified and costs of switching from one configuration to another are compiled into a cost transition matrix. Second, probabilities that demand on the system will transition from one mission to another are compiled into a mission demand Markov chain. Third, one performance matrix for each design objective is populated to describe how well the identified system configurations perform in each of the identified mission demand environments. The fourth step employs multi-period decision analysis techniques, including Markov decision processes from the field of operations research, to find efficient paths and policies a decision-maker may follow. The final step examines the implications of these paths and policies for the primary goal of informing initial system selection. Overall, this thesis unifies state-centric concepts of

  4. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs. Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  5. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.


    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  6. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.


    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  7. Value-informed space systems design and acquisition (United States)

    Brathwaite, Joy

    Investments in space systems are substantial, indivisible, and irreversible, characteristics that make them high-risk, especially when coupled with an uncertain demand environment. Traditional approaches to system design and acquisition, derived from a performance- or cost-centric mindset, incorporate little information about the spacecraft in relation to its environment and its value to its stakeholders. These traditional approaches, while appropriate in stable environments, are ill-suited for the current, distinctly uncertain, and rapidly changing technical and economic conditions; as such, they have to be revisited and adapted to the present context. This thesis proposes that in uncertain environments, decision-making with respect to space system design and acquisition should be value-based, or at a minimum value-informed. This research advances the value-centric paradigm by providing the theoretical basis, foundational frameworks, and supporting analytical tools for value assessment of priced and unpriced space systems. For priced systems, stochastic models of the market environment and financial models of stakeholder preferences are developed and integrated with a spacecraft-sizing tool to assess the system's net present value. The analytical framework is applied to a case study of a communications satellite, with market, financial, and technical data obtained from the satellite operator, Intelsat. The case study investigates the implications of the value-centric versus the cost-centric design and acquisition choices. Results identify the ways in which value-optimal spacecraft design choices are contingent on both technical and market conditions, and that larger spacecraft for example, which reap economies of scale benefits, as reflected by their decreasing cost-per-transponder, are not always the best (most valuable) choices. Market conditions and technical constraints for which convergence occurs between design choices under a cost-centric and a value

  8. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael


    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  9. Designing learning spaces for interprofessional education in the anatomical sciences. (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas


    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which interprofessional learning occurs. To elaborate these arguments, two exemplar tertiary education facilities are discussed: the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney for science education and research, and Victoria University's Interprofessional Clinic in Wyndham for undergraduate IPE in health care. Backed by well-conceived curriculum and pedagogical models, the architectures of these facilities embody the educational visions, methods, and practices they were designed to support. Subsequently, the article discusses the spatial implications of curriculum and pedagogical change in the teaching of the anatomical sciences and explores how architecture might further the development of IPE models in the field. In conclusion, it is argued that learning spaces should be designed and developed (socially) with the expressed intention of supporting collaborative IPE models in health education settings, including those in the anatomical sciences. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. The Space Mission Design Example Using LEO Bolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik


    Full Text Available Four sample space launch missions were designed using rotating momentum transfer tethers (bolos within low Earth orbit and a previously unknown phenomenon of “aerospinning” was identified and simulated. The momentum transfer tethers were found to be only marginally more efficient than the use of chemical rocket boosters. Insufficient power density of modern spacecrafts was identified as the principal inhibitory factor for tether usage as a means of launch-assistance, with power densities at least 10 W/kg required for effective bolos operation.

  11. Scalable and near-optimal design space exploration for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kritikakou, Angeliki; Goutis, Costas


    This book describes scalable and near-optimal, processor-level design space exploration (DSE) methodologies.  The authors present design methodologies for data storage and processing in real-time, cost-sensitive data-dominated embedded systems.  Readers will be enabled to reduce time-to-market, while satisfying system requirements for performance, area, and energy consumption, thereby minimizing the overall cost of the final design.   • Describes design space exploration (DSE) methodologies for data storage and processing in embedded systems, which achieve near-optimal solutions with scalable exploration time; • Presents a set of principles and the processes which support the development of the proposed scalable and near-optimal methodologies; • Enables readers to apply scalable and near-optimal methodologies to the intra-signal in-place optimization step for both regular and irregular memory accesses.

  12. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs (United States)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice


    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  13. Approach to design space from retrospective quality data. (United States)

    Puñal Peces, Daniel; García-Montoya, Encarna; Manich, Albert; Suñé-Negre, Josep Maria; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep Ramon


    Nowadays, the entire manufacturing process is based on the current GMPs, which emphasize the reproducibility of the process, and companies have a lot of recorded data about their processes. The establishment of the design space (DS) from retrospective data for a wet compression process. A design of experiments (DoE) with historical data from 4 years of industrial production has been carried out using the experimental factors as the results of the previous risk analysis and eight key parameters (quality specifications) that encompassed process and quality control data. Software Statgraphics 5.0 was applied, and data were processed to obtain eight DS as well as their safe and working ranges. Experience shows that it is possible to determine DS retrospectively, being the greatest difficulty in handling and processing of high amounts of data; however, the practicality of this study is very interesting as it let have the DS with minimal investment in experiments since actual production batch data are processed statistically.

  14. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, W.T.


    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {micro}s with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1 mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generatino and beam collimation etc. is discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5{micro}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  16. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.


    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5micros with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H - beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed

  17. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  18. Design and Test Space Exploration of Transport-Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    This paper describes a new approach in the high level design and test of transport-triggered architectures (TTA), a special type of application specific instruction processors (ASIP). The proposed method introduces the test as an additional constraint, besides throughput and circuit area. The

  19. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy


    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  20. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.


    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  1. Designing for the Edge of Space and Beyond (United States)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.


    Despite the fanciful predictions of Eugen Sanger, Wernher von Braun, and a wealth of science fiction novelists, it was not until the mid-1950s that the first piloted spacecraft design was undertaken in earnest. It was the height of the Cold War, and the paranoia that swept the country and the military had resulted in the largest arms race the world had ever seen. In aviation the desire was to go higher, faster, and farther than ever before. In response to a need for basic research into the ever-increasing speeds and altitudes, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) began preliminary research into a piloted vehicle that could exceed five times the speed of sound. The research was felt necessary to support both unmanned missile programs and the eventual development of hypersonic combat aircraft. Interestingly, the group of researchers that took the lead in developing the concept (led by John V. Becker) at the NACA s Langley Laboratory added a new wrinkle-they wanted to be able to leave the sensible atmosphere for a few minutes in order to gain a preliminary understanding of space flight2 At the time it was generally felt that piloted space flight would not take place until the turn of the century, although contemporary science fiction-a genre that enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the mid-1 950s-usually showed it coming much earlier. In fact, many serious researchers believed that the group at Langley should remove the "space leap" from their concept for a hypersonic research airlane. However, the basic designs for a very high speed airplane and for one capable of short excursions outside the atmosphere were not radically different, so the capability remained.

  2. Without Gravity: Designing Science Equipment for the International Space Station and Beyond (United States)

    Sato, Kevin Y.


    This presentation discusses space biology research, the space flight factors needed to design hardware to conduct biological science in microgravity, and examples of NASA and commercial hardware that enable space biology study.

  3. Space Station Human Factors: Designing a Human-Robot Interface (United States)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John Paul; Goza, S. Michael


    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort and focus on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multifunctional telerobot. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot called Robonaut. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The experiments presented here took an integrated approach to describing teleoperator performance and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during fine position and gross position tasks. In addition, a Robonaut simulation was also developed as part of this research effort, and experimentally tested against Robonaut itself to determine its utility. Results show that subject performance of teleoperated tasks using both Robonaut and the simulation are virtually identical, with no significant difference between the two. These results indicate that the simulation can be utilized as both a Robonaut training tool, and as a powerful design platform for telepresence displays and aids.

  4. Space Launch System, Core Stage, Structural Test Design and Implementation (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ray


    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and

  5. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station (United States)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  6. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban


    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  7. Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings To Provide Transcendent Spaces. (United States)

    Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.


    Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends. (LRW)

  8. Integrated design support systems for conceptual design of a space power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Takeoka, Satoshi; Nagamatsu, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hiroaki


    In the process of conceptual design of large and complex engineering systems such as a nuclear power reactor, there must be various human works by several fields of engineers on each stage of design, analysis and evaluation. In this study, we have rearranged the design information to reduce the human workloads and have studied an efficient method to support the conceptual design works by new information technologies. For this purpose, we have developed two design support environments for conceptual design of a space power reactor as a concrete design target. When constructing an integrated design support environment, VINDS, which employs virtual reality(VR) technology, we focused on visualization of physical structure, functional organization and analysis calculation with full usage of easy perception and direct manipulation of VR. On the other hand, when constructing another asynchronous and distributed design support environment, WINDS, which employs WWW technology, we improved the support functions for cooperative design works among various fields of experts. In this paper, the basic concepts, configurations and functions of the design support environments are first described, then the future improvement is surveyed by their intercomparison. (author)

  9. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate. (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E


    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  10. Designing localized electromagnetic fields in a source-free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdov, George N.


    An approach to characterizing and designing localized electromagnetic fields, based on the use of differentiable manifolds, differentiable mappings, and the group of rotation, is presented. By way of illustration, novel families of exact time-harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in the source-free space - localized fields defined by the rotation group - are obtained. The proposed approach provides a broad spectrum of tools to design localized fields, i.e., to build-in symmetry properties of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, to govern the distributions of their energy densities (both size and form of localization domains), and to set the structure of time-average energy fluxes. It is shown that localized fields can be combined as constructive elements to obtain a complex field structure with desirable properties, such as one-, two-, or three-dimensional field gratings. The proposed approach can be used in designing localized electromagnetic fields to govern motion and state of charged and neutral particles. As an example, motion of relativistic electrons in one-dimensional and three-dimensional field gratings is treated

  11. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing (United States)


    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  12. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.


    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  13. Conceptualizing, Designing, and Investigating Locative Media Use in Urban Space (United States)

    Diamantaki, Katerina; Rizopoulos, Charalampos; Charitos, Dimitris; Kaimakamis, Nikos

    This chapter investigates the social implications of locative media (LM) use and attempts to outline a theoretical framework that may support the design and implementation of location-based applications. Furthermore, it stresses the significance of physical space and location awareness as important factors that influence both human-computer interaction and computer-mediated communication. The chapter documents part of the theoretical aspect of the research undertaken as part of LOcation-based Communication Urban NETwork (LOCUNET), a project that aims to investigate the way users interact with one another (human-computer-human interaction aspect) and with the location-based system itself (human-computer interaction aspect). A number of relevant theoretical approaches are discussed in an attempt to provide a holistic theoretical background for LM use. Additionally, the actual implementation of the LOCUNET system is described and some of the findings are discussed.

  14. Innovative hand exoskeleton design for extravehicular activities in space

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Pierluigi; Randazzo, Luca; Ariano, Paolo


    Environmental conditions and pressurized spacesuits expose astronauts to problems of fatigue during lengthy extravehicular activities, with adverse impacts especially on the dexterity, force and endurance of the hands and arms. A state-of-the-art exploration in the field of hand exoskeletons revealed that available products are unsuitable for space applications because of their bulkiness and mass. This book proposes a novel approach to the development of hand exoskeletons, based on an innovative soft robotics concept that relies on the exploitation of electroactive polymers operating as sensors and actuators, on a combination of electromyography and mechanomyography for detection of the user’s will and on neural networks for control. The result is a design that should enhance astronauts’ performance during extravehicular activities. In summary, the advantages of the described approach are a low-weight, high-flexibility exoskeleton that allows for dexterity and compliance with the user’s will.

  15. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.


    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  16. The Design Space of Type Checkers for XML Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    We survey work on statically type checking XML transformations, covering a wide range of notations and ambitions. The concept of type may vary from idealizations of DTD to full-blown XML Schema or even more expressive formalisms. The notion of transformation may vary from clean and simple...... transductions to domain-specific languages or integration of XML in general-purpose programming languages. Type annotations can be either explicit or implicit, and type checking ranges from exact decidability to pragmatic approximations. We characterize and evaluate existing tools in this design space......, including a recent result of the authors providing practical type checking of full unannotated XSLT 1.0 stylesheets given general DTDs that describe the input and output languages....

  17. Deficiency of the Space Syntax method as an urban design tool in designing traditional urban space and the need for some supplementary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahrainy


    Full Text Available Urban design problems have become so complex that no single designer is able to consider all aspects of a design area simultaneously. Lately the application of computerized and scientific methods have helped designers analyze complex problems. One of these new methods is Space Syntax. The purpose of this study is to first investigate the strengths and weaknesses of this method and then suggest some supplementary methods to cover its pitfalls. On the next phase Space Syntax and supplementary methods will be used to design a pedestrian pathway in the Imamzade Ghasem neighborhood as a traditional context. Space Syntax will identify the existing spatial structure and direct future changes toward its strengthening. The case study reveals that Space Syntax can be successfully used in analysis of traditional spaces, but in order to successfully design a neighborhood in such a complex context, it involves logistical shortcomings which could be eliminated through supplementary methods.

  18. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode Clamped ... of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector pulse-width modulation and the ... two adjacent active vectors in determining the switching process of the multilevel ...

  19. Design of chemical space networks using a Tanimoto similarity variant based upon maximum common substructures. (United States)

    Zhang, Bijun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have recently been introduced as an alternative to other coordinate-free and coordinate-based chemical space representations. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. In addition, nodes are annotated with compound property information such as biological activity. CSNs have been applied to view biologically relevant chemical space in comparison to random chemical space samples and found to display well-resolved topologies at low edge density levels. The way in which molecular similarity relationships are assessed is an important determinant of CSN topology. Previous CSN versions were based on numerical similarity functions or the assessment of substructure-based similarity. Herein, we report a new CSN design that is based upon combined numerical and substructure similarity evaluation. This has been facilitated by calculating numerical similarity values on the basis of maximum common substructures (MCSs) of compounds, leading to the introduction of MCS-based CSNs (MCS-CSNs). This CSN design combines advantages of continuous numerical similarity functions with a robust and chemically intuitive substructure-based assessment. Compared to earlier version of CSNs, MCS-CSNs are characterized by a further improved organization of local compound communities as exemplified by the delineation of drug-like subspaces in regions of biologically relevant chemical space.

  20. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level (United States)


    Operation ARSST Army Space Support Team BCT Brigade Combat Team BDA Battle Damage Assessment BLOS Beyond Line of Site C2 Command and Control CMCC-CP...accurate imagery of known target locations. Additionally, ISR systems provide a convenient battle damage assessment ( BDA ) option necessary to determine

  1. An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground-Analogue Design Concept (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.


    The design concept of a modular and extensible hypergravity facility is presented. Several benefits of this facility are described including that the facility is suitable as a full-scale artificial-gravity space-settlement ground analogue for humans, animals, and plants for indefinite durations. The design is applicable as an analogue for on-orbit settlements as well as those on moons, asteroids, and Mars. The design creates an extremely long-arm centrifuge using a multi-car hypergravity vehicle travelling on one or more concentric circular tracks. This design supports the simultaneous generation of multiple-gravity levels to explore the feasibility and value of and requirements for such space-settlement designs. The design synergizes a variety of existing technologies including centrifuges, tilting trains, roller coasters, and optionally magnetic levitation. The design can be incrementally implemented such that the facility can be operational for a small fraction of the cost and time required for a full implementation. Brief concept of operation examples are also presented.

  2. Design of triads for probing the direct through space energy transfers in closely spaced assemblies. (United States)

    Camus, Jean-Michel; Aly, Shawkat M; Fortin, Daniel; Guilard, Roger; Harvey, Pierre D


    Using a selective stepwise Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, two trimers built on three different chromophores were prepared. These trimers exhibit a D(^)A1-A2 structure where the donor D (octa-β-alkyl zinc(II)porphyrin either as diethylhexamethyl, 10a, or tetraethyltetramethyl, 10b, derivatives) through space transfers the S1 energy to two different acceptors, di(4-ethylbenzene) zinc(II)porphyrin (A1; acceptor 1) placed cofacial with D, and the corresponding free base (A2; acceptor 2), which is meso-meso-linked with A1. This structure design allows for the possibility of comparing two series of assemblies, 9a,b (D(^)A1) with 10a,b (D(^)Â1-A2), for the evaluation of the S1 energy transfer for the global process D*→A2 in the trimers. From the comparison of the decays of the fluorescence of D, the rates for through space energy transfer, kET for 10a,b (kET ≈ 6.4 × 10(9) (10a), 5.9 × 10(9) s(-1) (10b)), and those for the corresponding cofacial D(^)A1 systems, 9a,b, (kET ≈ 5.0 × 10(9) (9a), 4.7 × 10(9) s(-1) (9b)), provide an estimate for kET for the direct through space D*→A2 process (i.e., kET(D(^)A1-A2) - kET(D(^)A1) = kET(D*→A2) ∼ 1 × 10(9) s(-1)). This channel of relaxation represents ∼15% of kET for D*→A1.

  3. New Designs for Modular Ultra-Light Precision Space Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a shared effort of advancing our scientific understanding of planets, stars, and galaxies, space agencies and astronomical centers have been building increasingly...

  4. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will significantly advance a GSFC Deep Space CubeSat prototype effort in almost all subsystems.  Because it represents a “tall pole” for lunar orbiters, as...

  5. Architecture Design for the Space Situational Awareness System in the Preparedness Plan for Space Hazards of Republic of Korea (United States)

    Choi, E.; Cho, S.; Shin, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.

    The threat posed by asteroids and comets has become one of the important issues. Jinju meteorite discovered in March 2014 has expanded the interest of the people of the fall of the natural space objects. Furthermore, the growing quantity of space debris is a serious threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which risk being damaged or even destroyed. In May of 2014, Korea established the preparedness plan for space hazards according to the space development promotion act which is amended to take action with respect to hazards from space. This plan is largely composed of 3 items such as system, technology and infrastructure. System is included the establishment and management of national space hazards headquarters at risk situation. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) was designated as a space environment monitoring agency under the ministry of science, ICT and future planning (MSIP). Technology is supposed to develop the space situational awareness system that can monitor and detect space objects. For infrastructure, research and development of core technology will be promoted for capabilities improvement of space hazards preparedness such as software tools, application and data systems. This paper presents the architectural design for building space situational awareness system. The trade-off study of space situational awareness system for the Korea situation was performed. The results have shown the proposed architectural design. The baseline architecture is composed of Integrated Analysis System and Space Objects Monitoring System. Integrated Analysis System collects the status data from Space Objects Monitoring System and analyzes the space risk information through a data processing. For Space Objects Monitoring System, the all-sky surveillance camera, array radar and meteoroid surveillance sensor networks were considered. This system focuses on not only the threat of a large artificial satellite and natural space objects such as asteroids that

  6. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert


    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system

  7. Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate (United States)

    Rootzén, Holger; Katz, Richard W.


    In the past, the concepts of return levels and return periods have been standard and important tools for engineering design. However, these concepts are based on the assumption of a stationary climate and do not apply to a changing climate, whether local or global. In this paper, we propose a refined concept, Design Life Level, which quantifies risk in a nonstationary climate and can serve as the basis for communication. In current practice, typical hydrologic risk management focuses on a standard (e.g., in terms of a high quantile corresponding to the specified probability of failure for a single year). Nevertheless, the basic information needed for engineering design should consist of (i) the design life period (e.g., the next 50 years, say 2015-2064); and (ii) the probability (e.g., 5% chance) of a hazardous event (typically, in the form of the hydrologic variable exceeding a high level) occurring during the design life period. Capturing both of these design characteristics, the Design Life Level is defined as an upper quantile (e.g., 5%) of the distribution of the maximum value of the hydrologic variable (e.g., water level) over the design life period. We relate this concept and variants of it to existing literature and illustrate how they, and some useful complementary plots, may be computed and used. One practically important consideration concerns quantifying the statistical uncertainty in estimating a high quantile under nonstationarity.

  8. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems (United States)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai


    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  9. Optomechanical stability design of space optical mapping camera (United States)

    Li, Fuqiang; Cai, Weijun; Zhang, Fengqin; Li, Na; Fan, Junjie


    According to the interior orientation elements and imaging quality requirements of mapping application to mapping camera and combined with off-axis three-mirror anastigmat(TMA) system, high optomechanical stability design of a space optical mapping camera is introduced in this paper. The configuration is a coaxial TMA system used in off-axis situation. Firstly, the overall optical arrangement is described., and an overview of the optomechanical packaging is provided. Zerodurglass, carbon fiber composite and carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbon (C/SiC) are widely used in the optomechanical structure, because their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can reduce the thermal sensitivity of the mirrors and focal plane. Flexible and unloading support are used in reflector and camera supporting structure. Epoxy structural adhesives is used for bonding optics to metal structure is also introduced in this paper. The primary mirror is mounted by means of three-point ball joint flexures system, which is attach to the back of the mirror. Then, In order to predict flexural displacements due to gravity, static finite element analysis (FEA) is performed on the primary mirror. The optical performance peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors are detected before and after assemble. Also, the dynamic finite element analysis(FEA) of the whole optical arrangement is carried out as to investigate the performance of optomechanical. Finally, in order to evaluate the stability of the design, the thermal vacuum test and vibration test are carried out and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and elements of interior orientation are presented as the evaluation index. Before and after the thermal vacuum test and vibration test, the MTF, focal distance and position of the principal point of optical system are measured and the result is as expected.

  10. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system (United States)


    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  11. Negative extensibility metamaterials: Occurrence and design-space topology (United States)

    Karpov, Eduard G.; Danso, Larry A.; Klein, John T.


    A negative extensibility material structure pulls back and contracts when the external tensile load reaches a certain critical level. In this paper, we reveal basic mathematical features of the nonlinear strain energy function responsible for this unusual mechanical property. A systematic discussion leads to a comprehensive phase diagram in terms of design parameters for a simple unit cell structure that provides a panoramic view of all possible nonlinear mechanical behaviors. A negative extensibility region clearly is identified in the diagram. The sought property is seen to be rare, occurring only for a very narrow range of the design parameters. Nonetheless, due to the simplicity of the studied structure we suggest that the negative extensibility should be a more common phenomenon than previously thought. It can appear in simple bistable cells made of only several linearly elastic links, although at some peculiar combinations of their properties. These bistable unit cells can be used to design periodic mechanical metamaterials whose examples are shown as well as innovative architectural metastructures.

  12. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...... freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...... welfare state universalism to individual trust, although we claim that the important causal link runs from historically trust levels to current welfare state design....

  13. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen


    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed-independent...

  14. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  15. Passive Radiation Shielding: Integrating Multilayer and Multipurpose Materials into Space Habitat Design (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prospect of long-term human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit poses a unique set of challenges for space habitat designers. One of those challenges is...

  16. Level up! the guide to great video game design

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Scott


    Want to design your own video games? Let expert Scott Rogers show you how! If you want to design and build cutting-edge video games but aren't sure where to start, then the SECOND EDITION of the acclaimed Level Up! is for you! Written by leading video game expert Scott Rogers, who has designed the hits Pac Man World, Maximo and SpongeBob Squarepants, this updated edition provides clear and well-thought out examples that forgo theoretical gobbledygook with charmingly illustrated concepts and solutions based on years of professional experience. Level Up! 2nd Edition has been NEWLY EXPANDED to

  17. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.


    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding

  18. Space as a Resource in Creative Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Gross, Tom


    Based on longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork in two industrial design departments and two design companies, we explore the role of spatial arrangements for supporting creative design practices within different design studios. From our results, we show that designers explicitly make use of the

  19. Design strategies for the International Space University's variable gravity research facility (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.


    A variable gravity research facility named 'Newton' was designed by 58 students from 13 countries at the International Space University's 1989 summer session at the Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourge, France. The project was comprehensive in scope, including a political and legal foundation for international cooperation, development and financing; technical, science and engineering issues; architectural design; plausible schedules; and operations, crew issues and maintenance. Since log-term exposure to zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body, the main goal was to design a unique variable gravity research facility which would find a practical solution to this problem, permitting a manned mission to Mars. The facility would not duplicate other space-based facilities and would provide the flexibility for examining a number of gravity levels, including lunar and Martian gravities. Major design alternatives included a truss versus a tether based system which also involved the question of docking while spinning or despinning to dock. These design issues are described. The relative advantages or disadvantages are discussed, including comments on the necessary research and technology development required for each.

  20. Nearest neighbor spacing distributions of low-lying levels of vibrational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Simbel, M.H.


    Energy-level statistics are considered for nuclei whose Hamiltonian is divided into intrinsic and collective-vibrational terms. The levels are described as a random superposition of independent sequences, each corresponding to a given number of phonons. The intrinsic motion is assumed chaotic. The level spacing distribution is found to be intermediate between the Wigner and Poisson distributions and similar in form to the spacing distribution of a system with classical phase space divided into separate regular and chaotic domains. We have obtained approximate expressions for the nearest neighbor spacing and cumulative spacing distribution valid when the level density is described by a constant-temperature formula and not involving additional free parameters. These expressions have been able to achieve good agreement with the experimental spacing distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Robotic Design Choice Overview using Co-simulation and Design Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus


    . Simulations are used to evaluate the robot model output response in relation to operational demands. An example of a load carrying challenge in relation to the feeding robot is presented and a design space is defined with candidate solutions in both the mechanical and software domains. Simulation results......Rapid robotic system development has created a demand for multi-disciplinary methods and tools to explore and compare design alternatives. In this paper, we present a collaborative modelling technique that combines discrete-event models of controller software with continuous-time models of physical...... robot components. The proposed co-modelling method utilises Vienna Development Method (VDM) and Matlab for discrete-event modelling and 20-sim for continuous-time modelling. The model-based development of a mobile robot mink feeding system is used to illustrate the collaborative modelling method...

  2. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi


    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  3. Radon levels in dwelling shielded spaces (DSS) in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Margaliot, M.; Riemer, T.; Shamash, S.; Even, O.; Shamai, Y.


    Exposure to radon gas is known as the major contributor to the general public exposure to ionizing radiation. The typical radon concentration in Israeli houses with a direct ground contact is about 50 Bq/m 3 , attributed mainly to soil gas penetration into the house. All newly constructed buildings (since 1991) must include Dwelling Shielded Spaces (DSS) which are rooms made of massive solid concrete, equipped with air-tight steel door and window. The DSS serve as shelters against both explosive and chemical warfare. In normal practice, the DSS serves as a conventional room in the household. Standard size DSS contain a mass of around 35 tons of concrete with typical 2 26R a activity concentration of 30 Bq/kg. This mass of concrete is expected to increase the radon concentration in the DSS room due to exhalation from the building material. Published exhalation rate values from concrete in the US and Europe vary from 0.1 to 8 mBq/m 2 sec. (0.5 - 30 Bq/m 2 h). This work presents short and long-term radon measurements performed in high-rise building DSS's. Measurements of the free exhalation rate and wall exhalation rate as well as ventilation rate in DSS are also presented and the relation between these quantities is analyzed

  4. Technical Guidance from the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space for Design and Development Phases (United States)

    Summerer, Leopold


    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space [1] has been adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The safety framework reflects an international consensus on best practices. After the older 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second document at UN level dedicated entirely to space nuclear power sources.This paper analyses aspects of the safety framework relevant for the design and development phases of space nuclear power sources. While early publications have started analysing the legal aspects of the safety framework, its technical guidance has not yet been subject to scholarly articles. The present paper therefore focuses on the technical guidance provided in the safety framework, in an attempt to assist engineers and practitioners to benefit from these.

  5. Applications of scenarios in early embedded system design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.


    One of the challenges during embedded system design is the application driven design. Due to the application driven design, the objectives that are steering the design of an embedded system are mainly based on the needs of the application(s). Examples of embedded system objectives are performance,

  6. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design (United States)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  7. Structural Design and Analysis of a Rigidizable Space Shuttle Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Once in space, the experiment will inflate and rigidize three composite structures and perform a vibration analysis on each by exciting the tubes using piezoelectric patches and collecting data via an accelerometer...

  8. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.


    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...

  9. Feel the Fear: Learning Graphic Design in Affective Places and Online Spaces (United States)

    Nottingham, Anitra


    This article explores the idea of pedagogic affect in both onsite and online graphic design learning spaces, and speculates on the role that this affect plays in the formation of the design student. I argue that embodied design knowledge is built by interactions with design professionals, activities that mimic the daily work of designers, and…

  10. Very Small Satellite Design for Space Sensor Networks (United States)


    Literature Review 25 Clyde Space Power Pumpkin Computer Microhard Comm SSTL GPS User Payload Pumpkin Structure Figure 2-10. CUTE-I CubeSat [69...Structure Pumpkin [244] Skeletonized 155 $1,350* $810* EPS Clyde Space [245] CubeSat EPS 310 $25,240* $19,252* DH Pumpkin [244] FM430 90 $1,200* $720...satellite miniaturisation since 1993 and probably before. Furthermore, the term itself has been diluted from the pure literal form, eventually

  11. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level- (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  12. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications. (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  13. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  14. Rethink space: (Re)designing a workspace using human-centered design to support flexibility, collaboration, and engagement among clinical and translational research support services. (United States)

    Doshi, Aalap; Clay, Christina


    Space matters. We read space like we read people's faces. Space is an instrument of collaboration and innovation. At the University of Michigan's Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR), a team was created to creatively and economically enhance our operating space into a flexible workspace that supports privacy, innovation, creativity, and most important, a culture of collaboration. The team used a human-centered design process to creatively engage the staff at large into analyzing our existing space, identifying latent needs, proposing solutions, generating feedback, and economically building the rethought process. The redesigned workspace embraces the differences among MICHR's teams while encouraging collaboration and teamwork and keeping costs at a minimum. It has resulted in a flexible space that includes co-located teams, spaces dedicated to different work goals, an open area for collaboration, quiet zones for focused work, and better wayfinding. Through our Rethink Space project, we hope to have demonstrated that, by initiating the project internally and by engaging the users of the space themselves in an empathetic, visual, and human-centered way, a space redesign can be undertaken economically while also leading to improved levels of employee and team satisfaction.

  15. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.


    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations

  16. Effects of space allocations and energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. (United States)

    Lei, X J; Yan, L; Kim, Y M; Kim, I H


    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of different space allocations and different dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 84 growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 27.10 ± 1.60 kg were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were blocked based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.60 or 0.80 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,400 or 3,550 kcal/kg ME of diets. In experiment 2, a total of 84 finishing pigs with an initial BW of 67.43 ± 1.97 kg were used in a 10-week trial. Pigs were allotted based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.81 or 1.08 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,300 or 3,450 kcal/kg ME of diet. In experiment 1, high ME diet improved gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) in pigs with low space allocation but not in pigs in high space allocation (p space allocation but decreased ATTD of nitrogen in high space allocation (p space allocation but not in pigs with high space allocation (p space allocation but can improve feed efficiency in growing pigs and daily gain and feed efficiency early-finishing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Design of a store for encapsulated intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, A.I.; Robinson, G.; Price, M.S.T.


    The design of a new store for cemented intermediate level radioactive waste produced in unshielded 500 litre drums from the Winfrith Radwaste Treatment Plant is described. The store design has had to take account of local site constraints and disposal uncertainties. As a result, an innovative above ground storage tube design using interlocking, commercially available, concrete pipe rings has been selected. Other special features are that the store is easily capable of being extended whilst in service and is simple and cheap to decommission. A quality assessment facility for the drummed waste is an integral part of the store complex. (author)

  18. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  19. Dimensions of design space: a decision-theoretic approach to optimal research design. (United States)

    Conti, Stefano; Claxton, Karl


    Bayesian decision theory can be used not only to establish the optimal sample size and its allocation in a single clinical study but also to identify an optimal portfolio of research combining different types of study design. Within a single study, the highest societal payoff to proposed research is achieved when its sample sizes and allocation between available treatment options are chosen to maximize the expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS). Where a number of different types of study informing different parameters in the decision problem could be conducted, the simultaneous estimation of ENBS across all dimensions of the design space is required to identify the optimal sample sizes and allocations within such a research portfolio. This is illustrated through a simple example of a decision model of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza. The possible study designs include: 1) a single trial of all the parameters, 2) a clinical trial providing evidence only on clinical endpoints, 3) an epidemiological study of natural history of disease, and 4) a survey of quality of life. The possible combinations, samples sizes, and allocation between trial arms are evaluated over a range of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The computational challenges are addressed by implementing optimization algorithms to search the ENBS surface more efficiently over such large dimensions.

  20. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.


    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  1. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek


    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  2. Physics-Based Probabilistic Design Tool with System-Level Reliability Constraint, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work proposed herein would establish a concurrent design environment that enables aerospace hardware designers to rapidly determine optimum risk-constrained...

  3. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  4. Creative environments for design education and practice : A typology of creative spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoring, K.C.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Badke-Schaub, P.G.


    This article presents a typology of creative spaces that is relevant to facilitating creative working and learning processes for designers. Drawing on qualitative user research with cultural probes in a design thinking institution, this typology identifies five different types of creative spaces

  5. The Cube and the Poppy Flower: Participatory Approaches for Designing Technology-Enhanced Learning Spaces (United States)

    Casanova, Diogo; Mitchell, Paul


    This paper presents an alternative method for learning space design that is driven by user input. An exploratory study was undertaken at an English university with the aim of redesigning technology-enhanced learning spaces. Two provocative concepts were presented through participatory design workshops during which students and teachers reflected…

  6. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces (United States)

    Li, Zang


    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  7. Provoking Performing Objects: Expanding the Design Space for Soft Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bewley, Harvey; Vallgårda, Anna


    Soft robots are typically developed with specific functions in mind. What we propose here is to shift focus to their aesthetic and performative qualities as means to open up a larger space of potential expressions and tacit abilities of these animated artefacts. Basically, to focus on the aesthetic...

  8. Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking it to the Next Level (United States)


    Power Journal | 52 Baird The Importance of Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking It to the Next Level FeatureSpace Focus junction ...Communications (BMC3) infrastructure. We must build a new space superiority enterprise around SSA sensors that utilize com- mon data models to...vehicle, a modified version of China’s DF-21 medium-range ballistic missile, and launcher system en- gaged the satellite at a closing velocity of

  9. PSCAD modeling of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm for power electronics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design details of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm in PSCAD that is able to generate pulses for three-phase two-level DC/AC converters with two different switching patterns. The presented FORTRAN code is generic and can be easily modified to meet many other kinds of space vector modulation strategies. The code is also editable for hardware programming. The new component is tested and verified by comparing its output as six gating signals with those of a similar component in MATLAB library. Moreover the component is used to generate digital signals for closed-loop control of STATCOM for reactive power compensation in PSCAD. This add-on can be an effective tool to give students better understanding of the space vector modulation algorithm for different control tasks in power electronics area, and can motivate them for learning.

  10. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.


    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  11. The Design Process and User Focused Digital Spaces


    Keating, Elaine M.


    This thesis presents a qualitative inquiry into how the graphic design process is being reconfigured within the new digital media landscape. The literature review looks at the historical relationship between graphic design and technology from the invention of the printing press to the personal computer and reviews how this relationship is again affected by the emergence of the computer as a medium for communication. The products of digital design are no longer static and fixed but are dynamic...

  12. High-level radioactive waste glass and storage canister design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.


    Management of high-level radioactive wastes is a primary concern in nuclear operations today. The main objective in managing these wastes is to convert them into a solid, durable form which is then isolated from man. A description is given of the design and evaluation of this waste form. The waste form has two main components: the solidified waste and the storage canister. The solid waste form discussed in this study is glass. Waste glasses have been designed to be inert to water attack, physically rugged, low in volatility, and stable over time. Two glass-making processes are under development at PNL. The storage canister is being designed to provide high-integrity containment for solidified wastes from processing to terminal storage. An outline is given of the steps in canister design: material selection, stress and thermal analyses, quality verification, and postfill processing. Examples are given of results obtained from actual nonradioactive demonstration tests. 14 refs

  13. Research on the Design of Public Space Environment for Aging Society (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Soo, Kim Chul


    This paper studies the living space environment suitable for the elderly, because the elderly and the disabled have become increasingly prominent social problems. Through the discussion of the humanistic environment design method of the elderly and the disabled, the paper puts forward a new environment design which has the traditional characteristics and adapts to the new society to care for the elderly (the disabled).By studying and analyzing the background of social aging, the theory of public space environment design and the needs of the elderly, it is pointed out that the design of public space environment in the aged society needs to be implemented in detail design. The number of elderly people in public space will increase, give full attention to the public space outdoor environment quality, for the elderly to provide a variety of environmental facilities have long-term significance.

  14. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.


    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  15. Ray space 'Riccati' evolution and geometric phases for N-level ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evolution of an N-level quantum system to the various coset spaces and Grassmanian ... glement in the context of quantum information and quantum computation [1]. Per- ... the base manifold of a fiber bundle, the total space being SU(N).

  16. Thermo-mechanical design and testing of a microbalance for space applications (United States)

    Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano


    This work focuses on the thermo-mechanical design of the microbalance used for the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) sensor. VISTA has been designed to operate in situ in different space environments (asteroids, Mars, icy satellites). In this paper we focus on its application on Mars, where the expected environmental conditions are the most challenging for the thermo-mechanical design. The microbalance holding system has been designed to ensure piezoelectric crystal integrity against the high vibration levels during launch and landing and to cope with the unavoidable thermo-elastic differential displacements due to CTE and temperature differences between the microbalance elements. The crystal holding system, based on three symmetrical titanium supports, provides also the electrical connections needed for crystal actuation, microbalance heating and temperature measurement on the electrode area. On the microbalance crystal surfaces the electrodes, a micro film heater (optimized to perform thermo-gravimetric analysis up to 400 °C) and a resistive thermometer are deposited through a vacuum sputtering process. A mockup of the system has been manufactured and tested at the expected vibration levels and the thermal control effectiveness has been verified in thermo-vacuum environment.

  17. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James


    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  18. The Design Space of the Embryonic Cell Cycle Oscillator. (United States)

    Mattingly, Henry H; Sheintuch, Moshe; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y


    One of the main tasks in the analysis of models of biomolecular networks is to characterize the domain of the parameter space that corresponds to a specific behavior. Given the large number of parameters in most models, this is no trivial task. We use a model of the embryonic cell cycle to illustrate the approaches that can be used to characterize the domain of parameter space corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, a regime that coordinates periodic entry into and exit from mitosis. Our approach relies on geometric construction of bifurcation sets, numerical continuation, and random sampling of parameters. We delineate the multidimensional oscillatory domain and use it to quantify the robustness of periodic trajectories. Although some of our techniques explore the specific features of the chosen system, the general approach can be extended to other models of the cell cycle engine and other biomolecular networks. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space and Earth Project (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Shutts, Stacy (Principal Investigator); Bacon, John; Ewert, Michael; Paul, Thomas


    Biodigesters harness and utilize byproducts, and are a valuable technology for waste conversion and advanced exploration closed loops targets (6.1.a-E), including that of human waste. On Mars and at JSC, this could lead to growing food and to more sustainable uses of waste. It is critical to understand biogas generation rates, odor management of the effluent, and nutrient viability. Improved efficiency and reliance on this renewable energy source can become feasible for deep space missions.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Artificial Gravity Impacts to Deep-Space Vehicle Design (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent


    Even after more than thirty years of scientific investigation, serious concerns regarding human physiological effects of long-duration microgravity exposure remain. These include loss of bone mineral density, skeletal muscle atrophy, and orthostatic hypertension, among others. In particular, "Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions," states "loss of bone density, which apparently occurs at a rate of 1% per month in microgravity, is relatively manageable on the short-duration missions of the space shuttle, but it becomes problematic on the ISS [International Space Station]. ...If this loss is not mitigated, interplanetary missions will be impossible." While extensive investigations into potential countermeasures are planned on the ISS, the delay in attaining full crew complement and onboard facilities, and the potential for extending crews tours of duty threaten the timely (definitive design requirements, especially acceptable artificial gravity levels and rotation rates, the perception of high vehicle mass and performance penalties, the incompatibility of resulting vehicle configurations with space propulsion options (i.e., aerocapture), the perception of complications associated with de-spun components such as antennae and photovoltaic arrays, and the expectation of effective crew micro-gravity countermeasures. These perception and concerns may have been overstated, or may be acceptable alternatives to countermeasures of limited efficacy. This study was undertaken as an initial step to try to understand the implications of and potential solutions to incorporating artificial gravity in the design of human deep-space exploration vehicles. Of prime interest will be the mass penalties incurred by incorporating AG, along with any mission performance degradation.

  1. Use of probabilistic design methods for NASA applications. [to be used in design phase of Space Transportation Main Engine (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.


    This paper presents a reliability evaluation process designed to improve the reliability of advanced launch systems. The work performed includes the development of a reliability prediction methodology to be used in the design phase of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). This includes prediction techniques which use historical data bases as well as deterministic and probabilistic engineering models for predicting design reliability. In summary, this paper describes a probabilistic design approach for the next-generation liquid rocket engine, the STME.

  2. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A


    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  3. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong


    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system.

  4. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.


    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  5. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong


    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system

  6. A comparison of radiosity with current methods of sound level prediction in commercial spaces (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter, IV; Muehleisen, Ralph T.


    The ray tracing and image methods (and variations thereof) are widely used for the computation of sound fields in architectural spaces. The ray tracing and image methods are best suited for spaces with mostly specular reflecting surfaces. The radiosity method, a method based on solving a system of energy balance equations, is best applied to spaces with mainly diffusely reflective surfaces. Because very few spaces are either purely specular or purely diffuse, all methods must deal with both types of reflecting surfaces. A comparison of the radiosity method to other methods for the prediction of sound levels in commercial environments is presented. [Work supported by NSF.

  7. [Establishment of design space for production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparation]. (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Zhao-Zhou


    The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process. Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process, the design space will be determined, and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space. Therefore, the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD, and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space. This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space, analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, as well as future study orientations.

  8. LEAP into the Pfizer Global Virtual Library (PGVL) space: creation of readily synthesizable design ideas automatically. (United States)

    Hu, Qiyue; Peng, Zhengwei; Kostrowicki, Jaroslav; Kuki, Atsuo


    Pfizer Global Virtual Library (PGVL) of 10(13) readily synthesizable molecules offers a tremendous opportunity for lead optimization and scaffold hopping in drug discovery projects. However, mining into a chemical space of this size presents a challenge for the concomitant design informatics due to the fact that standard molecular similarity searches against a collection of explicit molecules cannot be utilized, since no chemical information system could create and manage more than 10(8) explicit molecules. Nevertheless, by accepting a tolerable level of false negatives in search results, we were able to bypass the need for full 10(13) enumeration and enabled the efficient similarity search and retrieval into this huge chemical space for practical usage by medicinal chemists. In this report, two search methods (LEAP1 and LEAP2) are presented. The first method uses PGVL reaction knowledge to disassemble the incoming search query molecule into a set of reactants and then uses reactant-level similarities into actual available starting materials to focus on a much smaller sub-region of the full virtual library compound space. This sub-region is then explicitly enumerated and searched via a standard similarity method using the original query molecule. The second method uses a fuzzy mapping onto candidate reactions and does not require exact disassembly of the incoming query molecule. Instead Basis Products (or capped reactants) are mapped into the query molecule and the resultant asymmetric similarity scores are used to prioritize the corresponding reactions and reactant sets. All sets of Basis Products are inherently indexed to specific reactions and specific starting materials. This again allows focusing on a much smaller sub-region for explicit enumeration and subsequent standard product-level similarity search. A set of validation studies were conducted. The results have shown that the level of false negatives for the disassembly-based method is acceptable when the

  9. Load-Following Voltage Controller Design for a Static Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Onbasioglou, Fetiye O.; Metzger, John D.


    The reliability of static space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) could be improved through the use of backup devices in addition to shunt regulators, as currently proposed for load following. Shunt regulator failure leading to reactor shutdown is possible, as is the possible need to deliver somewhat higher power level to the load than originally expected. A backup system is proposed in SNPSs to eliminate the possibility of a single-point failure in the shunt regulators and to increase the overall system power delivery capability despite changing mission needs and component characteristics. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of such a backup device for voltage regulation in static SNPSs that is capable of overcoming system variations resulting from operation at different power levels. A dynamic compensator is designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery method. The resulting compensators are gain scheduled using the SNPS electric power as the scheduling variable, resulting in a nonlinear compensator. The performance of the gain-scheduled compensator is investigated extensively using an SNPS simulator. The simulations demonstrate the effects of the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient variations on the load-following capabilities of the SNPS. Robustness analysis results demonstrate that the proposed controller exhibits significant operational flexibility, and it can be considered for long-term space mission requiring significant levels of autonomy

  10. A Platform-Based Methodology for System-Level Mixed-Signal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli


    Full Text Available The complexity of today's embedded electronic systems as well as their demanding performance and reliability requirements are such that their design can no longer be tackled with ad hoc techniques while still meeting tight time to-market constraints. In this paper, we present a system level design approach for electronic circuits, utilizing the platform-based design (PBD paradigm as the natural framework for mixed-domain design formalization. In PBD, a meet-in-the-middle approach allows systematic exploration of the design space through a series of top-down mapping of system constraints onto component feasibility models in a platform library, which is based on bottom-up characterizations. In this framework, new designs can be assembled from the precharacterized library components, giving the highest priority to design reuse, correct assembly, and efficient design flow from specifications to implementation. We apply concepts from design centering to enforce robustness to modeling errors as well as process, voltage, and temperature variations, which are currently plaguing embedded system design in deep-submicron technologies. The effectiveness of our methodology is finally shown on the design of a pipeline A/D converter and two receiver front-ends for UMTS and UWB communications.

  11. Essential knowledge for transistor-level LSI circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Nakura, Toru


    This book is a collection of the miscellaneous knowledge essential for transistor-level LSI circuit design, summarized as the issues that need to be considered in each design step. To design an LSI that actually functions and to be able to properly measure it, an extremely large amount of diverse, detailed knowledge is necessary. Even though one may read a textbook about an op-amp, for example, the op-amp circuit design may not actually be possible to complete in one’s CAD tools. The first half of this text explains important design issues such as the operating principles of CAD tools, including schematic entry, SPICE simulation, layout and verification, and RC extraction. Then, mistake-prone topics for many circuit design beginners, resulting from their lack of consideration of these subjects, are explained including IO buffers, noise, and problems due to the progress of miniaturization. Following these topics, basic but very specialized issues for LSI circuit measurement are explained including measuremen...

  12. Precision multiloop (PM Design with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha P Mankar


    Full Text Available The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the entire interbracket distance is used as loop area.

  13. Precision multiloop (PM Design) with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics


    Mugdha P Mankar; Achint Chachada; Harish Atram; Avanti Kulkarni


    The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the ent...

  14. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme (United States)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  15. Significance of high level test data in piping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Bitner, J.L.


    During the 1980's the piping technical community in the U.S. initiated a series of research activities aimed at reducing the conservatism inherent in nuclear piping design. One of these activities was directed at the application of the ASME Code rules to the design of piping subjected to dynamic loads. This paper surveys the test data obtained from three groups in the U.S. and none in the U.K., and correlates the findings as they relate to the failure modes of piping subjected to seismic loads. The failure modes experienced as the result of testing at dynamic loads significantly in excess of anticipated loads specified for any of the ASME Code service levels are discussed. A recommendation is presented for modifying the Code piping rules to reduce the conservatism inherent in seismic design


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Brodersen, Søsser


    of diverse actors in what we term prototyping spaces. In these prototyping spaces, prototypes play an important role in visualising controversies, enabling matters of concern to be negotiated, and making knowledge transparent throughout the design process. Based on a case study of a pilot program to make...... of temporary prototyping spaces, which are to be staged and facilitated to allow various actors to negotiate matters of concern. Designers then translate the resulting knowledge and insights into pro-totypes for use in subsequent spaces and eventually into an actor-network com-prising the final solution....

  17. Tradespace investigation of strategic design factors for large space telescopes (United States)

    Karlow, Brandon; Jewison, Christopher; Sternberg, David; Hall, Sherrie; Golkar, Alessandro


    Future large telescope arrays require careful balancing of satisfaction across the stakeholders' community. Development programs usually cannot afford to explicitly address all stakeholder tradeoffs during the conceptual design stage, but rather confine the analysis to performance, cost, and schedule discussions, treating policy and budget as constraints defining the envelope of the investigation. Thus, it is of interest to develop an integrated stakeholder analysis approach to explicitly address the impact of all stakeholder interactions on the design of large telescope arrays to address future science and exploration needs. This paper offers a quantitative approach for modeling some of the stakeholder influences relevant to large telescope array designs-the linkages between a given mission and the wider NASA community. The main goal of the analysis is to explore the tradespace of large telescope designs and understand the effects of different design decisions in the stakeholders' network. Proposed architectures that offer benefits to existing constellations of systems, institutions, and mission plans are expected to yield political and engineering benefits for NASA stakeholders' wider objectives. If such synergistic architectures are privileged in subsequent analysis, regions of the tradespace that better meet the needs of the wider NASA community can be selected for further development.

  18. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie


    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  19. Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.


    The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation

  20. Microscopic description of average level spacing in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Le Thi Quynh; Hung, Nguyen Quang; Phuc, Le Tan


    A microscopic theoretical approach to the average level spacing at the neutron binding energy in even-even nuclei is proposed. The approach is derived based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory at finite temperature and projection M of the total angular momentum J , which is often used to describe the superfluid properties of hot rotating nuclei. The exact relation of the J -dependent total level density to the M -dependent state densities, based on which the average level spacing is calculated, was employed. The numerical calculations carried out for several even-even nuclei have shown that in order to reproduce the experimental average level spacing, the M -dependent pairing gaps as well as the exact relation of the J -dependent total level density formula should be simultaneously used. (paper)

  1. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li


    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  2. Innovative designs for low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowatzki, E.A.; Armstrong, G.; McCray, J.


    Shallow land burial of low-level nuclear wastes presents many problems that are within the scope of civil engineering analysis and design. These include groundwater seepage, surface water runoff and collection, and the subsidence of trench backfills. Unfortunately, at the time the first disposal sites were being developed, major emphasis was placed on the health-physics aspects of the problem with the result that many of the civil engineering aspects were overlooked and severe problems relating to site integrity exist today. This paper presents the results of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsored research project conducted at the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, to assess trench cap design from the viewpoint of stability, water infiltration, and economy. Full-scale trenches were constructed that incorporated four different designs. These designs range from a relatively simple cap consisting of engineered backfill with a sloping, compacted soil crown to a more complex cap-crown system that incorporates compacted backfill and a steel reinforced soil-cement cap with an overlaying ''wick'' drain. The results of structural and hydrological monitoring over a period of approximately 15 months are presented. Recommendations are made regarding standard design criteria for future sites based on the results of this research

  3. Analysis and design of ion thruster for large space systems (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Kami, S.


    Design analyses showed that an ion thruster of approximately 50 cm in diameter will be required to produce a thrust of 0.5 N using xenon or argon as propellants, and operating the thruster at a specific impulse of 3530 sec or 6076 sec respectively. A multipole magnetic confinement discharge chamber was specified.

  4. MAP: an iterative experimental design methodology for the optimization of catalytic search space structure modeling. (United States)

    Baumes, Laurent A


    One of the main problems in high-throughput research for materials is still the design of experiments. At early stages of discovery programs, purely exploratory methodologies coupled with fast screening tools should be employed. This should lead to opportunities to find unexpected catalytic results and identify the "groups" of catalyst outputs, providing well-defined boundaries for future optimizations. However, very few new papers deal with strategies that guide exploratory studies. Mostly, traditional designs, homogeneous covering, or simple random samplings are exploited. Typical catalytic output distributions exhibit unbalanced datasets for which an efficient learning is hardly carried out, and interesting but rare classes are usually unrecognized. Here is suggested a new iterative algorithm for the characterization of the search space structure, working independently of learning processes. It enhances recognition rates by transferring catalysts to be screened from "performance-stable" space zones to "unsteady" ones which necessitate more experiments to be well-modeled. The evaluation of new algorithm attempts through benchmarks is compulsory due to the lack of past proofs about their efficiency. The method is detailed and thoroughly tested with mathematical functions exhibiting different levels of complexity. The strategy is not only empirically evaluated, the effect or efficiency of sampling on future Machine Learning performances is also quantified. The minimum sample size required by the algorithm for being statistically discriminated from simple random sampling is investigated.

  5. A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station (United States)

    Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.


    The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

  6. A novel double fine guide sensor design on space telescope (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-xu; Yin, Da-yi


    To get high precision attitude for space telescope, a double marginal FOV (field of view) FGS (Fine Guide Sensor) is proposed. It is composed of two large area APS CMOS sensors and both share the same lens in main light of sight. More star vectors can be get by two FGS and be used for high precision attitude determination. To improve star identification speed, the vector cross product in inter-star angles for small marginal FOV different from traditional way is elaborated and parallel processing method is applied to pyramid algorithm. The star vectors from two sensors are then used to attitude fusion with traditional QUEST algorithm. The simulation results show that the system can get high accuracy three axis attitudes and the scheme is feasibility.

  7. Radiation shielding design for the VISTA space craft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahyn, S.; Pahyn, H.M. [Gazi Univ., Teknik Eoitim Fakultesi, Ankara (Turkey)


    An innovative concept for the direct utilisation of fusion energy with laser ignited (D,T) capsules for propulsion is presented with the so called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications) concept. VISTA's overall geometry is that of a 50 degrees-half-angle cone to avoid massive radioactive shielding. The 50 degrees-half-angle maximizes the jet efficiency, and is determined by selecting the optimum pellet firing position along the axis of the cone with respect to the plane of the magnet coil. The pellet firing position is in the vacuum. By a total fusion power production of 17 500 MW with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and 3 500 MJ per shot, the propulsion power in form of charged particles has been calculated as {approx} 7 000 MW, making {approx} 40 % of the total fusion power. About 60 % of the fusion energy is carried by the leaking neutrons out of the pellet. Most of them (96 %) escape into vacuum without striking the space ship. Only 4 % enter the frozen hydrogen exhaust cone (about 50 gr.). Total peak nuclear heat generation in the coils is calculated as 4.7 mW/cm{sup 3}. The peak neutron heating is 1.9 mW/cm{sup 3} and the peak {gamma}-ray heating density is 2.8 mW/cm{sup 3}. However, volume averaged nuclear heat generation in the coils is much lower. It is calculated as 0.18, 0.48 and 0.66 mW/cm{sup 3} for neutron, {gamma}-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. Net shielding mass is found as 170 ton, making < 3 % of the vehicle mass. (authors)

  8. Radiation shielding design for the VISTA space craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahyn, S.; Pahyn, H.M.


    An innovative concept for the direct utilisation of fusion energy with laser ignited (D,T) capsules for propulsion is presented with the so called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications) concept. VISTA's overall geometry is that of a 50 degrees-half-angle cone to avoid massive radioactive shielding. The 50 degrees-half-angle maximizes the jet efficiency, and is determined by selecting the optimum pellet firing position along the axis of the cone with respect to the plane of the magnet coil. The pellet firing position is in the vacuum. By a total fusion power production of 17 500 MW with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and 3 500 MJ per shot, the propulsion power in form of charged particles has been calculated as ∼ 7 000 MW, making ∼ 40 % of the total fusion power. About 60 % of the fusion energy is carried by the leaking neutrons out of the pellet. Most of them (96 %) escape into vacuum without striking the space ship. Only 4 % enter the frozen hydrogen exhaust cone (about 50 gr.). Total peak nuclear heat generation in the coils is calculated as 4.7 mW/cm 3 . The peak neutron heating is 1.9 mW/cm 3 and the peak γ-ray heating density is 2.8 mW/cm 3 . However, volume averaged nuclear heat generation in the coils is much lower. It is calculated as 0.18, 0.48 and 0.66 mW/cm 3 for neutron, γ-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. Net shielding mass is found as 170 ton, making < 3 % of the vehicle mass. (authors)

  9. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong


    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  10. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.


    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  11. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda. (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie


    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... aspects for reclaiming public space. The PhotoSwapper application is presented as an example of a system designed to integrate pervasive technology in a public setting. The system is strongly inspired by the activities at a traditional market place. Based on the design of the application we discuss four...

  13. Space Based Radar-System Architecture Design and Optimization for a Space Based Replacement to AWACS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickert, Douglas


    Through a process of system architecture design, system cost modeling, and system architecture optimization, we assess the feasibility of performing the next generation Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS...

  14. SPONGENT: The Design Space of Lightweight Cryptographic Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knezevic, Miroslav; Leander, Gregor


    construction instantiated with present-type permutations. The resulting family of hash functions is called spongent. We propose 13 spongent variants--or different levels of collision and (second) preimage resistance as well as for various implementation constraints. For each of them, we provide several ASIC...

  15. Design of a CCD Camera for Space Surveillance (United States)


    and levels, all the biases, and the video chain . Other scripts test integration time, test patterns, housekeeping , and the command and control...5 8. INPUT POWER ......................................................... 6 9. HOUSEKEEPING of a regulator. Other opamp biases are supplied with the 22V. 5 Figure 10 Op Amp Bias Circuit Schematic Figure 11 Charge Pump Circuit

  16. Tourism, technology and narratives: Reflections for the design of tourist spaces


    de Villasante García, Rafael; Casellas Oriol, Sílvia


    We characterize tourism essentially as a phenomenon of communication between architecture, a territory, a space and its visitors. The design of tourist spaces has evolved over time, according to the technologies used to build them. The emergence of new technologies enables new interactions with our environment and a constant connection with sources of information, in addition to geo-location and augmented reality. These are technologies that are re-configuring the tourist space and, therefore...

  17. The influence of subway station design on noise levels. (United States)

    Shah, Ravi R; Suen, Jonathan J; Cellum, Ilana P; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K


    To investigate the impact of subway station design on platform noise levels. Observational. Continuous A-weighted decibel (dBA) sound levels were recorded in 20 New York City subway stations, where trains entered on either a straight track or curved track in 10 stations each. Equivalent continuous noise levels (L eq ) at various locations on the boarding platform (inbound end, midplatform, and outbound end) during train entry and exit were compared between the straight and curved stations in broadband as well as narrow one-third octave bands. Overall, curved stations trended louder than straight stations, although the difference in broadband L eq did not reach statistical significance (curve, 83.4 dBA; straight, 82.6 dBA; P = .054). Noise levels were significantly louder at the inbound end of the platform during train entry (inbound, 89.7 dBA; mid, 85.5 dBA; outbound, 78.7 dBA; P < .001) and at the outbound end during train exit (inbound, 79.7 dBA; mid, 85.3 dBA; outbound, 89.1 dBA; P < .001). Narrow band analysis showed that curved stations were significantly louder than straight stations at 100 Hz and high frequencies from 8 to 20 kHz. Peak impact levels ranged from 104 to 121 dBA. Curved stations have a different noise profile compared to straight stations and are significantly louder than straight stations at high frequencies. Designing stations with straight tracks within the platform can help reduce commuter noise exposure. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1169-1174, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.


    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  19. Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan


    The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

  20. The identification of van Hiele level students on the topic of space analytic geometry (United States)

    Yudianto, E.; Sunardi; Sugiarti, T.; Susanto; Suharto; Trapsilasiwi, D.


    Geometry topics are still considered difficult by most students. Therefore, this study focused on the identification of students related to van Hiele levels. The task used from result of the development of questions related to analytical geometry of space. The results of the work involving 78 students who worked on these questions covered 11.54% (nine students) classified on a visual level; 5.13% (four students) on analysis level; 1.28% (one student) on informal deduction level; 2.56% (two students) on deduction and 2.56% (two students) on rigor level, and 76.93% (sixty students) classified on the pre-visualization level.

  1. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed


    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  2. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro


    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  3. "Space and Consequences": The Influence of the Roundtable Classroom Design on Student Dialogue (United States)

    Parsons, Caroline S.


    This study sought to explore how the design of both physical and virtual learning spaces influence student dialogue in a modern university. Qualitative analysis of the learning spaces in an undergraduate liberal arts program was conducted. Interview and focus group data from students and faculty, in addition to classroom observations, resulted in…

  4. Mapping the Hot Spots: A Zoning Approach to Space Analysis and Design (United States)

    Bunnell, Adam; Carpenter, Russell; Hensley, Emily; Strong, Kelsey; Williams, ReBecca; Winter, Rachel


    This article examines a preliminary approach to space design developed and implemented in Eastern Kentucky University's Noel Studio for Academic Creativity. The approach discussed here is entitled "hot spots," which has allowed the research team to observe trends in space usage and composing activities among students. This approach has…

  5. Space station system analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 2: Technical report. [structural design and construction (United States)


    An analysis of construction operation is presented as well as power system sizing requirements. Mission hardware requirements are reviewed in detail. Space construction base and design configurations are also examined.

  6. Numerical design of electron guns and space charge limited transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.


    This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of computer programs used to design electron guns and similarly space-charge limited transport systems. Examples of computer generated plots from several different types of gun problems are included

  7. Design, Participation, and Social Change: What Design in Grassroots Spaces Can Teach Learning Scientists (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel


    While a science of design (and theory of learning) is certainly useful in design-based research, a participatory design research framework presents an opening for learning scientists to rethink design and learning as processes. Grounded in the autoethnographic investigation of a grassroots organization's design of a local campaign, the author…

  8. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  9. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  10. A high-level product representation for automatic design reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, E.; Qamar, Z.; Mohammad, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.


    A high-level product representation has been developed and implemented, using features for part description and mating conditions between features for the relationships among parts. The underlying ideas are that features are necessary for effective design representation; that spatial and functional relationships among parts of an assembly are best expressed through mating conditions; that assembly features of a part may, at times, be different from its manufacturing features; and that a good representation should be natural, intelligent, comprehensive, and integrated with a visual display. Some new mating conditions have been defined and classified. Several problems concerning the use of features with mating conditions are discussed.

  11. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.


    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts



    Rameswar Panda; P.P.Ghorpade; S.S.Chopade; A.H.Kodape; M.B.A Siddiqui; H.Y.Palampalle; N.R.Dagli


    This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid), Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid) and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid). The feedi...

  13. A Dynamic Design Space for Primary Drying During Batch Freeze-Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Van Bockstal, Pieter Jan; Nopens, Ingmar


    Biopharmaceutical products are emerging within the pharmaceutical industry. However, biopharmaceuticals are often unstable in aqueous solution. Freeze-drying (lyophilisation) is the preferred method to achieve a stable product with an increased shelf-life. During batch freeze-drying, there are only...... two adaptable process variables, i.e. the shelf temperature and the pressure in the drying chamber. The value of both should be optimized, preferably in a dynamic way, to minimise the primary drying time while respecting process and equipment constraints and ensuring end product quality. A mechanistic...... model is used to determine the optimal values for the adaptable variables, hereby accounting for the uncertainty in all involved model parameters. A dynamic Design Space was constructed with a risk of failure acceptance level of 0.01%, i.e. a 'zero-failure' situation. Even for a risk of failure of 0...

  14. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.


    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  15. Designing Public Space for Mobility: Contestation, Negotiation and Experiment at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaeva, Anna


    The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated the comp......The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated...

  16. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidler Conrad


    Full Text Available In the next 10 to 20 years humankind will return to the Moon and/or travel to Mars. It is likely that astronauts will eventually build permanent settlements there, as a base for long-term crew tended research tasks. It is obvious that the crew of such settlements will need food to survive. With current mission architectures the provision of food for longduration missions away from Earth requires a significant number of resupply flights. Furthermore, it would be infeasible to provide the crew with continuous access to fresh produce, specifically crops with high water content such as tomatoes and peppers, on account of their limited shelf life. A greenhouse as an integrated part of a planetary surface base would be one solution to solve this challenge for long-duration missions. Astronauts could grow their own fresh fruit and vegetables in-situ to be more independent from supply from Earth. This paper presents the results of the design project for such a greenhouse, which was carried out by DLR and its partners within the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program. The consortium performed an extensive system analysis followed by a definition of system and subsystem requirements for greenhouse modules. Over 270 requirements were defined in this process. Afterwards the consortium performed an in-depth analysis of illumination strategies, potential growth accommodations and shapes for the external structure. Five different options for the outer shape were investigated, each of them with a set of possible internal configurations. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the different concept options were evaluated and ranked against each other. The design option with the highest ranking was an inflatable outer structure with a rigid inner core, in which the subsystems are mounted. The inflatable shell is wrapped around the core during launch and transit to the lunar surface. The paper provides an overview of the

  17. Transceiver design for MSD indoor free-space laser links (United States)

    Jivkova, S.; Hristov, Boian A.


    In Multi-Spot Diffusing (MSD) configuration, the communication channel can be considered virtually ideal at data rates of hundreds of Mbps. Thus, the main concern is power efficiency. We propose transceiver optical designs that allow for a reconfigurable transmitter output and independent communication channels. Transmitter employs multiple light sources that can be turned on and off independently. This way, optical signal is provided only where it is needed, which optimizes power usage. Receiver utilizes an imaging optical system and segmented photodetector, thus performing direction diversity reception. We show that when maximum ratio combining is employed for the electric signals processing and power efficient modulation schemes like L-PPM are used significant power savings can be obtained.

  18. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Schulze, N.R.


    The application of fusion power to space propulsion requires rethinking the engineering-design solution to controlled-fusion energy. Whereas the unit cost of electricity (COE) drives the engineering-design solution for utility-based fusion reactor configurations; initial mass to low earth orbit (IMLEO), specific jet power (kW(thrust)/kg(engine)), and reusability drive the engineering-design solution for successful application of fusion power to space propulsion. Three design principles (DP's) were applied to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific jet power. The three candidate terrestrial fusion reactor configurations are: the thermal barrier tandem mirror (TBTM), field reversed mirror (FRM), and levitated dipole field (LDF). The resulting three candidate space fusion propulsion systems have their IMLEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. A preliminary rating of these configurations was performed, and it was concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS)

  19. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT (United States)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano


    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  20. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  1. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book. (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  2. Resonator design and performance estimation for a space-based laser transmitter (United States)

    Agrawal, Lalita; Bhardwaj, Atul; Pal, Suranjan; Kamalakar, J. A.


    Development of a laser transmitter for space applications is a highly challenging task. The laser must be rugged, reliable, lightweight, compact and energy efficient. Most of these features are inherently achieved by diode pumping of solid state lasers. Overall system reliability can further be improved by appropriate optical design of the laser resonator besides selection of suitable electro-optical and opto-mechanical components. This paper presents the design details and the theoretically estimated performance of a crossed-porro prism based, folded Z-shaped laser resonator. A symmetrically pumped Nd: YAG laser rod of 3 mm diameter and 60 mm length is placed in the gain arm with total input peak power of 1800 W from laser diode arrays. Electro-optical Q-switching is achieved through a combination of a polarizer, a fractional waveplate and LiNbO 3 Q-switch crystal (9 x 9 x 25 mm) placed in the feedback arm. Polarization coupled output is obtained by optimizing azimuth angle of quarter wave plate placed in the gain arm. Theoretical estimation of laser output energy and pulse width has been carried out by varying input power levels and resonator length to analyse the performance tolerances. The designed system is capable of meeting the objective of generating laser pulses of 10 ns duration and 30 mJ energy @ 10 Hz.

  3. A simulation based optimization approach to model and design life support systems for manned space missions (United States)

    Aydogan, Selen

    This dissertation considers the problem of process synthesis and design of life-support systems for manned space missions. A life-support system is a set of technologies to support human life for short and long-term spaceflights, via providing the basic life-support elements, such as oxygen, potable water, and food. The design of the system needs to meet the crewmember demand for the basic life-support elements (products of the system) and it must process the loads generated by the crewmembers. The system is subject to a myriad of uncertainties because most of the technologies involved are still under development. The result is high levels of uncertainties in the estimates of the model parameters, such as recovery rates or process efficiencies. Moreover, due to the high recycle rates within the system, the uncertainties are amplified and propagated within the system, resulting in a complex problem. In this dissertation, two algorithms have been successfully developed to help making design decisions for life-support systems. The algorithms utilize a simulation-based optimization approach that combines a stochastic discrete-event simulation and a deterministic mathematical programming approach to generate multiple, unique realizations of the controlled evolution of the system. The timelines are analyzed using time series data mining techniques and statistical tools to determine the necessary technologies, their deployment schedules and capacities, and the necessary basic life-support element amounts to support crew life and activities for the mission duration.

  4. Robotic influence in the conceptual design of mechanical systems in space and vice versa - A survey (United States)

    Sanger, George F.


    A survey of methods using robotic devices to construct structural elements in space is presented. Two approaches to robotic construction are considered: one in which the structural elements are designed using conventional aerospace techniques which tend to constrain the function aspects of robotics and one in which the structural elements are designed from the conceptual stage with built-in robotic features. Examples are presented of structural building concepts using robotics, including the construction of the SP-100 nuclear reactor power system, a multimirror large aperture IR space telescope concept, retrieval and repair in space, and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  5. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  6. Web-Based Museum Trails on PDAs for University-Level Design Students: Design and Evaluation (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; Walker, K.; Speight, C.


    This paper describes the development and evaluation of web-based museum trails for university-level design students to access on handheld devices in the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. The trails offered students a range of ways of exploring the museum environment and collections, some encouraging students to interpret objects and…

  7. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment. (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica


    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and evaluation of materials for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Vrillon, B.; Robert, G.


    The French programme envisages a 20 kWe reactor, project ERATO, with three technological options. The first option is a sodium cooled reactor, derived from the fast breeder reactor technology, (upper core outlet temperature of 700 0 C). The second option is based on the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor technology (outlet temperature range 700 0 C-900 0 C). The third option is the reference solution, lithium cooled and UN fuelled fast spectrum reactor, (outlet temperature as high as 1200 0 C). The choice is essentially dominated by material considerations, and more specifically by the problems related to the compatibility with the cooling medium and to the high temperature creep resistance. For the first system limited work will be needed as the technology used is well experimented and there is a wealth of information on the austenitic stainless steel Type 316L-SPH. For the second system, most of the work has been concentrated on characterization of existing commercial alloys. This has included the preselection and the testing of a number of superalloys irradiated or not. The results obtained from high temperature tensile and creep tests have allowed selection of Haynes 230 as the primary candidate material and have also permitted calculation of allowable design stresses for this alloy. For the very high temperature system the French R and D programme has focused on Mo-Re alloys. The results obtained to this date from microstructural examinations and mechanical tests performed on different alloy compositions have allowed selection of Mo-25%Re for future optimization work. They have also shown the need for evaluation of creep properties at low stresses where microstructural instabilities are likely to occur as a result of long exposure to high temperature

  9. Enabling the MLSpOC (Multi-Level Space Operations Center) of the Future (United States)

    Missal, D.


    accredited today at multiple sites both CONUS and OCONUS. It is designed to assist information systems developers achieve DCID 6/3 Protection Level 4 or 5 (PL4 or PL5) or DoD SABI C&A for SECRET-to-UNCLASSIFIED systems (PL3). The product is on the DoD/DNI Unified Cross-domain Management Office's (UCDMO) Baseline of accredited solutions, and is the only solution on the Baseline which the Government considers to be an "All-in-One" approach to the Cross-domain Security challenge. Our solution is also the only PL-4 Cloud in existence and that is deployed and operational in the entire world today (at DIA). The Space marketplace is a very unique cross-domain challenge, as a need exists for Unclassified SSA Data Sharing at a deeper and more fundamental level than anywhere else in the IC or DoD. For instance, certain Agencies and/or Programs have a requirement to share information with Partner Nations that are not considered to be "friendly" (e.g. China). Our Solution is the ONLY solution in the world today that's achieved C&A, and that is uniquely positioned to enable the Multi-level Space Operations Center (MLSpOC) of the Future.

  10. Design for unusual environment (space). Complementary use of modelling and testing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaghi, Danilo; Cambiaghi, Andrea


    Designing for space requires a great imagination effort from the designer. He must perceive that the stresses experimented by the facilities he is designing will be quite different in space (during the mission), in launch phase and on ground (before launch handling phase), and he must design for all such environmental conditions. Furthermore he must design for mechanical and thermal environment, which often lead to conflicting needs. Virtual models may help very much in balancing the conflicting requirements, but models must be validated to be reliable. Test phase help validating the models, but may overstress the items. The aim of the designer is to reach an efficient and safe design through a balanced use of creativity, modelling and testing

  11. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst


    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  12. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C report: Oxygen-hydrogen RCS/OMS integration study (United States)

    Bruns, A. E.; Regnier, W. W.


    A comparison of the concepts of auxiliary propulsion systems proposed for the space shuttle vehicle is discussed. An evaluation of the potential of integration between the reaction control system and the orbit maneuvering system was conducted. Numerous methods of implementing the various levels of integration were evaluated. Preferred methods were selected and design points were developed for two fully integrated systems, one partially integrated system, and one separate system.

  13. Design of a highly parallel board-level-interconnection with 320 Gbps capacity (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.; Bauer, H.


    A parallel board-level interconnection design is presented consisting of 32 channels, each operating at 10 Gbps. The hardware uses available optoelectronic components (VCSEL, TIA, pin-diodes) and a combination of planarintegrated free-space optics, fiber-bundles and available MEMS-components, like the DMD™ from Texas Instruments. As a specific feature, we present a new modular inter-board interconnect, realized by 3D fiber-matrix connectors. The performance of the interconnect is evaluated with regard to optical properties and power consumption. Finally, we discuss the application of the interconnect for strongly distributed system architectures, as, for example, in high performance embedded computing systems and data centers.

  14. End-to-End Trade-space Analysis for Designing Constellation Missions (United States)

    LeMoigne, J.; Dabney, P.; Foreman, V.; Grogan, P.; Hache, S.; Holland, M. P.; Hughes, S. P.; Nag, S.; Siddiqi, A.


    Multipoint measurement missions can provide a significant advancement in science return and this science interest coupled with many recent technological advances are driving a growing trend in exploring distributed architectures for future NASA missions. Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSMs) leverage multiple spacecraft to achieve one or more common goals. In particular, a constellation is the most general form of DSM with two or more spacecraft placed into specific orbit(s) for the purpose of serving a common objective (e.g., CYGNSS). Because a DSM architectural trade-space includes both monolithic and distributed design variables, DSM optimization is a large and complex problem with multiple conflicting objectives. Over the last two years, our team has been developing a Trade-space Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C), implemented in common programming languages for pre-Phase A constellation mission analysis. By evaluating alternative mission architectures, TAT-C seeks to minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals. This presentation will describe the overall architecture of TAT-C including: a User Interface (UI) at several levels of details and user expertise; Trade-space Search Requests that are created from the Science requirements gathered by the UI and validated by a Knowledge Base; a Knowledge Base to compare the current requests to prior mission concepts to potentially prune the trade-space; a Trade-space Search Iterator which, with inputs from the Knowledge Base, and, in collaboration with the Orbit & Coverage, Reduction & Metrics, and Cost& Risk modules, generates multiple potential architectures and their associated characteristics. TAT-C leverages the use of the Goddard Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to compute coverage and ancillary data, modeling orbits to balance accuracy and performance. The current version includes uniform and non-uniform Walker constellations as well as Ad-Hoc and precessing constellations, and its

  15. Design and implementation of an inter-agency, multi-mission space flight operations network interface (United States)

    Byrne, R.; Scharf, M.; Doan, D.; Liu, J.; Willems, A.


    An advanced network interface was designed and implemented by a team from the Jet Propulsion Lab with support from the European Space Operations Center. This poster shows the requirements for the interface, the design, the topology, the testing and lessons learned from the whole implementation.

  16. Learning Theory Expertise in the Design of Learning Spaces: Who Needs a Seat at the Table? (United States)

    Rook, Michael M.; Choi, Koun; McDonald, Scott P.


    This study highlights the impact of including stakeholders with expertise in learning theory in a learning space design process. We present the decision-making process during the design of the Krause Innovation Studio on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University to draw a distinction between the architect and faculty member's decision-making…

  17. Functional requirements for design of the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) system simulator (United States)

    Curran, R. T.; Hornfeck, W. A.


    The functional requirements for the design of an interpretive simulator for the space ultrareliable modular computer (SUMC) are presented. A review of applicable existing computer simulations is included along with constraints on the SUMC simulator functional design. Input requirements, output requirements, and language requirements for the simulator are discussed in terms of a SUMC configuration which may vary according to the application.

  18. Performance/price estimates for cortex-scale hardware: a design space exploration. (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad S; Hammerstrom, Dan


    In this paper, we revisit the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is useful for understanding and investigating the performance/price and other trade-offs related to the hardware design space. Moreover, it is perhaps the most important aspect of a hardware design space exploration. Such a design space exploration is a necessary part of the study of hardware architectures for large-scale computational models for intelligent computing, including AI, Bayesian, bio-inspired and neural models. A methodical exploration is needed to identify potentially interesting regions in the design space, and to assess the relative performance/price points of these implementations. As an example, in this paper we investigate the performance/price of (digital and mixed-signal) CMOS and hypothetical CMOL (nanogrid) technology based hardware implementations of human cortex-scale spiking neural systems. Through this analysis, and the resulting performance/price points, we demonstrate, in general, the importance of virtualization, and of doing these kinds of design space explorations. The specific results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology such as CMOL is a promising candidate to implement very large-scale spiking neural systems, providing a more efficient utilization of the density and storage benefits of emerging nano-scale technologies. In general, we believe that the study of such hypothetical designs/architectures will guide the neuromorphic hardware community towards building large-scale systems, and help guide research trends in intelligent computing, and computer engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing (United States)

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy


    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  20. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David


    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  1. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.


    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  2. A Radiographic Measurement of the Anterior Epidural Space at L4-5 Disc Level. (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Sheng; Wu, Jie-Shi; Lu, Hai-Dan; Zhu, Hao-Gang; Li, Xia; Dong, Jian; Yuan, Feng-Lai


    To observe the morphology character of the anterior epidural space at the L 4-5 disc level and to provide an anatomical basis for safely and accurately performing a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). Fifty-five cases with L 5 S 1 lumbar disc herniation were included in this study, and cases with L 4-5 disease were excluded. When the puncture needle reached the epidural space at the L 5 S 1 level, iohexol was injected at the pressure of 50 cm H 2 O during the PELD, then C-Arm fluoroscopy was used to obtain standard lumbar frontal and lateral images. The widths of epidural space at the level of the L 4 lower endplate, the L 5 upper endplate, as well as the middle point of the L 4-5 disc were measured from the lumbar lateral X-ray film. Epidural space at the L 4-5 disc plane performs like a trapezium chart with a short side at the head end and a long side at the tail end in the lumbar lateral X-ray radiograph, while the average widths of epidural space were 10.2 ± 2.5, 12.3 ± 2.3, and 13.8 ± 2.6 mm at the upper, middle, and lower level of the L 4-5 disc. Understanding the morphological characteristics of epidural space will contribute to improving the safety of the tranforaminal percutaneous endoscopy technique. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys (United States)

    Jouvel, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Bernstein, G.; Ilbert, O.; Jelinsky, P.; Milliard, B.; Ealet, A.; Schimd, C.; Dahlen, T.; Arnouts, S.


    scale of 0.15'', we found that a homogeneous survey reaching a survey population of IAB = 25.6 (10σ) with a sky coverage of ~11 000 deg2 maximizes the weak lensing FoM. The effective number density of galaxies used for WL is then ~45 gal/arcmin2, which is at least a factor of two higher than ground-based surveys. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a full account of the observational strategy is required to properly optimize the instrument parameters and maximize the FoM of the future weak-lensing space dark energy mission.

  4. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems (United States)

    Truong, Long V.


    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  5. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens. (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R


    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  6. Designed natural spaces: Informal gardens are perceived to be more restorative than formal gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssa eTwedt


    Full Text Available Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature versus urban, less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from formal or geometric to informal or naturalistic, which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  7. Simulation of design dependent failure exposure levels for CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Rangavajjhala, V.; van der Molen, H.; Kerns, S.E.


    The total dose exposure of CMOS ICs introduces bias-dependent parameter shifts in individual devices. The bias dependency of individual parameter shifts of devices cause different designs to behave differently under identical testing conditions. This paper studies the effect of design and bias on the radiation tolerance of ICs and presents an automated design tool that produces different designs for a logic function, and presents important parameters of each design to circuit designer for trade off analysis

  8. Modulator Dynamics Shape the Design Space for Stepwise-Elution Simulated Moving Bed Chromatographic Separations. (United States)

    Wayne, Chris J; Velayudhan, Ajoy


    For proteins and other biological macromolecules, SMB chromatography is best operated non-isocratically. However, traditional modes of non-isocratic SMB operation generate significant mobile-phase modulator dynamics. The mechanisms by which these modulator dynamics affect a separation's success, and thus frame the design space, have yet to be explained quantitatively. Here, the dynamics of the modulator (e.g., salts in ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography) are explicitly accounted for. This leads to the elucidation of two new design constraints, presented as dimensionless numbers, which quantify the effects of the modulator phenomena and thus predict the success of a non-isocratic SMB separation. Consequently, these two new design constraints re-define the SMB design space. Computational and experimental studies at the boundaries of this design space corroborate the theoretical predictions. The design of efficient and robust operating conditions through use of the new design space is also demonstrated. © 2018 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Design studio as a life space in architectural education: privacy requirements


    Demirbaş, Özgen Osman


    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent Univ., 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. There is a very important relationship between the educational outcomes and the architectural design of educational facilities. The most commonly used space in an architectural education is the design studio. Therefore, it is claimed that there should be a living process in a ...

  10. Conceptual Kinematic Design and Performance Evaluation of a Chameleon-Like Service Robot for Space Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ceccarelli


    Full Text Available In this paper a conceptual kinematic design of a chameleon-like robot with proper mobility capacity is presented for service applications in space stations as result of design considerations with biomimetic inspiration by looking at chameleons. Requirements and characteristics are discussed with the aim to identify design problems and operation features. A study of feasibility is described through performance evaluation by using simulations for a basic operation characterization.

  11. Advanced Space Vehicle Design Taking into Account Multidisciplinary Couplings and Mixed Epistemic/Aleatory Uncertainties


    Balesdent , Mathieu; Brevault , Loïc; Price , Nathaniel; Defoort , Sébastien; Le Riche , Rodolphe; Kim , Nam-Ho; Haftka , Raphael T.; Bérend , Nicolas


    International audience; Space vehicle design is a complex process involving numerous disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, propulsion and trajectory. These disciplines are tightly coupled and may involve antagonistic objectives that require the use of specific methodologies in order to assess trade-offs between the disciplines and to obtain the global optimal configuration. Generally, there are two ways to handle the system design. On the one hand, the design may be considered from a d...

  12. How space design and technology can support the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative through interprofessional collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Hahn


    Full Text Available Purpose: The Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI calls pharmacists to more direct patient care and increased responsibility for medication-related outcomes, as a means of achieving greater safety, improving outcomes and reducing costs. This article acknowledges the value of interprofessional collaboration to the PPMI and identifies the implications of the Initiative for space design and technology, both of which stand to help the Initiative gather additional support. Summary: The profession of pharmacy has for some time now become increasingly vocal about its desire to take on greater responsibility for patient outcomes. With drug costs representing the largest portion of a hospital's pharmacy budget and reimbursements becoming more contingent on readmission avoidance, the pharmacy's influence on a hospital's bottom line is significant. More importantly, study after study is showing that with greater pharmacist intervention, patient outcomes improve. This article addresses the ways in which developments in the fields of technology and facility design can assist in the deployment of the PPMI. Conclusion: As the PPMI achieves a critical level of support from inside and outside the pharmacy, and more empirical research emerges regarding the improved outcomes and cost savings of increasing the roles of both clinical pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, the industry sectors of healthcare technology and healthcare design stand ready to assist in the execution of this new model. By encouraging pharmacists, doctors and nurses to work together - and all caregivers to work with facility designers, biomedical engineers and IT specialists, there is the increased likelihood of these fields turning to each other to problem-solve together, all for the ultimate benefit to patients and their families.   Type: Commentary

  13. The Techniques of Participatory Design for Inclusive Public Space Provision in Kampung Kota of Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H Kusumaningdyah


    Full Text Available The technique of participatory design is essential for the future development knowledge of architecture to inform the improvement of architectural education and practice in Asia. Therefore to provide of inclusive public spaces for the community, this research article presents a field study of the usage of community participation design method in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces within the kampung (settlements in Surakarta, Indonesia. Surakarta has a problem to provide inclusive public space for its dense organic-informal kampung’s for the vulnerable populations such as children. Multi dimensional complexities of the kampung’s often challenge the notion of public space provision. Community participation approach arises as one of the preferred alternative methods to solve the problems with its basic community-based foundation. This research chose Sangkrah and Gandekan sub-districts as research locations both of the areas represent kampung’s characteristics and inhabited by many children population. Steps toward the goal of the study are; (1 field observation of the implementation of a community participation design through participatory place making project, and (2 examining typology assessment perspective, and (3 clarify participation techniques. This research used: (1 descriptive analysis for the project implementation, and (2 qualitative analysis for examining community’s perspectives. Through this multi-perspective analysis, this research presents the an alternative framework for implementing techniques community participation methods in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces especially for children in Indonesia and other developing countries.

  14. Flexibility and adaptability - key elements of end-user participation in living space designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Željko


    Full Text Available An end-user has the main role in the creation of space where spends most of its lifetime (home, workplace. That is why important that a designer (he first recognizes what requests of the end-user are. In the reference literature and researches that deal with the spatial organisations and designing of living area, the role of an end-user is essential. However, what does the end user participation mean, actually? At what level an end-user makes a final decision? Is it a choice among several alternative solutions provided by an architect or end-user himself? This article precisely deals with that subject - where begins and where ends participation of the end-user when the theme is the final spatial solution and under what circumstances. In this case, habitation represents the much more sensitive area than any other area for human needs or activities. In technical terms, an end-user could be someone who either knows nothing or knows a lot but not enough about both the spatial and functional organisations. His role should be reduced to choice of one from the group of high-quality solutions and, in a technical sense, logical solutions made by an expert. No more than that.

  15. Designing meaningful educational spaces for the development of competencies in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Otálora Sevilla


    Full Text Available A meaningful educational space is a learning environment that promotes and strengthens the development of social and cognitive competencies in children. This article offers conceptual and methodological elements from Educational Psychology that facilitates the design of significant educational spaces for the development of child competencies, both in and out of school. On the one hand, the learning environment is defined as a dynamic and complex space of construction of knowledge. On the other it takes into account some considerations about child development which help set five criteria to characterize learning environments as meaningful educational spaces: They are structured, intensive, extensive, generative and interactive situations. Each of these criteria is illustrated through learning environments designed by educators in Colombia, based on the use of cultural practices inherent their communities of origin. Cultural practices were found to be relevant to the development of their children’s competencies.

  16. From 2001 to 1994: Political environment and the design of NASA's Space Station system (United States)

    Fries, Sylvia Doughty


    The U.S. civilian space station, a hope of numerous NASA engineers since before the agency was founded in 1958 and promoted by NASA as the country's 'next logical step' into space, provides an excellent case study of the way public-sector research and development agencies continuously redefine new technologies in the absence of the market discipline that governs private-sector technological development. The number of space station design studies conducted since 1959, both internally by NASA or contracted by the agency to the aerospace industry, easily exceeds a hundred. Because of this, three clearly distinguishable examples are selected from the almost thirty-year history of space station design in NASA. Together these examples illustrate the difficulty of defining a new technological system in the public sector as that system becomes increasingly subject, for its development, to the vagaries of federal research and development politics.

  17. Negotiating and Designing Public Space. Experiences with a new M.Sc. in Urban Design Program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Tieben


    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on first experiences made with a newly launched Master of Science in Urban Design program at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. As an important part of this program, students have to develop their design proposal in response to feedback of different stakeholders and community members. Thus the program responds to the growing aspiration of Hong Kong’s citizens to shape the urban development of their city and a lack of a meaningful participation process in the region. With its high density, protected country parks, efficient public transport and large scale housing program, generally, Hong Kong offers important lessons for contemporary urbanism. However, since the end of the British colonial rule and in face of increasing property prices, pollution and the disappearance of local heritage, intensive debates started about the regions future. Another central point of the recent discussion in Hong Kong – and key theme of the new urban design program - is the demand for the rights and qualities of public space. The paper presents the set-up of the design studio, which was closely linked to a course on “urban processes”. During the semester, students had to organize community forums and street exhibitions in a specific district, invite stakeholders and residents and discuss with them their ideas. Their projects, then, had to respond on the various feedbacks and integrate them in their design and policy proposals. The text reflects on the student projects and the lessons learned in the process. It addresses general questions such as the challenges in communicating with a diverse community (e.g. language barriers and culturally different ideas of public space. It addresses the question of the intended and unintended effects of a participatory design studio in the community, and possible follow-ups. And it reflects on the general role of design and designers in shaping community spaces.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai


    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  19. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.


    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  20. Space architecture education for engineers and architects designing and planning beyond earth

    CERN Document Server

    Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra


    This book considers two key educational tools for future generations of professionals with a space architecture background in the 21st century: (1) introducing the discipline of space architecture into the space system engineering curricula; and (2) developing space architecture as a distinct, complete training curriculum.  Professionals educated this way will help shift focus from solely engineering-driven transportation systems and “sortie” missions towards permanent off-world human presence. The architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the “overall picture” down to the smallest details, to provide directive intention–not just analysis–to design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle. This book will benefit individuals and organizations responsible for planning transportation and habitat systems in space, while a...

  1. All tree-level MHV form factors in N=4 SYM from twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Laura [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitev, Vladimir [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, WA THEP,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)


    We incorporate all gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N=4 SYM theory, detailing and expanding on ideas we presented recently in The vertices for these operators contain infinitely many terms and we show how they can be constructed by taking suitable derivatives of a light-like Wilson loop in twistor space and shrinking it down to a point. In particular, these vertices directly yield the tree-level MHV super form factors of all composite operators in N=4 SYM theory.

  2. Design and development of Low Level RF (LLRF) control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandi, T.K.; Suman, S.; Pandey, H.K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.


    All the linear accelerator cavities of Radioactive Ion Beam have separate RF power amplifiers. In these accelerators, high stabilities of the order of ± 0.5% in amplitude and ± 0.5° in phase of RF signal inside the cavities are required for proper and efficient acceleration of RIB. For this purpose, a low level RF (LLRF) control system is being designed which includes amplitude and phase controllers to ensure efficient and stable operation of the RF accelerators. The RF output of the LLRF system is finally amplified and fed to the accelerator cavities. The LLRF system is based on IQ (In-phase and Quadrature) modulation-demodulation technique in which an IQ modulator and a demodulator has been used to control the amplitude and phase of the RF carrier signal. The HigH-speed DAC and ADC have been used for processing the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components of the RF signal. This system is a closed-loop feedback control system. The feedback signal is obtained from the pick-up of accelerator cavity. PID control method is used to regulate the amplitude and phase of the RF signal to the desired/set value. The control system is optimized for minimum response time with satisfactory performance. The transfer function of the PID controller and the RF cavity is compared with the transfer function of a first order system and the values of proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ti) and derivative gain (Td) are obtained from Matlab- Simulink Simulation. The PID controller has been implemented into a high speed microcontroller (LPC2478) for fast operation. A GUI has been developed in NI LabView software to monitor the Amplitude and Phase of the RF signal and control manually if required. The detailed design and development of the control system will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.


    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  4. Lost in space: design of experiments and scientific exploration in a Hogarth Universe. (United States)

    Lendrem, Dennis W; Lendrem, B Clare; Woods, David; Rowland-Jones, Ruth; Burke, Matthew; Chatfield, Marion; Isaacs, John D; Owen, Martin R


    A Hogarth, or 'wicked', universe is an irregular environment generating data to support erroneous beliefs. Here, we argue that development scientists often work in such a universe. We demonstrate that exploring these multidimensional spaces using small experiments guided by scientific intuition alone, gives rise to an illusion of validity and a misplaced confidence in that scientific intuition. By contrast, design of experiments (DOE) permits the efficient mapping of such complex, multidimensional spaces. We describe simulation tools that enable research scientists to explore these spaces in relative safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value-centric design architecture based on analysis of space system characteristics (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hollingsworth, P.; Smith, K.


    Emerging design concepts such as miniaturisation, modularity, and standardisation, have contributed to the rapid development of small and inexpensive platforms, particularly cubesats. This has been stimulating an upcoming revolution in space design and development, leading satellites into the era of "smaller, faster, and cheaper". However, the current requirement-centric design philosophy, focused on bespoke monolithic systems, along with the associated development and production process does not inherently fit with the innovative modular, standardised, and mass-produced technologies. This paper presents a new categorisation, characterisation, and value-centric design architecture to address this need for both traditional and novel system designs. Based on the categorisation of system configurations, a characterisation of space systems, comprised of duplication, fractionation, and derivation, is proposed to capture the overall system configuration characteristics and promote potential hybrid designs. Complying with the definitions of the system characterisation, mathematical mapping relations between the system characterisation and the system properties are described to establish the mathematical foundation of the proposed value-centric design methodology. To illustrate the methodology, subsystem reliability relationships are therefore analysed to explore potential system configurations in the design space. The results of the applications of system characteristic analysis clearly show that the effects of different configuration characteristics on the system properties can be effectively analysed and evaluated, enabling the optimization of system configurations.

  6. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space. (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto


    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and nonsystematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modeling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with the results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step-by-step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described, and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data, and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocially Supportive Design: The Case for Greater Attention to Social Space Within the Pediatric Hospital. (United States)

    McLaughlan, Rebecca


    Models of patient and family-centered care advocate catering to psychosocial needs when designing healthcare facilities yet there is little evidence available to determine how the built environment can cater to psychosocial needs. This article highlights the obstacles to overcoming this knowledge deficit in the pursuit of evidence-based guidelines to inform social provisions within the pediatric hospital setting. It will propose a working definition for psychosocial space and identify new research directions to enhance understandings of the relationship between social space and well-being. While traditional multibed ward configurations afforded opportunities for peer support relationships to develop, both for patients and caregivers, the contemporary preference for single-occupancy rooms intensifies the need to critically examine social spaces within the pediatric hospital. Research suggests a correlation between social support and well-being. This article reviews the research underpinning contemporary understandings of this relationship; it positions literature from sociology, environmental psychology, and evidence-based design to highlight the limitations of this knowledge and identify where additional research is required to inform evidence-based design guidelines for psychosocially supportive spaces within pediatric healthcare settings. Evidence regarding the therapeutic value of social support within the pediatric hospital is not sufficiently sophisticated or conclusive to inform guidelines for the provision of social space with pediatric hospitals. There is an urgent need for targeted research to inform evidence-based design guidelines; this will demand a broad disciplinary approach.

  8. A study of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Wang Yan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Xue


    Using Model 1027 continuous radon monitor, a test of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space was done. Four different types of ventilation, i.e. by air pump (P), by air intake blower (B), by air pump and air intake blower simultaneously (PBS), and by air pump and air intake blower in turn (PBT), were examined. The authors found that efficiency of PBS is the highest among these ventilation type. Having ventilated the underground space with PBS for 1, 2 or 3 hours in three different days, and having observed the radon concentration change in the following 24 hours, the authors can conclude that it is safe for people to stay there during the eight working hours if the underground space is ventilated for 2 hours everyday in the morning. (authors)

  9. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.


    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  10. Unitals and ovals of symmetric block designs in LDPC and space-time coding (United States)

    Andriamanalimanana, Bruno R.


    An approach to the design of LDPC (low density parity check) error-correction and space-time modulation codes involves starting with known mathematical and combinatorial structures, and deriving code properties from structure properties. This paper reports on an investigation of unital and oval configurations within generic symmetric combinatorial designs, not just classical projective planes, as the underlying structure for classes of space-time LDPC outer codes. Of particular interest are the encoding and iterative (sum-product) decoding gains that these codes may provide. Various small-length cases have been numerically implemented in Java and Matlab for a number of channel models.

  11. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.


    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  12. SPACE PHYSICS: Developing resources for astrophysics at A-level: the TRUMP Astrophysics project (United States)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth


    After outlining the astrophysical options now available in A-level physics syllabuses, this paper notes some of the particular challenges facing A-level teachers and students who chose these options and describes a project designed to support them. The paper highlights some key features of the project that could readily be incorporated into other areas of physics curriculum development.

  13. Overlapping and permeability: Research on the pattern hierarchy of communication space and design strategy based on environmental behavior (United States)

    Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi


    This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.

  14. System-level design optimization of a hybrid tug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Naaborg, M.; Sciberras, E.


    Designing a new vessel is a complex multi-objective design process. It involves knowledge from different fields, like naval architecture and mechanical engineering. Assessment of an optimal design for more complex topologies than a conventional Diesel powertrain becomes more difficult due to the

  15. Expert-guided evolutionary algorithm for layout design of complex space stations (United States)

    Qian, Zhiqin; Bi, Zhuming; Cao, Qun; Ju, Weiguo; Teng, Hongfei; Zheng, Yang; Zheng, Siyu


    The layout of a space station should be designed in such a way that different equipment and instruments are placed for the station as a whole to achieve the best overall performance. The station layout design is a typical nondeterministic polynomial problem. In particular, how to manage the design complexity to achieve an acceptable solution within a reasonable timeframe poses a great challenge. In this article, a new evolutionary algorithm has been proposed to meet such a challenge. It is called as the expert-guided evolutionary algorithm with a tree-like structure decomposition (EGEA-TSD). Two innovations in EGEA-TSD are (i) to deal with the design complexity, the entire design space is divided into subspaces with a tree-like structure; it reduces the computation and facilitates experts' involvement in the solving process. (ii) A human-intervention interface is developed to allow experts' involvement in avoiding local optimums and accelerating convergence. To validate the proposed algorithm, the layout design of one-space station is formulated as a multi-disciplinary design problem, the developed algorithm is programmed and executed, and the result is compared with those from other two algorithms; it has illustrated the superior performance of the proposed EGEA-TSD.

  16. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web (United States)

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    independent modules according to different business needs is applied to solve the problem of the independence of the physical space between multiple models. The classic MVC(Model View Controller) software design pattern is concerned to build the architecture of space physics multi-model application integrated system. The JSP+servlet+javabean technology is used to integrate the web application programs of space physics multi-model. It solves the problem of multi-user requesting the same job of model computing and effectively balances each server computing tasks. In addition, we also complete follow tasks: establishing standard graphical user interface based on Java Applet application program; Designing the interface between model computing and model computing results visualization; Realizing three-dimensional network visualization without plug-ins; Using Java3D technology to achieve a three-dimensional network scene interaction; Improved ability to interact with web pages and dynamic execution capabilities, including rendering three-dimensional graphics, fonts and color control. Through the design and implementation of the SPMAIS based on Web, we provide an online computing and application runtime environment of space physics multi-model. The practical application improves that researchers could be benefit from our system in space physics research and engineering applications.

  17. A Declarative Design Approach to Modeling Traditional and Non-Traditional Space Systems (United States)

    Hoag, Lucy M.

    The space system design process is known to be laborious, complex, and computationally demanding. It is highly multi-disciplinary, involving several interdependent subsystems that must be both highly optimized and reliable due to the high cost of launch. Satellites must also be capable of operating in harsh and unpredictable environments, so integrating high-fidelity analysis is important. To address each of these concerns, a holistic design approach is necessary. However, while the sophistication of space systems has evolved significantly in the last 60 years, improvements in the design process have been comparatively stagnant. Space systems continue to be designed using a procedural, subsystem-by-subsystem approach. This method is inadequate since it generally requires extensive iteration and limited or heuristic-based search, which can be slow, labor-intensive, and inaccurate. The use of a declarative design approach can potentially address these inadequacies. In the declarative programming style, the focus of a problem is placed on what the objective is, and not necessarily how it should be achieved. In the context of design, this entails knowledge expressed as a declaration of statements that are true about the desired artifact instead of explicit instructions on how to implement it. A well-known technique is through constraint-based reasoning, where a design problem is represented as a network of rules and constraints that are reasoned across by a solver to dynamically discover the optimal candidate(s). This enables implicit instantiation of the tradespace and allows for automatic generation of all feasible design candidates. As such, this approach also appears to be well-suited to modeling adaptable space systems, which generally have large tradespaces and possess configurations that are not well-known a priori. This research applied a declarative design approach to holistic satellite design and to tradespace exploration for adaptable space systems. The

  18. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  19. Exploring Interaction Space as Abstraction Mechanism for Task-Based User Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C. M.; Overgaard, M.; Pedersen, M. B.


    Designing a user interface is often a complex undertaking. Model-based user interface design is an approach where models and mappings between them form the basis for creating and specifying the design of a user interface. Such models usually include descriptions of the tasks of the prospective user......, but there is considerable variation in the other models that are employed. This paper explores the extent to which the notion of interaction space is useful as an abstraction mechanism to reduce the complexity of creating and specifying a user interface design. We present how we designed a specific user interface through...... mechanism that can help user interface designers exploit object-oriented analysis results and reduce the complexity of designing a user interface....

  20. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle (United States)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry


    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  1. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver


    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  2. Low Carbon Design Research on the Space Layout Types of Office Buildings (United States)

    Xia, Bing


    It is beneficial to find out the relationship of the spatial layout and low-carbon design in order to reduce buildings’ carbon emissions in the conceptual design phase. This paper analyzes and compares shape coefficient values, annual energy consumption and lighting performance of office buildings of different space layout types in Shanghai. Based on morphological characteristics of different types, the study also analyzes and presents low-carbon design strategies for each single type. This study assumes that architects should conduct passive and active design according to the specific building space layout, so that to make best use of the advantages and bypassing the disadvantages, in order to maximally reduce buildings’ carbon emissions.

  3. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.


    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  4. DAEDALUS: System-Level Design Methodology for Streaming Multiprocessor Embedded Systems on Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanov, T.; Pimentel, A.; Nikolov, H.; Ha, S.; Teich, J.


    The complexity of modern embedded systems, which are increasingly based on heterogeneous multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures, has led to the emergence of system-level design. To cope with this design complexity, system-level design aims at raising the abstraction level of the design

  5. Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellman, Andrew John [Carnegie Mellon University; Sholl, David S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tysoe, Wilfred T. [University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; Zaera, Francisco [University of California at Riverside


    Understanding and controlling selectivity is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous catalysis. Among problems in catalytic selectivity enantioselectivity is perhaps the most the most challenging. The primary goal of the project on “Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts” is to understand the origins of enantioselectivity on chiral heterogeneous surfaces and catalysts. The efforts of the project team include preparation of chiral surfaces, characterization of chiral surfaces, experimental detection of enantioselectivity on such surfaces and computational modeling of the interactions of chiral probe molecules with chiral surfaces. Over the course of the project period the team of PI’s has made some of the most detailed and insightful studies of enantioselective chemistry on chiral surfaces. This includes the measurement of fundamental interactions and reaction mechanisms of chiral molecules on chiral surfaces and leads all the way to rationale design and synthesis of chiral surfaces and materials for enantioselective surface chemistry. The PI’s have designed and prepared new materials for enantioselective adsorption and catalysis. Naturally Chiral Surfaces • Completion of a systematic study of the enantiospecific desorption kinetics of R-3-methylcyclohexanone (R-3-MCHO) on 9 achiral and 7 enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces with orientations that span the stereographic triangle. • Discovery of super-enantioselective tartaric acid (TA) and aspartic acid (Asp) decomposition as a result of a surface explosion mechanism on Cu(643)R&S. Systematic study of super-enantiospecific TA and Asp decomposition on five enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces. • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-propylene oxide (PO) from Cu(100) imprinted with {3,1,17} facets by L-lysine adsorption. Templated Chiral Surfaces • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-PO from Pt(111) and Pd(111

  6. Multi-Dielectric Brownian Dynamics and Design-Space-Exploration Studies of Permeation in Ion Channels. (United States)

    Siksik, May; Krishnamurthy, Vikram


    This paper proposes a multi-dielectric Brownian dynamics simulation framework for design-space-exploration (DSE) studies of ion-channel permeation. The goal of such DSE studies is to estimate the channel modeling-parameters that minimize the mean-squared error between the simulated and expected "permeation characteristics." To address this computational challenge, we use a methodology based on statistical inference that utilizes the knowledge of channel structure to prune the design space. We demonstrate the proposed framework and DSE methodology using a case study based on the KcsA ion channel, in which the design space is successfully reduced from a 6-D space to a 2-D space. Our results show that the channel dielectric map computed using the framework matches with that computed directly using molecular dynamics with an error of 7%. Finally, the scalability and resolution of the model used are explored, and it is shown that the memory requirements needed for DSE remain constant as the number of parameters (degree of heterogeneity) increases.

  7. A new design and rationale for 3D orthogonally oversampled k-space trajectories. (United States)

    Pipe, James G; Zwart, Nicholas R; Aboussouan, Eric A; Robison, Ryan K; Devaraj, Ajit; Johnson, Kenneth O


    A novel center-out 3D trajectory for sampling magnetic resonance data is presented. The trajectory set is based on a single Fermat spiral waveform, which is substantially undersampled in the center of k-space. Multiple trajectories are combined in a "stacked cone" configuration to give very uniform sampling throughout a "hub," which is very efficient in terms of gradient performance and uniform trajectory spacing. The fermat looped, orthogonally encoded trajectories (FLORET) design produces less gradient-efficient trajectories near the poles, so multiple orthogonal hub designs are shown. These multihub designs oversample k-space twice with orthogonal trajectories, which gives unique properties but also doubles the minimum scan time for critical sampling of k-space. The trajectory is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional stack of cones trajectory, and has nearly the same signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (but twice the minimum scan time) as a stack of spirals trajectory. As a center-out trajectory, it provides a shorter minimum echo time than stack of spirals, and its spherical k-space coverage can dramatically reduce Gibbs ringing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M.; Judkoff, R.


    This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.

  9. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations (United States)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.


    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  10. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lai


    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  11. The design and testing of interactive hospital spaces to meet the needs of waiting children. (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; McPherson, Amy; Shea, Geoffrey; McKeever, Patricia


    To design an innovative interactive media display in a pediatric hospital clinic waiting space that addresses the growing demand for accessible, contact-surface-free options for play. In healthcare settings, waiting can be anxiety provoking for children and their accompanying family members. Opportunities for positive distraction have been shown to reduce waiting anxiety, leading to positive health outcomes. An interactive media display, ScreenPlay, was created and evaluated using a participatory design approach and a combination of techniques including quality function deployment and mixed data elicitation methods (questionnaires, focus groups, and observations). The user and organizational design requirements were established and used to review contemporary strategies for positive distraction in healthcare waiting spaces and to conceptualize and test ScreenPlay. Ten staff members, 11 children/youths, and 6 parents participated in the design and evaluation of ScreenPlay. ScreenPlay provided a positive, engaging experience without the use of contact surfaces through which infections can be spread. It was accessible to children, youth, and adults of all motor abilities. All participants strongly agreed that the interactive media display would improve the healthcare waiting experience. ScreenPlay is an interactive display that is the result of a successful model for the design of healthcare waiting spaces that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, and responsive to the needs of its community. Design process, healing environments, hospital, interdisciplinary, pediatric.

  12. Optimized Design of Spacing in Pulsed Neutron Gamma Density Logging While Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Feng;HAN Zhong-yue;WU He;HAN Fei


    Full Text Available Radioactive source, used in traditional density logging, has great impact on the environment, while the pulsed neutron source applied in the logging tool is more safety and greener. In our country, the pulsed neutron-gamma density logging technology is still in the stage of development. Optimizing the parameters of neutron-gamma density instrument is essential to improve the measuring accuracy. This paper mainly studied the effects of spacing to typical neutron-gamma density logging tool which included one D-T neutron generator and two gamma scintillation detectors. The optimization of spacing were based on measuring sensitivity and counting statistic. The short spacing from 25 to 35 cm and long spacing from 60 to 65 cm were selected as the optimal position for near and far detector respectively. The result can provide theoretical support for design and manufacture of the instrument.

  13. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao


    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  14. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based......) and the temperature reconstruction from Hansen et al. (2010). We compare the forecasting performance of the proposed specification to the procedures developed in Rahmstorf (2007b) and Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009). Finally, we compute projections for the sea-level rise conditional on the 21st century SRES temperature...

  15. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables (United States)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.


    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  16. The daylighting dashboard - A simulation-based design analysis for daylit spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Christoph F. [Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)


    This paper presents a vision of how state-of-the-art computer-based analysis techniques can be effectively used during the design of daylit spaces. Following a review of recent advances in dynamic daylight computation capabilities, climate-based daylighting metrics, occupant behavior and glare analysis, a fully integrated design analysis method is introduced that simultaneously considers annual daylight availability, visual comfort and energy use: Annual daylight glare probability profiles are combined with an occupant behavior model in order to determine annual shading profiles and visual comfort conditions throughout a space. The shading profiles are then used to calculate daylight autonomy plots, energy loads, operational energy costs and green house gas emissions. The paper then shows how simulation results for a sidelit space can be visually presented to simulation non-experts using the concept of a daylighting dashboard. The paper ends with a discussion of how the daylighting dashboard could be practically implemented using technologies that are available today. (author)

  17. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  18. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John


    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  19. Enlightenment of Qilou Street Space Intelligence to Pedestrian System Design in Commercial District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing


    Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.

  20. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin


    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  1. Designing for Motivation: Design-Considerations for Spaced-Repetition-Based Learning Games on Mobile Devices (United States)

    Schimanke, Florian; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver


    Learning games are an ideal vessel for many kinds of learning content. Playful interaction with the subject matter makes the human mind more receptive and thus learning itself more effective. Well designed games also come with an addictive game-play that makes users want to play the game over and over. This is intended in fun games but it can be…

  2. 41 CFR 102-79.65 - May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of... (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.65... Utilization of Space Outleasing § 102-79.65 May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access...

  3. Design of drystore for intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myall, M.G.


    The safe handling and storage of radioactive wastes present important engineering, financial and political considerations to the nuclear industry. The significant experience and expertise of Costain Engineering and Design Group Partnership in the design of nuclear plant has lead to the development of a new concept in dry radwaste store design. Novel concepts based on proven engineering and technology have been used to meet current stringent regulations. Savings in both costs and construction times are achieved in the product support structure and remotely operated emplacement machinery whilst satisfying seismic and structural restraints. The paper describes the main structural features of the store design, together with handling and inspection techniques. (author)

  4. Towards a Rigorous Formulation of the Space Mapping Technique for Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj


    This paper deals with the Space Mapping (SM) approach to engineering design optimization. We attempt here a theoretical justification of methods that have already proven efficient in solving practical problems, especially in the RF and microwave area. A formal definition of optimization algorithm...

  5. Using an Outdoor Learning Space to Teach Sustainability and Material Processes in HE Product Design (United States)

    Firth, Richard; Stoltenberg, Einar; Jennings, Trent


    This "case study" of two jewellery workshops, used outdoor learning spaces to explore both its impact on learning outcomes and to introduce some key principles of sustainable working methodologies and practices. Using the beach as the classroom, academics and students from a Norwegian and Scottish (HE) product design exchange programme…

  6. I-space: Designing for and with Citizens with Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne; Jensen Bryderup, Karin

    This paper presents I-Space. The purpose of this project is to improve the wellbeing and life quality of mentally impaired citizens through the development of new technologies, which could enhance learning and motivation. The project is used as reference to a discussion on structures within design...... and innovation processes for citizens with special needs....

  7. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design (United States)

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.


    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  8. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft (United States)

    Christl, Mark


    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  9. Multigrid Algorithms for the Fast Calculation of Space-Charge Effects in Accelerator Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Geer, van der S.B.; Loos, de M.J.


    Numerical prediction of charged particle dynamics in accelerators is essential for the design and understanding of these machines. Methods to calculate the self-fields of the bunch, the so-called space-charge forces, become increasingly important as the demand for high-quality bunches increases. We

  10. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny


    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  11. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  12. Design and implementation of fast bipolar clock drivers for CCD imaging systems in space applications (United States)

    Jayarajan, Jayesh; Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Amarnath; Thaker, Ramkrishna


    Drive electronics for generating fast, bipolar clocks, which can drive capacitive loads of the order of 5-10nF are indispensable for present day Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Design of these high speed bipolar clocks is challenging because of the capacitive loads that have to be driven and a strict constraint on the rise and fall times. Designing drive electronics circuits for space applications becomes even more challenging due to limited number of available discrete devices, which can survive in the harsh radiation prone space environment. This paper presents the design, simulations and test results of a set of such high speed, bipolar clock drivers. The design has been tested under a thermal cycle of -15 deg C to +55 deg C under vacuum conditions and has been designed using radiation hardened components. The test results show that the design meets the stringent rise/fall time requirements of 50+/-10ns for Multiple Vertical CCD (VCCD) clocks and 20+/-5ns for Horizontal CCD (HCCD) clocks with sufficient design margins across full temperature range, with a pixel readout rate of 6.6MHz. The full design has been realized in flexi-rigid PCB with package volume of 140x160x50 mm3.

  13. Mise-en-scène Applied to Level Design: Adapting a Holistic Approach to Level Design


    Logas, Heather


    Mise-en-scène is a term from film studies which means "the use of space within the frame: the placement of actors and props, the relationship of the camera to the space in front of it, camera movement, the use of color or black and white, lighting, the size of the screen frame itself"(Kolker, 1999). It is a French term that literally translates, "put in the scene". The mise-en-scène informs everything about the film and gives filmmakers a rich palette to induce emotions in their...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameswar Panda


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid, Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid. The feeding and other management practices for all the three groups were similar. The blood sample was collected from each goat in fifteen days interval and the serum cortisol concentration (nM/l was determined with the help of Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit. The average serum cortisol concentration were 12.66 ± 3.08, 10.85 ± 3.51 and 15.18 ± 3.88 nM/l in Group T0, T1 and T2 kids respectively. There was no significant effect (P<0.05 of floor space on cortisol concentration as a stress indicator in Osmanabadi kids.

  15. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James


    assessed the ability of satellite-based relays working above GEO in conjunction with Earth ground stations. Many of these focused on the trade between space relay and direct-to-Earth station links5,6,7. Several others focused on top-level architecture based on relays at various destinations8,9,10,11,12. Much has changed in terms of microwave and optical technology since the publication of the referenced papers; Ka-band communication systems are being deployed, optical communication is being demonstrated, and spacecraft buses are becoming increasingly more functional and operational. A design concept study was undertaken to access the potential for deploying a Small Space-Based Satellite (SSBS) relay capable of serving missions between LEO and NEO. The needs of future human exploration missions were analyzed, and a notional relay-based architecture concept was generated as shown in Fig. 1. Relay satellites in Earth through cis-Lunar orbits are normally located in stable orbits requiring low fuel consumption. Relay satellites for Mars orbit are normally selected based on the mission requirement and projected fuel consumption. Relay satellites have extreme commonalities of functions between them, differing only in the redundancy and frequencies used; therefore, the relay satellite in GEO was selected for further analysis since it will be the first step in achieving a relay-based architecture for human exploration missions (see Fig.Figure 2). The mission design methodology developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team13 was used to produce the satellite relay design and to perform various design trades. At the start of the activity, the team was provided with the detailed concept of the notional architecture and the system and communication payload drivers.

  16. Space telescope design to directly image the habitable zone of Alpha Centauri (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Lozi, Julien; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared; Weston, Sasha; McElwain, Michael


    The scientific interest in directly imaging and identifying Earth-like planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) around nearby stars is driving the design of specialized direct imaging missions such as ACESAT, EXO-C, EXO-S and AFTA-C. The inner edge of Alpha Cen A and B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7" and 0.4" respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 0.3m class telescope. Contrast ratios on the order of 1010 are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets may allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architecture maximizes stability and throughput. A Multi-Star Wave Front algorithm is implemented to drive a deformable mirror controlling simultaneously diffracted light from the on-axis and binary companion star. The instrument has a Focal Plane Occulter to reject starlight into a highprecision pointing control camera. Finally we utilize a Orbital Differential Imaging (ODI) post-processing method that takes advantage of a highly stable environment (Earth-trailing orbit) and a continuous sequence of images spanning 2 years, to reduce the final noise floor in post processing to ~2e-11 levels, enabling high confidence and at least 90% completeness detections of Earth-like planets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA


    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  18. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.


    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  19. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray


    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  20. Expanding the Design Space: Forging the Transition from 3D Printing to Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Amend, Matthew

    The synergy of Additive Manufacturing and Computational Geometry has the potential to radically expand the "design space" of solutions available to designers. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is capable of fabricating objects that are highly complex both in geometry and material properties. However, the introduction of any new technology can have a disruptive effect on established design practices and organizations. Before "Design for Additive Manufacturing" (DFAM) is a commonplace means of producing objects employed in "real world" products, appropriate design knowledge must be sufficiently integrated within industry. First, materials suited to additive manufacturing methods must be developed to satisfy existing industry standards and specifications, or new standards must be developed. Second, a new class of design representation (CAD) tools will need to be developed. Third, designers and design organizations will need to develop strategies for employing such tools. This thesis describes three DFAM exercises intended to demonstrate the potential for innovative design when using advanced additive materials, tools, and printers. These design exercises included 1) a light-weight composite layup mold developed with topology optimization, 2) a low-pressure fluid duct enhanced with an external lattice structure, and 3) an airline seat tray designed using a non-uniform lattice structure optimized with topology optimization.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE


    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities can reduce proliferation risks. A multi-laboratory team was sponsored in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to define a SBD process and determine how it could be incorporated into existing facility design and construction processes. The possibility to significantly influence major design features, such as process selection and plant layout, largely ends with the conceptual design step. Therefore SBD’s principal focus must be on the early inclusion of safeguards requirements and the early identification of beneficial design features. The result could help form the basis for a new international norm for integrating safeguards into facility design. This is an interim report describing progress and project status as of the end of FY08. In this effort, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost-effective integration of international and national safeguards, physical security, and other nonproliferation objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility. A key objective is to ensure that security and nonproliferation issues are considered when weighing facility design alternatives. Central to the work completed in FY08 was a study in which a SBD process was developed in the context of the current DOE facility acquisition process. The DOE study enabled the development of a “SBD design loop” that is suitable for use in any facility design process. It is a graded, iterative process that incorporates safeguards concerns throughout the conceptual, preliminary and final design processes. Additionally, a set of proposed design principles for SBD was developed. A “Generic SBD Process” was then developed. Key features of the process include the initiation of safeguards design activities in the pre-conceptual planning phase, early incorporation of safeguards requirements into the project requirements, early appointment of an SBD team, and

  2. Roadmap for Integrating Sustainable Design into Site-Level Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Keith L.; Dorsey, Judy A.


    Sustainable Design recognizes that products and processes are interdependent with the environmental, economic, and social systems surrounding them and implements measures to prevent an unsustainable compromise to these systems.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornard, Trond; Alexander, Joseph; Bean, Robert; Castle, Brian; DeMuth, Scott; Durst, Phillip; Ehinger, Michael; Golay, Michael; Hase, Kevin; Hebditch, David J.; Hockert, John; Meppen, Bruce; Morgan, James; Phillips, Jerry


    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities can reduce proliferation risks. A multi-laboratory team was sponsored in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to define a SBD process and determine how it could be incorporated into existing facility design and construction processes. The possibility to significantly influence major design features, such as process selection and plant layout, largely ends with the conceptual design step. Therefore SBD's principal focus must be on the early inclusion of safeguards requirements and the early identification of beneficial design features. The result could help form the basis for a new international norm for integrating safeguards into facility design. This is an interim report describing progress and project status as of the end of FY08. In this effort, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost-effective integration of international and national safeguards, physical security, and other nonproliferation objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility. A key objective is to ensure that security and nonproliferation issues are considered when weighing facility design alternatives. Central to the work completed in FY08 was a study in which a SBD process was developed in the context of the current DOE facility acquisition process. The DOE study enabled the development of a 'SBD design loop' that is suitable for use in any facility design process. It is a graded, iterative process that incorporates safeguards concerns throughout the conceptual, preliminary and final design processes. Additionally, a set of proposed design principles for SBD was developed. A 'Generic SBD Process' was then developed. Key features of the process include the initiation of safeguards design activities in the pre-conceptual planning phase, early incorporation of safeguards requirements into the project requirements, early appointment of an SBD team, and participation in

  4. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip


    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  5. A cross-sectional study examining predictors of visit frequency to local green space and the impact this has on physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott P. Flowers


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of physical activity (PA is a growing public health concern. There is a growing body of literature that suggests a positive relationship may exist between the amount of local green space near one’s home and PA levels. For instance, park proximity has been shown to predict PA levels amongst certain populations. However, there is little evidence for the role of relatedness towards nature and perceptions of local green space on this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine, in a National UK sample, whether subjective indices associated with local green space were better predictors of visit frequency to local green space and PA levels compared to objectively measured quantity of local green space. Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed. From a random sample, 2079 working age adults responded to an online survey in September 2011. Demographics, self-reported PA, objective measures of the local environment (including local green space, road coverage, and environmental deprivation, were assessed in conjunction with perceptions of local green space and nature relatedness. Quantity of local green space was assessed by cross-referencing respondents’ home postcodes with general land use databases. Regression models were conducted to assess which of our independent variables best predicted visit frequency to local green space and/or meeting PA guidelines. In addition, an ordinal regression was run to examine the relationship between visit frequency to local green space and the likelihood of meeting national PA guidelines. Results Nature relatedness was the strongest predictor for both visit frequency to local green space and meeting PA guidelines. Results show that perceived quality is a better predictor of visit frequency to local green space than objective quantity of local green space. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of PA was over four times greater for people who visited local green space once

  6. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis


    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  7. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research. (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael


    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  8. Diffusion aspects of designing porous growth media for earth and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamindu, Deepagoda; Møldrup, Per; Jensen, M P


    be avoided when designing safe plant growth media for space. The CWD concept was also applied to a natural volcanic ash soil (Nishi-Tokyo, Japan), and the natural soil was found competitive or better than the tested commercial growth media. This could bear large perspectives for Martian outpost missions......Growing plants in extraterrestrial environments, for example on a space station or in a future lunar or Martian outpost, is a challenge that has attracted increasing interest over the last few decades. Most of the essential plant needs for optimal growth (air, water, and nutrient supply...

  9. Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies (United States)

    Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding


    We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.

  10. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Levine


    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  11. Physics-Based Probabilistic Design Tool with System-Level Reliability Constraint, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work proposed herein would develop a set of analytic methodologies and a computer tool suite enabling aerospace hardware designers to rapidly determine optimum...

  12. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU


    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.


    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  14. Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet™ Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often...

  15. Blood troponin levels in acute cardiac events depends on space weather activity components (a correlative study). (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Radishauskas, Richardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Tamoshiunas, Abdonas; Virvichiute, Daiva


    Many biological processes are influenced by space weather activity components such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and cosmic ray activity (CRA). Examples are total mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident), sudden cardiac death, some congenital maladies (congenital heart disease and Down syndrome), many events in neonatology, ophtalmology, blood pressure regulation, blood coagulation, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to check if the level of blood troponins (Tns) - markers of myocardial damage and recognized components of modern description of AMI - is connected with the mentioned space weather parameters. Patients admitted to a 3000-bed tertiary university hospital in Kaunas, Lithuania, with suspected AMI were the object of the study. Data for the time between 2008 and 2013 - 72 consecutive months - were studied. Of the patients, 1896 (1398 male, 498 female) had elevated troponin I (Tn I) or troponin T (Tn T, sensitive Tn) levels. Normal values were 0.00-0.03 ng/mL for Tn I and 0.00-14.00 ng/mL for Tn T. Monthly means and standard deviation of Tn I and Tn T were compared with monthly markers of SA, GMA and CRA. Pearson correlation coefficients and their probabilities were established (in addition to the consecutive graphs of both comparing physical and biological data). The cosmophysical data came from space service institutions in the United States, Russia and Finland. AMI was diagnosed in 1188 patients (62.66%), and intermediate coronary syndrome in 698 patients (36.81%). There were significant links of the Tn blood levels with four SA indices and CRA (neutron activity in imp/min); there was no significant correlation with GMA indices Ap and Cp (p=0.27 and p=0.235). Tn T levels significantly correlated with the GMA indices and not with the SA and CRA levels (Ap: r=0.77, p=0.0021; Cp: r=0.729, p=0.0047). First, the monthly level of blood Tn I in ACS is significantly correlated with the indices

  16. Design of drystore for intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myall, M.G.; Duncan, J.M.


    In the fields of handling and processing nuclear material, the problem of storage of radioactive waste is an important engineering, financial and political factor. A radical new concept in dry rad-waste store design has been developed which achieves significant reductions in cost and construction build timescales when compared to existing facilities designed to meet current stringent regulations. Savings are obtained in the product support structure, the engineered shield floor and the remotely operated product emplacement machinery. The use of novel structural features eliminates problems of seismic enhancement in the store. The paper describes the main features of the store design, techniques for monitoring and inspection of store contents, and the remote handling equipment. (author)

  17. Design of drystore for intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myall, M.G.; Duncan, J.M.


    In the fields of handling and processing nuclear material, the problem of storage of radioactive waste is an important engineering, financial and political factor. A radical new concept in dry radwaste store design has been developed which achieves significant reductions in cost and construction build timescales when compared to existing facilities designed to meet current stringent regulations. Savings are obtained in the product support structure, the engineered shield floor and the remotely operated product emplacement machinery. The use of novel structural features eliminates problems of seismic enhancement in the store. The paper describes the main features of the store design, techniques for monitoring and inspection of store contents, and the remote handling equipment. (author)

  18. Design for testability and diagnosis at the system-level (United States)

    Simpson, William R.; Sheppard, John W.


    The growing complexity of full-scale systems has surpassed the capabilities of most simulation software to provide detailed models or gate-level failure analyses. The process of system-level diagnosis approaches the fault-isolation problem in a manner that differs significantly from the traditional and exhaustive failure mode search. System-level diagnosis is based on a functional representation of the system. For example, one can exercise one portion of a radar algorithm (the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function) by injecting several standard input patterns and comparing the results to standardized output results. An anomalous output would point to one of several items (including the FFT circuit) without specifying the gate or failure mode. For system-level repair, identifying an anomalous chip is sufficient. We describe here an information theoretic and dependency modeling approach that discards much of the detailed physical knowledge about the system and analyzes its information flow and functional interrelationships. The approach relies on group and flow associations and, as such, is hierarchical. Its hierarchical nature allows the approach to be applicable to any level of complexity and to any repair level. This approach has been incorporated in a product called STAMP (System Testability and Maintenance Program) which was developed and refined through more than 10 years of field-level applications to complex system diagnosis. The results have been outstanding, even spectacular in some cases. In this paper we describe system-level testability, system-level diagnoses, and the STAMP analysis approach, as well as a few STAMP applications.

  19. LQG and maximum entropy control design for the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    Solar array vibrations are responsible for serious pointing control problems on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The original HST control law was not designed to attenuate these disturbances because they were not perceived to be a problem prior to launch. However, significant solar array vibrations do occur due to large changes in the thermal environment as the HST orbits the earth. Using classical techniques, Marshall Space Flight Center in conjunction with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company developed modified HST controllers that were able to suppress the influence of the vibrations of the solar arrays on the line-of-sight (LOS) performance. Substantial LOS improvement was observed when two of these controllers were implemented on orbit. This paper describes the development of modified HST controllers by using modern control techniques, particularly linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) design and Maximum Entropy robust control design, a generalization of LQG that incorporates robustness constraints with respect to modal errors. The fundamental issues are discussed candidly and controllers designed using these modern techniques are described.

  20. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach]. (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin


    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. A Test Methodology for Determining Space-Readiness of Xilinx SRAM-Based FPGA Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Heather M.; Graham, Paul S.; Morgan, Keith S.; Caffrey, Michael P.


    Using reconfigurable, static random-access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space-based computation has been an exciting area of research for the past decade. Since both the circuit and the circuit's state is stored in radiation-tolerant memory, both could be alterd by the harsh space radiation environment. Both the circuit and the circuit's state can be prote cted by triple-moduler redundancy (TMR), but applying TMR to FPGA user designs is often an error-prone process. Faulty application of TMR could cause the FPGA user circuit to output incorrect data. This paper will describe a three-tiered methodology for testing FPGA user designs for space-readiness. We will describe the standard approach to testing FPGA user designs using a particle accelerator, as well as two methods using fault injection and a modeling tool. While accelerator testing is the current 'gold standard' for pre-launch testing, we believe the use of fault injection and modeling tools allows for easy, cheap and uniform access for discovering errors early in the design process.

  2. Taking Word Clouds Apart: An Empirical Investigation of the Design Space for Keyword Summaries. (United States)

    Felix, Cristian; Franconeri, Steven; Bertini, Enrico


    In this paper we present a set of four user studies aimed at exploring the visual design space of what we call keyword summaries: lists of words with associated quantitative values used to help people derive an intuition of what information a given document collection (or part of it) may contain. We seek to systematically study how different visual representations may affect people's performance in extracting information out of keyword summaries. To this purpose, we first create a design space of possible visual representations and compare the possible solutions in this design space through a variety of representative tasks and performance metrics. Other researchers have, in the past, studied some aspects of effectiveness with word clouds, however, the existing literature is somewhat scattered and do not seem to address the problem in a sufficiently systematic and holistic manner. The results of our studies showed a strong dependency on the tasks users are performing. In this paper we present details of our methodology, the results, as well as, guidelines on how to design effective keyword summaries based in our discoveries.

  3. Enabling Fast ASIP Design Space Exploration: An FPGA-Based Runtime Reconfigurable Prototyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meloni


    Full Text Available Application Specific Instruction-set Processors (ASIPs expose to the designer a large number of degrees of freedom. Accurate and rapid simulation tools are needed to explore the design space. To this aim, FPGA-based emulators have recently been proposed as an alternative to pure software cycle-accurate simulator. However, the advantages of on-hardware emulation are reduced by the overhead of the RTL synthesis process that needs to be run for each configuration to be emulated. The work presented in this paper aims at mitigating this overhead, exploiting a form of software-driven platform runtime reconfiguration. We present a complete emulation toolchain that, given a set of candidate ASIP configurations, identifies and builds an overdimensioned architecture capable of being reconfigured via software at runtime, emulating all the design space points under evaluation. The approach has been validated against two different case studies, a filtering kernel and an M-JPEG encoding kernel. Moreover, the presented emulation toolchain couples FPGA emulation with activity-based physical modeling to extract area and power/energy consumption figures. We show how the adoption of the presented toolchain reduces significantly the design space exploration time, while introducing an overhead lower than 10% for the FPGA resources and lower than 0.5% in terms of operating frequency.

  4. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets. (United States)

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi


    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations on a theme: novel immersed grating based spectrometer designs for space (United States)

    Agócs, T.; Navarro, R.; Venema, L.


    We present novel immersed grating (IG) based spectrometer designs that can be used in space instrumentation. They are based on the design approach that aims to optimize the optical design using the expanded parameter space that the IG technology offers. In principle the wavefront error (WFE) of any optical system the most conveniently can be corrected in the pupil, where in the case of the IG based spectrometer, the IG itself is positioned. By modifying existing three-mirror based optical systems, which can form the main part of double pass spectrometer designs, a large portion of the WFE of the optical system can be transferred to the pupil and to the IG. In these cases the IG can compensate simple low order aberrations of the system and consequently the main benefit is that the mirrors that tend to be off-axis conical sections can be substituted by spherical mirrors. The WFE budget of such designs has only a minor contribution from the very high quality spherical mirrors and the majority of the WFE can be then allocated to the most complex part of the system, the IG. The latter can be designed so that the errors are compensated by a special grating pattern that in turn can be manufactured using the expertise and experience of the semiconductor industry.

  6. New results on order and spacing of levels for two- and three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Martin, A.; Richard, J.M.; Taxil, P.


    The authors propose sufficient conditions on the potential binding a two-body system to compare; the energy of a state with angular momentum iota+1 to the average of the energies of the neighbouring states with angular momentum iota, the spacings of the successive iota = O excitations. Applications to quarkonium physics are given. The authors also find a condition giving the sign of the parameter Δ controlling the pattern of levels obtained by perturbing the lowest positive parity excitation of a three-body system bound by harmonic oscillator two body forces

  7. Space vector modulation strategy for neutral-point voltage balancing in three-level inverter systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo Beum


    This study proposes a space vector modulation (SVM) strategy to balance the neutral-point voltage of three-level inverter systems. The proposed method is implemented by combining conventional symmetric SVM with nearest three-vector (NTV) modulation. The conventional SVM is converted to NTV...... modulation by properly adding or subtracting a minimum gate-on time. In addition, using this method, the switching frequency is reduced and a decrease of switching loss would be yielded. The neutral-point voltage is balanced by the proposed SVM strategy without additional hardware or complex calculations....... Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed SVM strategy....

  8. Structural Design of Glass and Ceramic Components for Space System Safety (United States)

    Bernstein, Karen S.


    Manned space flight programs will always have windows as part of the structural shell of the crew compartment. Astronauts and cosmonauts need to and enjoy looking out of the spacecraft windows at Earth, at approaching vehicles, at scientific objectives and at the stars. With few exceptions spacecraft windows have been made of glass, and the lessons learned over forty years of manned space flight have resulted in a well-defined approach for using this brittle, unforgiving material in NASA's vehicles, in windows and other structural applications. This chapter will outline the best practices that have developed at NASA for designing, verifying and accepting glass (and ceramic) windows and other components for safe and reliable use in any space system.

  9. Spherical phantom for research of radiation situation in outer space. Design-structural special features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.; Polenov, B.V.; Yudin, V.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Petrov, V.M.; Shurshakov, V.A.


    The design-structural features of the updated spherical phantom applied within the frameworks of the space experiment Matreshka-R at the Russian segment of International space station during ISS-8 and ISS-9 expeditions are described. The replacement of 48 polyethylene containers with TLD and STD assemblies by 16 cases installed from external side of the phantom and 4 tissue-equivalent caps of the central disk by 4 cases with detector assemblies is carried out. The updated tissue-equivalent phantom contains the active dosemeter based on 5 MOS detectors. The phantom cover is made from the non-flammable material NT-7. The basic characteristics of the flight specimen of the phantom are presented. The results of its on-Earth testing and real space flights are analyzed [ru

  10. Electronic system level design an open-source approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Sandro; Santos, Luiz


    This book devises ESL design from the pragmatic perspective of a SystemC-based representation by showing how to build and how to use ESL languages, models and tools. It includes TLM 2.0 and step-by-step examples; it also addresses power modeling.

  11. Behavior Space Design and Expression by the Theories and Methods of Urban Design—The Yan Dao ancient town of design practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei


    Full Text Available In recent years, the ancient town of update and development has become a new hot spot, the study of old town renewal of concern is gradually warming. And again there are a lot of space in the middle of the old town renewal design and traditional style, space activities and use the contradiction between population, which becomes a problem urgently to be solved in design stage. The purpose of this study was to explore old town design space and behavior, traditional and modern conflict resolution methods, and to present the town development and design with a design concept. This paper’ uses three theories of urban design (The relationship between figure and ground, Contact theory and Place theory as a real-time monitoring, assessment, comparison of methods, to study Yan Dao Ancient Town, and the space for analysis. In the research, this paper based on the design theory of the three major city as a starting point, detailedly describes the different types in a certain area of difference in the behavior and the properties of space, and the ancient town of Hubei Shennongjia forest region salt path planning and design practice, the ancient town of updating the connotation of the historical context and space behavior of connection. The conclusion of this thesis put forward the method of that based on the space shape of ancient design method of its application in practice.

  12. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavelaars, Alicia T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics


    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I&T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I&T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I&T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I&T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I&T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I&T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry.

  13. Extending Mind and Space: Embodying the Model of Design Process in Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Darmawan


    Full Text Available The recent electronic or digital technology has changed the life of contemporary society. From here, a new variant of cultural form is born as a consequence of the intensification of technology usage in everyday activities. This situation is then ended up with the paradigm shift of society’s perceptions, experience, and consciousness in almost all aspect of life, including the spatial discourse. The discourse of spatiality in the digital era becomes significant as it also repositions the conventional human spatial experience and consciousness in everyday life. Furthermore, this new spatial discourse may also appear as an opportunity to determine the learning space in the digital era. This paper emphasizes the topic on the information technology development and its impact on the forming of technoculture. The discussion will then be continued to the spatial discourse in digital era and its contribution in rethinking the learning space, especially the space of design process in academic. Lastly, the paper formulates the hexagonal model as the alternative of expanding the conventional space of design process and learning.

  14. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavelaars, Alicia T.; SLAC; Stanford U., Dept. Aeronaut. Astronaut


    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I and T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I and T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I and T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I and T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I and T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I and T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry

  15. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón


    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  16. The Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.


    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in working and living. All the impacts from habitability are interdependent; i.e., impacts to well-being can impact performance, safety or efficiency. After reviewing the issues relating to habitability the presentation discusses the application of these issues in two case studies. The first studies the Bio-Plex Hab chamber which includes designs of the living and working areas. The second case study is the ISS-TransHab which is being studied as a prototype for Mars transit.

  17. The role of defects in the design of space elevator cable: From nanotube to megatube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugno, Nicola M. [Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)], E-mail:


    Researchers are claiming that the feasibility of space elevator cable is now realistic, thanks to carbon nanotube technology, proposing its realization within a decade. However, the current view of basing the design of the megacable on the theoretical strength of a single carbon nanotube is naive, as has recently been emphasized. In this paper the role of thermodynamically unavoidable atomistic defects with different size and shape is quantified on brittle fracture, fatigue and elasticity, for nanotubes and nanotube bundles. Nonasymptotic regimes, elastic plasticity, rough cracks, finite domains and size effects are also discussed. The results are compared with atomistic simulations and nanotensile tests of carbon nanotubes. Key simple formulas for the design of a flaw-tolerant space elevator megacable are reported, suggesting that it would need a taper ratio (for uniform stress) of about two orders of magnitude larger than currently proposed.

  18. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-Level Rule-Based Models in Cell Biology. (United States)

    Bittig, Arne T; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M


    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  19. Design and Implementation of nine level multilevel Inverter (United States)

    Dhineshkumar, K.; Subramani, C.


    In this paper the solar based boost converter integrated Nine level multilevel inverter presented. It uses 7 switches to produce nine level output stepped waveform. The aim of the work to produce 9 level wave form using solar and boost converter. The conventional inverter has multiple sources and has 16 switches are required and also more number of voltage sources required. The proposed inverter required single solar panel and reduced number of switches and integrated boost converter which increase the input voltage of the inverter. The proposed inverter simulated and compared with R load using Mat lab and prototype model experimentally verified. The proposed inverter can be used in n number of solar applications.

  20. Methods For an Acceptable Traffic Noise Level Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Sviben


    Full Text Available Road noise disturbance on rough roads by means of loudnesssensor caused by wideband signal components with a significantimpact of tonal effects on smooth roads and in specificactions in driving lead to the annoyance of drivers. A systemicapproach has been applied for the sound quality estimation ofphysical properties of various noise sources and structuralvibroacoustic car properties and its components as an integratedparameter in car design for the purpose of the developmentand vehicle noise reduction. Simulation of the most importantcharacteristics of listening impressions was performedby modem systems of signal analysis together with the presentationof loudness, sharpness, and roughness as essential quantities.Optimization of the noise control measuring regarding vehiclesound was obtained by means of a simulation system withthe capability of the real time original sound filtering. Structuralanalysis was performed as an acoustic modal analysis on therear part and the car interior with the quantitative analysis ofsport and luxury car sounds. The possibility of active noise controlwas studied and examples are given for an application ofpsychoacoustic tools for car sound quality design. Sound qualitywas obtained by an observation of certain aspects, which areempirically or theoretically connected with the design. An experimentalsound synthesis with psychometrical measuring wasapplied. The sound quality of car interior is presented takinginto consideration the criteria of objectivity, reliability and validity.