WorldWideScience

Sample records for level decreased irritability

  1. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, Sjors A.; Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Jakasa, Ivone; Franceschi, Nika; Riethmüller, Christoph; Jurakić Tončic, Ružica; Marinovic, Branka; Raj, Nidhin; Rawlings, Anthony V.; Voegeli, Rainer; Lane, Majella E.; Haftek, Marek; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing was performed

  2. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contri RV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renata V Contri,1 Luiza A Frank,2 Moacir Kaiser,1 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Silvia S Guterres1,2 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP] and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product] and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product] irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation. Keywords: chitosan, nanocapsules, capsaicinoids, skin irritation, skin permeation

  3. Resilience is decreased in irritable bowel syndrome and associated with symptoms and cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Naliboff, B D; Shih, W; Presson, A P; Videlock, E J; Ju, T; Kilpatrick, L; Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Chang, L

    2018-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs. Ninety-six of these subjects had serial serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH measured. The relationship between IBS status, resilience, and other variables of interest was assessed by regression analysis after adjusting for demographics and neuroticism, a predictor of resilience. Resilience was significantly lower in IBS compared to HCs (CD-RISC: 72.16±14.97 vs 77.32±12.73, P=.003; BRS: 3.29±0.87 vs 3.93±0.69, Presilience and IBS status for ACTH-stimulated cortisol response (P=.031); more resilient IBS subjects had lower cortisol response, and more resilient HCs had higher cortisol response. Lower resilience is associated with IBS status, worse IBS symptom severity, lower IBS-QOL, greater EALs, and stress hyperresponsiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  6. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  7. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  8. Concomitant functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome decrease health-related quality of life in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Durk R.; van Herwaarden, Margot A.; Baron, Astrid; Smout, André J. P. M.; Samsom, Melvin

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported an overlap between gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FD and IBS in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the effect on

  9. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  10. Mild Moxibustion Decreases the Expression of Prokineticin 2 and Prokineticin Receptor 2 in the Colon and Spinal Cord of Rats with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cili Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that prokineticin 2 (PK2 and its receptor PKR2 play an important role in hyperalgesia, while mild moxibustion can relieve visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of mild moxibustion on the expression of PK2 and PKR2 in colon and spinal cord in IBS rat model, which was induced by colorectal distension using inflatable balloons. After mild moxibustion treatment, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR scores were assessed by colorectal distension; protein and mRNA expression of PK2 and PKR2 in rat colon and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with normal rats, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly increased in the model group; compared with the model group, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly decreased in the mild moxibustion group. These findings suggest that the analgesia effect of mild moxibustion may be associated with the reduction of the abnormally increased expression of the PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in the colon and spinal cord.

  11. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  12. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  13. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  15. Simulation of decreasing reactor power level with BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Rivai, Abu Khalid

    2002-01-01

    Study on characteristic of BWR using Desktop PC Based Simulator Program was analysed. This simulator is more efficient and cheaper for analyzing of characteristic and dynamic respond than full scope simulator for decreasing power level of BW. Dynamic responses of BWR reactor was investigated during the power level reduction from 100% FP (Full Power) which is 3926 MWth to 0% FP with 25% steps and 1 % FP/sec rate. The overall results for core flow rate, reactor steam flow, feed-water flow and turbine-generator power show tendency proportional to reduction of reactor power. This results show that reactor power control in BWR could be done by control of re-circulation flow that alter the density of water used as coolant and moderator. Decreasing the re-circulation flow rate will decrease void density which has negative reactivity and also affect the position of control rods

  16. Esophageal acid exposure decreases intraluminal baseline impedance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weijenborg, Pim W.; Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Loots, Clara M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal baseline impedance levels are determined by the conductivity of the esophageal wall and can be decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline impedance in GERD patients, on and off proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and in

  17. Plasma klotho levels decrease in both anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Kaimoto, Kaori; Sameshima, Nanami; Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Haruta, Izumi; Tsai, Minglun; Nakahara, Toshihiro; Ushikai, Miharu; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Hamada, Satoshi; Inui, Akio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of klotho with body mass index (BMI) in patients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (r-AN) and obesity. We examined plasma klotho as well as adiponectin and its isoform levels in comparison in 11 obese patients, 12 r-AN patients, and 11 control participants. Plasma klotho levels were markedly lower in the obesity and r-AN groups than in the control group. Moreover, plasma klotho levels increased significantly after the recovery of BMI in r-AN patients. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels were significantly decreased only in obesity. There was no relationship between klotho and total adiponectin levels or klotho and respective adiponectin isoform levels in the entire study population. These results suggest that klotho may reflect normal nutritional state, and that the decrease of klotho in r-AN and obesity may underlie the deteriorating processes of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. Decreasing of pulsation intensity levels in X-ray receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoryankin, V F; Kudryashov, A A; Petrov, A G

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency filter is applied in the multichannel receiver on the basis of the GaAs epitaxial structures for decreasing the pulsations level at the signals amplifier outlet. The optimal band of the filter is determined by the transition processes by the detector scanning in the roentgen beams. The X-ray source of radiation with the medium-frequency feeding generator is used for verifying the quality of the obtained X-ray image

  20. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  1. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  2. Decreased Circulating Levels of APRIL: Questioning Its Role in Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carvalho-Santos

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic β-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to β-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes. APRIL is an important member of the TNF family and has been linked to chronic inflammatory processes of various diseases since its discovery in 1998. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate APRIL serum levels in T1D and T2D. For this, we used the ELISA assay to measure serum APRIL levels of 33 T1D and 30 T2D patients, and non-diabetic subjects as control group. Our data showed a decrease in serum APRIL levels in T1D patients when compared with healthy individuals. The same pattern was observed in the group of T2D patients when compared with the control. The decrease of serum APRIL levels in diabetic patients suggests that this cytokine has a role in T1D and T2D. Diabetes is already considered as an inflammatory condition with different cytokines being implicated in its physiopathology. Our data suggest that APRIL can be considered as a potential modulating cytokine in the inflammatory process of diabetes.

  3. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  4. The determination of the level of quality of life as integral indicator of efficiency of complex treatment of pregnant women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuday V.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the timely diagnostics and treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome in women of reproductive age deteriorates their quality of life and could become the cause of several pregnancy complications. Objective — to determine the level of quality of life as integral indicator of efficiency of complex treatment of pregnant women with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients and methods. Pregnant women were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 women whose treatment included: diet; Mucofalk — 4 times a day for 20 days; probiotics (Probis—Femina — 1 capsule 2 times a day for 14–18 days; correction of psychological state on the recommendations of the perinatal psychologist interview results; and in the presence of severe contamination of the vagina - use of modern disinfectant on the basis of hyaluronic acid of Ginoteca. The second group included 50 women with physiological pregnancy who did not receive the aforementioned treatment. Results. In the modern medicine is being taken seriously personalized approach to the treatment of the patient, therefore assessment of quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome, as an integral indicator is one of the main criteria of treatment effectiveness. Personification approach to the treatment of functional bowel diseases, based on the data of the levels of specific biomarkers indicating the state targeted for irritable bowel syndrome organ systems, psychological States, allows you to choose an effective therapy to prevent polypharmacy, to significantly improve the quality of life on average 16.7±2.3 points. Conclusions. The use of microbial interference therapy with the inclusion of modern probiotics Probes—Femina can significantly reduce contamination of the intestine and the vagina, reduce the clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome, which is confirmed by the improvement of quality of life. Improving the quality of life achieved as a result of selecting

  5. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    circulating chemerin levels, which may act to reduce pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and prevent glucose intolerance. Women with gestational diabetes, however, have severely reduced chemerin levels that remain low after delivery, which may contribute to the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance......AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels...

  6. Gemfibrozil not fenofibrate decreases systemic glucose level via PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Danjun; Chu, Zanbo; Min, Luo; Zhen, Tan; Li, Pengxu; Han, Liyuan; Bu, Shizhong; yang, Julin; Gonzale, F J; Liu, Aiming

    2016-04-01

    Concurrence of high glucose or diabetes in patients with dyslipidemia is presenting major challenges for clinicians. Although sporadically reported, a rational basis for the use of fibrates for the treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent metabolic syndrome has not been established. In this study, wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null (KO) mice were fed a serial gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-containing diet under the same experimental conditions for 14 days. Glucose level in the blood, glycogen storage in the liver tissues, and the potential toxic responses were assayed. Genes involved in glucose metabolism were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both the blood glucose level and the glycogen content in the liver were down-regulated by gemfibrozil but not by fenofibrate in WT mice, in a dose-dependent manner. This decrement did not occur in KO mice for either fibrate agent. Secondary regulation on the transcription of pyruvate kinase, and gluconolactonase were observed following gemfibrozil treatment, which was differential between WT mice and KO mice. Gemfibrozil, not fenofibrate, down-regulates systemic glucose level and glycogen storage in the liver dependent on PPARα, suggesting its potential value for treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent diabetes or high glucose levels.

  7. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  8. Irritancies of shampoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  9. Decreased Serum 25-Hydroxycalciferol Levels in Pre-diabetic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Q. A.; Khan, D. A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, F. A.; Latif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels [25(OH)D] in adults with pre-diabetes and normoglycaemia to examine a possible association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2012 to July 2013. Methodology: A total of 272 adults including 136 pre-diabetics and 136 normoglycaemics of either gender aged 20 years and above were consecutively inducted. Patients with diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, rickets and osteomalacia, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease were excluded. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) was estimated with hexokinase method on Modular p800 Roche chemistry analyzer while serum 25(OH)D was measured on Diasorin Liaison immunoassay analyzer using the chemiluminescent technique. Mean 25(OH)D levels in pre-diabetic and normoglycaemic groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's correlation coefficient 'rs' was determined between serum 25(OH)D and FPG. Odds ratio for vitamin D deficiency was also calculated. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D level was low in pre-diabetics (23.2 nmol/L) as compared to normoglycaemics (29 nmol/L; p=0.001). Serum 25(OH)D level had inverse correlation with FPG (rs = -0.448, p=0.000). There was also significant association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes compared with normoglycaemia (OR: 2.21, p= 0.016; 95 percentage CI: 1.15-4.27). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes suggested that vitamin D may have an important role in pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. (author)

  10. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  11. Higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease the mean velocity index of the retinal artery during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelić, Vladimir; Drnovšek Olup, Brigita; Žižek, Bogomir; Skitek, Milan; Jerin, Aleš

    2016-10-31

    To determine whether higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease mean velocity (MV) index of the central retinal artery (CRA) during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study was performed in the period from 2008 to 2015 at the University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana. 41 patients with T1D and 37 participants without diabetes were included. MV in the CRA was measured using Doppler ultrasound diagnostics in basal conditions and during 8 Hz flickering light irritation. The plasma levels of glucose, fructosamine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Patients with T1D had significantly higher levels of blood glucose (Ptriglycerides (P=0.108), cholesterol (P=0.531), and LDL (P=0.645) between the groups. Patients with T1D also had a significantly lower MV index in the CRA (1.11±0.15 vs 1.24±0.23; P=0.010). In the T1D group, a significant negative correlation was found between the level of glucose (r=0.58; Pindex in the CRA. At the same time, in this group fructosamine and 8-OHdG levels had a separate effect on the MV index (adjusted R2=0.38, Pglucose levels, the medium-term glucose level, and systemic oxidative stress could importantly reduce retinal vasodilatation during flickering light irritation in patients with T1D.

  12. Low serum levels of short-chain fatty acids after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undseth R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Undseth,1 Greta Jakobsdottir,2 Margareta Nyman,2 Arnold Berstad,3 Jørgen Valeur3 1Department of Radiology, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 3Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway Background: Ingestion of low-digestible carbohydrates triggers symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. These carbohydrates become substrates for microbial fermentation in the colon, yielding short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs that are readily absorbed. Aiming to compare colonic fermentation in patients with IBS and healthy controls, we analyzed the concentrations of SCFA in serum at fasting and 90 minutes following ingestion of an unabsorbable, but fermentable carbohydrate, lactulose. Methods: Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n=22 and healthy controls (n=20 ingested 10 g lactulose dissolved in water. Symptoms were graded by questionnaires and SCFA were analyzed using hollow fiber-supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography. Results: Lactulose induced more symptoms in patients with IBS than in healthy controls (P=0.0001. Fasting serum levels of SCFA did not differ between patients with IBS and controls. However, the postprandial levels of total SCFA (P=0.0002, acetic acid (P=0.005, propionic acid (P=0.0001, and butyric acid (P=0.01 were significantly lower in patients with IBS compared with healthy controls. There was no correlation between the levels of serum SCFA and symptom severity. Conclusion: Low-serum levels of SCFA after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with IBS. Conceivably, this disturbance is related to symptom generation, but the mechanism is not clear. Keywords: fermentation, FODMAP, irritable bowel syndrome, microbiota, short-chain fatty acids 

  13. Irritability and Parenting Styles in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Halit Necmi; Vural, Ayşe Pınar

    2018-04-17

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects functioning of the family, decreasing interactions and loyalty and increasing conflict between adolescents with ADHD and their families. Irritable mood and difficulties with emotional dysregulation are common in children with ADHD. The objective of the current study was to assess levels of irritability in adolescents with ADHD using self- and parent-report scales, and investigate the relationship between irritability levels and parental attitudes. A total of 47 adolescents with ADHD and 39 adolescents with typical development participated in the current study. Findings demonstrated that higher levels of parent-reported irritability were associated with decreased egalitarian attitudes in the ADHD group. Although other parental attitudes were not associated with self- and parent-reported irritability, evaluation of the relationship between parental attitudes and irritability in adolescents with ADHD, which can guide diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, is of critical importance. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Cindy M; Verberk, Maarten M; Withagen, Carien E T; Jacobs, John J L; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-06-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels and the skin response to a single and a repeated irritation test. This study also aimed to determine changes in SC cytokine levels after repeated irritation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured in 20 volunteers after single 24-hr exposure to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and during and after repeated exposure to 0.1% SLS over a 3-week period. SC cytokine levels were measured from an unexposed skin site and from the repeatedly exposed site. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha decreased by 30% after repeated exposure, while IL-1RA increased 10-fold and IL-8 increased fourfold. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 values were predictors of TEWL and erythema after single exposure (r = 0.55-0.61). 6 subjects showed barrier recovery during repeated exposure. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 levels are likely to be indicators of higher skin irritability after single exposure to SLS. Barrier repair in some of the subjects might explain the lack of agreement between the TEWL response after single and repeated irritation.

  15. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your belly area), constipation (when you can't poop), and diarrhea (when you poop too much). If you have irritable bowel syndrome, ... food particles are also known as stool, a bowel movement, or poop. Here's why an intestine gets "irritable." ...

  16. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-12-01

    Although surfactant-induced acute irritant dermatitis has been extensively studied, our understanding about the induction and repair of the clinically more relevant chronic form is limited. Our purpose was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to structurally unrelated surfactants and to compare the maximal irritant responses from this model with corresponding reactions noted in a previously reported acute irritation model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (7.5%) were applied for 20 minutes daily (for 8 consecutive days excluding the weekend) to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were repeatedly assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). Maximum irritant responses were compared with corresponding reactions from an acute irritation model. TEWL was increased by SLS and DTAB to the same extent, but erythema was significantly higher in DTAB-treated skin. Skin dryness, as demonstrated by decreased capacitance values and increased scores for scaling and fissuring, was significantly more pronounced than in an acute irritation model for SLS and DTAB, although no difference was detected between the two surfactants. Potassium soap led to a slight increase in TEWL, whereas the remaining features were not significantly changed. This chronic irritation model appears to represent the clinical situation of irritant contact dermatitis with pronounced skin dryness more closely than the acute irritation model. The present study confirms that an extended time is needed for complete healing of irritant skin reactions. We also demonstrated that the evaluation of the irritation potential of

  17. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  18. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  19. Anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycerol and xylitol in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szél, E; Polyánka, H; Szabó, K; Hartmann, P; Degovics, D; Balázs, B; Németh, I B; Korponyai, C; Csányi, E; Kaszaki, J; Dikstein, S; Nagy, K; Kemény, L; Erős, G

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol is known to possess anti-irritant and hydrating properties and previous studies suggested that xylitol may also have similar effects. Our aim was to study whether different concentrations of these polyols restore skin barrier function and soothe inflammation in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced acute irritation. The experiments were performed on male SKH-1 hairless mice. The skin of the dorsal region was exposed to SLS (5%) for 3 h alone or together with 5% or 10% of glycerol respectively. Further two groups received xylitol solutions (8.26% and 16.52% respectively) using the same osmolarities, which were equivalent to those of the glycerol treatments. The control group was treated with purified water. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were determined. Microcirculatory parameters of inflammation were observed by means of intravital videomicroscopy (IVM). Furthermore, accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and SLS penetration were assessed, as well. Treatment with the 10% of glycerol and both concentrations of xylitol inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of the applied polyols improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. At the mRNA level, neither glycerol nor xylitol influenced the expression of interleukin-1 alpha. However, expression of interleukin-1 beta was significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment, while expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased upon the same treatment, as well as in response to xylitol. Higher polyol treatments decreased the SLS penetration to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. Both of the analysed polyols exert considerable anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, but the effective concentration of xylitol is lower than that of

  20. String Bean Juice Decreases Blood Glucose Level Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harmayetty, Harmayetty; Krisnana, Ilya; Anisa, Faida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-po...

  1. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  2. Developmental trajectories of irritability and bidirectional associations with maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Stringaris, Argyris; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Irritability is a dimensional trait in typical development and a common presenting symptom in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, little is known about the developmental trajectory of irritability or how child irritability interacts with maternal depression. The present study identifies classes of irritability trajectories from toddlerhood to middle childhood; characterizes maternal depression and other family, social environment, and child variables within each irritability trajectory class; and, as a more exploratory analysis, examines bidirectional associations between maternal depression and child irritability. A total of 4,898 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study reported on irritability symptoms at ages 3, 5, and 9 years, assessed with items from the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental major depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form at child ages 1, 3, 5, and 9 years. A latent class growth analysis identified 5 irritability classes: low decreasing; moderate decreasing; high steady; initially very high, then decreasing; and high increasing. Children with more severe irritability trajectories are more likely to have mothers with recurrent depression, and, with the exception of the most severe (high increasing irritability) class, were more likely to have mothers who were exposed to violence. Moreover, paternal depression and alcohol abuse, as well as maternal drug and alcohol abuse, were also risk factors for membership in the more severe irritability classes. A latent auto-regressive cross-lag model showed that child irritability at ages 3 and 5 years is associated with increased mother depression at ages 5 and 9, respectively. Conversely, mother depression at child ages 1 and 3 years is associated with increased child irritability at 3 and 5. Irritability development across toddlerhood and middle childhood has 5 main trajectory types, which differ on maternal

  3. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  4. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  6. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. A decrease in cyclin B1 levels leads to polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ikue; Nakayama, Yuji; Morinaga, Takao; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2010-05-04

    Adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic, has been used for the treatment of various types of tumours. Adriamycin induces at least two distinct types of growth repression, such as senescence and apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner. Cellular senescence is a condition in which cells are unable to proliferate further, and senescent cells frequently show polyploidy. Although abrogation of cell division is thought to correlate with polyploidization, the mechanisms underlying induction of polyploidization in senescent cells are largely unclear. We wished, therefore, to explore the role of cyclin B1 level in polyploidization of Adriamycin-induced senescent cells. A subcytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin induced polyploid cells having the features of senescence, such as flattened and enlarged cell shape and activated beta-galactosidase activity. In DNA damage-induced senescent cells, the levels of cyclin B1 were transiently increased and subsequently decreased. The decrease in cyclin B1 levels occurred in G2 cells during polyploidization upon treatment with a subcytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin. In contrast, neither polyploidy nor a decrease in cyclin B1 levels was induced by treatment with a cytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin. These results suggest that a decrease in cyclin B1 levels is induced by DNA damage, resulting in polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence.

  8. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  9. [Intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio García, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The Syndrome of Irritable Intestine (SII) is a chronic functional dysfunction that it is characterized by abdominal pain and changes of intestinal rhythm without demonstrable organic alteration. It is avery prevelent dysfunction in the developed countries, there being involved in its physiopathology, among other, the psychosocial factors (illness behavior, social situation, stress, vital events, neuroticism, anxiety and somatization). However no study has been carried out on the Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence or Constructive Thought in patient with SII in spite of knowing that the cognitive processes participate in its genesis. On the hypothesis that the patients with SII would have an experiencial intelligence smaller that the fellows controls, 100 cases of SII and 100 controls have been studied, being excluded of both patients groups with intellectual deficit or psychiatric illness in the last year. The cases of SII were distributed in two groups, one of 50 cases that habitually consulted with the doctor and other 50 that didn't make it. All the participants completed specific tests to evaluate all the psychological factors and Rational Intelligence and the Constructive Thought. The results show an alteration of the psychological factors in the SII, expressed by the antecedents of vital events, m even significant of anxiety feature and anxiety and a neuroticism statistically significant. As for Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence in the SII, it was observed that to Rational Intelligence is same in the patients with SII that in the controls. Only in the group of SII that habitually consulted with the doctor a slightly significant decrease of the intellectual coefficient it was observed. As for the Experiential Intelligence a significant decrease of the Constructive Thought was observed in the patients with SII in comparison with the group control. Of their components a decrease of the emotionality exists and of the

  10. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  11. Acute Whole Body Vibration Decreases the Glucose Levels in Elderly Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Florentino Pessoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (TIIDM is characterized by high levels of blood glucose followed by excessive insulin release so that the target cells become less sensitive, developing insulin resistance and maintaining hyperglycemic levels. Physical activity is the strongest element to prevent and to manage the TIIDM, and the majority of patients do not remain in regularly active levels, because the premature fatigue in these patients decreases the adherence to the training. Contrastingly, the whole body vibration (WBV training may improve the glucose metabolism in diabetic patients, reducing the peripheral blood sugar, decreasing the physical discomfort and perceived exertion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of an acute WBV session as therapy to promote fasting decreases in insulin levels in peripheral blood in TIIDM when compared to healthy elderly. For this, fifteen healthy elderly women and fourteen diabetic elderly women, all sedentary, were allocated in diabetic or control groups, and we made an acute whole body session composed of 10 bouts lasting 2 minutes each one, separated by a 30-second rest period. The WBV was executed in a triaxial platform MY3 Power Plate® at 35 hertz and has been chosen a peak-to-peak displacement of 4 millimeters. After the protocol, both groups decreased the glycemic levels and increased lactate production in relation to the basal levels and when compared diabetic and control, where the most important results have been shown in diabetic women. This study revealed that WBV training in TIIDM has had significant beneficial effects on the control of glucose levels, still in an acute session. So that, the complete training probably will show better results about glycemic control and this finding could be especially important when prescribing exercise for elderly who are unable or unwilling to use traditional loads or who show poor exercise compliance.

  12. Aerobic Swim Training Restores Aortic Endothelial Function by Decreasing Superoxide Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila P. Jordão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively. The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%. Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving

  13. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  14. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved......A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P level of morning...... immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. RESULTS: Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in Sp...

  15. Predictors of decreased physical activity level over time among adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sulan; Wang, Feng; Morrison, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) plays a key role in chronic disease prevention and health promotion. The impact of life-changing events on LTPA among adults is unknown. To examine the association between life-changing events and decreased LTPA levels. Eight cycles of Canadian National Population Health Survey data were used for this study. A total of 12,901 respondents aged ≥18 years in 1994-1995 completed biannual follow-ups until 2008-2009. The association between life-changing events and decreased LTPA in any 2-year period was assessed with adjustment of potential confounding factors. Data were analyzed in 2012. From 1994-1995 to 2008-2009, nine of ten people changed their LTPA levels. Within each 2-year period, individuals were more likely to decrease their LTPA levels if they married within the 2-year period (men); became or remained overweight/obese (women); remained a regular smoker (men); became or remained unhealthy (men and women); developed or continued to have body pain (women); and acquired social support or remained without support (men). Most people change their LTPA levels or patterns, which are significantly influenced by life-changing events. An improved understanding of factors that influence LTPA may help better target those at high risk. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...... exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P testosterone levels below...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P

  18. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  19. Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Lagman

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb. Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-17 (IL-17 were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-2 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, and interleukin-12 (IL-12, were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility

  20. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  2. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  3. OKN-007 decreases free radical levels in a preclinical F98 rat glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Smith, Nataliya; Atolagbe, Oluwatomisin; Ziegler, Jadith; Njoku, Charity; Lerner, Megan; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P; Meek, Bill; Plafker, Scott M; Saunders, Debra; Mamedova, Nadezda; Towner, Rheal A

    2015-10-01

    Free radicals are associated with glioma tumors. Here, we report on the ability of an anticancer nitrone compound, OKN-007 [Oklahoma Nitrone 007; a disulfonyl derivative of α-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN)] to decrease free radical levels in F98 rat gliomas using combined molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) and immunospin-trapping (IST) methodologies. Free radicals are trapped with the spin-trapping agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), to form DMPO macromolecule radical adducts, and then further tagged by immunospin trapping by an antibody against DMPO adducts. In this study, we combined mMRI with a biotin-Gd-DTPA-albumin-based contrast agent for signal detection with the specificity of an antibody for DMPO nitrone adducts (anti-DMPO probe), to detect in vivo free radicals in OKN-007-treated rat F98 gliomas. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease (P free radical levels detected with an anti-DMPO probe in treated animals compared to untreated rats. Immunoelectron microscopy was used with gold-labeled antibiotin to detect the anti-DMPO probe within the plasma membrane of F98 tumor cells from rats administered anti-DMPO in vivo. OKN-007 was also found to decrease nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 3-nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde in ex vivo F98 glioma tissues via immunohistochemistry, as well as decrease 3-nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde adducts in vitro in F98 cells via ELISA. The results indicate that OKN-007 effectively decreases free radicals associated with glioma tumor growth. Furthermore, this method can potentially be applied toward other types of cancers for the in vivo detection of macromolecular free radicals and the assessment of antioxidants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Levothyroxine treatment restored the decreased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Ning; Hu, Yanjin; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Li; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator of energy metabolism. Thyroid hormone has been shown to regulate hepatic FGF21 expression in rodents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma FGF21 levels in participants with normal thyroid function, subclinical hypothyroidism, or overt hypothyroidism and to investigate the change of plasma FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism after levothyroxine treatment. A total of 473 drug-naive participants were recruited, including 250 healthy control subjects, 116 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 107 patients with overt hypothyroidism. Thirty-eight patients with overt hypothyroidism were assigned to receive levothyroxine treatment. The overt hypothyroidism group had decreased FGF21 levels compared with the control and subclinical hypothyroidism groups (Ptreatment markedly attenuated the increased circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with overt hypothyroidism. A significant increase in plasma FGF21 levels was observed after levothyroxine treatment (Ptreatment (FT3: r=0.44; FT4: r=0.53; all Ptreatment ameliorated metabolic disorders and restored the decreased circulating FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism. The increase in FGF21 levels after levothyroxine treatment might be partly associated with the amelioration of metabolic disorders in patients with hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterozygous deficiency of endoglin decreases insulin and hepatic triglyceride levels during high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Beiroa

    Full Text Available Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  6. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    internalization and degradation. The soluble form has been suggested as a biomarker of M2A-macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to investigate sCD206 plasma levels in early RA patients initiating anti-TNFα treatment. Plasma levels of sCD206 were measured by ELISA in samples from 155 early RA patients...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved......Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and infiltration by activated macrophages. TNFα is a central mediator in this process. The mannose receptor, CD206, is a scavenger receptor expressed by M2A-macrophages and dendritic cells. It is involved in collagen...

  8. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  9. Decreased blood riboflavin levels are correlated with defective expression of RFT2 gene in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Maynur; Li, De-Sheng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Kong, Bing; Du, Chen-Song; Wumar, Maimaitiaili; Mamtimin, Batur; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Hasim, Ayshamgul

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between blood riboflavin levels and riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2) gene expression in gastric carcinoma (GC) development. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect blood riboflavin levels in patients with GC. Real-time fluorogenic quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of RFT2 mRNA and protein in samples from 60 GC patients consisting of both tumor and normal tissue. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the RFT2 mRNA levels was detected in GC samples compared with those in the normal mucous membrane (0.398 ± 0.149 vs 1.479 ± 0.587; P = 0.040). Tumors exhibited low RFT2 protein expression (75%, 16.7%, 8.3% and 0% for no RFT2 staining, weak staining, medium staining and strong staining, respectively), which was significantly lower than that in the normal mucous membrane (10%, 16.7%, 26.7% and 46.7% for no RFT2 staining, weak staining, medium staining and strong staining, respectively; P riboflavin levels were reverse correlated with development of GC (1.2000 ± 0.97 569 ng/mL in high tumor stage patients vs 2.5980 ± 1.31 129 ng/mL in low tumor stage patients; P riboflavin levels with defective expression of RFT2 protein was found in GC patients (χ2 = 2.619; P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Defective expression of RFT2 is associated with the development of GC and this may represent a mechanism underlying the decreased plasma riboflavin levels in GC. PMID:22791947

  10. Decreased serum levels of sex steroids associated with osteoporosis in a group of Romanian male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Florina Ligia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With age, sex hormone deficiency leads to reduced bone mineral density (BMD in men. The aim of our research is to analyze the role of serum sex steroids in assessing BMD in the men included in this study. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 146 men aged 65-85 years old with osteopenia or osteoporosis (study group and 121 men with normal BMD (control group. Serum levels of total testosterone (Tt and free testosterone (Tf were measured by immunoassay, and estradiol (E2 levels were measured by the immunoenzymatic method. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Tf and E2 deficiency was significantly associated with low BMD (p=0.007. No association was found between Tt deficiency and reduced BMD. Tf levels (p<0.001 and E2 levels (p=0.003 were significantly lower in patients with reduced BMD compared to those with normal BMD. Significant more cases with low levels of Tf (p=0.015 and E2 (p<0.001 were found in patients with osteoporosis compared to those with osteopenia. Conclusions. Sex hormones deficiency in men was significantly correlated with the decrease of BMD. Determination of serum Tf and E2 levels is important in assessing the risk of osteoporosis in male subjects.

  11. Optimal intravenous infusion to decrease the haematocrit level in patient of DHF infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Saragih, R.; Wijaya, K. P.; Naiborhu, J.

    2014-02-01

    The optimal control of infusion model for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) infection is formulated here. The infusion model will be presented in form of haematocrit level. The input control aim to normalize the haematocrit level and is expressed as infusion volume on mL/day. The stability near the equilibrium points will be analyzed. Numerical simulation shows the dynamic of each infection compartments which gives a description of within-host dynamic of dengue virus. These results show particularly that infected compartments tend to be vanished in ±15days after the onset of the virus. In fact, without any control added, the haematocrit level will decrease but not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control. Control treatment for a fixed time using a control input can bring haematocrit level to normal range 42-47%. The optimal control in this paper is divided into three cases, i.e. fixed end point, constrained input, and tracking haematocrit state. Each case shows different infection condition in human body. However, all cases require that the haematocrit level to be in normal range in fixed final time.

  12. Serdemetan antagonizes the Mdm2-HIF1α axis leading to decreased levels of glycolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Lehman

    Full Text Available Serdemetan (JNJ-26854165, an antagonist to Mdm2, was anticipated to promote the activation of p53. While regulation of p53 by Mdm2 is important, Mdm2 also regulates numerous proteins involved in diverse cellular functions. We investigated if Serdemetan would alter the Mdm2-HIF1α axis and affect cell survival in human glioblastoma cells independently of p53. Treatment of cells with Serdemetan under hypoxia resulted in a decrease in HIF1α levels. HIF1α downstream targets, VEGF and the glycolytic enzymes (enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase1/2, and glucose transporter 1, were all decreased in response to Serdemetan. The involvement of Mdm2 in regulating gene expression of glycolytic enzymes raises the possibility of side effects associated with therapeutically targeting Mdm2.

  13. Decreased levels of sRAGE in follicular fluid from patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BiJun; Li, Jing; Yang, QingLing; Zhang, FuLi; Hao, MengMeng; Guo, YiHong

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels in follicular fluid and the number of oocytes retrieved and to evaluate the effect of sRAGE on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulosa cells in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. In part one, sRAGE and VEGF protein levels in follicular fluid samples from 39 patients with PCOS and 35 non-PCOS patients were measured by ELISA. In part two, ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from an additional 10 patients with PCOS and cultured. VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as pAKT levels, were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting after cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of sRAGE. Compared with the non-PCOS patients, patients with PCOS had lower sRAGE levels in follicular fluid. Multi-adjusted regression analysis showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose, more oocytes retrieved, and a better IVF outcome in the non-PCOS group. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher sRAGE levels predicted favorably IVF outcomes in the non-PCOS group. Multi-adjusted regression analysis also showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose in the PCOS group. Treating granulosa cells isolated from patients with PCOS with recombinant sRAGE decreased VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein expression and pAKT levels in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment.

  15. Decreased levels of soluble Toll-like Receptor 2 in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehrani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, reports have indicated a role for the membrane form of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2 in asthma pathogenesis. In this study we examined soluble TLR2 levels in serum and sputum of asthmatic and healthy subjects. Methods: Serum and sputum samples were obtained from 33 asthmatic and 19 healthy subjects. The asthmatics were classified into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma. A sandwich ELISA was developed to measure soluble TLR2 (sTLR2 in serum and sputum. TLR2 mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR of all sputum samples. Results: The mean sTLR2 levels from serum and sputum of asthmatics were significantly lower than those from healthy subjects. Moreover, sTLR2 concentration decreased concomitantly with asthma severity. The differences observed, however, were not statistically significant. TLR2/GAPDH mRNA of sputum leukocytes was also significantly lower in asthmatics than in healthy subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrated for the first time thatsTLR2 levels are lower in serum and sputum samples from asthmatic than from healthy subjects, and this could be an indicator of TLR2 expression. We also found that sTLR2 concentration in serum decreased concomitantly with an increase of asthma severity clinical score.

  16. Effectiveness of Shelled Almonds in Decreasing Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Nuts such as almonds are high in unsaturated lipids and antioxidants. Some studies indicate that nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of shelled almonds on reduction of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial (before and after and was done on 30 men volunteering for the study. They consumed 60 grams shelled almonds per day for four weeks. Their blood lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a levels were measured after and before almond consumption. Results: Shelled almond consumption caused significant decrease in serum cholesterol 36.1 mg/dl, triglyceride 45.94 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol 28.68 mg/dl and increase in HDL-cholesterol 10.64 mg/dl(p<0.001. Shelled almond consumption decreased lipoprotein (a (2.11 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B100 (8.93 mg/dl and increased apolipoprotein A (1 1.74 mg/dl levels, but this effect was insignificant statistically. Conclusion: Continuous consumption of shelled almonds has beneficial effect on blood lipids and may play a preventive role in Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. We therefore suggest that a daily intake of 60 grams of almonds can be used for treatment of hyprelipidemic patients.

  17. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Azevedo Melo Luvizotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3/100 BW (OT. The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity.

  18. Experimental hyperthyroidism decreases gene expression and serum levels of adipokines in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)-fed with commercial chow ad libitum-and obese (OB)-fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T(3))/100 BW (OT). The T(3) dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. T(3) treatment was effective, increasing fT(3) levels and decreasing fT(4) and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T(3) promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Our results suggest that T(3) modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T(3) and adipokines in obesity.

  19. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano K. Jornada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group. RESULTS: When evaluated immediately, 3h, or 24h after injection, ouabain in doses of 10-2 and 10-3 M does not alter BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus. However, when evaluated seven days after injection, ouabain in 10-2 and 10-3 M, showed a significant reduction in BDNF levels in both brain regions evaluated. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, we propose that the ouabain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala when assessed seven days after administration, supporting the Na/K ATPase hypothesis for bipolar illness.

  20. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  1. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  2. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  3. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Izabela G; Morato, Isabela B; Huguet, Rodrigo B; Rocha, Fabio L; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antônio L

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate two poorly explored neurotrophins (NT), NT-3 and NT-4/5, in bipolar disorder (BD). Forty patients with type I BD (18 in remission and 22 in mania) and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and educational attainment were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate severity of symptoms in BD patients. Plasma levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BD patients in mania presented decreased NT-4/5 plasma levels in comparison with controls (p neurotrophin dysfunction is associated with mood states in patients with BD.

  4. Postsurgical Acute Phase Reaction is Associated with Decreased Levels of Circulating Myostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Gunningberg, Lena; Swenne, Christine Leo; Larsson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    Muscle strength is of importance for postsurgical rehabilitation. Myostatin is a growth factor that regulates the size of muscles and could thus influence muscle mass and function in the postsurgical period. The aim of the present study was to study the changes in myostatin levels during the postsurgical inflammatory period. Myostatin was analysed in serum samples from two elective surgery groups, orthopaedic surgery (n = 24) and coronary bypass patients (n = 21). The samples were collected prior to surgery and 4 and 30 days after surgery. In the orthopaedic group, the median myostatin levels decreased from 3582 ng/L prior to surgery to 774 ng/L at day 4 (p myostatin from 4212 ng/L to 2574 ng/L at day 4 (p myostatin concentrations both in the early and late postsurgical period. The lowest myostatin concentration time point coincided with the highest CRP concentration time point.

  5. Decreased serum pyridoxal levels in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Watanabe, Shin-ya; Nakataki, Masahito; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Ikeda, Masashi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Shimodera, Shinji; Tajima, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    Background Alterations in one-carbon metabolism have been associated with schizophrenia, and vitamin B6 is one of the key components in this pathway. Methods We first conducted a case–control study of serum pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia in a large Japanese cohort (n = 1276). Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies (n = 2125). Second, we investigated whether rs4654748, which was identified in a genome-wide association study as a vitamin B6-related single nucleotide polymorphism, was genetically implicated in patients with schizophrenia in the Japanese population (n = 10 689). Finally, we assessed the effect of serum pyridoxal levels on schizophrenia risk using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Results Serum pyridoxal levels were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, not only in our cohort, but also in the pooled data set of the meta-analysis of association studies (standardized mean difference −0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.57 to −0.39, p = 9.8 × 10−24). We failed to find a significant association between rs4654748 and schizophrenia. Furthermore, an MR analysis failed to find a causal relationship between pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia risk (odds ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.65–1.51, p = 0.96). Limitations Food consumption and medications may have affected serum pyridoxal levels in our cross-sectional study. Sample size, number of instrumental variables and substantial heterogeneity among patients with schizophrenia are limitations of an MR analysis. Conclusion We found decreased serum pyridoxal levels in patients with schizophrenia in this observational study. However, we failed to obtain data supporting a causal relationship between pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia risk using the MR approach. PMID:29688875

  6. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  7. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  8. A Mixture of 3 Bifidobacteria Decreases Abdominal Pain and Improves the Quality of Life in Children With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Eleonora; Maglione, Marco; Alessandrella, Annalisa; Strisciuglio, Caterina; De Giovanni, Donatella; Campanozzi, Angelo; Miele, Erasmo; Staiano, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of a probiotic mixture of Bifidobacterium infantis M-63, breve M-16V, and longum BB536 in improving abdominal pain (AP) and quality of life (QoL) in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD). AP-associated functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly IBS and FD, are common in pediatrics, and no well-established treatment is currently available. Although probiotics have shown promising results in adults, data in children are heterogeneous. Forty-eight children with IBS (median age, 11.2 y; range, 8 to 17.9 y) and 25 with FD (age, 11.6 y; range, 8 to 16.6 y) were randomized to receive either a mixture of 3 Bifidobacteria or a placebo for 6 weeks. After a 2-week "washout" period, each patient was switched to the other group and followed up for further 6 weeks. At baseline and follow-up, patients completed a symptom diary and a QoL questionnaire. AP resolution represented the primary outcome parameter. In IBS, but not in FD, Bifidobacteria determined a complete resolution of AP in a significantly higher proportion of children, when compared with placebo (P=0.006), and significantly improved AP frequency (P=0.02). The proportion of IBS children with an improvement in QoL was significantly higher after probiotics than after placebo (48% vs. 17%, P=0.001), but this finding was not confirmed in FD. In children with IBS a mixture of Bifidobacterium infantis M-63, breve M-16V, and longum BB536 is associated with improvement in AP and QoL. These findings were not confirmed in FD subjects. Trial identifier: NCT02566876 (http://www.clinicaltrial.gov).

  9. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms described in Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals. Irritation of the eye, nose, and throat is common to SBS, MCS, and sensory irritation (SI). Difficulty of breathing is often seen with SBS, MCS, and pulmonary irritation (PI). We therefore asked the question: can indoor air pollutants cause SI and/or PI? In laboratory testing in which mice breathed the dilute volatile emissions of air fresheners, fabric softeners, colognes, and mattresses for 1 h, we measured various combinations of SI and PI as well as airflow decreases (analogous to asthma attacks). Air samples taken from sites associated with repeated human complaints of poor air quality also caused SI, PI, and airflow limitation (AFL) in the mice. In previous publications, we have documented numerous behavior changes in mice (which we formally studied with a functional observational battery) after exposure to product emissions or complaint site air; neurological complaints are a prominent part of SBS and MCS. All together, these data suggest that many symptoms of SBS and MCS can be described as SI, PI, AFL, and neurotoxicity. All these problems can be caused by airborne irritant chemicals such as those emitted by common commercial products and found in polluted indoor air. With some chemical mixtures (e.g., emissions of some fabric softeners, disposable diapers, and vinyl mattress covers) but not others (e.g., emissions of a solid air freshener), the SI response became larger (2- to 4-fold) when we administered a series of two or three 1-h exposures over a 24-h period. Since with each exposure the intensity of the stimulus was constant yet the magnitude of the response increased, we concluded that there was a change in the sensitivity of the mice to these chemicals. The response was not a generalized stress response because it occurred with only some mixtures of irritants and not others

  10. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  11. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  12. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIRE M. DE GOUVEIA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75% of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose.

  14. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  15. Levels of semenogelin in human spermatozoa decrease during capacitation: involvement of reactive oxygen species and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lamirande, E; Lamothe, G

    2010-07-01

    Semenogelin (Sg), the main protein of human semen coagulum, prevents sperm capacitation. The objective of this study was to examine the role of Sg and its mechanism of action. Sg blocked sperm capacitation triggered by various stimuli, via inhibition of superoxide anion (O(2)*-; luminescence assay) and nitric oxide (NO*; tested using diaminofluorescein) generation. Triton-soluble and -insoluble sperm fractions contained Sg and Sg peptides (immunoblotting), the level of which decreased with initiation of capacitation. This drop was prevented by superoxide dismutase and NO* synthase inhibitor and was reproduced by addition of O(2)*- and NO*. Zinc (Zn(2+)) blocked and a zinc chelator (TPEN) promoted the decline in Sg levels. There was a decreased labelling of Sg on the head in capacitating spermatozoa with the two fixation techniques tested (immunocytochemistry). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O(2)*- and NO*) caused, these changes, and zinc prevented them. Spermatozoa quickly internalized Sg upon incubation and Sg was then rapidly degraded in a zinc-inhibitable manner. Sg blocked capacitation mainly via inhibition of ROS generation. Spermatozoa appeared permeable to Sg and processed Sg in a zinc-inhibitable fashion. ROS themselves could promote sperm disposal of Sg which maybe one of the mechanisms that allows initiation of capacitation.

  16. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  17. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Qi, Yicheng; Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-11-29

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients.

  18. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyol ES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  19. [The effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on decreasing the level of aggression in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, Ppsychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.

  20. Decreased Daily Melatonin Levels in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa Robeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuroendocrine system is known to influence immunity, but the precise interactions between different hormones and autoimmune disorders remain obscure. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the role of daily serum melatonin concentrations in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: One-hundred and eleven SLE female patients and 46 healthy women were included in the study. Daily serum melatonin levels were investigated in all participants. Results: SLE patients showed significantly lower daily melatonin levels in comparison to healthy women during the short photoperiod (17.75±7.13 pg/mL [16.05] vs. 21.63±6.60 pg/mL [20.10], p=0.012. Hormone concentrations were inversely related to the SLE activity index (SLEDAI (r= -0.268, p=0.004, but they did not correlate to any particular American College Rheumatology (ACR criterion (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Daily melatonin levels were decreased in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and correlated inversely to the activity of the autoimmune disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of the pineal and extrapineal melatonin secretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as the interrelations between hormones and autoimmunity.

  1. Sensory irritating potency of some microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and a mixture of five MVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, A; Kasanen, J P; Alarie, Y; Kosma, V M; Pasanen, A L

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability/potencies of 3 microbial volatile organic compounds and a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds to cause eye and upper respiratory tract irritation (i.e., sensory irritation), with an animal bioassay. The authors estimated potencies by determining the concentration capable of decreasing the respiratory frequency of mice by 50% (i.e., the RD50 value). The RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 182 mg/m3 (35 ppm), 1359 mg/m3 (256 ppm), and 17586 mg/m3 (3360 ppm), respectively. Recommended indoor air levels calculated from the individual RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 100, 1000, and 13000 microg/m3, respectively-values considerably higher than the reported measured indoor air levels for these compounds. The RD50 value for a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds was also determined and found to be 3.6 times lower than estimated from the fractional concentrations and the respective RD50s of the individual components. The data support the conclusion that a variety of microbial volatile organic compounds may have some synergistic effects for the sensory irritation response, which constrains the interpretation and application of recommended indoor air levels of individual microbial volatile organic compounds. The results also showed that if a particular component of a mixture was much more potent than the other components, it may dominate the sensory irritation effect. With respect to irritation symptoms reported in moldy houses, the results of this study indicate that the contribution of microbial volatile organic compounds to these symptoms seems less than previously supposed.

  2. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p Placental TRAIL-R2 levels and previous cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p Placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were positively correlated. Decreased levels of placental TRAIL-R2 and previous history of cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  4. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Schottlaender

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37 as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7, dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20, corticobasal degeneration (n = 15 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18 patients were used as comparison groups. CoQ10 was measured in cerebellar and frontal cortex tissue by high performance liquid chromatography.We detected a statistically significant decrease (by 3-5% in the level of CoQ10 in the cerebellum of MSA cases (P = 0.001, specifically in OPCA (P = 0.001 and mixed cases (P = 0.005, when compared to controls as well as to other neurodegenerative diseases [dementia with Lewy bodies (P<0.001, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (P<0.001, corticobasal degeneration (P<0.001, and cerebellar ataxia (P = 0.001].Our results suggest that a perturbation in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of MSA but the mechanism behind this finding remains to be elucidated.

  5. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  6. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  7. Evaluation of the contribution of chronic skin irritation and selected compositional parameters to the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; McKee, R H

    1993-07-28

    Two-year skin carcinogenicity studies were conducted in C3H mice to assess the effects of irritation and selected compositional parameters on the carcinogenic potential of four petroleum liquids. Three samples (lightly refined paraffinic oil, LRPO; lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil, LHSO; jet fuel, JF) can be generically classified as middle distillates, i.e. distillation occurs between 350 and 700 degrees F (175-370 degrees C). The fourth sample was a Steam Cracked Gas Oil (SCGO) that distilled within the same range. In studies that assess the effects of irritation on tumorigenicity, LRPO was tested undiluted or was diluted to 50% and 25% in either mineral oil (which eliminated irritation of the skin) or toluene (which did not). Undiluted LRPO elicited tumors in 8% of the mice. Both dilution procedures eliminated tumorigenic potential. Thus, it was possible to maintain a visible level of skin irritation equivalent to that elicited by undiluted LRPO without inducing tumors. SCGO elicited a chronic irritant state grossly equivalent to LRPO but was not tumorigenic. Jet Fuel A (JF) was tested undiluted using both a standard skin painting protocol and an intermittent dosing schedule in which treatment was suspended periodically to allow skin irritation to resolve. The standard treatment protocol of JF resulted in both marked skin irritation and tumors in 44% of the mice. However, using the intermittent schedule, the tumor yield was reduced to 2%. Collectively these data demonstrate that tumor formation is not a necessary sequelae to chronic skin irritation. Conversely, prevention of a marked chronic irritant state was accompanied by decreased tumor yield. These data suggest that the chronic irritant state may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for tumor formation. In studies to assess the effects of compositional parameters, a lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil (LHSO) similar to LRPO but refined to have negligible levels of sulfur compounds (3 ppm

  8. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  9. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  10. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  11. Hemodiafiltration Decreases Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Severe Leptospirosis: A Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Aparecido Cleto

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a health problem worldwide. Its most severe form is a classic model of sepsis, provoking acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and acute kidney injury (AKI, with associated mortality that remains unacceptably high. We previously demonstrated that early initiation of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED followed by daily SLED significantly decreases mortality. However, the mode of clearance can also affect dialysis patient outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of SLED with traditional (diffusive clearance, via hemodialysis, and SLED with convective clearance, via hemodiafiltration (SLEDf, in patients with severe leptospirosis.In this prospective study, conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU from 2009 through 2012, we compared two groups-SLED (n = 19 and SLEDf (n = 20-evaluating demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as serum levels of interleukins, up to the third day after admission. All patients received dialysis early and daily thereafter.During the study period, 138 patients were admitted to our ICU with a diagnosis of leptospirosis; 39 (36 males/3 females met the criteria for ARDS and AKI. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and were comparable in terms of respiratory parameters. Mortality did not differ between the SLEDf and SLED groups. However, post-admission decreases in the serum levels of interleukin (IL-17, IL-7, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significantly greater in the SLEDf group. Direct bilirubin and the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio were significantly higher in the SLED group. We identified the following risk factors (sensitivities/specificities for mortality in severe leptospirosis: age ≥ 55 years (67%/91%; serum urea ≥ 204 mg/dl (100%/70%; creatinine ≥ 5.2 mg/dl (100%/58%; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥ 39.5 (67%/88%; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score

  12. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  13. Climate change affects low trophic level marine consumers: warming decreases copepod size and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzke, Jessica; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Concern about climate change has re-ignited interest in universal ecological responses to temperature variations: (1) biogeographical shifts, (2) phenology changes, and (3) size shifts. In this study we used copepods as model organisms to study size responses to temperature because of their central role in the pelagic food web and because of the ontogenetic length constancy between molts, which facilitates the definition of size of distinct developmental stages. In order to test the expected temperature-induced shifts towards smaller body size and lower abundances under warming conditions, a mesocosm experiment using plankton from the Baltic Sea at three temperature levels (ambient, ambient +4 °C, ambient -4 °C) was performed in summer 2010. Overall copepod and copepodit abundances, copepod size at all life stages, and adult copepod size in particular, showed significant temperature effects. As expected, zooplankton peak abundance was lower in warm than in ambient treatments. Copepod size-at-immature stage significantly increased in cold treatments, while adult size significantly decreased in warm treatments.

  14. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

  15. Social isolation after stroke leads to depressive-like behavior and decreased BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Lena M; Doran, Sarah J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Conti, Lisa H; Venna, Venugopal R; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-03-01

    Social isolation prior to stroke leads to poorer outcomes after an ischemic injury in both animal and human studies. However, the impact of social isolation following stroke, which may be more clinically relevant as a target for therapeutic intervention, has yet to be examined. In this study, we investigated both the sub-acute (2 weeks) and chronic (7 weeks) effects of social isolation on post-stroke functional and histological outcome. Worsened histological damage from ischemic injury and an increase in depressive-like behavior was observed in isolated mice as compared to pair-housed mice. Mice isolated immediately after stroke showed a decrease in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes, both histological and behavioral, suggest an overall negative effect of social isolation on stroke outcome, potentially contributing to post-stroke depression and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have perceived isolation post-stroke to hopefully prevent this exacerbation of histological damage and subsequent depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  17. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; Pindex scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Rizos, Alexandra; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Mulholland, Nicola; Robinson, Stephanie; Howell, Nicholas A; Harrison, Neil; Vivian, Gill; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-02-01

    Impulse control disorders are commonly associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients with impulse control disorders demonstrate enhanced dopamine release to conditioned cues and a gambling task on [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and enhanced ventral striatal activity to reward on functional MRI. We compared PD patients with impulse control disorders and age-matched and gender-matched controls without impulse control disorders using [(123)I]FP-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density. The [(123)I]FP-CIT binding data in the striatum were compared between 15 PD patients with and 15 without impulse control disorders using independent t tests. Those with impulse control disorders showed significantly lower DAT binding in the right striatum with a trend in the left (right: F(1,24)=5.93, p=0.02; left: F(1,24)=3.75, p=0.07) compared to controls. Our findings suggest that greater dopaminergic striatal activity in PD patients with impulse control disorders may be partly related to decreased uptake and clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Whether these findings are related to state or trait effects is not known. These findings dovetail with reports of lower DAT levels secondary to the effects of methamphetamine and alcohol. Although any regulation of DAT by antiparkinsonian medication appears to be modest, PD patients with impulse control disorders may be differentially sensitive to regulatory mechanisms of DAT expression by dopaminergic medications.

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubić, Petra; Jurcić, Dragan; Ebling, Barbara; Gmajnić, Rudika; Nikolić, Bojana; Pribić, Sanda; Bilić, Ante; Levak, Maja Tolusić

    2014-06-01

    There are three epidemiological studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were conducted in Croatia (in the area of Zagreb in 2002, Bjelovarsko-bilogorska County in 2008, and finally in Osjecko-baranjska County in 2011). The aim of this study is to analyze the anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS in Croatia comparing these three studies. The studies included a questionnaire based on Rome criteria. Study population matched the adult population of Croatia according last available census (1991, 2001 resp.). Studies showed a high prevalence of IBS and some common factors relevant for development of IBS were determined such as gender, body mass index and lower level of education. There is a need for further investigations in coastal Croatia applying a uniform questionnaire on anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS and Rome III criteria, diagnostic questionnaires and scoring algorithm for functional gastrointestinal disorders developed by Rome Foundation applicable in clinical practice and population studies, regarding the significant high prevalence of IBS in our country.

  20. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Droomers (Mariël); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational differences in decreases in leisure time physical activity among an adult, physically active population and additionally attempts to identify predictors of these differences from information on health status

  1. Transcutaneous sacral neurostimulation for irritative voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, I K; Johnston, R S; Keane, P F

    1999-01-01

    Patients with irritative voiding dysfunction are often unresponsive to standard clinical treatment. We evaluated the response of such individuals to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the third sacral nerve. 32 patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction (31 female and 1 male; mean age 47 years) were recruited to the study. Ambulatory transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation was applied bilaterally to the third sacral dermatomes for 1 week. Symptoms of frequency, nocturia, urgency, and bladder pain were scored by each patient throughout and up to 6 months following treatment. The mean daytime frequency was reduced from 11.3 to 7.96 (p = 0.01). Nocturia episodes were reduced from a mean of 2.6 to 1.8 (p = 0.01). Urgency and bladder pain mean symptom scores were reduced from 5.97 to 4.89 and from 1.48 to 0.64, respectively. After stopping therapy, symptoms returned to pretreatment levels within 2 weeks in 40% of the patients and within 6 months in 100%. Three patients who continued with neurostimulation remained satisfied with this treatment modality at 6 months. Transcutaneous third sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective and noninvasive ambulatory technique for the treatment of patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction. Following an initial response, patients may successfully apply this treatment themselves to ensure long-term relief.

  2. Undergraduate Use of Library Databases Decreases as Level of Study Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Miller

    2014-09-01

    had the lowest percentage of use, with 38% of enrolled students at each level accessing the library’s databases. The study also found that November was the peak of database search activity, accounting for 37% of database searches for the Fall 2009 semester. Database use varied by the schools or colleges in which students were enrolled, with the School of Nursing having the highest percentage of enrolled undergraduates using library databases (54%. The authors also report that the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had the fourth highest proportion of users at 46%, representing 7,523 unique students, more than double the combined number of undergraduate users from all other programs. Since the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts accounts for more than 60% of the total undergraduate enrollment, the authors suggest that information literacy instruction targeted to these programs would have the greatest campus-wide impact. Conclusion – Although the library conducts a number of library instruction sessions with freshman students each Fall semester, the authors conclude that database use patterns suggest that the proportion of students who continue to use library databases decreases as level of study progresses. This finding does not support the study’s hypothesis that database use increases as students advance through their undergraduate studies.

  3. Carbon isotopic evidence for the associations of decreasing atmospheric CO2 level with the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Gu, Zhaoyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Hao, Qingzhen; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Luo; Lu, Yanwu

    2012-03-01

    A perturbation of the global carbon cycle has often been used for interpreting the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction. However, the changes of atmospheric CO2 level (pCO2) during this interval are much debatable. To illustrate the carbon cycle during F-F transition, paired inorganic (δ13Ccarb) and organic (δ13Corg) carbon isotope analyses were carried out on two late Devonian carbonate sequences (Dongcun and Yangdi) from south China. The larger amplitude shift of δ13Corg compared to δ13Ccarb and its resultant Δ13C (Δ13C = δ13Ccarb - δ13Corg) decrease indicate decreased atmospheric CO2level around the F-F boundary. The onset ofpCO2 level decrease predates that of marine regressions, which coincide with the beginning of conodont extinctions, suggesting that temperature decrease induced by decreased greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO2might have contributed to the F-F mass extinction.

  4. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study

    OpenAIRE

    Droomers, Mariël; Schrijvers, Carola; Mackenbach, Johan

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This study describes educational differences in decreases in leisure time physical activity among an adult, physically active population and additionally attempts to identify predictors of these differences from information on health status and individual and environmental factors.
DESIGN—Prospective population based study. Baseline measurement were carried out in 1991 and follow up in 1997.
SETTING—South eastern part of the Netherlands.
PARTICIPANTS—The study included 3793 su...

  5. Decrease in lower level density due to cooling of gas temperature by thermal dissociation of hydrogen in copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Hayashi, Kazuo; Iseki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Setsuo; Noda, Etsuo; Morimiya, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A gas temperature calculation is carried out in the copper vapor laser (CVL) with a beam diameter of 80 mm in the case of H 2 addition into the Ne buffer gas. The on-axis gas temperature decreases to 2800K with 1% concentration of H 2 , whereas the gas temperature is 3400K without H 2 . The on-axis lower level density decreases due to the cooling of the gas temperature. This decrease in the lower level density is thought to bring about a non annular beam profile in the case of H 2 addition. (author)

  6. Decreased Polycystin 2 Levels Result in Non-Renal Cardiac Dysfunction with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Duong, Sophie L; Nguyen, Lily; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for polycystin 2 (Pkd2) lead to polycystic kidney disease, however the main cause of mortality in humans is cardiac related. We previously showed that 5 month old Pkd2+/- mice have altered calcium-contractile activity in cardiomyocytes, but have preserved cardiac function. Here, we examined 1 and 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice to determine if decreased amounts of functional polycystin 2 leads to impaired cardiac function with aging. We observed changes in calcium handling proteins in 1 month old Pkd2+/- mice, and these changes were exacerbated in 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice. Anatomically, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice had thinner left ventricular walls, consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy, and the left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased. Intriguingly, in response to acute isoproterenol stimulation to examine β-adrenergic responses, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice exhibited a stronger contractile response, which also coincided with preserved localization of the β2 adrenergic receptor. Importantly, the Pkd2+/- mice did not have any renal impairment. We conclude that the cardiac-related impact of decreased polycystin 2 progresses over time towards cardiac dysfunction and altered adrenergic signaling. These results provide further evidence that polycystin 2 provides a critical function in the heart, independent of renal involvement.

  7. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    OpenAIRE

    Jornada, Luciano K.; Valvassori, Samira S.; Resende, Wilson R.; Moretti, Morgana; Ferreira, Camila L.; Fries, Gabriel R.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group). RESULTS: When evaluated immedi...

  8. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  9. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  10. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Placental and cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in nondiabetic macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2017-08-01

    To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P BDNF was positively associated with placental BDNF relative expression (r s  = 0.245, P = 0.02) in the total group. Higher cord blood BDNF levels were independently associated with protection against nondiabetic macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.

  12. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma are associated with increased corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Zhang, Yong; Murphy, James R; Hauk, Pia J; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-05-01

    There is little knowledge about clinical variables associated with vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in asthmatic children. We sought to investigate disease variables associated with VitD insufficiency in patients with childhood asthma and interaction of VitD with corticosteroid-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in 100 asthmatic children to investigate relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and patients' characteristics. We determined VitD's effects on dexamethasone (DEX) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL-10 in PBMCs. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level was 31 ng/mL. Forty-seven percent of subjects had VitD levels in the insufficient range (<30 ng/mL), whereas 17% were VitD deficient (<20 ng/mL). Log(10) IgE (P = .01, rho = -0.25) and the number of positive aeroallergen skin prick test responses (P = .02, rho = -0.23) showed a significant inverse correlation with VitD levels, whereas FEV(1) percent predicted (P = .004, rho = 0.34) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio (P = .01, rho = 0.30) showed a significant positive correlation with VitD levels. The use of inhaled steroids (P = .0475), use of oral steroids (P = .02), and total steroid dose (P = .001) all showed significant inverse correlations with VitD levels. The amount of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL10 mRNA induced by VitD plus DEX was significantly greater than that induced by DEX alone (P < .01). In an experimental model of steroid resistance in which DEX alone did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, addition of VitD to DEX resulted in significant dose-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Corticosteroid use and worsening airflow limitation are associated with lower VitD serum levels in asthmatic patients. VitD enhances glucocorticoid action in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and enhances the immunosuppressive function of DEX in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy

  13. Decreasing erucic acid level by RNAi-mediated silencing of fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To develop low level of erucic acid in rapeseeds by intron-spliced hairpin RNA, an inverted repeat unit of a partial BnFAE1.1 gene interrupted by a spliceable intron ... In conclusion, the expression of endogenous BnFAE1.1 was efficiently silenced by the designed RNAi silencer, causing a significant down-regulation in the ...

  14. CLASSICAL MUSIC DECREASE STRESS LEVEL AND BLOOD PRESSURE PRIMIGRAVIDA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Alit Armini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  15. Ketamine alters behavior and decreases BDNF levels in the rat brain as a function of time after drug administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane B. Fraga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug.

  16. Irritant Contact Dermatitis : Diagnosis and Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Maria; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is frequent and is induced by direct and repeated contact with skin irritants such as detergents, abrasives, solvents and physical factors such as dry air and occlusion (by wearing gloves) but also water. When dermatitis has developed, even a minimal skin irritation, like

  17. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  18. Decreased levels of serum fibroblast growth factor-2 in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnafoglu, Erman; Ayyıldız, Sema Nur

    2017-11-01

    The neurodevelopment and functioning of the central nervous system, and especially the cerebral cortex, have basic importance to understand neuropsychiatric disorders like autism. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays a very important role in the development and functioning of the cortex. FGF-2 is related to developmental processes in the central nervous system such as neurogenesis, migration, differentiation and survival. This study researched the serum FGF-2 levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With this aim, 60 ASD children and 40 healthy controls were compared. We applied a sociodemographic form and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) to each subject with their family to assess the severity of autism. Additionally, all subjects had routine laboratory tests performed. Serum samples were studied with ELISA. The results found that serum FGF-2 levels were statistically significantly low in the patient group compared to the healthy control group (p value 0.003). Additionally there was a statistically significant negative correlation identified between serum FGF-2 levels and CARS score for all subjects (r = -0.300; p = 0.02). In conclusion, FGF-2 may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased Serum Vitamin D Levels in Children with Asthma are Associated with Increased Corticosteroid Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A.; Zhang, Yong; Murphy, James R.; Hauk, Pia J.; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little knowledge about clinical variables associated with vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency in asthmatic children. Objective To investigate disease variables associated with vitD insufficiency in childhood asthma and interaction of vitD with corticosteroid-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. Methods We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in 100 asthmatic children to investigate relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and patient characteristics. We determined vitD effects on dexamethasone (DEX) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level was 31 ng/mL. 47% of subjects had vitD levels in the insufficient range (<30 ng/mL), while 17% were vitD deficient (<20 ng/mL). Log10 IgE (p=0.01, ρ=−0.25) and the number of positive aeroallergen skin prick tests (p=0.02, ρ=−0.23) showed a significant inverse correlation with vitD, whereas FEV1% predicted (p =0.004, ρ=0.34) and FEV1/FVC ratio (p=0.01, ρ=0.30) showed a significant positive correlation with vitD. The use of inhaled steroids (p=0.0475), oral steroids (p=0.02), and total steroid dose (p=0.001), all showed significant inverse correlations with vitD. The amount of MKP-1 and IL-10 mRNA induced by vitD plus DEX was significantly greater than that induced by DEX alone (p<0.01). In an experimental model of steroid resistance where DEX alone did not inhibit T cell proliferation, addition of vitD to DEX resulted in significant dose dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Conclusions Corticosteroid use and worsening airflow limitation is associated with lower vitD serum levels in asthmatics. VitD enhances glucocorticoid action in asthmatic PBMC and enhances the immunosuppressive function of DEX in vitro. Clinical Implications Our study suggests that vitD supplementation may potentiate anti-inflammatory function of corticosteroids in asthmatics and

  20. Creatine kinase and alpha-actin mRNA levels decrease in diabetic rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, B.; Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac atrophy and isoenzyme redistribution. To determine if tissue specific changes occur in mRNAs coding for α-actin and creatine kinase (CK), they performed RNA blot analysis. Total ventricular RNA from control (C) and 4 wk old diabetic (D) rats were hybridized with 32 P cDNA probes for α-actin and CK. A tissue independent cDNA probe, CHOA was also used. Signal intensity was quantified by photodensitometry. D CK mRNA was 47 +/- 16% lower in D vs C. Insulin increases CK mRNA by 20% at 1.5 hs, and completely reverses the deficit after 4 wks. D α-actin mRNA is 66 +/- 18% lower in D vs C. Insulin normalized α-actin mRNA by 5 hs. CHOA mRNA is unchanged in D vs C, but D + insulin CHOA mRNA is 30 +/- 2% lower than C. In rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, muscle specific CK and α-actin mRNAs are decreased. Insulin treatment reverses these changes

  1. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  2. Cervical cerclage placement decreases local levels of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with cervical insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsanto, Stephany P; Daher, Silvia; Ono, Erika; Pendeloski, Karen Priscilla Tezotto; Trainá, Évelyn; Mattar, Rosiane; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2017-10-01

    Cervical insufficiency is characterized by premature, progressive dilation and shortening of the cervix during pregnancy. If left unattended, this can lead to the prolapse and rupture of the amniotic membrane, which usually results in midtrimester pregnancy loss or preterm birth. Previous studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha are up-regulated in normal parturition but are also associated with preterm birth. Studies evaluating such markers in patients with cervical insufficiency have evaluated only their diagnostic potential. Even fewer studies have studied them within the context of cerclage surgery. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of local and systemic inflammatory markers on the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency and the effect of cerclage surgery on the local immune microenvironment of women with cervical insufficiency. We recruited 28 pregnant women (12-20 weeks' gestation) diagnosed with insufficiency and referred for cerclage surgery and 19 gestational age-matched normal pregnant women as controls. Serum and cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected before and after cerclage surgery and during a routine checkup for normal women and analyzed using a targeted 13-plex proinflammatory cytokine assay. Before surgery, patients with cervical insufficiency had higher levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-12, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cervicovaginal fluid compared to controls, but after surgery, these differences disappeared. No differences were found in serum of insufficiency versus control women. In patients with insufficiency, the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interferon gamma in cervicovaginal fluid declined significantly after cerclage compared with before intervention, but these changes were not detected in serum

  3. Elevated Levels of Peripheral Kynurenine Decrease Bone Strength in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Kalaska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 3 months after 5/6 Nx or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats presented higher concentrations of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone both 1 and 3 months after nephrectomy. These animals revealed higher concentrations of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the serum and higher gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR as a physiological receptor for kynurenine and AhR-dependent cytochrome in the bone tissue. Furthermore, nephrectomy significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the bone without affecting their resorptive activity measured in serum. These changes were particularly evident in rats 1 month after 5/6 Nx. The main bone biomechanical parameters of the tibia were unchanged between nephrectomized and sham-operated rats but were significantly increased in older compared to younger animals. A similar trend was observed for geometrical parameters measured with calipers, bone mineral density based on Archimedes' method and image of bone microarchitecture obtained from micro-computed tomography analyses of tibial cortical bone. In nephrectomized animals, peripheral kynurenine levels correlated negatively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics, bone geometry, and bone mineral density values. In conclusion, our data suggest that CKD-induced elevated levels of peripheral kynurenine cause pathological changes in bone

  4. Decrease in tropospheric O3 levels in the Northern Hemisphere observed by IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wespes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe the recent changes in the tropospheric ozone (O3 columns measured by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, onboard the Metop satellite, during the first 9 years of operation (January 2008 to May 2017. Using appropriate multivariate regression methods, we differentiate significant linear trends from other sources of O3 variations captured by IASI. The geographical patterns of the adjusted O3 trends are provided and discussed on the global scale. Given the large contribution of the natural variability in comparison with that of the trend (25–85 % vs. 15–50 %, respectively to the total O3 variations, we estimate that additional years of IASI measurements are generally required to detect the estimated O3 trends with high precision. Globally, additional 6 months to 6 years of measurements, depending on the regions and the seasons, are needed to detect a trend of |5| DU decade−1. An exception is interestingly found during summer at mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH; ∼ 40 to ∼ 75° N, where the large absolute fitted trend values (∼ |0.5| DU yr−1 on average combined with the small model residuals (∼ 10 % allow for detection of a band-like pattern of significant negative trends. Despite no consensus in terms of tropospheric O3 trends having been reached from the available independent datasets (UV or IR satellites, O3 sondes, aircrafts, ground-based measurements, etc. for the reasons that are discussed in the text, this finding is consistent with the reported decrease in O3 precursor emissions in recent years, especially in Europe and USA. The influence of continental pollution on that latitudinal band is further investigated and supported by the analysis of the O3–CO relationship (in terms of correlation coefficient, regression slope and covariance that we found to be the strongest at northern midlatitudes in summer.

  5. GABA Levels Are Decreased After Stroke and GABA Changes During Rehabilitation Correlate With Motor Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicher, Jakob Udby; Near, Jamie; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Østergaard, Leif; Ho, Yi-Ching Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the dominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is important in motor learning. We aimed to measure GABA content in primary motor cortex poststroke (using GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]) and in relation to motor recovery during 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Methods Twenty-one patients (3-12 months poststroke) and 20 healthy subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging structural T1 and GABA-edited MRS were performed at baseline and after CIMT, and once in healthy subjects. GABA:creatine (GABA:Cr) ratio was measured by GABA-edited MRS. Motor function was measured using Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Results Baseline comparison between stroke patients (n = 19) and healthy subjects showed a significantly lower GABA:Cr ratio in stroke patients (P GABA relative to N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA; P = .03). After 2 weeks of CIMT patients improved significantly on WMFT, but no consistent change across the group was observed for the GABA:Cr ratio (n = 17). However, the extent of improvement on WMFT correlated significantly with the magnitude of GABA:Cr changes (P GABA:Cr ratio being associated with better improvements in motor function. Conclusions In patients 3 to 12 months poststroke, GABA levels are lower in the primary motor cortex than in healthy subjects. The observed association between GABA and recovery warrants further studies on the potential use of GABA MRS as a biomarker in poststroke recovery. PMID:25055837

  6. Sevelamer does not decrease lipopolysaccharide or soluble CD14 levels but decreases soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with untreated HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Choi, Andrew I; Robinson, Janet K; Fine, Derek M; Coombs, Robert W; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Landay, Alan L; Douek, Daniel C; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W; Wilson, Cara C; Deeks, Steven G; Lederman, Michael M; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. NCT 01543958. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zhou, Yanhui; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Lin; Lou, Hongxiang, E-mail: louhongxiang@sdu.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infected by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.

  8. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zhou, Yanhui; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Lin; Lou, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infected by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.

  9. High-dose vitamin B6 decreases homocysteine serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodownik, Chanoch; Lerner, Vladimir; Vishne, Tali; Sela, Ben-Ami; Levine, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B6 plays an essential role in the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Normal homocysteine (Hcy) serum level is maintained by remethylation of Hcy to methionine by enzymes that require folic acid and vitamin B12 and by catabolism to cysteine by a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme. These findings may be consistent with the hypothesis that the vitamin B6 status may influence plasma Hcy levels. The aims of this preliminary study were (1) to determine whether a correlation exists between Hcy and vitamin B6 levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and (2) to investigate whether treatment with high-dose vitamin B6 may reduce Hcy levels in these patients. In this preliminary study, we enrolled 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (7 men and 4 women; mean age +/- SD, 50 +/- 12 years) receiving high doses of vitamin B6 treatment (1200 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Blood samples for the assessment of pyridoxal-5-phosphate and Hcy serum levels were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Age was significantly positively correlated with Hcy levels at baseline (r = 0.392, P = 0.004). All other parameters, including diagnosis, disease duration, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate serum level, were not correlated with Hcy serum levels at baseline. After vitamin B6 treatment, Hcy serum levels significantly decreased (14.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.8 +/- 2.0 micromol/L, respectively, t = 2.679, P = 0.023); this decrease being statistically significant in men but not in women. High doses of vitamin B6 lead to a decrease in Hcy serum level in male patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  10. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Cindy M.; Verberk, Maarten M.; Withagen, Carien E. T.; Jacobs, John J. L.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels

  11. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  12. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  13. Circulating MOTS-c levels are decreased in obese male children and adolescents and associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Caiqi; Zhang, Cai; Wu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Wang, Anru; Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Ling; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2018-04-25

    A novel bioactive peptide, mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c), has recently attracted attention as a potential prevention or therapeutic option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MOTS-c profiles have not yet been reported in human obesity and T2DM. We aimed to determine circulating MOTS-c levels in obesity and explore the association between MOTS-c levels and various metabolic parameters. In this case-control study, 40 obese children and adolescents (27 males) and 57 controls (40 males) were recruited in the Hubei Province of China in 2017. Circulating MOTS-c levels were measured, clinical data (e.g., glucose, insulin and lipid profile) were recorded, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Finally, we investigated correlations between MOTS-c levels and related variables. MOTS-c levels were significantly decreased in the obese group compared with the control group (472.61 ± 22.83 ng/mL vs. 561.64 ± 19.19 ng/mL, p c levels were significantly decreased in obese male children and adolescents compared to their counterparts (465.26 ± 24.53 ng/mL vs. 584.07 ± 21.18 ng/mL, p 0.05). Further, MOTS-c levels were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c in the male cohort. Circulating MOTS-c levels were decreased in obese male children and adolescents and correlated with markers of insulin resistance and obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral Blood CD64 Levels Decrease in Crohn’s Disease following Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimi Chiba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA is reportedly useful as induction therapy for Crohn’s disease (CD. However, the effects of GMA on CD64 have not been well characterized. We report here our assessment of CD64 expression on neutrophils before and after treatment with GMA in two patients with CD. The severity of CD was assessed with the CD activity index (CDAI. The duration of each GMA session was 60 min at a flow rate of 30 ml/min as per protocol. CD64 expression on neutrophils was measured by analyzing whole blood with a FACScan flow cytometer. In case 1, CD64 levels after each session of GMA tended to decrease compared to pretreatment levels, whereas in case 2, CD64 levels dropped significantly after treatment. The CDAI decreased after GMA in both cases 1 and 2. A significant correlation was noted between CDAI scores and CD64 levels in both cases. In conclusion, GMA reduced blood CD64 levels, which would be an important factor for the decrease of CDAI scores.

  15. The PPARalpha agonist, fenofibrate decreases levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in the small intestine of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Golbas, Golfam; Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    contribute to the hyperphagic effect of dietary fat. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with either chow (minced Altromin) (n=8 from Taconic and n=8 from Charles River) or chow mixed with supplemented 0.5 wt% Fenofibrate (n=8 from Taconic and n=8 from Charles River) for seven days, and intestinal levels of NAEs were...... measured by LC-MS as previously described (3,4). The levels of PEA and LEA were significantly decreased (23-64%) in both strain of mice , while the decrease in OEA only reached significance in Charles river mice. There was no difference in levels of anandamide in any strain of mice. This suggests...

  16. Inhibition of mutant IDH1 decreases D-2-HG levels without affecting tumorigenic properties of chondrosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijker, Johnny; Oosting, Jan; Koornneef, Annemarie; Struys, Eduard A; Salomons, Gajja S; Schaap, Frank G; Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Wijers-Koster, Pauline M; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Haazen, Lizette; Riester, Scott M; Dudakovic, Amel; Danen, Erik; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; van Wijnen, Andre J; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-05-20

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found in a subset of benign and malignant cartilage tumors, gliomas and leukaemias. The mutant enzyme causes the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), affecting CpG island and histone methylation. While mutations in IDH1/2 are early events in benign cartilage tumors, we evaluated whether these mutations play a role in malignant chondrosarcomas. Compared to IDH1/2 wildtype cell lines, chondrosarcoma cell lines harboring an endogenous IDH1 (n=3) or IDH2 mutation (n=2) showed up to a 100-fold increase in intracellular and extracellular D-2-HG levels. Specific inhibition of mutant IDH1 using AGI-5198 decreased levels of D-2-HG in a dose dependent manner. After 72 hours of treatment one out of three mutant IDH1 cell lines showed a moderate decrease in viability , while D-2-HG levels decreased >90%. Likewise, prolonged treatment (up to 20 passages) did not affect proliferation and migration. Furthermore, global gene expression, CpG island methylation as well as histone H3K4, -9, and -27 trimethylation levels remained unchanged. Thus, while IDH1/2 mutations cause enchondroma, malignant progression towards central chondrosarcoma renders chondrosarcoma growth independent of these mutations. Thus, monotherapy based on inhibition of mutant IDH1 appears insufficient for treatment of inoperable or metastasized chondrosarcoma patients.

  17. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  18. Decreased plasma levels of factor II + VII + X correlate with increased levels of soluble cytokine receptors in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Hansen, M B; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    The levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X and of blood platelets (thrombocytes) as well as of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors were studied in the patients with malaria or meningococcal infections. The coagulation factors were decreased particularly in the meningococcal patients, while...... thrombocytes were lowest in the Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients. There was no correlation between factors II + VII + X and thrombocytes, but plasma levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X were found to correlate inversely with levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble tumour...... necrosis factor-I (sTNF-RI) in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections. Elevated sIL-2R and sTNF-RI levels and decreased coagulation factors reverted to normal within 3-5 days after initiation of therapy in P. falciparum patients followed consecutively. Estimation of coagulation factors may...

  19. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Donald A.; Abuelgasim, Khadega A.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E.; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M.Celeste; Huang, Jingyu; Simcox, Judith A.; Yoon, Donghoon; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2012-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHLR200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wildtype VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHLR200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHLR200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc but not Pdk2 was decreased and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1 and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:23015148

  20. Does des-acyl ghrelin improve glycemic control in obese diabetic subjects by decreasing acylated ghrelin levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Behiye; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Miller, Anne Reifel; Yang, Hsiu-Chiung; Lucaites, Virginia; Abribat, Thierry; Allas, Soraya; Huisman, Martin; Visser, Jenny A; Themmen, Axel P N; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Delhanty, Patric J D; van der Lely, Aart Jan

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a continuous overnight infusion of des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) on acylated ghrelin (AG) levels and glucose and insulin responses to a standard breakfast meal (SBM) in eight overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, in the same patients and two additional subjects, the effects of DAG infusion on AG concentrations and insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) were assessed. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study design was implemented, using overnight continuous infusions of 3 and 10  μg DAG/kg per h and placebo to study the effects on a SBM. During a HEC, we studied the insulin sensitivity. We observed that, compared with placebo, overnight DAG administration significantly decreased postprandial glucose levels, both during continuous glucose monitoring and at peak serum glucose levels. The degree of improvement in glycemia was correlated with baseline plasma AG concentrations. Concurrently, DAG infusion significantly decreased fasting and postprandial AG levels. During the HEC, 2.5  h of DAG infusion markedly decreased AG levels, and the M-index, a measure of insulin sensitivity, was significantly improved in the six subjects in whom we were able to attain steady-state euglycemia. DAG administration was not accompanied by many side effects when compared with placebo. DAG administration improves glycemic control in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes through the suppression of AG levels. DAG is a good candidate for the development of compounds in the treatment of metabolic disorders or other conditions with a disturbed AG:DAG ratio, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or Prader-Willi syndrome. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Intake of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Decreases IL-1 and TNF-α Levels in Dyslipidemic Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumption behavior to instant food cause various health problems, such as obesity, dislipidemia, and atherosclerosis. A study was conducted to investigate Moringa oleifera extract as an anti-inflammation product that decreases the levels of biochemical markers IL-1 and TNF-a. This experiment was done with randomized pre- and posttest control-group design, employing 40 Wistar rats separated into five groups: control group 0% M. oleifera leaf extract (P0, treatment group 1 with 10% M. oleifera leaf extract (P1, treatment group 2 with 15% M. oleifera leaf extract (P2, treatment group 3 with 20% M. oleifera leaf extract (P3, and treatment group 4 with 25% M. oleifera leaf extract (P4. This research observed that intake of 20% M. oleifera leaf extract results in the highest significant decrease of 15.42% of IL-1 level (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 pg/mL and decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α level (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 pg/mL. Therefore, it can be concluded that intake of M. oleifera leaf extract by Wistar rat has anti-inflammatory effects on chronic dyslipidemia through decrease of IL-1 and TNF-α levels and histopathology profile. Further research is required to determine whether the application of M. oleifera leaf extract (daun kelor in humans will have similar anti-inflammation effects.

  2. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort ...

  3. Plasma Gelsolin Levels Decrease in Diabetic State and Increase upon Treatment with F-Actin Depolymerizing Versions of Gelsolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Khatri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to map plasma gelsolin (pGSN levels in diabetic humans and mice models of type II diabetes and to evaluate the efficacy of gelsolin therapy in improvement of diabetes in mice. We report that pGSN values decrease by a factor of 0.45 to 0.5 in the blood of type II diabetic humans and mice models. Oral glucose tolerance test in mice models showed that subcutaneous administration of recombinant pGSN and its F-actin depolymerizing competent versions brought down blood sugar levels comparable to Sitagliptin, a drug used to manage hyperglycemic condition. Further, daily dose of pGSN or its truncated versions to diabetic mice for a week kept sugar levels close to normal values. Also, diabetic mice treated with Sitagliptin for 7 days, showed increase in their pGSN values with the decrease in blood glucose as compared to their levels at the start of treatment. Gelsolin helped in improving glycemic control in diabetic mice. We propose that gelsolin level monitoring and replacement of F-actin severing capable gelsolin(s should be considered in diabetic care.

  4. HIV-1/HAART-Related Lipodystrophy Syndrome (HALS Is Associated with Decreased Circulating sTWEAK Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Dupla

    Full Text Available Obesity and HIV-1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS share clinical, pathological and mechanistic features. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in obesity and related diseases. We sought to explore the relationship between HALS and circulating levels of soluble (s TWEAK and its scavenger receptor sCD163.This was a cross-sectional multicenter study of 120 HIV-1-infected patients treated with a stable HAART regimen; 56 with overt HALS and 64 without HALS. Epidemiological and clinical variables were determined. Serum levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U and χ2 test. Pearson and Spearman correlation were used to estimate the strength of association between variables.Circulating sTWEAK was significantly decreased in HALS patients compared with non-HALS patients (2.81±0.2 vs. 2.94±0.28 pg/mL, p = 0.018. No changes were observed in sCD163 levels in the studied cohorts. On multivariate analysis, a lower log sTWEAK concentration was independently associated with the presence of HALS (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.001-0.521, p = 0.027.HALS is associated with decreased sTWEAK levels.

  5. A decrease in vitamin D levels is associated with methotrexate-induced oral mucositis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterom, N; Dirks, N F; Heil, S G; de Jonge, R; Tissing, W J E; Pieters, R; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Heijboer, A C; Pluijm, S M F

    2018-06-19

    Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, which might make them more susceptible to developing adverse events. Previous studies showed that low vitamin D levels were associated with an increased inflammatory mucosal state and impaired mucosal tissue barriers. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and studied the association between vitamin D levels and methotrexate (MTX)-induced oral mucositis in pediatric ALL. We assessed 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D 3 ) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) levels in 99 children with ALL before the start of 4 × 5 g/m 2 high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) (T0) and in 81/99 children after discontinuation of HD-MTX (T1). Two cutoff values for vitamin D deficiency exist: 25(OH)D 3 levels D deficiency occurred in respectively 8% ( 4 years of age as compared to children between 1 and 4 years of age. A decrease in 25(OH)D 3 levels during HD-MTX therapy was associated with developing severe oral mucositis (OR 1.6; 95% CI [1.1-2.4]). 25(OH)D 3 and 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels at T0 and the change in 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels during therapy were not associated with the development of severe oral mucositis. This study showed that vitamin D deficiency occurs frequently in pediatric ALL patients above the age of 4 years. A decrease in 25(OH)D 3 levels during MTX therapy was observed in children with ALL that developed severe oral mucositis.

  6. Sibutramine administration decreases serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosnakis, Christos; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Armeni, Anastasia K; Papadakis, Efstathios; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Katsikis, Ilias; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of diet, physical exercise and sibutramine administration on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, hormonal and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective clinical study, in an outpatient clinic setting, of 76 overweight and obese women with PCOS. All patients were placed on a hypocaloric diet, physical exercise plus sibutramine (10 mg per day) for the first month and then on either a hypocaloric diet, physical exercise plus sibutramine (10 mg per day) or a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise for the subsequent 6 months. Serum AMH levels, body composition, hormonal and metabolic features and insulin sensitivity indices were evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 7 months of treatment. Body weight reduction was greater in the sibutramine group. Moreover, serum FSH and testosterone levels decreased, and SHBG, free androgen index and all indices of insulin resistance significantly improved at 4 and 7 months. Serum AMH levels decreased only in PCOS women who received sibutramine, at both 4 and 7 months of treatment. A hypocaloric diet and a diet plus sibutramine both resulted in significant weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Patients who received sibutramine showed greater weight loss and improvement in hyperandrogenemia and insulin sensitivity after 7 months of treatment. Serum AMH levels significantly decreased at both 4 and 7 months of treatment only in PCOS women who received sibutramine, indicating a possible direct, gonadotropin independent effect of sibutramine on the ovarian production of AMH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Periodontal treatment decreases levels of antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis and citrulline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Moe; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ito, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2013-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an etiologic agent of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase. The present study evaluates whether periodontal treatment may affect serum antibodies to P. gingivalis and citrulline levels in relation to disease activity of RA. Fifty-five patients with RA were randomly assigned to receive oral hygiene instruction and supragingival scaling (treatment group, n = 26) or no periodontal treatment (control group, n = 29). Periodontal and rheumatologic parameters and serum levels of cytokine and inflammatory markers citrulline and immunoglobulin (Ig)G to P. gingivalis were examined at baseline and 8 weeks later. Both groups did not differ statistically in any parameters except percentage of sites with probing depth and clinical attachment level ≥ 4 mm at baseline. The treatment group exhibited a significantly greater decrease in disease activity score including 28 joints using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) (P = 0.02), serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis hemin binding protein (HBP)35 (P = 0.04), and citrulline (P = 0.02) than the control group. Serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis HBP35 were significantly correlated positively with those of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (P = 0.0002). The same correlation was obtained between serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis-sonicated extracts and those of rheumatoid factor (P = 0.02). These results suggest that supragingival scaling decreases DAS28-CRP and serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis HBP35 and citrulline in patients with RA. These observations may reflect a role of P. gingivalis in the protein citrullination, which is related to the pathogenesis of RA.

  8. Blood meal-derived heme decreases ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and allows proliferation of intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Henrique M Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bacteria in the midgut of mosquitoes antagonizes infectious agents, such as Dengue and Plasmodium, acting as a negative factor in the vectorial competence of the mosquito. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of midgut microbiota could help in the development of new tools to reduce transmission. We hypothesized that toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by epithelial cells control bacterial growth in the midgut of Aedes aegypti, the vector of Yellow fever and Dengue viruses. We show that ROS are continuously present in the midgut of sugar-fed (SF mosquitoes and a blood-meal immediately decreased ROS through a mechanism involving heme-mediated activation of PKC. This event occurred in parallel with an expansion of gut bacteria. Treatment of sugar-fed mosquitoes with increased concentrations of heme led to a dose dependent decrease in ROS levels and a consequent increase in midgut endogenous bacteria. In addition, gene silencing of dual oxidase (Duox reduced ROS levels and also increased gut flora. Using a model of bacterial oral infection in the gut, we show that the absence of ROS resulted in decreased mosquito resistance to infection, increased midgut epithelial damage, transcriptional modulation of immune-related genes and mortality. As heme is a pro-oxidant molecule released in large amounts upon hemoglobin degradation, oxidative killing of bacteria in the gut would represent a burden to the insect, thereby creating an extra oxidative challenge to the mosquito. We propose that a controlled decrease in ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti is an adaptation to compensate for the ingestion of heme.

  9. Decreased paraoxonase1 activity and increased malondialdehyde and oxidative DNA damage levels in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcu, Ugur Yilmaz; Kocer, Ibrahim; Ates, Orhan; Alp, H. Hakan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, paraoxonase1 (PON1) activity and 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patient. Blood samples from 52 healthy individuals and 53 patients with POAG were analyzed for MDA and 8-OHdG by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) and PON1 by spectrophotometry. The data obtained were analyzed statistically. MDA levels were 10.46±8.4 and 4.70±1.79 µmol; PON1 levels were 121±39.55 and 161.62±60.22 U/mL; and 8-OHdG values were 1.32±0.53/106 dG and 0.47±0.27/106 dG in the POAG patients and the control group, respectively. The difference was significant in MDA levels, 8-OHdG levels and PON1 activity in POAG patients in comparison with controls (P<0.001). We concluded that the observed increase in MDA and 8-OHdG levels may be correlated with decreased PON1 activity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in glaucoma development. PMID:27803873

  10. Postanaesthetic tear production and ocular irritation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, N; Köstlin, R; Reese, S; Pieper, K

    2015-01-01

    General anaesthesia significantly reduces tear production and normal values are not immediately re-established on ending anaesthesia. Therefore, adequate protection of the cornea has to be assured during the perianaesthetic period. There are various methods available, including taping of the eyelids and the application of eye ointments, gels and drops. In human medicine studies, different formulations were found to induce signs of ocular irritation. The aim of the present study was to determine tear production in cats after general anaesthesia, and to identify possible causes of irritation. Tear production was determined in 41 cats after general anaesthesia and eyes were examined for signs of irritation. Two different anaesthetic protocols were used. To protect the cornea, an ointment and gel were applied to the right and left eyes, respectively. Postoperatively, tear production was significantly reduced for 6 hours and 18 hours in the right and left eyes, respectively. Two hours after anaesthesia, blepharospasm of the right eye was observed in 92.7% (n = 38) of the cats. In contrast, the left eye was always held open. This study demonstrated that tear production in cats is significantly decreased both during and after anaesthesia. The degree of reduction was independent of the anaesthetic protocol. Both the eye ointment and gel proved effective in protecting the corneal surface. However, eye gel use is recommended because the eye ointment consistently caused an irritation comparable to the foreign-body sensation reported in humans.

  11. Decrease of physical activity level in adolescents with limb fractures: an accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delhumeau Cécile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immobilization and associated periods of inactivity can cause osteopenia, the physiological response of the bone to disuse. Mechanical loading plays an essential role in maintaining bone integrity. Skeletal fractures represent one cause of reduction of the physical activity (PA level in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of PA in adolescents with limb fractures during the cast immobilization period compared with healthy controls. Methods Two hundred twenty adolescents were divided into three groups: those with upper limb fractures (50 cases; lower limb fractures (50 cases; and healthy cases (120 cases. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender, age, and seasonal assessment of PA. PA level was assessed during cast immobilization by accelerometer. Time spent in PA in each of the different intensity levels - sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous - was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results Reduction in PA during cast immobilization was statistically significant in patients with limb fractures compared to healthy controls. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was significantly lower in those with upper and lower limb fractures (-30.1% and -62.4%, respectively compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.0003 and 76.6% (p p = 0.0008 and 84.4% (p Conclusions PA measured by accelerometer is a useful and valid tool to assess the decrease of PA level in adolescents with limb fractures. As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in this patient population. The observed reduction of high intensity skeletal loading due to the decrease in vigorous PA may explain osteopenia due to disuse, and these data should be kept in mind by trauma practitioners to avoid any unnecessary prolongation of the cast

  12. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  13. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the uptake of uranium by subterranean clover grown at high levels of uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufyikiri, Gervais; Huysmans, Lien; Wannijn, Jean; Hees, May van; Leyval, Corinne; Jakobsen, Iver

    2004-01-01

    Subterranean clover inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices was grown on soil containing six levels of 238 U in the range 0-87 mg kg -1 . Increasing U concentration in soil enhanced the U concentration in roots and shoots of both mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants but had no significant effects on plant dry matter production or root AM colonization. Mycorrhizas increased the shoot dry matter and P concentration in roots and shoots, while in most cases, it decreased the Ca, Mg and K concentrations in plants. The AM fungus influenced U concentration in plants only in the treatment receiving 87 mg U kg -1 soil. In this case, U concentration in shoots of nonmycorrhizal plants was 1.7 times that of shoots of mycorrhizal plants. These results suggested that mycorrhizal fungi can limit U accumulation by plants exposed to high levels of U in soil. - Plant mycorrhization may decrease U concentration in shoots of plants grown at high level of U in soil

  15. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) inhibits insulin sensitivity by decreasing copper levels in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang-Bo; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shui-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Dou, Xin; Du, Shao-Yue; Ding, Meng; Peng, Wan-Qiu; Qian, Shu-Wen; Huang, Hai-Yan; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2017-09-23

    Dysregulation of insulin signaling leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is an important contributor to insulin resistance, and although the understanding of this relationship has improved in recent years, the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance is not completely understood. Disorders of copper metabolism tend to accompany the development of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) functions in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and cellular copper homeostasis. However, the role of SCO1 in the regulation of metabolism remains unknown. Here, we found that obese mice had higher expression of SCO1 and lower levels of copper in white adipose tissue (WAT) than did the control mice. Overexpression of SCO1 in adipocytes was associated with copper deficiency. Copper increased insulin sensitivity by decreasing the level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein. Ectopic expression of SCO1 led to insulin resistance and was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular copper level, and addition of copper abolished the inhibitory effect of SCO1 on insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrated a novel role of SCO1 in modulating insulin sensitivity via the regulation of copper concentration in WAT and suggested a potential therapeutic target for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Aligned energy-level design for decreasing operation voltage of tandem white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chih-Hao, E-mail: chc@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Zih-Jyun; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Tai, Cheng-Wei [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hsin-Hua, E-mail: hhua3@mail.vnu.edu.tw [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Vanung University, Chung-Li 32061, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-02

    In general, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) need to operate at higher current density levels to ensure an ample light flux. However, stressed operation will result in poor performance and limited device lifetime. Recently, a tandem structure has been proposed as a pivotal technique to meet the stringent lighting requirements for OLED commercialization, with a research focus on decreasing the concomitant higher operation voltage. Driving two connected emission units (EMUs) in a tandem structure often requires more than twice the driving voltage for a single EMU. This study investigates bipolar host materials and their effective employment in fabricating tandem white phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). In addition, the design of a mechanism to align the energy level between the hole transport layer/emitting layer is shown to effectively mitigate operational voltages. In sharp contrast to devices using a unipolar host material, we demonstrate that the turn-on voltage of blue PhOLEDs could be decreased from 3.8 V to 2.7 V through utilizing a bipolar host. Furthermore, applying the proposed techniques to tandem white PhOLEDs produces a luminance of 10{sup 3} cd/m{sup 2} by a 10.1 V driving voltage. - Highlights: • The matched energy level between the hole transport/emitting layer lowers voltages. • Multiple conduction dopants were used to investigate charge generation layer. • Two-color emitters were used to quantify the charge generation strength.

  17. Aligned energy-level design for decreasing operation voltage of tandem white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Wu, Zih-Jyun; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Tai, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In general, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) need to operate at higher current density levels to ensure an ample light flux. However, stressed operation will result in poor performance and limited device lifetime. Recently, a tandem structure has been proposed as a pivotal technique to meet the stringent lighting requirements for OLED commercialization, with a research focus on decreasing the concomitant higher operation voltage. Driving two connected emission units (EMUs) in a tandem structure often requires more than twice the driving voltage for a single EMU. This study investigates bipolar host materials and their effective employment in fabricating tandem white phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). In addition, the design of a mechanism to align the energy level between the hole transport layer/emitting layer is shown to effectively mitigate operational voltages. In sharp contrast to devices using a unipolar host material, we demonstrate that the turn-on voltage of blue PhOLEDs could be decreased from 3.8 V to 2.7 V through utilizing a bipolar host. Furthermore, applying the proposed techniques to tandem white PhOLEDs produces a luminance of 10 3 cd/m 2 by a 10.1 V driving voltage. - Highlights: • The matched energy level between the hole transport/emitting layer lowers voltages. • Multiple conduction dopants were used to investigate charge generation layer. • Two-color emitters were used to quantify the charge generation strength

  18. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  19. Developing a quick and inexpensive in vitro (non-animal) bioassay for mascara irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, H; Montagnes, D J S

    2014-04-01

    Mascara is a mild irritant that causes a range of medical problems. Animal models to predict ocular irritation have, however, been questioned at a number of levels, and there is a continued need to develop in vitro testing methods. We assess changes in an easily quantifiable attribute, ciliated protozoan growth rate, as a sensitive, sublethal measure. Specifically, we test six, randomly chosen, commercial mascara products against a control (as treatments) and reveal through ANOVA (n = 6, α = 0.05) significant differences in the specific growth rate to treatments (for both protozoa). We provide evidence that two easily cultured protozoa (Paramecium caudatum, Blepharisma japonicum) should be considered as models to assess ocular irritancy (and possibly cosmetics in general) and establish the groundwork for such studies to be applied at a more commercial level. We do this by developing a bioassay for mascara toxicity and indicate the low cost (after equipment is purchased, on the order of $100s) and the ease of performing such tests (able to be conducted by undergraduate students), as a consideration for their future commercial application. We first examined dose dependence of responses, revealing that there was a need to conduct preliminary work to determine appropriate levels for sublethal responses. We then show that some products resulted in mortality at high concentrations, others decreased growth rate by >50% (compared with the control), whereas others had no significant effect, compared with the control. We have provided a novel, quick and inexpensive means to assess mascara; the next step is to validate these ciliate bioassays by comparison with animal testing and epidemiological studies, which is beyond the scope of this fundamental 'proof-of-concept' study. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Irritability Trajectories, Cortical Thickness, and Clinical Outcomes in a Sample Enriched for Preschool Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Pine, Daniel S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and genetic associations exist between irritability and depression. Prior studies have examined developmental trajectories of irritability, clinical outcomes, and associations with child and familial depression. However, studies have not integrated neurobiological measures. The present study examined developmental trajectories of irritability, clinical outcomes, and cortical structure among preschoolers oversampled for depressive symptoms. Beginning at 3 to 5 years old, a sample of 271 children enriched for early depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally by clinical interview. Latent class mixture models identified trajectories of irritability severity. Risk factors, clinical outcomes, and cortical thickness were compared across trajectory classes. Cortical thickness measures were extracted from 3 waves of magnetic resonance imaging at 7 to 12 years of age. Three trajectory classes were identified among these youth: 53.50% of children exhibited elevated irritability during preschool that decreased longitudinally, 30.26% exhibited consistently low irritability, and 16.24% exhibited consistently elevated irritability. Compared with other classes, the elevated irritability class exhibited higher rates of maternal depression, early life adversity, later psychiatric diagnoses, and functional impairment. Further, elevated baseline irritability predicted later depression beyond adversity and personal and maternal depression history. The elevated irritability class exhibited a thicker cortex in the left superior frontal and temporal gyri and the right inferior parietal lobule. Irritability manifested with specific developmental trajectories in this sample enriched for early depression. Persistently elevated irritability predicted poor psychiatric outcomes, higher risk for later depression, and decreased overall function later in development. Greater frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical thickness also was found, providing neural

  1. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  2. Ketogenic diet is antiepileptogenic in pentylenetetrazole kindled mice and decrease levels of N-acylethanolamines in hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Suzanne L; Nielsen, Ane H; Knudsen, Katrine E

    2009-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children, however, the mechanism(s) remains largely unknown. Also, the antiepileptogenic potential in animal models of epilepsy has been poorly addressed. Activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB(1)-R) upon seizure...... activity or type of diet. The level of oleoylethanolamide as well as the sum of N-acylethanolamines were significantly decreased by the KD, but were unaffected by seizure activity. The study shows that the KD had clear antiepileptogenic properties in the pentylenetetrazole kindling model and does...

  3. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  4. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  5. Antibiotics may not decrease prostate-specific antigen levels or prevent unnecessary prostate biopsy in patients with moderately increased prostate-specific antigen levels: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Zhu, Yuchun; Tang, Zhuang; Chen, Yongji; Gao, Liang; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Li, Xiang; Wei, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of empiric antibiotics on decreasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and the possibility of avoiding unnecessary prostate biopsies (PBs). A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared effects of empiric antibiotics with no treatment or placebo on lowering PSA levels and minimizing unnecessary PBs in patients with moderately increased PSA levels. The Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager software (RevMan 5.1.4) was used for statistical analysis. The inclusion criteria for the study were met by 6 RCTs (1 placebo controlled and 5 no treatment controlled) involving 656 patients. The synthesized data from these RCTs indicated that there were no significant differences between the antibiotic and control groups in the PSA levels after treatment (mean difference [MD] = 0.15, 95% CI:-0.50 to 0.81, P = 0.65], number of patients with decreased PSA levels after treatment (relative risk [RR] = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.90-1.65, P = 0.20], prostate-specific antigen density levels after treatment (MD =-0.04, 95% CI:-0.15 to 0.07, P = 0.47), f/t% PSA after treatment (MD =-1.47, 95% CI:-4.65 to 1.71, P = 0.37), number of patients with responsive PSA (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.58-1.81, P = 0.94), and individual Pca-positiverate in these patients (RR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.16, P = 0.86), and Pca-positiverates (RR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.48-1.50, P = 0.57). However, the antibiotic group had a significant change in the net PSA decrease after treatment compared with the control group (MD = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.70-2.17, P = 0.0001). The use of empiric antibiotics may not significantly decrease PSA levels or avoid unnecessary PBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased serum level of HMGB1 and MyD88 during human aging progress in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Xiang; Chen, Alex F; Zhong, Yuan; Zhao, Jian; Gu, Ying-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) binds to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling mediates the progression of various inflammatory diseases. But the roles of HMGB1 and TLR4 in aging remain poorly unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of HMGB1 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which is one of TLR4's intracellular adaptor proteins during human aging process and their relevance with cathepsin B (CTSB). This research was conducted using the blood samples provided by healthy people (n = 90, 63 men and 27 women). Subjects were subdivided into groups with respect to age: young (about 25 years old, n = 30), middle age (about 40 years old, n = 30), and aged (above 65 years old, n = 30). Altered serum levels of HMGB1, MyD88 and CTSB were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum levels of HMGB1 and MyD88 were significantly decreased in the aged group compared with those in the young group. Linear regression analysis showed that HMGB1 and MyD88 positively correlated with CTSB among the whole healthy people. A negative correlation was determined between MyD88 and age. The serum levels of HMGB1 and MyD88 significantly decreased with age. MyD88, but not HMGB1, was negatively correlated with age.

  7. Pediatric Mania: The Controversy between Euphoria and Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Uchida, Mai; Battaglia, Claudia; Casini, Maria Pia; De Chiara, Lavinia; Biederman, Joseph; Vicari, Stefano; Wozniak, Janet

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania. Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95-100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age. Future research should focus on the heterogeneity of irritability aiming at differentiating distinct subtypes of pediatric psychiatric disorders with distinct phenomenology, course, outcome and biomarkers. Longitudinal studies of samples attending to mood presentation, irritable versus elated, and course, chronic versus episodic, may help clarify whether these are meaningful distinctions in the course, treatment and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder.

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  10. Pseudomembranous Type of Oral Candidiasis is Associated with Decreased Salivary Flow Rate and Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Bela; Bagul, Neeta; Desai, Rajiv; Reddy, Mamatha; Mahajan, Amit; Shete, Ashwini; Risbud, Arun; Mane, Arati

    2015-08-01

    Saliva plays an important role in maintaining microbial homeostasis in the oral cavity, while salivary gland hypofunction predisposes the oral mucosa to pathologic alteration and increases the risk for oral candidiasis. This study sought to determine the salivary flow rate (SFR) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and evaluate their relationship with the determinants of oral candidiasis. Sixty HIV-positive (30 with and 30 without oral candidiasis) and 30 healthy HIV-negative individuals were enrolled. Cotton pellet was weighed pre- and post-saliva collection for the assessment of SFR, while SIgA levels were estimated by commercial ELISA (Diametra, Italy) kit. The mean ± SD, SFR and SIgA levels in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis, without candidiasis and HIV-negative controls were 0.396 ± 0.290, 0.546 ± 0.355 and 0.534 ± 0.214 ml/min and 115.891 ± 37.621, 136.024 ± 51.075 and 149.418 ± 31.765 µg/ml, respectively. A positive correlation between low CD4 counts (indicator of immunodeficiency) and SIgA was observed in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis (r = 0.373, p = 0.045). We also report here for the first time the significant decrease in SFR and SIgA levels in individuals presenting with pseudomembranous type of oral candidiasis and Candida albicans infection.

  11. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  12. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xijin; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Pi; Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng; Lin, Stanley L.; Huo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  13. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  14. IPOMOEA BATATAS SYRUP DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE AND INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE PLASMA LEVELS AMONGST MODERATE SMOKER WORKERS AT DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Ayu Intan Dwi-Primayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cells and tissues are continuously damaged by reactive oxygen species. Cigarette smoke is one of an exogenous source of free radical containing more than 4000 chemical compounds, that triggering the formation of free radicals related to diseases and aging process. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants that are widely distributed in fruit, vegetables, red wines and Ipomea batatas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ipomea batatas as a source of antioxidants in decreasing levels of alondialdehyde (MDA and increasing of Nitrous oxide (nitrite/nitrate/NOxplasma in moderate smokers of workers at Denpasar.Method: This was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control groups design. There are 33 moderate smokers who were divided into three groups, control group (placebo, treatment group with 15 ml purple sweet potato syrup (P1 and 30 ml (P2, for 14 days. All groups were performed the laboratory examinations for MDA and NOx plasma before and after the treatment.Results: This study showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05 both in MDA and NOx plasma levels in the control group, P1 and P2. The decrease of MDAlevels on P1 was 35.39% and on P2 was 49.87%. The increase of NOx plasma levels was 7.78% for P1 and 14.68% for P2.Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Ipomea batatas syrup contains of 8mg/mL anthocyanins, probably play a role in reducing the free radical and thus reducingthe risk of disease and slowing the aging process.

  15. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.

  17. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  18. Massive weight loss decreases corticosteroid-binding globulin levels and increases free cortisol in healthy obese patients: an adaptive phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Fernández-Real, José M; Valera-Mora, Maria E; Déchaud, Henri; Nanni, Giuseppe; Tondolo, Vincenzo; Calvani, Menotti; Castagneto, Marco; Pugeat, Michel; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2007-06-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and weight loss have been associated with changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. So far, no conclusive data relating to this association are available. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of massive weight loss on cortisol suppressibility, cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), and free cortisol index (FCI) in formerly obese women. Ten glucose-normotolerant, fertile, obese women (BMI >40 kg/m2, aged 38.66 +/- 13.35 years) were studied before and 2 years after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) when stable weight was achieved and were compared with age-matched healthy volunteers. Cortisol suppression was evaluated by a 4-mg intravenous dexamethasone suppression test (DEX-ST). FCI was calculated as the cortisol-to-CBG ratio. Insulin sensitivity was measured by an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and insulin secretion was measured by a C-peptide deconvolution method. No difference was found in cortisol suppression after DEX-ST before or after weight loss. A decrease in ACTH was significantly greater in control subjects than in obese (P = 0.05) and postobese women (P obese subjects, an increase of free cortisol was associated with a simultaneous decrease in CBG levels, which might be an adaptive phenomenon relating to environmental changes. This topic, not addressed before, adds new insight into the complex mechanisms linking HPA activity to obesity.

  19. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Rujoi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles.The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds.Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  20. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  1. Cluster of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates With High-level Azithromycin Resistance and Decreased Ceftriaxone Susceptibility, Hawaii, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Komeya, Alan Y; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Whelen, A Christian; Soge, Olusegun O; Papp, John R; Kersh, Ellen N; Wasserman, Glenn M; O'Connor, Norman P; O'Brien, Pamela S; Sato, Douglas T; Maningas, Eloisa V; Kunimoto, Gail Y; Tomas, Juval E

    2017-09-15

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We identified a cluster of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility. Eight N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 7 patients on Oahu, Hawaii, seen 21 April 2016 through 10 May 2016 underwent routine Etest antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the Hawaii Department of Health. All demonstrated elevated azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) >256 μg/mL and elevated ceftriaxone MICs (≥0.125 μg/mL). Isolates were sent to the University of Washington and CDC for confirmatory agar dilution testing; sequence data were sent to CDC for analysis. All patients were interviewed and treated, and when possible, partners were interviewed, tested, and treated. All isolates had azithromycin MICs >16 µg/mL and 5 had ceftriaxone MICs = 0.125 µg/mL by agar dilution. All isolates were β-lactamase positive and were resistant to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. Genomic analysis revealed genetic relatedness. No patients reported recent travel or antibiotic use, and no male patients reported male sex partners. All patients were successfully treated. This cluster of genetically related gonococcal isolates with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility and high-level azithromycin resistance may bring the threat of treatment failure in the United States with the current recommended dual therapy one step closer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Gallery, Hanna; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Harlow, Jonathan A; Barbur, John L

    2013-09-09

    It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance, and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. We recruited 95 participants aged 20 to 85 years. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C optotype were measured using a 4-alternative, forced-choice (4AFC) procedure at screen luminances from 34 to 0.12 cd/m(2) at the fovea and parafovea (0° and ±4°). Pupil size was measured continuously. The Health of the Retina index (HRindex) was computed to capture the loss of contrast sensitivity with decreasing light level. Participants were excluded if they exhibited performance outside the normal limits of interocular differences or HRindex values, or signs of ocular disease. Parafoveal contrast thresholds showed a steeper decline and higher correlation with age at the parafovea than the fovea. Of participants with clinical signs of ocular disease, 83% had HRindex values outside the normal limits. Binocular summation of contrast signals declined with age, independent of interocular differences. The HRindex worsens more rapidly with age at the parafovea, consistent with histologic findings of rod loss and its link to age-related degenerative disease of the retina. The HRindex and interocular differences could be used to screen for and separate the earliest stages of subclinical disease from changes caused by normal aging.

  3. Sildenafil Decreases BACE1 and Cathepsin B Levels and Reduces APP Amyloidogenic Processing in the SAMP8 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejana, Lourdes; Barros-Miñones, Lucía; Jordan, Joaquin; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Tordera, Rosa M; Aguirre, Norberto; Puerta, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8), used as a model of aging, displays many established pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive impairments and increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau are found in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice along with an increased β-secretase activity and amyloid-β (Aβ) depositions that increase in number and extent with age. Based on a previous study from our laboratory showing an amelioration of cognitive impairments and tau pathology by sildenafil, in this study we tested whether this drug could also modulate the amyloid precursor protein amyloidogenic processing in this mouse model. Our results show that the protein levels of the β-secretases β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and cathepsin B are higher in the hippocampus of 9-month-old SAMP8 mice than those of age-matched senescence-resistant-1. Sildenafil (7.5mg/kg for 4 weeks) attenuated learning and memory impairments shown by SAMP8 mice in the passive avoidance test. The increased expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 was also reduced by sildenafil, an effect paralleled to decreases in the activities of two β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 modulators, calpain and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 protein. Interestingly, sildenafil enhanced both Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (ser9) phosphorylation, which could be mediating the reduction in cathepsin B levels found in the hippocampus of sildenafil-treated SAMP8 mice. Sildenafil-induced reduction in β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and cathepsin B expression in SAMP8 mice was associated with a decrease in hippocampal Aβ42 levels which, in turn, could mediate the parallel decline in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression observed in these animals. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of sildenafil in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  4. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  5. Exogenous galanin attenuates spatial memory impairment and decreases hippocampal β-amyloid levels in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yu, Liling; Kong, Qingxia

    2013-11-01

    One of the major pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of enhanced deposits of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) and its receptors are overexpressed in degenerating brain regions in AD. The functional consequences of galaninergic systems plasticity in AD are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether exogenous galanin could attenuate spatial memory impairment and hippocampal Aβ aggregation in rat model of AD. The effects of Aβ, galanin, galanin receptor 1 agonist M617 and galanin receptor 2 agonist AR-M1896 on spatial memory were tested by Morris water maze. The effects of Aβ, galanin, M617 and AR-M1896 on hippocampal Aβ protein expression were evaluated by western blot assay. The expression of galanin, galanin receptors 1 and 2 in rats' hippocampus were detected by real time PCR and western blot assay. The results showed that (1) Galanin administration was effective in improving the spatial memory and decreasing hippocampal Aβ levels after intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ; (2) AR-M1896 rather than M617 could imitate these effects of galanin; (3) GAL and GALR2 mRNA and protein levels increased significantly in hippocampus after Aβ administration, while GALR1 mRNA and protein levels did not change; (4) GAL, AR-M1896 and M617 administration did not show significant effect on GAL, GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA and protein levels in hippocampus after Aβ administration. These results implied that galanin receptor 2, but not receptor 1 was involved in the protective effects against spatial memory impairment and hippocampal Aβ aggregation.

  6. Decreased Rhes mRNA levels in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease and MPTP-treated macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Napolitano

    Full Text Available In rodent and human brains, the small GTP-binding protein Rhes is highly expressed in virtually all dopaminoceptive striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons, as well as in large aspiny cholinergic interneurons, where it is thought to modulate dopamine-dependent signaling. Consistent with this knowledge, and considering that dopaminergic neurotransmission is altered in neurological and psychiatric disorders, here we sought to investigate whether Rhes mRNA expression is altered in brain regions of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, Schizophrenia (SCZ, and Bipolar Disorder (BD, when compared to healthy controls (about 200 post-mortem samples. Moreover, we performed the same analysis in the putamen of non-human primate Macaca Mulatta, lesioned with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Overall, our data indicated comparable Rhes mRNA levels in the brain of patients with SCZ and BD, and their respective healthy controls. In sharp contrast, the putamen of patients suffering from PD showed a significant 35% reduction of this transcript, compared to healthy subjects. Interestingly, in line with observations obtained in humans, we found 27% decrease in Rhes mRNA levels in the putamen of MPTP-treated primates. Based on the established inhibitory influence of Rhes on dopamine-related responses, we hypothesize that its striatal downregulation in PD patients and animal models of PD might represent an adaptive event of the dopaminergic system to functionally counteract the reduced nigrostriatal innervation.

  7. Yi-gan san restores behavioral alterations and a decrease of brain glutathione level in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Yamauchi, Takahira; Tatsumi, Kouko; Okuda, Hiroaki; Noriyama, Yoshinobu; Sadamatsu, Miyuki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Wanaka, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-gan san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. Schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-gan san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-gan san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-gan san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-gan san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-gan san treatment. These results suggest that yi-gan san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.

  8. Yi-Gan San Restores Behavioral Alterations and a Decrease of Brain Glutathione Level in a Mouse Model of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Makinodan M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-gan san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. Schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-gan san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-gan san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-gan san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-gan san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-gan san treatment. These results suggest that yi-gan san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.

  9. CD44+CD24+ subset of PANC-1 cells exhibits radiation resistance via decreased levels of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Pengping; Hu, Wei; Xia, Youyou; Hu, Chenxi; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is sustained by pancreatic cancer stem cells. The present study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the pancreatic cancer stem cell surface markers cluster of differentiation CD44 and CD24 in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, and to investigate the possible mechanisms for their radiation resistance. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the expression patterns of CD44 and CD24 in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cell line. In addition, a multi-target click model was used to fit cell survival curves and determine the sensitizer enhancement ratio. The apoptosis and cycle distribution of the four cell subsets was determined using flow cytometry, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate probe. The present results identified that the ratios of CD44 + and CD24 + in the sorted PANC-1 cell line were 92.0 and 4.7%, respectively. Prior to radiation, no statistically significant differences were observed among the four groups. Following treatment with 6 MV of X-rays, the rate of apoptosis was decreased in the CD44 + CD24 + group compared with other subsets. The percentage of G0/G1 cells was highest in the CD44 + CD24 + group compared with the three other groups, which exhibited increased radiosensitivity. In addition, the level of ROS in the CD44 + CD24 + group was reduced compared with the other groups. In summary, the results of the present study indicated that CD44 + CD24 + exhibited stem cell properties. The lower level of ROS and apoptosis in CD44 + CD24 + cells may contribute to their resistance to radiation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  10. Dialysis water treated by reverse osmosis decreases the levels of C-reactive protein in uremic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Thomé

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a major complication of chronic renal failure. Microinflammation is involved in atherogenesis and is associated with uremia and dialysis. The role of dialysate water contamination in inducing inflammation has been debated. Our aim was to study inflammatory markers in patients on chronic dialysis, before and 3 to 6 months after switching the water purification system from deionization to reverse osmosis. Patients had demographic, clinical and nutritional information collected and blood drawn for determination of albumin, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in both situations. Acceptable levels of water purity were less than 200 colony-forming units of bacteria and less than 1 ng/ml of endotoxin. Sixteen patients died. They had higher median CRP (26.6 vs 11.2 mg/dl, P = 0.007 and lower median albumin levels (3.1 vs 3.9 g/l, P < 0.05 compared to the 31 survivors. Eight patients were excluded because of obvious inflammatory conditions. From the 23 remaining patients (mean age ± SD: 51.3 ± 13.9 years, 18 had a decrease in CRP after the water treatment system was changed. Overall, median CRP was lower with reverse osmosis than with deionization (13.2 vs 4.5 mg/l, P = 0.022, N = 23. There was no difference in albumin, cytokines, subjective global evaluation, or clinical and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, uremic patients presented a clinically significant reduction in CRP levels when dialysate water purification system switched from deionization to reverse osmosis. It is possible that better water treatments induce less inflammation and eventually less atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Irritability, Externalizing, and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations and Moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Schouboe, Sophie N F; Kircanski, Katharina; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-04-18

    Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11.39, SD = 1.07) boys and girls (37% White/Caucasian, 8% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 2% Native American, 2% Pacific Islander, 28% Other, and 3% not reported). A subset of the sample (n = 112) provided data at a 2-year follow-up, used to extend these associations. There were no sex differences in levels of irritability; however, the associations between irritability and symptom domains were moderated by sex. Specifically, in girls, irritability was associated equally with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In contrast, in boys, irritability was associated more strongly with externalizing symptoms than with internalizing symptoms. Thus, across both sexes, irritability was moderately associated with externalizing symptoms, but the association between irritability and internalizing symptoms was stronger in girls than in boys. At follow-up, sex moderated the association between baseline irritability and later externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These findings indicate that irritability is associated with both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence and that irritability is associated with internalizing symptoms more strongly in girls than in boys.

  12. Decreased concentrations of soluble interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein levels in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Nadège; Al-Akoum, Mahéra; Gagnon, Geneviève; Girard, Karine; Blanchet, Pierre; Rousseau, Julie Anne; Akoum, Ali

    2011-12-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL1) may play an important role in endometriosis-associated pelvic inflammation, and natural specific inhibitors, including soluble IL1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAcP) and soluble IL1 receptor type 2 (sIL1R2), are critical for counterbalancing the pleiotropic effects of IL1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of sIL1RAcP, together with those of sIL1R2 and IL1β, in the peritoneal fluid of women with and without endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained at laparoscopy and assessed by ELISA. sIL1RAcP concentrations were reduced in endometriosis stages I-II and III-IV. sIL1R2 concentrations were decreased, and those of IL1β were significantly increased in endometriosis stages I-II. sIL1RAcP and sIL1R2 concentrations were significantly decreased in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, and IL1β concentrations were elevated in the proliferative and the secretory phases. sIL1RAcP and sIL1R2 concentrations were reduced in women with endometriosis who were infertile, fertile, suffering from pelvic pain or pain-free. However, IL1β concentrations were significantly reduced in women with endometriosis who were infertile or had pelvic pain. These changes may exacerbate the local peritoneal inflammatory reaction observed in women with endometriosis and contribute to endometriosis pathophysiology and the major symptoms of this disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and alteration of structural integrity in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M L; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Ganguly, N K; Mahajan, R C

    2003-04-01

    2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), an intracellular metabolite of glycolytic pathway is known to affect the oxygen binding capacity of haemoglobin and mechanical properties of the red blood cells. 2,3-DPG levels have been reported to be elevated during anaemic conditions including visceral leishmaniasis. 2,3-DPG activity in P. falciparum infected red blood cells, particularly in cells infected with different stages of the parasite and its relationship with structural integrity of the cells is not known. Chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum were cultured in vitro and synchronized cultures of ring, trophozoite and schizont stage rich cells along with the uninfected control erythrocytes were assayed for 2,3-DPG activity and osmotic fragility. It was observed that in both the strains, in infected erythrocytes the 2,3-DPG activity gradually decreased and osmotic fragility gradually increased as the parasite matured from ring to schizont stage. The decrease in 2,3-DPG may probably be due to increased pyruvate kinase activity of parasite origin, which has been shown in erythrocytes infected with several species of Plasmodium. The absence of compensatory increase in 2,3-DPG in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes may aggravate hypoxia due to anaemia in malaria and probably may contribute to hypoxia in cerebral malaria. As 2,3-DPG was not found to be increased in erythrocytes parasitized with P. falciparum, the increased osmotic fragility observed in these cells is not due to increased 2,3-DPG as has been suggested in visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Korpela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a major cause of abdominal discomfort and gut dysfunction worldwide. It is a poorly understood functional gastrointestinal disorder for which no effective medication is available. It is a benign condition, but its social and economic burden is significant. The symptoms consist of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and irregular bowel movements. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosal inflammation may contribute to the development of IBS and probiotics could thus relieve the symptoms. This review gives an overview on the existing data on the effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods: A PUBMED search was made to review the relevant literature, and additional studies were obtained from the references of the selected articles. Results: Clinical trials suggest that certain probiotics or combinations of bacteria have beneficial effects on the IBS symptoms. However the heterogeneity of studies, e.g. suboptimal study design, inadequate number of subjects, different doses and vehicles, inadequate length, make it difficult to compare the differences between probiotics and the effect may be strain-specific. Conclusions: Though evidence is very promising, no general recommendations on the use of probiotics in IBS can be given yet. Further clinical trials and data on the mechanisms of action are needed. Probiotics are considered safe and if future scientific data is able to substantiate their efficacy in IBS, they certainly could be a treatment option in relieving the symptoms in IBS.

  15. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual psychotherapy: research. ... The goal of this study was to provide individualised psychotherapy for a sample suffering from IBS and vocational stress. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. The small molecule triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP and increases resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Joo Lee

    Full Text Available The Ras-adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A nutrient-sensing pathway controls metabolism, proliferation and resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetic disruption of this pathway increases resistance to a variety of stresses. We show here that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by the drug triclabendazole increases resistance to oxidants, heat stress and extends the chronological life. Evidence is presented that triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and triggers the parallel rapid translocation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn2 from the cytosol into the nucleus, as deduced from experiments employing a strain in which MSN2 is replaced with MSN2-GFP (GFP, green fluorescent protein. Msn2 and Msn4 are responsible for activating the transcription of numerous genes that encode proteins that protect cells from stress. The results are consistent with triclabendazole either inhibiting the association of Ras with adenylyl cyclase or directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, which in turn triggers Msn2/4 to enter the nucleus and activate stress-responsible element gene expression.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  19. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  20. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1→3-β-D-glucan aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korpi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of β-glucan (grifolan were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The β-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled β-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to β-glucan.

  1. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  2. Consumption of synbiotic bread decreases triacylglycerol and VLDL levels while increasing HDL levels in serum from patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hossein; Hadaegh, Haleh; Abedi, Fatemeh; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Mazroii, Navid; Ghandi, Yaser; Asemi, Zatollah

    2014-07-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the favorable effects of synbiotic bread consumption on blood lipid profiles among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the daily consumption of synbiotic bread on blood lipid profiles of patients with T2DM. This randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial was performed with 78 diabetic patients, aged 35-70 years. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either synbiotic (n = 26), probiotic (n = 26) or control bread (n = 26) for 8 weeks. The synbiotic bread contained viable and heat-resistant probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10(8) CFU) and 0.07 g inulin (HPX) as prebiotic per 1 g. The probiotic bread contained L. sporogenes (1 × 10(8) CFU) per 1 g. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic, probiotic and control breads three times a day in a 40 g package for a total of 120 g/day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles were conducted before and after 8 weeks of intervention. Consumption of the synbiotic bread, compared to the probiotic and control breads, led to a significant decrease in serum TAG (P = 0.005), VLDL-C (P = 0.005), TC/HDL-C (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in serum HDL-C levels (P = 0.01). No significant effect of synbiotic bread consumption on FPG, TC, LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels was seen compared to the probiotic and control breads (P > 0.05). Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir IRCT201311215623N13.

  3. Pediatric Mania: The Controversy between Euphoria and Irritability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Uchida, Mai; Battaglia, Claudia; Casini, Maria Pia; De Chiara, Lavinia; Biederman, Joseph; Vicari, Stefano; Wozniak, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania. Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95–100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age. Future research should focus on the heterogeneity of irritability aiming at differentiating distinct subtypes of pediatric psychiatric disorders with distinct phenomenology, course, outcome and biomarkers. Longitudinal studies of samples attending to mood presentation, irritable versus elated, and course, chronic versus episodic, may help clarify whether these are meaningful distinctions in the course, treatment and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder. PMID:28503110

  4. A decreased soluble Klotho level with normal eGFR, FGF23, serum phosphate, and FEP in an ADPKD patient with enlarged kidneys due to multiple cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Takahiro; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Betsui, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Jun; Yamagata, Takanori

    2018-05-16

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disorder. ADPKD is characterized clinically by the presence of multiple bilateral renal cysts that lead to chronic renal failure. The cysts evolve from renal tubular epithelial cells that express the Klotho gene. Notably, Klotho acts as a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23); in this context, it induces phosphaturia and maintains serum phosphate at a normal level. Many reports have shown that decreases in the soluble Klotho level and increases in the FGF23 level are associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline, but a recent study observed these changes in patient with normal eGFR. It remains unclear whether the decrease in the Klotho level precedes the increase in FGF23. Here, we present an ADPKD patient with enlarged kidneys due to multiple cysts who had a decreased soluble Klotho level but a normal eGFR and a normal FGF23 level. The patient's serum phosphate level was normal, as was the fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). This appears to be the first reported case to show a decreased soluble Klotho level plus normal eGFR, FGF23, and FEP. These results suggest that Klotho decreases before FGF23 increases and further suggest that Klotho is not required to maintain normal serum phosphate levels in ADPKD if the FEP and serum phosphate levels are normal.

  5. Antimüllerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caanen, Mirte R.; Soleman, Remi S.; Kuijper, Esther A. M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; De Roo, Chloe; Tilleman, Kelly; De Sutter, Petra; van Trotsenburg, Mick A. A.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of

  6. Antimullerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caanen, M.R.; Soleman, R.S.; Kuijper, E.A.M.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; De Roo, C.; Tilleman, K.; De Sutter, P.; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Broekmans, F.J.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimüllerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of

  7. Plasma lactate and stress hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during stepwise decreasing oxygen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Van den Thillart, GEEJM; Van Kampen, M; Van Heel, TI; Steffens, AB

    By measuring the lactate response it is possible to determine whether a teleost is able to adapt to a certain oxygen level. It is hypothesized that recovery will occur at oxygen levels above the critical oxygen level (PO2)(crit) reflected by a transient lactate increase. In contrast, continuous

  8. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines.

  9. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS. Settings and Design: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats. The HP extract was administered by gavage in doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg for 26 days. Fluoxetine and loperamide were used as positive controls. Gastric emptying and small bowel and colon transit, besides the levels of TNF-α, MPO, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant power, were determined in colon homogenates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg), TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: HP diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells and TNF-α following restraint stress not in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via inhibition of MPO activity and increasing colon antioxidant power, without any difference with fluoxetine. The HP extract inhibits small bowel and colonic transit acceleration like loperamide but has minimal

  10. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.

  11. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; White, I R; Basketter, D A

    2003-07-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petrolatum and the European standard series. 28 of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction (+ to +++) to citral and 82 at least 1 IR patch test reaction and no positive patch test reaction to citral. A statistically significant association between a positive patch test reaction to citral and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive studies.

  12. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  13. Decreased Serum Levels of Ghrelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Premenopausal Women With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Masoumeh; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2018-03-21

    We aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of ghrelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with MetS and its components in premenopausal women. 43 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Participants' body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, BDNF and ghrelin determined. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Participants in MetS group had higher waist-to-hip ratios, elevated SBP and DBP, and higher serum levels of TG, FBS and insulin when compared with the control group. Serum ghrelin and BDNF levels were significantly lower in participants with MetS than in the healthier control subjects. There was a strong, positive correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF levels. Both proteins negatively correlated with TG, FBS, HOMA-IR and positively with HDL-C. Furthermore, serum BDNF levels negatively associated with insulin levels. The findings indicate that variations occur in the circulating level of ghrelin and BDNF proteins in MetS patients. A strong correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF suggests that production, release or practice of these 2 proteins might be related mechanically.

  14. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (levels may have an impact on cognitive function.

  15. Level of heat shock proteins decreases in individuals carrying B-chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teruel, M; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Two natural Spanish populations, Salobreña (Granada) and Torrox (Málaga) were assayed, the former...... harbouring a neutralized (non-driving) B-chromosome (B2) and the latter a parasitic (driving) B-chromosome (B24). The analysis was performed by Western blotting, immunostaining and densitometric measuring expression level of the Hsp70 family in adult individuals. The results showed that Hsp70 levels...

  16. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  17. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Springer, Ramit Ravona; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (

  18. [Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescentes. AVENA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercedor, P; Martín-Matillas, M; Chillón, P; Pérez López, I J; Ortega, F B; Wärnberg, J; Ruiz, J R; Delgado, M

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents as well as the level of physical activity constitutes a public health care issue. The aim is knowing the relationship between cigarette smoking and practice of physical activity. Schooled Spanish adolescents 2859 Spanish adolescents (1357 boys, 1502 girls; age range: 13-18.5 years). A questionnaire is applied to know the level of cigarette smoking and four other questionnaires to know the level of physical activity during different periods. 40.8% of the adolescents stated not doing any physical activity at all, boys being more active than girls (p < 0.001). 29.9% of the adolescents stated usually smoking cigarettes, without differences by gender. Both active boys and girls stated smoking less (P < or = 0.01). The greater the age, the higher cigarette smoking and the lower the level of physical activity, both in boys and girls (p < 0.001). The level of physical activity is low, being even lower for girls. Cigarette smoking shows a negative relationship with the level of physical activity, the individuals more physically active being those smoking the less.

  19. Serum Level of a Soluble Form of Endoglin (CD105 is Decreased after Goeckerman’s Therapy of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pohl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goeckerman’s therapy (GT of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. The aim of study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on proinflammatory and angiogenic activities expressed as changes in levels of endoglin (CD105. Methods. Serum levels of a soluble form of endoglin were measured in peripheral blood samples of 38 patients with psoriasis before and after therapy. Sixty three otherwise healthy blood donors serve as a control group. The efficacy of GT was expressed as changes in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Results. PASI score was significantly diminished by GT (p<0.001. Serum levels of soluble CD105 were significantly diminished after GT. The serum level of soluble CD105 dropped from 7.85 ± 2.26 ng/ml before therapy to 7.01 ± 1.71 ng/ml after therapy (p= 0.0002. Compared to serum levels of soluble CD105 in healthy blood donors, serum levels of soluble CD105 in patients before GT were significantly higher (p<0.001 and remained elevated after therapy (p<0.001. Angiogenic activity expressed as serum endoglin is diminished in patients with psoriasis treated by GT.

  20. Sensori-motor synchronisation variability decreases as the number of metrical levels in the stimulus signal increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Timing performance becomes less precise for longer intervals, which makes it difficult to achieve simultaneity in synchronisation with a rhythm. The metrical structure of music, characterised by hierarchical levels of binary or ternary subdivisions of time, may function to increase precision by providing additional timing information when the subdivisions are explicit. This hypothesis was tested by comparing synchronisation performance across different numbers of metrical levels conveyed by loudness of sounds, such that the slowest level was loudest and the fastest was softest. Fifteen participants moved their hand with one of 9 inter-beat intervals (IBIs) ranging from 524 to 3,125 ms in 4 metrical level (ML) conditions ranging from 1 (one movement for each sound) to 4 (one movement for every 8th sound). The lowest relative variability (SD/IBI<1.5%) was obtained for the 3 longest IBIs (1600-3,125 ms) and MLs 3-4, significantly less than the smallest value (4-5% at 524-1024 ms) for any ML 1 condition in which all sounds are identical. Asynchronies were also more negative with higher ML. In conclusion, metrical subdivision provides information that facilitates temporal performance, which suggests an underlying neural multi-level mechanism capable of integrating information across levels. © 2013.

  1. The impact of national-level interventions to improve hygiene on the incidence of irritant contact dermatitis in healthcare workers: changes in incidence from 1996 to 2012 and interrupted times series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, S J; McNamee, R; Turner, S; Carder, M; Agius, R M

    2015-07-01

    Reducing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) has been a priority in the U.K. over recent decades and this has been reflected in interventions focusing on improving hygiene procedures. To evaluate whether these interventions coincided with an increased incidence of work-related irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) attributed to hand hygiene or/and other hygiene measures in healthcare workers (HCWs). A quasi-experimental (interrupted time series) design was used to compare trends in incidence of ICD in HCWs attributed to hygiene before and after interventions to reduce HCAI with trends in the same periods in control groups (ICD in other workers). Cases of ICD reported to a U.K. surveillance scheme from 1996 to 2012 were analysed. The time periods compared were defined objectively based on the dates of the publication of national evidence-based guidelines, the U.K. Health Act 2006 and the Cleanyourhands campaign. The reported incidence of ICD in HCWs attributed to hygiene has increased steadily from 1996 to 2012 [annual incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): hand hygiene only 1.10 (1.07-1.12); all hygiene 1.05 (1.03-1.07)], whereas the incidence in other workers is declining. An increase in incidence of ICD in HCWs attributed to hand hygiene was observed at the beginning of the Cleanyourhands campaign. The increasing incidence of ICD in HCWs combined with the popularity of interventions to reduce HCAI warrants increased efforts towards identifying products and implementing practices posing the least risk of ICD. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  3. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; FitzGerald, O; Saxne, T; Bresnihan, B

    2002-11-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) of both knee joints was assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA). s-COMP levels were significantly raised in all patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with healthy control subjects (p=0.0001). s-BSP levels did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.41). BMD of the patella was significantly reduced in patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with the control subjects (p=0.016). In patients with bilateral chondromalacia patellae, BMD of the patella was lower in the more symptomatic knee joint (p=0.005). Changes in periarticular BMD were localised to the patella and were not present in femoral regions. Neither s-COMP (p=0.18) nor s-BSP (p=0.40) levels correlated with patellar BMD. Increased s-COMP levels, reflecting cartilage degradation, and reduced BMD localised to the patella may represent clinically useful markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chondromalacia patellae. Measures of cartilage degradation did not correlate with loss of patellar bone density, suggesting dissociated pathophysiological mechanisms.

  4. Decreased levels of free D-aspartic acid in the forebrain of serine racemase (Srr) knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Mao; Ishima, Tamaki; Fujita, Yuko; Inoue, Ran; Mori, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-05-01

    d-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is synthesized from l-serine by serine racemase (SRR). A previous study of Srr knockout (Srr-KO) mice showed that levels of d-serine in forebrain regions, such as frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, but not cerebellum, of mutant mice are significantly lower than those of wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that SRR is responsible for d-serine production in the forebrain. In this study, we attempted to determine whether SRR affects the level of other amino acids in brain tissue. We found that tissue levels of d-aspartic acid in the forebrains (frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum) of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, whereas levels of d-aspartic acid in the cerebellum were not altered. Levels of d-alanine, l-alanine, l-aspartic acid, taurine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and methionine, remained the same in frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of WT and mutant mice. Furthermore, no differences in d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity were detected in the forebrains of WT and Srr-KO mice. These results suggest that SRR and/or d-serine may be involved in the production of d-aspartic acid in mouse forebrains, although further detailed studies will be necessary to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement.

  6. Limbic Irritability, Neuronal Complexity and Smoking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svetlak, M.; Bob, P.; Černík, M.; Konečný, P.; Chládek, Jan; Svrček, M.; Kukleta, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2008), s. 85 ISSN 0001-7604. [International CIANS Conference 2008: Higher Brain Functions. 28.09.2008-02.10.2008, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : smoking * limbic irritability * stress * complexity * EDA Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapoigny, M.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Coremans, G.; Müller-Lissner, S.; Oberndorff, A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Vatn, M.; Whorwell, P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. AIMS: During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between

  8. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  9. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  10. Review article: potential mechanisms of action of rifaximin in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by various lines of evidence, including differences in mucosal and faecal microbiota between patients with IBS and healthy individuals, development of post-infectious IBS, and the efficacy of some probiotics and nonsystemic antibiotics (e.g. rifaximin). To review the literature regarding the role of rifaximin in IBS and its potential mechanism(s) of action. A literature search was conducted using the terms 'rifaximin', 'irritable bowel syndrome' and 'mechanism of action'. Rifaximin was approved in 2015 for the treatment of IBS with diarrhoea. In contrast to other currently available IBS therapies that require daily administration to maintain efficacy, 2-week rifaximin treatment achieved symptom improvement that persisted ≥12 weeks post-treatment. The mechanisms of action of rifaximin, therefore, may extend beyond direct bactericidal effects. Data suggest that rifaximin may decrease host proinflammatory responses to bacterial products in patients with IBS. In some cases, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may play a role in the clinical symptoms of IBS. Because of the high level of solubility of rifaximin in the small intestine, rifaximin may reset microbial diversity in this environment. Consistent with this hypothesis, rifaximin has antibiotic efficacy against isolates derived from patients with SIBO. Resetting microbial diversity via rifaximin use may lead to a decrease in bacterial fermentation and a reduction in the clinical symptoms of IBS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eQi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD, which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs without IGD were recruited, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion on brain activity during risky decisionmaking in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11 scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  12. Evolutionary Modeling Predicts a Decrease in Postcopulatory Sperm Viability as a Response to Increasing Levels of Sperm Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif

    Sperm competition has been found to have a strong influence on the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits. Theoretical models have shown that, with increasing levels of sperm competition, males are predicted to increase ejaculate investment, and there is ample empirical evidence

  13. Immunoglobulin G reactivities to rhoptry-associated protein-1 associated with decreased levels of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Tanzanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Lemnge, M M; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1996-01-01

    with resistance to infection. On the other hand, levels of IgG reactivities to the repeat region of ABRA increased with parasite densities in children 1-4 years of age. Two different profiles of IgG reactivities to rRAP-1 and to ABRA are detectable in young Tanzanian children and the Ig reactivities against r...

  14. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Weight loss and weight maintenance obtained with or without GLP-1 analogue treatment decrease branched chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid Andersson

    2016-01-01

    increased during weight loss (p = 5.2 × 10−15) and showed inverse correlation with insulin resistance measured by HOMA–IR levels (r = −0.318, p = 0.025). Valine concentrations were lower in the control group compared to the GLP-1RA group during weight maintenance (p = 0.005). Conclusion Weight loss...

  16. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  17. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  18. Sensory irritation to mixtures of formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Arts, J.H.E.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sensory irritation of formaldehyde (FRM), acrolein (ACR) and acetaldehyde (ACE) as measured by the decrease in breathing frequency (DBF) was studied in male Wistar rats using nose-only exposure. Groups of four rats were exposed to each of the single compounds separately or to mixtures of FRM, ACR

  19. [Efficiency of autogenous training in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, I V; Aĭvazian, T A; Zaĭtsev, V P; Gusakova, E V; Molina, L P

    2008-01-01

    It was established that use of autogenous training makes possible to increase efficiency of the therapy, leading to considerable more evident improvement of somatic and psychotic state, decrease of pain syndrome. Predictors of efficiency of autogenous training were marked out. Indications for use the method in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance were elaborated.

  20. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYLBROMIDE IN TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Arifullina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan was evaluated in a placebobcontrolled trial, on pediatric patients with algid type of irritable bowel syndrome. Hyoscine butylbromide favored to the increase of quality of life in pediatric patients, alleviation of clinical symptoms of disease, reliable decrease of malonic dialdehyde and increase of antioxidant activity of blood plasma significantly superior to placebo. Clinical efficacy of hyoscine butylbromide accompanies to its good tolerance and safety.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, hyoscine butylbromide, placebo controlled trial.

  1. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  2. The irritancy of metalworking fluids: a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. M.; Scholten, R. J.; van Ketel, W. G.; Bruynzeel, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is common in metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF). The irritancy of 3 commercially available water-based cutting fluids in maximal user's concentration and 2 neat oils was investigated in 23 healthy volunteers. Additionally, the irritancy of some groups of

  3. ['Laryngeal neuropathy' and 'irritable larynx syndrome': synonyms or distinct entities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Ptok, M

    2012-10-01

    The term 'laryngeal neuropathy' (LN) has first been used in veterinary medicine to describe an idiopathic and typically exercise induced inspiratory noise in horses.Nowadays, the term is often used in relation with intermittent vocal cord pareses in humans. Some authors use the term 'irritable larynx syndrome' (ILS) in a similar context. This article reviews the state of knowledge regarding LN and ILS and discusses the somewhat confusing terminology.For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed has been carried out.35 articles were found, which report on LN in animals and 17 articles reported on humans. 4 of these articles used the term 'irritable larynx syndrome'.Laryngeal neuropathy in horses usually affects the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and results in decreased vocal cord abduction and an inspiratory roaring or whistling noise, particularly during exercise. In dogs LN has been reported to also occur bilaterally. In association with humans LN has not been defined clearly in the literature. The term ILS on the other hand has only been used in relation to humans. The term describes a hypersensitivity of the laryngeal structures towards external stimuli, which causes symptoms such as dyspnea or cough among others. Sufficient knowledge does not exist for either of the 2 diseases, ILS or LN. As of yet, the term LN should not be used in human medicine to describe according symptoms of unknown aetiology. The term 'laryngeal movement disorder' seems a lot more appropriate. The symptom oriented term irritable larynx syndrome also seems suitable to describe laryngeal hypersensitivity appropriately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effect of tributyltin (TBT) on ATP levels in human natural killer (NK) cells: relationship to TBT-induced decreases in NK function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D; Odman-Ghazi, Sabah O; Hatcher, Frank; Whalen, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role that tributyltin (TBT)-induced decreases in ATP levels may play in TBT-induced decreases in the tumor lysing (lytic) function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes that act as an initial immune defense against tumor cells and virally infected cells. TBT is an environmental contaminant that has been detected in human blood, which has been shown to interfere with ATP synthesis. Previous studies have shown that TBT is able to decrease very significantly the lytic function of NK cells. In this study NK cells were exposed to various concentrations of TBT and to two other compounds that interfere with ATP synthesis (rotenone a complex I inhibitor and oligomycin an ATP synthase inhibitor) for various lengths of time before determining the levels of ATP and lytic function. Exposures of NK cells to 10, 25, 50 and 100 nm TBT did not significantly reduce ATP levels after 24 h. However, these same exposures caused significant decreases in cytotoxic function. Studies of brief 1 h exposures to a range of TBT, rotenone and oligomycin concentrations followed by 24 h, 48 h and 6 day periods in compound-free media prior to assaying for ATP levels or cytotoxic function showed that each of the compounds caused persistent decreases in ATP levels and lytic function of NK cells. Exposures to 0.05-5 microm rotenone or oligomycin for 1 h reduced ATP levels by 20-25% but did not have any measurable effect on the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells. ATP levels were also decreased by about 20-25% after 24 h or 48 h exposures to rotenone or oligomycin (0.5 microm ), and the lytic function was decreased by about 50%. The results suggest that TBT-induced decreases in ATP levels were not responsible for the loss of cytotoxic function seen at 1 h and 24 h. However, TBT-induced decreases of NK-ATP levels may be at least in part responsible for losses of NK-cytotoxic function seen after 48 h and 6 day exposures

  5. Evaluating skin-protective materials against contact irritants and allergens. An in vivo screening human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1998-03-01

    2 acute irritants and 1 allergen were selected: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) representative of irritant household and occupational contact dermatitis, the combination of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea to simulate diaper dermatitis, and Rhus to evaluate the effect of model protective materials. The putative protective materials and vehicle were applied to both ventral forearms of 10 subjects in each group, according to a randomized code. Test materials were spread over a marked 2.0 cm2 area, massaged in, allowed to dry for 30 min, and reapplied with another 30 min drying period. The model irritants and allergen were then applied (0.025 ml) to an Al-test occlusive patch, which in turn was placed for 24 h over each of the 8 designated sites. Inflammation was scored according to a clinical scale 72 h post-application. Paraffin wax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, and beeswax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, markedly (p < 0.001) suppressed SLS irritation. Paraffin wax plus beeswax in cetyl alcohol, and Acetulan in cetyl alcohol reduced NH4OH and urea irritation (p < 0.05), paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol significantly (p < 0.01) decreasing Rhus allergic contact dermatitis. This model, provides an easy approach to screening protectants. Its clinical significance requires comparison with an open rather than an occluded challenge.

  6. [Atorvastatin improves reflow after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction by decreasing serum uric acid level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Ye, Lu; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Chunjia

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on reflow in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its relation to serum uric acid levels. Methods: One hundred and fourteen STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups:55 cases received oral atorvastatin 20 mg before PCI (routine dose group) and 59 cases received oral atorvastatin 80 mg before PCI (high dose group). According to the initial serum uric acid level, patients in two groups were further divided into normal uric acid subgroup and hyperuricemia subgroup. The changes of uric acid level and coronary artery blood flow after PCI were observed. Correlations between the decrease of uric acid, the dose of atorvastatin and the blood flow of coronary artery after PCI were analyzed. Results: Serum uric acid levels were decreased after treatment in both groups (all P uric acid level ( P uric acid level in patients with hyperuricemia decreased more significantly in the high dose group ( P uric acid levels in two groups ( P >0.05). Among 114 patients, there were 19 cases without reflow after PCI (16.7%). In the routine dose group, there were 12 patients without reflow, in which 3 had normal uric acid and 9 had high uric acid levels ( P uric acid and 5 had high uric acid ( P uric acid levels and improve reflow after PCI in patients with STEMI.

  7. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...... established by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Power calculation was based on an increase in LBM during testosterone therapy and responders were defined as testosterone treated patients with increased...

  8. Decreased Plasma Nesfatin-1 Level Is Related to the Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fupeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether nesfatin-1 played a role in the thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM. Methods. 55 euthyroid patients were enrolled in this study including 30 patients with T2DM and 25 patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR. 30 age-matched healthy people were also included as the control. The plasma levels of nesfatin-1, thyrotropin (TSH, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c as well as the body mass index (BMI were comparatively analyzed among the three groups. Results. The nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in patients with T2DM than in patients with IGR and in the control. On the contrary, the TSH level was significantly higher in patients with T2DM than in patients with IGR and in the control. Simple regression analysis showed that the plasma nesfatin-1 was negatively correlated with the TSH and HbA1c levels and positively correlated with the BMI. With multiple stepwise regression analysis, the nesfatin-1 remained to be independently correlated with the TSH, BMI, and HbA1c. Conclusions. The study was suggesting a role of nesfatin-1 in thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM.

  9. Decreased expression level of BER genes in Alzheimer's disease patients is not derivative of their DNA methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Agnieszka; Sitarek, Przemysław; Toma, Monika; Czarny, Piotr; Synowiec, Ewelina; Krupa, Renata; Wigner, Paulina; Bialek, Katarzyna; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Korycinska, Anna; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Szemraj, Janusz; Galecki, Piotr; Sliwinski, Tomasz

    2017-10-03

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease can be caused by accumulation of oxidative DNA damage resulting from altered expression of genes involved in the base excision repair system (BER). Promoter methylation can affect the profile of BER genes expression. Decreased expression of BER genes was observed in the brains of AD patients. The aim of our study was to compare the expression and methylation profiles of six genes coding for proteins involved in BER, namely: hOGG1, APE1, MUTYH, NEIL1, PARP1 and XRCC1, in the peripheral blood cells of AD patients and healthy volunteers. The study consisted of 100 persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease according to DSM-IV criteria, and 110 healthy volunteers. DNA and total RNA were isolated from venous blood cells. Promoter methylation profiles were obtained by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis of bisulfide converted DNA samples. Real-time PCR with TaqMan probes was employed for gene expression analysis. APE1, hOGG1, MUTYH, PARP1 and NEIL1 were significantly (pgenes. The methylation status of promoters is not associated with downregulation of BER genes. Our results show that downregulation of BER genes detected in peripheral blood samples could reflect the changes occurring in the brain of patients with AD, and may be a useful biomarker of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Approaches to decrease the level of parasitic noise over vibroacoustic channel in terms of configuring information security tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Reva, I. L.; Babin, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with influence of various ways to place vibration transmitters on efficiency of rooms safety for negotiations. Standing for remote vibration listening of window glass, electro-optical channel, the most typical technical channel of information leakage, was investigated. The modern system “Sonata-AB” of 4B model is used as an active protection tool. Factors influencing on security tools configuration efficiency have been determined. The results allow utilizer to reduce masking interference level as well as parasitic noise with keeping properties of room safety.

  11. Vitrigel-eye irritancy test method using HCE-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    We previously reported that the time-dependent relative changes of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) after exposing four different chemicals to a human corneal epithelium (HCE) model were well correlated to the potential of ocular irritancy. Meanwhile, we recently developed a collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM) chamber possessing a scaffold composed of high-density collagen fibrils equivalent to connective tissues in vivo as a three-dimensional culture tool. The CVM chamber is useful for biomedical assays and immunohistology using cryosections that are inappropriate to be performed using the conventional Millicell chamber with a polyethylene terephthalate membrane. In this study, we aimed to develop a new eye irritancy test (EIT) method called "Vitrigel-EIT method" that can facilitate to briefly and accurately estimate the widespread irritancy of test chemicals by applying the TEER assay system to a HCE model fabricated in the CVM chamber. HCE-T cells (a HCE-derived cell strain) were cultured in the CVM chamber for 6 days, and consequently, the Vitrigel-HCE model possessing the following characteristics of HCE in vivo was formed: six cell layers with specific protein expressions and their barrier function. Time-dependent profiles of TEER values after exposing 30 test chemicals to the HCE model were converted into the scores of three indexes (time lag, intensity, and plateau level), and each chemical was successfully classified into irritant or nonirritant category by utilizing the criteria for the indexes, resulting in the excellent correlation with Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) classification (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 75%, accuracy: 90%). These data suggest that the widespread eye irritancy of chemicals can be predicted without false negatives by the Vitrigel-EIT method. Interestingly, the disruption of tight junctions was immunohistologically observed after exposing not only irritants but also three

  12. Curcumin Decreases Amyloid-β Peptide Levels by Attenuating the Maturation of Amyloid-β Precursor Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Browne, Andrew; Child, Daniel; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no cure. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be driven primarily by amyloid-β (Aβ), the principal component of senile plaques. Aβ is an ∼4-kDa peptide generated via cleavage of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). Curcumin is a compound in the widely used culinary spice, turmeric, which possesses potent and broad biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, chemopreventative effects, and effects on protein trafficking. Recent in vivo studies indicate that curcumin is able to reduce Aβ-related pathology in transgenic AD mouse models via unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on Aβ levels and APP processing in various cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons. We show for the first time that curcumin potently lowers Aβ levels by attenuating the maturation of APP in the secretory pathway. These data provide a mechanism of action for the ability of curcumin to attenuate amyloid-β pathology. PMID:20622013

  13. Curcumin decreases amyloid-beta peptide levels by attenuating the maturation of amyloid-beta precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Browne, Andrew; Child, Daniel; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2010-09-10

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no cure. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be driven primarily by amyloid-beta (Abeta), the principal component of senile plaques. Abeta is an approximately 4-kDa peptide generated via cleavage of the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP). Curcumin is a compound in the widely used culinary spice, turmeric, which possesses potent and broad biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, chemopreventative effects, and effects on protein trafficking. Recent in vivo studies indicate that curcumin is able to reduce Abeta-related pathology in transgenic AD mouse models via unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on Abeta levels and APP processing in various cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons. We show for the first time that curcumin potently lowers Abeta levels by attenuating the maturation of APP in the secretory pathway. These data provide a mechanism of action for the ability of curcumin to attenuate amyloid-beta pathology.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R G

    1993-09-01

    In a laboratory study, the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae was evaluated at field, 1/3 field and 1/10 field rates using WHO conical exposure chambers and excito-repellency test boxes. Bendiocarb was the least irritant insecticide at all rates, inducing levels of takeoff, flight and exiting behavior similar to those of a distilled water control treatment. Of those mosquitoes introduced to the bendiocarb-treated boxes, not more than 1% exited and survived at any dose rate. Lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were highly irritant to An. gambiae, inducing a strong stimulation to take off and fly and also a high level of exiting. Exiting-survival rates associated with lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were between 15 and 51%. The relevance of these findings to the control of mosquito populations and the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed.

  15. Decreased extracellular adenosine levels lead to loss of hypoxia-induced neuroprotection after repeated episodes of exposure to hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Cui

    Full Text Available Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state following transient ischemic attacks (TIAs is likely to effectively reduce the brain damage and neurological dysfunction associated with recurrent stroke. HPC is a phenomenon in which advanced exposure to mild hypoxia reduces the stroke volume produced by a subsequent TIA. However, this neuroprotection is not long-lasting, with the effects reaching a peak after 3 days. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of multiple episodes of hypoxic exposure at different time intervals to induce longer-term protection in a mouse stroke model. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to different hypoxic preconditioning protocols: a single episode of HPC or five identical episodes at intervals of 3 days (E3d HPC or 6 days (E6d HPC. Three days after the last hypoxic exposure, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was induced. The effects of these HPC protocols on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF regulated gene mRNA expression were measured by quantitative PCR. Changes in extracellular adenosine concentrations, known to exert neuroprotective effects, were also measured using in vivo microdialysis and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Neuroprotection was provided by E6d HPC but not E3d HPC. HIF-regulated target gene expression increased significantly following all HPC protocols. However, E3d HPC significantly decreased extracellular adenosine and reduced cerebral blood flow in the ischemic region with upregulated expression of the adenosine transporter, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1. An ENT1 inhibitor, propentofylline increased the cerebral blood flow and re-established neuroprotection in E3d HPC. Adenosine receptor specific antagonists showed that adenosine mainly through A1 receptor mediates HPC induced neuroprotection. Our data indicate that cooperation of HIF-regulated genes and extracellular adenosine is necessary for HPC-induced neuroprotection.

  16. Abeta(1-42) injection causes memory impairment, lowered cortical and serum BDNF levels, and decreased hippocampal 5-HT(2A) levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R; Marcussen, Anders Bue; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2008-01-01

    was used to monitor Abeta(1-42) induced memory impairment. Memory impairment was seen 22 days after injection of Abeta(1-42) in the experimental group and until termination of the experiments. In the Abeta(1-42) injected animals we saw an abolished increase in serum BDNF levels that was accompanied...... by significant lower BDNF levels in frontal cortex and by an 8.5% reduction in hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. A tendency towards lowered cortical 5-HT(2A) was also observed. These results indicate that the Abeta(1-42) associated memory deficit is associated with an impaired BDNF regulation, which...

  17. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  18. Mechanism for the decrease in the FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein level in EoL-1 cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Kitamura, Hajime; Takahashi, Aki; Hong, Jang Ja; Seyama, Toshio; Iida, Koji; Wada, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation of proteins occur in cells in response to various stimuli, and are reversibly catalyzed by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC), respectively. EoL-1 cells have an FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene that causes transformation of eosinophilic precursor cells into leukemia cells. The HDAC inhibitors apicidin and n-butyrate suppress the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and induce differentiation into eosinophils by a decrease in the protein level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha without affecting the mRNA level for FIP1L1-PDGFRA. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which the protein level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha is decreased by apicidin and n-butyrate. EoL-1 cells were incubated in the presence of the HDAC inhibitors apicidin, trichostatin A or n-butyrate. The protein levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and phosphorylated eIF-2alpha were determined by Western blotting. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide were used to block RNA synthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, in the chasing experiment of the amount of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein. When apicidin- and n-butyrate-treated EoL-1 cells were incubated in the presence of actinomycin D, the decrease in the protein level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha was significantly enhanced when compared with controls. In contrast, the protein levels were not changed by cycloheximide among these groups. Apicidin and n-butyrate induced the continuous phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha for up to 8 days. The decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein by continuous inhibition of HDAC may be due to the decrease in the translation rate of FIP1L1-PDGFRA. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice.

  20. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi F. H. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls. The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  1. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid B

    2017-01-01

    The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30-50% (4-6 mM versus 7-9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  2. Affective alterations in patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission are associated with decreased BDNF and cortisone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valassi, E; Crespo, I; Keevil, B G; Aulinas, A; Urgell, E; Santos, A; Trainer, P J; Webb, S M

    2017-02-01

    Affective alterations and poorer quality of life often persist in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) in remission. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and is highly expressed in brain areas controlling mood and response to stress. Our aims were to assess affective alterations after long-term remission of CS and evaluate whether they are associated with serum BDNF, salivary cortisol (SalF) and/or cortisone (SalE) concentrations. Thirty-six CS patients in remission (32 females/4 males; mean age (±s.d.), 48.8 ± 11.8 years; median duration of remission, 72 months) and 36 gender-, age- and BMI-matched controls were included. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and EuroQoL and CushingQoL questionnaires were completed and measured to evaluate anxiety, depression, stress perception and quality of life (QoL) respectively. Salivary cortisol was measured using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/TMS). BDNF was measured in serum using an ELISA. Remitted CS patients showed worse scores in all questionnaires than controls: STAI (P BDNF was observed in CS vs controls (P = 0.038), and low BDNF was associated with more anxiety (r = -0.247, P = 0.037), depression (r = -0.249, P = 0.035), stress (r = -0.277, P = 0.019) and affective balance (r = 0.243, P = 0.04). Morning salivary cortisone was inversely associated with trait anxiety (r = -0.377, P = 0.040) and depressed affect (r = -0.392, P = 0.032) in CS patients. Delay to diagnosis was associated with depressive symptoms (BDI-II: r = 0.398, P = 0.036 and CES-D: r = 0.449, P = 0.017) and CushingQoL scoring (r = -0.460, P BDNF levels are associated with affective alterations in 'cured' CS patients, including depression, anxiety and impaired stress perception. Elevated levels of

  3. Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plas Eugen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha. Methods Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis during infertility workups. Comprehensive peptide hormone profiles were established by a panel of immunofluorometric assays for hCG, hCG alpha, hCG beta and its metabolite hCG beta core fragment, placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin in seminal plasma of patients with abnormal semen analysis results (n = 29 versus normozoospermic men (n = 16. The molecular identity of large hyperglycosylated hCG alpha was analyzed by mass-spectrometry and selective deglycosylation. Results hCG alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in men with impaired semen quality (1346 +/- 191 vs. 2753 +/- 533 ng/ml, P = 0.022. Moreover, patients with reduced sperm count had reduced intact hCG levels compared with normozoospermic men (0.097 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.203 +/- 0.040 ng/ml, P = 0.028. Using mass-spectrometry, the biochemical identity of hCG alpha purified from seminal plasma was verified. Under non-reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, hCG alpha isolated from seminal plasma migrated in a manner comparable with large free hCG alpha with an apparent molecular mass (Mr, app of 24 kDa, while hCG alpha dissociated from pregnancy-derived holo-hCG migrated at approximately 22 kDa. After deglycosylation with PNGase F under denaturing conditions, all hCG alpha variants showed an Mr, app of 15 kDa, indicating identical amino acid backbones. Conclusions The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of hCG, particularly its free alpha subunit, in spermatogenesis. The

  4. Low adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels over 10 years of follow-up predict risk of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S; Jensen, J S; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and may play a key role in the interplay between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, this large population-based cohort investigated whether adiponectin at baseline and/or a decrease in adiponectin during......-up were inversely associated with an increase in the number of components of MetS (Pvs 7.0mg/L (95% CI: 6.3-7.9) for those with four to five components. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Low plasma...

  5. The effectiveness of a structured educational intervention on disease-related misconception and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Zhen; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kong-Ling; Chen, Ji-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of patients with irritable bowel syndrome hold misconceptions about their disease and experience more impaired quality of life compared with the general population and people suffering from other chronic diseases. This study was designed to explore the effectiveness of a structured educational intervention on disease-related misconceptions and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in Wuhan, China. A convenience sample of 23 patients with irritable bowel syndrome participated in an educational program that consisted of 4 weekly sessions in a group setting. Instruments, including an irritable bowel syndrome-related misconception scale and irritable bowel syndrome quality-of-life scale, were used for evaluation at baseline and 3 months after the sessions. Three months after the structured educational intervention, the score for irritable bowel syndrome-related misconception was significantly decreased (p quality of life was significantly improved (p educational intervention seems to be a proper method to reduce the disease-related misconceptions and improve the quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Planning and implementing such clinical education programs will be helpful in decreasing disease-related misconceptions and promoting quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  6. Is dermatitis palmaris sicca an irritant contact dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Juan; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yong-Hua; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis palmaris sicca (DPS) is a common dry-fissured palmar dermatitis in Asian women. It may be an irritant contact dermatitis, but the immunophenotype of the cells in its infiltrate is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of DPS. Patch testing was done in 68 patients with DPS, 87 subjects with hand eczema, and 31 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of cutaneous inflammatory cells was performed in 8 patients with DPS, 10 subjects with hand eczema, and 8 healthy individuals. Positive patch rates were higher in patients with DPS and those with hand eczema compared with healthy controls, but strong positive (++ or +++) reactions in DPS were fewer compared with hand eczema. Density of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 cells in skin lesions of DPS and hand eczema was significantly higher than that in normal skin. Sparse CD20 cells were present only in hand eczema. Compared with hand eczema, the number of CD3, CD8, CD68, and dermal CD1a cells decreased, but epidermal CD1a cells and CD4/CD8 ratio increased in DPS. The absolute lack of CD20 cells and relative scarcity of dermal CD8 and CD1a cells in skin lesions might be insufficient to induce contact hypersensitivity, so DPS may be an irritant but not allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Dose calcium channel blocker verapamil decrease urinary VMA levels in sympathoadrenal hyperactive patients with posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munawar Alam Ansari; Shahida PAhmed; Zahida Memon

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The majority of the patients with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD)embrace augmented urina-ry flow of Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA)than normal subjects owing to superior sympathetic doings,which steer to cardiovascular catastrophe.Urinary flow of VMA was evaluated as sympathoadrenal bustle marker in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.Calcium ion shows a noteworthy dependability in nervousness owing to its special effects on brain synaptosomes.So this study was conducted to explore the effects of Verapamil on sympathoadrenal motion in patients with PTSD.Methods:Placebo controlled clinical tryout was conducted. At first hundred (100)PTSD patients were chosen and enrolled in the study,from department of Psychological Medicine Dow University of Health Sciences,Karachi.Verapamil 120 mg/day was specified in divided doses to group-I (n =50)patients and group-II (n =50)patients received placebo therapy on a daily basis for nine weeks.Each and every patient was monitored weekly,all the way through extent of study.Results:Under-neath the posttraumatic stress disorder,urinary excretion of VMA was greater.Calcium channel blocker vera-pamil additionally abolished the embellished retort in urinary flow of VMA appreciably in patients with PTSD. Conclusion:Verapamil was experiential to be exceedingly effectual treatment.It reduces VMA levels in u-rine,and on the whole cardiovascular threat in PTSD patients.

  8. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • Human papillomavirus infection is associated with decreased levels of GM-CSF in cervico-vaginal fluid of infected women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Comar, Manola; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zanotta, Nunzia; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Ricci, Giuseppe; Zauli, Giorgio

      2013-10-01

      Although human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, there are very scant data about the influence of this virus on the in vitro fertilization outcome. To assess the presence of HPV in the cervico-vaginal fluid in relationship to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome and to the concentration of selected cytokines, known to affect embryo implantation and gestation: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Cervico-vaginal samples were collected on the day of oocyte pick-up from 82 women. Vaginas were flushed with 50 mL of sterile water and 3 mL of fluid was collected. Twelve women (15%) were positive for HPV. Interestingly, among HPV(+) women live birth rate was about half of the rate in HPV(-) women, although the differences were not statistically significant due to the low number of cases. Cervico-vaginal samples of a sub-group of 29 (8 HPV(+) and 21 HPV(-)) women were analyzed for GM-CSF and G-CSF by ELISA. GM-CSF but not G-CSF was significantly lower in the cervico-vaginal fluid of HPV(+) than in HPV(-) women. Since GM-CSF plays an important role during pregnancy, the reduced levels of GM-CSF in the cervico-vaginal fluid of HPV(+) women might contribute to explain the reduced live birth rate observed in HPV(+) women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    • Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

      2015-01-01

      Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

    • Síndrome de intestino irritable y diverticulosis

      OpenAIRE

      Kestenberg Himelfar, Abraham; Fundación Valle de Lili

      1998-01-01

      Síndrome de intestino irritable (SII)/ ¿Cómo funciona el sistema digestivo?/¿Qué es el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas del síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Qué causa el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Qué papel juega la tensión emocional en el origen del síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Cómo saber si el problema es síndrome de intestino irritable o si es algo diferente?/¿Cómo se debe tratar el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Se deben evitar algunos alimentos?/¿...

    • Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ahmad Ghanizadeh

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

    • Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

      2013-01-01

      There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

    • Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C.

      2014-10-01

      The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

    • Eye irritancy screening for classification of chemicals.

      Science.gov (United States)

      van Erp, Y H; Weterings, P J

      1990-01-01

      A screening method was applied to determine the eye irritation potential of industrial chemicals. Bovine eyes (BE) were used to predict corneal damage and chicken egg chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) to estimate the irritancy potential of chemical substances towards the conjunctivae. Exposure of the BE to a test substance is followed by grading of the corneal opacity and epithelial injury. The CAM is inspected for signs of capillary injection, haemorrhages and coagulation. The tests are collectively called the BECAM assay. So far, almost 150 substances have been evaluated in this test system. A good correlation was observed between the BECAM assay and in vivo data; less than 5% of chemicals showed a clear disagreement. Also the assay is promising for labelling requirements according to the EEC criteria.

    • Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

      OpenAIRE

      McSherry, J. A.

      1982-01-01

      Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

    • Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ravikesh Tripathi

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

    • Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

      OpenAIRE

      Lee, Oh Young

      2010-01-01

      Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

    • Work-associated irritable larynx syndrome.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Anderson, Jennifer A

      2015-04-01

      The purpose of this study is to review the relevant literature concerning work-associated irritable larynx syndrome (WILS), a hyperkinetic laryngeal disorder associated with occupational irritant exposure. Clinical symptoms are variable and include dysphonia, cough, dyspnoea and globus pharyngeus. WILS is a clinical diagnosis and can be difficult to differentiate from asthma. Treatment options for WILS include medical and behavioural therapy. Laryngeal-centred upper airway symptoms secondary to airborne irritants have been documented in the literature under a variety of diagnostic labels, including WILS, vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), laryngeal hypersensitivity and laryngeal neuropathy and many others. The underlying pathophysiology is as yet poorly understood; however, the clinical scenario suggests a multifactorial nature to the disorder. More recent literature indicates that central neuronal plasticity, inflammatory processes and psychological factors are all likely contributors. Possible mechanisms for WILS include central neuronal network plasticity after noxious exposure and/or viral infection, inflammation (i.e. reflux disease) and intrinsic patient factors such a psychological state. Treatment is individualized and frequently includes one or more of the following: environmental changes in the workplace, GERD therapy, behavioural/speech therapy, psychotherapy counselling and neural modifiers.

    • Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.R Ghadir

      2012-05-01

      Full Text Available

      Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  1. [Changes of nitric oxide after trichloroethylene irritation in hairless mice skin and protection of ginkgo biloba extract and vitamin E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Shen, Tong; Zhou, Cheng-fan; Yu, Jun-feng; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2009-04-01

    To study the changes of nitric oxide (NO) in the BALB/c hairless mice skin after trichloroethylene (TCE) irritation and the protection of ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) and vitamin E (VE). 132 BALB/c hairless mice were randomly divided into blank control group, solvent group (olive oil), TCE groups (20%TCE, 40%TCE, 80%TCE and 100%TCE), GbE groups (0.1%GbE, 1%GbE and 10%GbE) and VE groups (5%VE, 10% VE and 20% VE), with 11 animals in each group, 5 for acute irritation test and 6 for the cumulative irritation test. The skin irritation was observed, and the levels of NO in the dorsal skin of BALB/C hairless mice were detected. The kit of NO was used to detect the levels of NO in the dorsal skin of BALB/c hairless mice. (1) The skin presented erythema and edema after TCE irritation both in acute irritation and cumulative irritation test and the skin inflammation showed time-dose effect relationship; the mice skin was protected in GbE or VE groups. (2) In the acute stimulation test, the levels of NO in 80%TCE group (69.895 +/- 9.605 micromol/mg pro) and 100%TCE group (77.273 +/- 9.290 micromol/mg pro) were significantly different compared with blank control group and solvent control group (P skin of BALB/c hairless mice and induce the significant increase of the NO levels. GbE and VE can protect the skin from TCE irritation damage.

  2. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Bonde, Jens P E; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common diagnosis in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Studies are lacking on the usefulness of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) in making the diagnosis of ICD. To characterize irritant exposures leading to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during January 2010-August 2011, in a programme consisting of a clinical examination, exposure assessment, and extensive patch/prick testing. OCD was diagnosed in 228 patients. Of these patients, 118 were diagnosed with OICD. The main irritant exposures identified were wet work (n = 64), gloves (n = 45), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of Petiveria alliacea Leaves Extract in Decreasing Serum Level of Blood Glucose Level Through Activation of AMPK-α1 in Diabetes Mellitus Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Mustika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Singawalang (Petiveria alliaceae is a medicinal herb that is used traditionally as folk medicine for various diseases. The plant has been used as an antidiabetic agent in Indonesian society. Until now, the effect and mechanism of action of Petiveria alliaceae as antidiabetic agent is not clear. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Petiveria alliaceae to blood glucose level and to identify expression of AMPK-α1 in rat liver. The research was experimental study with randomized and was conducted at Laboratory Pharmacology and Therapy, and Laboratory Patology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, on April until August 2015. Twenty five male rats were injected by Streptozotocin to create diabetic rat models and randomly divided into 5 groups. The group 1, 2 and 3 are treatment groups that were given the ethanol extract of Petiveria alliaceae at dose 90 mg/kgbw, 180 mg/kgbw, and 360 mg/kgbw, orally, once daily for fourteen days. The fourth group is a negative control who were given distilled water and the fifth group is a positive control who were given metformin at dose 150 mg/kgbw. On the 15th day, blood glucose level were measured by glucometer and the rats were sacrificed to collect the liver. Expression of AMPK-α1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed by ANAVA and Wilcoxon (α=0,05. The results have been showed that there were significant differences in glucose blood level between negative control with the group were given the extract at dose 90 mg/kgbw, 360 mg/kgbw and positive control, between dose 180 mg/kgbw with dose 360 mg/kgbw and positive control. A significant differences of expression of AMPK-α1 showed between dose 180 mg/kgbw with dose 360 mg/kgbw and positive control. The conclusion of this study was the extract ethanol of Singawalang leaves reduce blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus rat models through increase in the expression of AMPK-α1.

  4. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IRRITATION INDEX OF LOTION CONTAINING SYZIGIUM AROMATICUM CLOVE ESSENTIAL OIL AT VARIOUS CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil Latifah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lotion contained essential oil of clove Syzigium a romaticum which contained eugenol as the active ingredient. Eugenol has been scientifically proven as anti-inflammatory. Because its activity, the study about development of dosage form is needed. Aims of this study was to know the physical properties of spreadibility, adhesivity, pH, viscosity and irritation index of lotion with variation concentration of essential oil.Thisstudywasstartedwithaformulationoflotionwith variationconcentrationofessentialoil5%(FI; 10% (FII; 15% (FIII. Lotion was evaluated physical properties with parameters spreadibility, adhesivity, viscosity and pH. The evaluation of iritation index was done using guinea pig test animals. Data were analyzed statistically with One Way Anova at confidence level of 95% to detect a significant difference between the treatment groups. The results of the study showed the variation consentration did not influence pH the increasing concentration caused a decreasing spredibility P<0.05 and increasing adhesivity P<0.05. The all of concentration did not irritated the skin of guinea pigs.

  5. Two Years of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Treatment Decreased Parathyroid Gland Volume and Serum Parathyroid Hormone Level in Hemodialysis Patients With Advanced Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Toyonaga, Jiro; Suehiro, Takaichi; Eriguchi, Rieko; Fujimi, Satoru; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    The long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume has been scarcely investigated in patients with moderate to advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The present study was a prospective observational study to determine the effect of cinacalcet treatment on PTG volume and serum biochemical parameters in 60 patients with renal SHPT, already treated with intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA). Measurement of biochemical parameters and PTG volumes were performed periodically, which were analyzed by stratification into tertiles across the baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) level or PTG volume. We also determined the factors that can estimate the changes in PTG volume and the achievement of the target PTH range by multivariable analyses. Two years of cinacalcet treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphate, followed by the improvement of achieving the target ranges for these parameters recommended by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Cinacalcet decreased the maximal and total PTG volume by about 30%, and also decreased the serum PTH level independent of the baseline serum PTH level and PTG volume. Ten out of 60 patients showed 30% increase in maximal PTG after 2 years. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with nodular PTG at baseline and patients with higher serum calcium and PTH levels at 1 year were likely to exceed the target range of PTH at two years. In conclusion, cinacalcet treatment with intravenous VDRA therapy decreased both PTG volume and serum intact PTH level, irrespective of the pretreatment PTG status and past treatment history. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  6. Fragrance chemicals lyral and lilial decrease viability of HaCat cells' by increasing free radical production and lowering intracellular ATP level: protection by antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Julnar; Hachem, Yassmine; El-Rifai, Omar; Bou-Moughlabey, Yolla; Echtay, Karim; Griffiths, David; Nakkash-Chmaisse, Hania; Makki, Rajaa Fakhoury

    2013-02-01

    We investigate in this study the biochemical effects on cells in culture of two commonly used fragrance chemicals: lyral and lilial. Whereas both chemicals exerted a significant effect on primary keratinocyte(s), HaCat cells, no effect was obtained with any of HepG2, Hek293, Caco2, NIH3T3, and MCF7 cells. Lyral and lilial: (a) decreased the viability of HaCat cells with a 50% cell death at 100 and 60 nM respectively; (b) decreased significantly in a dose dependant manner the intracellular ATP level following 12-h of treatment; (c) inhibited complexes I and II of electron transport chain in liver sub-mitochondrial particles; and (d) increased reactive oxygen species generation that was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine and trolox and the natural antioxidant lipoic acid, without influencing the level of free and/or oxidized glutathione. Lipoic acid protected HaCat cells against the decrease in viability induced by either compound. Dehydrogenation of lyral and lilial produce α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that reacts with lipoic acid requiring proteins resulting in their inhibition. We propose lyral and lilial as toxic to mitochondria that have a direct effect on electron transport chain, increase ROS production, derange mitochondrial membrane potential, and decrease cellular ATP level, leading thus to cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mast cell stabilizers as a potential treatment for Irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mast cells are believed to play a role in irritable bowel syndrome pathogenesis and symptom genesis due to their close neighborhood to gastrointestinal innervations. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered cromolyn for reduction of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Material and Methods s: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded 6×6 weeks cross-over study was performed in a private gastrointestinal clinic. 10 patients were allocated to group A and 6 patients to group B. Patients in group A received 150 mg cromolyn divided in three equal doses for the first 6 weeks and placebo for the next 6 weeks but patients in group B received placebo for the first 6 weeks and cromolyn in the next 6 weeks. Weekly evaluation was performed and visual analogue scale was used to determine severity of symptoms. Results: Sixteen patients completed the study. Mean age of the patients was 40.3 ± 10.9 years old [range: 24-57]. Eight patients had D-IBS (Diarrhea dominant and other 8 had C-IBS (Constipation dominant. Both cromolyn sodium and the placebo decreased the severity of bloating (Freidman test, p 0.001 and 0.006 respectively. The severity of the main symptom (diarrhea or constipation did not decrease in patients of group A and B who were treated with different sequences of the drug or placebo. The severity of pain decreased drastically after 6th week of treatment with cromolyn. Freidman test showed a significant difference between the pain levels of the former defined treatment spots (p 0.01, and 0.02 for patients in group A and B, respectively. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the study. Conclusion: In conclusion, long term administration of cromolyn seems to be partially effective for treatment of abdominal pain in patients with IBS while main symptoms (diarrhea or constipation might not decrease during this treatment.

  8. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common diagnosis in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Studies are lacking on the usefulness of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) in making the diagnosis of ICD. OBJECTIVE: To characterize irritant exposures leading...... to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. METHODS: We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during......), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact...

  9. Decreased Hippocampal 5-HT and DA Levels Following Sub-Chronic Exposure to Noise Stress: Impairment in both Spatial and Recognition Memory in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Fizza; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Mankind is exposed to a number of stressors, and among them noise is one which can cause intense stress. High levels of background noise can severely impair one's ability to concentrate. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of sub-chronic noise stress on cognitive behavior and hippocampal monoamine levels in male rats. The study was performed on 12 male Wistar rats, divided into two groups; the control and noise-exposed. The rats in the test group were subjected to noise stress, 4h daily for 15 days. Cognitive testing was performed by the Elevated Plus Maze test (EPM) and Novel Object Recognition test (NOR). HPLC-EC was used to determine hippocampal monoamine levels and their metabolites. The data obtained revealed a significant decrease in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels, whereas turnover ratios of 5-HT and DA were significantly increased compared to the controls. Rats exposed to noise exhibited a significant decrement in spatial memory. A significantly decreased recognition index of rats exposed to noise as compared to the control was also observed in the NOR test. Results of the present findings suggest the role of decreased hippocampal 5-HT and DA in the impairment of cognitive function following noise exposure.

  10. Association of decrease in liver triglyceride content with increase in plasma adiponectin levels after pioglitazone treatment in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Kan; Kaneko, Yoshihito; Taneichi, Haruhito

    2010-01-01

    Pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione, has multiple clinical effects including improvement of insulin sensitivity, blood glucose levels and serum lipid profiles, decrease in liver triglyceride (TG) content, and increase in serum adiponectin. However, the correlation and causal relationship between these effects are not fully understood clinically. Therefore, we analyzed these relationships in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with pioglitazone, focusing on changes in liver TG content and serum adiponectin. Thirteen Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with pioglitazone (15 mg/day) for more than 3 months. Before and after the pioglitazone treatment, liver TG content was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and various clinical variables were also measured. The pioglitazone treatment significantly decreased the liver TG content (-12.9±8.1%, p 2 =0.53, p=0.017), implying increased serum adiponectin may have decreased liver fat content. (author)

  11. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of human melanoma cell growth by dietary flavonoid fisetin is associated with disruption of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and decreased Mitf levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N.; Afaq, Farrukh; Maddodi, Nityanand; Johnson, Jeremy J.; Sarfaraz, Sami; Ahmad, Adeel; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor in spite of treatment advances, emphasizing the importance of additional preventive measures. Flavonoids, natural components of our diet are being investigated for their chemopreventive/therapeutic properties. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), downstream of Wnt/β-catenin pathway has become an important prognostic marker of melanoma. Here, we show that treatment of 451Lu melanoma cells with the dietary flavonoid fisetin resulted in decreased cell viability with G1-phase arrest and disruption of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This was accompanied with a decrease in expression of Wnt protein and its co-receptors and a parallel increase in the expression of endogenous Wnt inhibitors. Fisetin-treated cells showed increased cytosolic levels of Axin and β-TrCP and decreased phosphorylation of GSK3-β assocaited with decreased β-catenin stabilization. Fisetin-mediated interference with the functional cooperation between β-catenin and LEF/TCF-2 resulted in downregulation of positively regulated TCF targets such as c-myc, Brn-2 and Mitf. Flowcytometric analysis of Mitf overexpressing cells showed that fisetin repressed Mitf-induced cell proliferation. Finally, administration of fisetin to 451Lu xenografted nude mice resulted in inhibition of tumor development and decreased Mitf expression. Our data suggest that fisetin can be developed as an effective agent against melanoma due to its potential inhibitory effect on β-catenin/Mitf signaling. PMID:21346776

  13. Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changxi; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Zhou, Xie; Xia, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.

  14. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Aytekin; Arzu Karataş Toğral

    2014-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem....

  15. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  16. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  17. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikhu Akhmad Husen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of various fractions of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to the changes of the fasting blood cholesterol and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels on diabetic mice (Mus musculus. Thirty 3-4 months old male mice strain BALB/c, weight 20-30 g were divided into six groups. The first group was KN as a non diabetic control group, KD as a diabetic control, KM as a group of diabetic mice treated with metformin, and NP, SP, and P as the treatment groups that were treated by using three different fractions from mangosteen pericarp extract, non polar, semi polar, and polar respectively. The induction of Diabetes mellitus was done by the injection of STZ, and the mice were given a high fat diet treatment to induce the hiperlipidemia condition using lard for three weeks. The blood cholesterol levels were measured in all groups before and after the injection of lard, and day 1, 7, and 14 of treatment as well. The serum MDA level as the indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured by using QuantiChrom TBARS Assay Kit (DTBA-100. The data of cholesterol levels were statistically analyzed by t-test, while the data of serum MDA levels were analyzed by variance analysis followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the polar fraction of mangosteen pericarp had effect to decrease the fasting blood cholesterol level in mice, however the non polar and semi polar fraction had no simmilar effect. All of the fractions has shown significant effect to decrease the serum MDA level in mice. Key words: cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, Garcinia mangostana, malondialdehyde (mda, obesity.

  18. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 causes decreased protein levels of cyclin D1 via GSK3β activation and increased ROS production in rat pup livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, Jose L; Sanchez, Domènec J

    2014-02-01

    We here examined the potential liver toxicity in rat pups from dams exposed during the gestational and lactation periods to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99). Dams were exposed to 0, 1, and 2mg/kg/day of BDE-99 from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21. When the pups were weaning, the liver from 1 pup of each litter was excised to evaluate oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. To determine whether thyroid hormone (TH) was disrupted, the protein and mRNA expressions of several TH receptor (TR) isoforms, as well as the protein levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylated protein kinases Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), were evaluated. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 produced decreased levels of cyclin D1 in rat pup livers. A decrease in the active form of Akt and an increase in the active form of GSK3β were observed. The decreased Akt pathway may be due to a potential disruption of the nongenomic actions of TH by BDE-99 and its metabolites. This possible TH disruption was noted as a decrease in TR isoforms expression. By contrast, we observed an upregulation of CYP2B1 gene expression, which is correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species production. This outcome indicates activation of the nuclear constitutive androstane receptor, which could induce the expression of other enzymes capable of metabolizing TH. The present findings support the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to PBDEs, at levels found in humans, may have serious implications for metabolic processes in rat pup livers.

  19. Increased galectin-3 levels are associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm progression and inhibition of galectin-3 decreases elastase-induced AAA development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-García, Carlos-Ernesto; Tarin, Carlos; Roldan-Montero, Raquel; Martinez-Lopez, Diego; Torres-Fonseca, Monica; Lindhot, Jes S; Vega de Ceniga, Melina; Egido, Jesus; Lopez-Andres, Natalia; Blanco-Colio, Luis-Miguel; Martín-Ventura, Jose-Luis

    2017-11-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution is unpredictable and no specific treatment exists for AAA, except surgery to prevent aortic rupture. Galectin-3 has been previously associated with CVD, but its potential role in AAA has not been addressed. Galectin-3 levels were increased in the plasma of AAA patients ( n =225) compared with the control group ( n =100). In addition, galectin-3 concentrations were associated with the need for surgical repair, independently of potential confounding factors. Galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in human AAA samples compared with healthy aortas. Experimental AAA in mice was induced via aortic elastase perfusion. Mice were treated intravenously with the galectin-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP, 10 mg/kg, every other day) or saline. Similar to humans, galectin-3 serum and aortic mRNA levels were also increased in elastase-induced AAA mice compared with control mice. Mice treated with MCP showed decreased aortic dilation, as well as elastin degradation, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) loss, and macrophage content at day 14 postelastase perfusion compared with control mice. The underlying mechanism(s) of the protective effect of MCP was associated with a decrease in galectin-3 and cytokine (mainly CCL5) mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, galectin-3 induced CCL5 expression by a mechanism involving STAT3 activation in VSMC. Accordingly, MCP treatment decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in elastase-induced AAA. In conclusion, increased galectin-3 levels are associated with AAA progression, while galectin-3 inhibition decreased experimental AAA development. Our data suggest the potential role of galectin-3 as a therapeutic target in AAA. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Release from Xenopus oocyte prophase I meiotic arrest is independent of a decrease in cAMP levels or PKA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nancy; Courjaret, Raphael; Dib, Maya; Kulkarni, Rashmi P; Machaca, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate oocytes arrest at prophase of meiosis I as a result of high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. In Xenopus, progesterone is believed to release meiotic arrest by inhibiting adenylate cyclase, lowering cAMP levels and repressing PKA. However, the exact timing and extent of the cAMP decrease is unclear, with conflicting reports in the literature. Using various in vivo reporters for cAMP and PKA at the single-cell level in real time, we fail to detect any significant changes in cAMP or PKA in response to progesterone. More interestingly, there was no correlation between the levels of PKA inhibition and the release of meiotic arrest. Furthermore, we devised conditions whereby meiotic arrest could be released in the presence of sustained high levels of cAMP. Consistently, lowering endogenous cAMP levels by >65% for prolonged time periods failed to induce spontaneous maturation. These results argue that the release of oocyte meiotic arrest in Xenopus is independent of a reduction in either cAMP levels or PKA activity, but rather proceeds through a parallel cAMP/PKA-independent pathway. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  2. Decreasing prolactin levels leads to a lower diving effort but does not affect breeding success in Adélie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Manuelle; Chastel, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Debin, Marion; Takahashi, Akinori; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Current research on seabirds suggests a key role of hormones in the trade-off between self-maintenance and parental investment through their influence on foraging decisions during the breeding period. Although prolactin is known to have major effects on parental care, its role in foraging behavior has rarely been investigated in seabirds to date. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an experimental decrease in prolactin levels on foraging decisions and its consequences on breeding success in free-living seabirds. To achieve this, we implanted bromocriptine (an inhibitor of prolactin secretion) in male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), monitored their foraging behavior using time-depth recorders over several trips, and recorded their reproductive output. On average 8±0.5days after implantation, we showed that bromocriptine administration led to an efficient decrease in prolactin levels. However, no differences were seen in foraging trip durations between bromocriptine-implanted birds and controls. Moreover, the time spent diving and the number of dives performed per trip were similar in both groups. By contrast, all diving parameters (including diving efficiency) were negatively affected by the treatment during the first at-sea trip following the treatment. Finally, the treatment did not affect adult body condition or chick growth and survival. Our study highlights the short-term negative effect of low prolactin levels on diving effort, but indicates that a short-term and/or low-magnitude decrease in prolactin levels alone is not sufficient to modify consistently the body maintenance or the parental investment of Adélie penguins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic Stress Decreases Basal Levels of Memory-Related Signaling Molecules in Area CA1 of At-Risk (Subclinical) Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2015-08-01

    An important factor that may affect the severity and time of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is chronic stress. Epidemiological studies report that chronically stressed individuals are at an increased risk for developing AD. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether chronic psychosocial stress could hasten the appearance of AD symptoms including changes in basal levels of cognition-related signaling molecules in subjects who are at risk for the disease. We investigated the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of subclinical rat model of AD. The subclinical symptomless rat model of AD was induced by osmotic pump continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of 160 pmol/day Aβ1-42 for 14 days. Rats were chronically stressed using the psychosocial stress intruder model. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of important signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed no significant difference between the subclinical AD rat model and control rat. Following six weeks of psychosocial stress, molecular analysis showed that subclinical animals subjected to stress have significantly reduced basal levels of p-CaMKII and decreased p-CaMKII/t-CaMKII ratio as well as decreased basal levels of p-CREB, total CREB, and BDNF. The present results suggest that these changes in basal levels of signaling molecules may be responsible for impaired learning, memory, and LTP in this rat model, which support the proposition that chronic stress may accelerate the emergence of AD in susceptible individuals.

  4. SAHA decreases HDAC 2 and 4 levels in vivo and improves molecular phenotypes in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mielcarek

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurological disorder for which there are no disease-modifying treatments. Transcriptional dysregulation is a major molecular feature of HD, which significantly contributes to disease progression. Therefore, the development of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors as therapeutics for HD has been energetically pursued. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA - a class I HDAC as well an HDAC6 inhibitor, improved motor impairment in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Recently it has been found that SAHA can also promote the degradation of HDAC4 and possibly other class IIa HDACs at the protein level in various cancer cell lines. To elucidate whether SAHA is a potent modifier of HDAC protein levels in vivo, we performed two independent mouse trials. Both WT and R6/2 mice were chronically treated with SAHA and vehicle. We found that prolonged SAHA treatment causes the degradation of HDAC4 in cortex and brain stem, but not hippocampus, without affecting its transcript levels in vivo. Similarly, SAHA also decreased HDAC2 levels without modifying the expression of its mRNA. Consistent with our previous data, SAHA treatment diminishes Hdac7 transcript levels in both wild type and R6/2 brains and unexpectedly was found to decrease Hdac11 in R6/2 but not wild type. We investigated the effects of SAHA administration on well-characterised molecular readouts of disease progression. We found that SAHA reduces SDS-insoluble aggregate load in the cortex and brain stem but not in the hippocampus of the R6/2 brains, and that this was accompanied by restoration of Bdnf cortical transcript levels.

  5. Psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, M; Kavuk, I; Sayar, K

    2003-12-09

    The role of psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a matter of debate. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in IBS patients. Positive response to antidepressant therapy and presence of family history of depression in IBS patients have led speculations whether this syndrome might be regarded as an affective spectrum disorder. In this study we tried to examine the possible association of IBS with affective spectrum disorders. Forty IBS patients from gastroenterology outpatient clinics of a university hospital and state hospital, 32 controls with inflammatory bowel disease and 34 healthy hospital workers were included in the study. Psychiatric interviews were done using SCID-NP (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Non-patients) and psychological factors were assessed by the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Family histories were obtained by FH-RDC (Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria). All groups were matched for sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and mood disorders was higher in the IBS group than the control groups. Also IBS group rated higher on anxiety and depression scales than the other groups, where the differences were statistically significant. Presence of positive family history for mood disorders was higher in the IBS group. These results support the hypothesis that IBS might be linked to affective spectrum disorder. Psychiatric assessment and therapy might be useful in the course of irritable bowel syndrome.

  6. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → FMDV L pro inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-α1/β mRNA expression. → L pro inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-α1/β promoter. → L pro significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. → L pro inhibits IFN-α1/β promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. → The ability to process eIF-4G of L pro is not necessary to inhibit IFN-α1/β activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L pro ) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-β (IFN-β) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-α1/β expression caused by L pro was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-α/β. Furthermore, overexpression of L pro significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L pro mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L pro is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-α1/β promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-κB, L pro also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  9. Dysbiosis of Intestinal Microbiota and Decreased Antimicrobial Peptide Level in Paneth Cells during Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG aggravates the course of acute pancreatitis (AP. Intestinal barrier dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of AP during which dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota contributes to the dysfunction in intestinal barrier. However, few studies focus on the changes in intestine during HTG-related acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP. Here, we investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and Paneth cell antimicrobial peptides (AMPs in HTG-related ANP (HANP in rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet to induce HTG and ANP was induced by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into biliopancreatic duct. Rats were sacrificed at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Pancreatic and ileal injuries were evaluated by histological scores. Intestinal barrier function was assessed by plasma diamine oxidase activity and D-lactate level. Systemic and intestinal inflammation was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-17A expression. 16S rRNA high throughput sequencing was used to investigate changes in intestinal microbiota diversity and structure. AMPs (α-defensin5 and lysozyme expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunofluorescence. The results showed that compared with those of normal-lipid ANP (NANP groups, the HANP groups had more severe histopathological injuries in pancreas and distal ileum, aggravated intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-17A expression in plasma and distal ileum. Principal component analysis showed structural segregation between the HANP and NANP group. α-Diversity estimators in the HANP group revealed decreased microbiota diversity compared with that in NANP group. Taxonomic analysis showed dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota structure. In the HANP group, at phyla level, Candidatus_Saccharibacteria and Tenericutes decreased significantly, whereas Actinobacteria increased. At genus level, Allobaculum, Bifidobacterium

  10. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  11. Rhodamine B triggers ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, decreases in the number of follicles, 17B-estradiol level, and thickness of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syiska Atik Maryanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to rhodamine B on ovarian oxidative stress, ovarian follicles, hormone 17beta-estradiol and thickness of endometrium. Methods: A total of 28 female rats were divided into four groups consisting of control; groups treated with rhodamine B at doses of 4.5; 9, and 18 milligram/200 gram body weight. Rhodamine B was administered orally for 36 days with the probe. Analysis of MDA level was done spectrophotometrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and thickness of endometrium was done histopathologically by hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of 17-estradiol level was done by ELISA. Results: Rhodamine B administered in different doses in female rats can increase ovarian MDA levels significantly than the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce the number of primary, secondary, and De Graaf follicles significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce 17-estradiol level significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. The administration of rhodamine B could reduce thickness of endometrium significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of rhodamine B triggered ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, a decrease in the number of follicles, and decreased level of 17-estradiol which ultimately lowered the thickness of endometrium. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 451-457

  12. MicroRNA-27a decreases the level and efficiency of the LDL receptor and contributes to the dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; Eddy, Elena; Done, Stefania C

    2015-10-01

    A strong risk factor for atherosclerosis- the leading cause of heart attacks and strokes- is the elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood. The LDL receptor (LDLR) is the primary pathway for LDL-C removal from circulation, and their levels are increased by statins -the main treatment for high blood LDL-C. However, statins have low efficiency because they also increase PCSK9 which targets LDLR for degradation. Since microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of cholesterol homeostasis, our aim was to identify potential microRNA-based therapeutics to decrease blood LDL-C and prevent atherosclerosis. We over expressed and knocked down miR-27a in HepG2 cells to assess its effect on the expression of key players in the LDLR pathway using PCR Arrays, Elisas, and Western blots. We found that miR-27a decreases LDLR levels by 40% not only through a direct binding to its 3' untranslated region but also indirectly by inducing a 3-fold increase in PCSK9, which enhances LDLR degradation. Interestingly, miR-27a also directly decreases LRP6 and LDLRAP1, two other key players in the LDLR pathway that are required for efficient endocytosis of the LDLR-LDL-C complex in the liver. The inhibition of miR-27a using lock nucleic acids induced a 70% increase in LDLR levels and, therefore, it would be a more efficient treatment for hypercholesterolemia because of its desirable effects not only on LDLR but also on PCSK9. The results presented here provide evidence supporting the potential of miR-27a as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Piper Crocatum Leaves Extract Decrease TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Wistar Rat with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahjuni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to find a cure for anti-inflammation, based on the utilization of red piper crocatum. The research was started with descriptive study to explore active components of red piper crocatum leaf and followed by experimental study to investigate red piper crocatum activity of the leaf extract in anti-inflammation induced Wistar rat. In this research observed three dominant components: caryophyllene bicyclo [5.2.0] none,2 methylene-4,8,8-trimethyl-4-vinyl; phytol; 5,9-propano-5H-benzocycloheptene,6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-7,11-bis(methylene; 4,4-ethynedioxy-2-hexadecen-15-15 olide 1,4,9-trioxaspiro [4,15] eic os-6-en-8-one, 10 methyl; 1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(H-thione,4-allyl-3-(3-furyl; Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-7-phenyl which are possibly active to inhibit anti-inflammation to atherosclerosis. Bad eating habits also can cause various health problems, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, inflammation to atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate of red piper crocatum leaves extract as an anti-inflammation through decrease of biochemistry markers TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Method: This is a true experimental with randomized pre-test and post-test control group design, using 50 Wistar rats that are divided into 5 groups: control group using 0 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 1 using 50 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 2 using 100 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 3 using 150 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, and treatment group 4 200mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract. Results: It was observed that intake of 150 mg/BW red piper crocatum leaves extract results in the highest significance decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α levels from (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 рg/mL and a significance decrease of 15.42% of IL-6 level from (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 рg/mL. Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of red piper crocatum

  15. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jarløv Rasmussen

    Full Text Available Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers.This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7 years and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction were recorded systematically.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7 nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0 nmol/l (P < 0.01. Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5 of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01. Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01. The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2% (11.1; 42.2, erectile dysfunction ((27.3% (13.3; 45.6 and decreased libido ((40.1% (23.2; 57.0 than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH

  16. Green tea increases anti-inflammatory tristetraprolin and decreases pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor mRNA levels in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussel Anne M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36 family proteins have anti-inflammatory activity by binding to and destabilizing pro-inflammatory mRNAs such as Tnf mRNA, and represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammation-related diseases. Tea has anti-inflammatory properties but the molecular mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We hypothesized that TTP and/or its homologues might contribute to the beneficial effects of tea as an anti-inflammatory product. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the effects of green tea (0, 1, and 2 g solid extract/kg diet on the expression of Ttp family genes (Ttp/Tis11/Zfp36, Zfp36l1/Tis11b, Zfp36l2/Tis11d, Zfp36l3, pro-inflammatory genes (Tnf, Csf2/Gm-csf, Ptgs2/Cox2, and Elavl1/Hua/Hur and Vegf genes in liver and muscle of rats fed a high-fructose diet known to induce insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and TNF-alpha levels. Results Ttp and Zfp36l1 mRNAs were the major forms in both liver and skeletal muscle. Ttp, Zfp36l1, and Zfp36l2 mRNA levels were more abundant in the liver than those in the muscle. Csf2/Gm-csf and Zfp36l3 mRNAs were undetectable in both tissues. Tea (1 g solid extract/kg diet increased Ttp mRNA levels by 50–140% but Tnf mRNA levels decreased by 30% in both tissues, and Ptgs2/Cox2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% in the muscle. Tea (2 g solid extract/kg diet increased Elavl1/Hua/Hur mRNA levels by 40% in the liver but did not affect any of the other mRNA levels in liver or muscle. Conclusion These results show that tea can modulate Ttp mRNA levels in animals and suggest that a post-transcriptional mechanism through TTP could partially account for tea's anti-inflammatory properties. The results also suggest that drinking adequate amounts of green tea may play a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  17. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  18. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  19. Resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E: a nutraceutical approach to sleep disturbance and irritability in peri- and post-menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F

    2015-02-01

    The climacteric syndrome is characterized by several symptoms: hot flashes are the most common and reported by about 70% of peri- post-menopausal women. Sleep disorders, particularly decreased sleep quality, and irritability are also commonly reported. There is a clinical and epidemiological relationship between these symptoms. Common biological mechanisms may explain in part the relationship between hot flushes, sleep disorders and irritability. For example, withdrawal of hormones causes change in the serotonin levels. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. it is the precursor for the serotonin synthesis and is naturally found in food such as turkey, cheese, and nuts. The serotonergic system is implicated in sleep, mood, and hot flashes. Glycine is an amino acid found mainly in protein-rich food such as meat, fish, dairy products, cheese and vegetables. It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Studies have shown that glycine can promote a deeper level of sleep. Resveratrol has a similar chemical structure to the diethylstilbestrol and 17-beta estradiol and acts as a phytoestrogen. Resveratrol at doses of 3-10 micromoles inhibited the estradiol-estrogen receptor binding and showed an estrogen-like activity. Vitamin E is found naturally in some food and available as a dietary supplement. It has an antioxidant activity. It has been suggested that the oxidative stress may also play a role in sleep disorders. Some studies have shown protective effect of vitamins E on sleep quality. In conclusion, hot flashes, sleep disturbances and mood disorders may represent a continuum in the climacteric syndrome, which recognize in the hormonal changes and the neurotrasmettitors level alteration a potential common pathway. The nutraceutical approach may be useful in a preventive perspective. Among the large choice of functional food available, the combination of resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E may represent an interesting opportunity in

  20. Smoking is associated with increased adrenal responsiveness, decreased prolactin levels and a more adverse lipid profile in 650 white patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Hougaard, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the associations between smoking status and metabolic risk factors and sex hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study was designed as a retrospective trans-sectional study including 650 white premenopausal women with the diagnoses hirsutism or PCOS divided according...... to smoking status: non-smokers (NS-PCOS = 390) and smokers (S-PCOS = 260). One hundred and nineteen healthy women were studied as controls (NS-Control = 105, S-Control = 14). Patients and controls underwent clinical evaluation, hormone analyses, transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT......) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) tests. S-PCOS has significantly higher fasting lipid profile and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels (basal and ACTH-stimulated) than NS-PCOS patients, whereas prolactin levels were decreased. No significant differences were found in body composition and measures of insulin resistance...

  1. A high-protein diet during hospitalization is associated with an accelerated decrease in soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in acutely ill elderly medical patients with SIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas Huneck; Andersen, Aino L

    2017-01-01

    inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet...... (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator...... receptor (suPAR), interleukin-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin were measured at admission, discharge, and 4 and 13 weeks after discharge. The Intervention group had an earlier decrease in suPAR levels than the Control group: -15.4% vs. +14.5%, P=.007 during hospitalization, and -2.4% vs. -28.6%, P...

  2. Rotating night shifts too quickly may cause anxiety and decreased attentional performance, and impact prolactin levels during the subsequent day: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-San; Chen, Hsiang-Lan; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

    2014-08-05

    We investigated circadian changes and effects on mood, sleep-related hormones and cognitive performance when nurses worked consecutive night shifts in a rapidly rotating shift system. Daytime cognitive function, sleep propensity and sleep-related hormones (growth hormone, cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin) were compared after participants worked two and four consecutive night shifts. Twenty-three off-duty nurses, 20 nurses working two consecutive night shifts and 16 nurses working four consecutive night shifts were enrolled. All participants completed the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, visual attention tasks (VAT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and modified Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Hormone levels were also measured four times throughout the day, at 2-h intervals. During the day, the participants in the night shift groups were less able to maintain wakefulness, had poor performance on VAT, and higher thyrotropin levels than did those in the off-duty group. Participants who worked two night shifts were better able to maintain wakefulness, had higher anxiety scale scores, poorer initial performance and lack of learning effect on VAT, and higher prolactin levels compared with those who worked four night shifts. There were no differences in cortisol levels between the two- and four- shift groups. Rotating night shifts too quickly may cause anxiety and decreased attentional performance, and may impact daytime prolactin levels after night shifts. It is possible that the two-shift group had a higher cortisol level than did the four-shift group, which would be consistent with the group's higher state anxiety scores. The negative findings may be due to the small sample size. Further studies on the effects of consecutive night shifts on mood and cortisol levels during the daytime after sleep restriction would be valuable.

  3. Decreased synovial fluid ghrelin levels are linked with disease severity in primary knee osteoarthritis patients and are increased following laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Deng, Hong-Yu; Mao, Zheng; Zhao, Chang; Huang, Ju; Liu, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin has been proved to inhibit inflammation and promote cartilage growth. So far, its role in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis has not been investigated. The current study was performed to explore the serum and synovial ghrelin levels as well as the relationship between ghrelin levels and disease severity in primary knee OA patients. 52 primary knee OA patients were recruited in the study. 52 sex and age-matched patients visiting our hospital for regular body check were selected as controls. The serum and synovial fluid ghrelin levels were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before treatment, one week and four weeks after laser therapy, respectively. The inflammation markers IL-6 and TNF-α were also investigated. The radiographic progression was assessed by Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade scale and the symptomatic severity was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), Lequesne index and Lysholm scores. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis curve was conducted to test the diagnostic value of ghrelin, IL-6 and TNF-α for radiographic progression. No significant difference of serum ghrelin levels was found between knee OA patients and healthy controls. Synovial fluid ghrelin concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with K-L grading (r=-0.591, Pghrelin levels were also related to clinical severity determined by Lequesne index (r=-0.308, P=0.025),VAS scores (r=-0.591, Pghrelin levels were also negatively associated with TNF-α (r=-0.424, P=0.002) and IL-6 concentrations (r=-0.428, P=0.002). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that ghrelin exhibited more diagnostic value than IL-6 and TNF-α for assessing radiographic progression in medium-late stage. Decreased synovial fluid ghrelin levels are related to disease severity in patients with primary osteoarthritis and are increased following laser therapy. Local application of ghrelin may serve as an adjunctive therapy for knee OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  4. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  5. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  6. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  7. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels.

  8. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  9. Hyperoxia exposure induced hormesis decreases mitochondrial superoxide radical levels via Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway in a long-lived age-1 mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Sumino; Ishii, Naoaki

    2008-01-01

    The hormetic effect, which extends the lifespan by various stressors, has been confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We have previously reported that oxidative stress resistance in a long-lived mutant age-1 is associated with the hormesis. In the age-1 allele, which activates an insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (Ins/IGF-1) signaling pathway, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities increased during normal aging. We now demonstrate changes in the mitochondrial superoxide radical (O 2 - ) levels of the hormetic conditioned age-related strains. The O 2 - levels in age-1 strain significantly decreased after intermittent hyperoxia exposure. On the other hand, this phenomenon was not observed in a daf-16 null mutant. This hormesis-dependent reduction of the O 2 - levels was observed even if the mitochondrial Mn-SOD was experimentally reduced. Therefore, it is indicated that the hormesis is mediated by events that suppress the mitochondrial O 2 - production. Moreover, some SOD gene expressions in the hormetic conditioned age-1 mutant were induced over steady state messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels. These data suggest that oxidative stress-inducible hormesis is associated with a reduction of the mitochondrial O 2 - production by activation of the antioxidant system via the Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway. (author)

  10. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits.

  11. A decrease in fasting FGF19 levels is associated with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Malgorzata; Janus, Dominika; Dolezal-Oltarzewska, Katarzyna; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Poplawska, Karolina; Drozdz, Dorota; Sztefko, Krystyna; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a hormone released from the small intestine; recently, it has emerged as an endocrine regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of FGF19 in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 23 (17 boys) obese adolescents (mean age of 14.1 years) with NAFLD. The control group consisted of 34 (13 boys) obese peers with normal ultrasonographic imaging and normal liver function tests. The definition of NAFLD was based on clinical criteria: elevated alanine aminotransferase (>35 U/L) and liver steatosis features on ultrasound imaging. Serum FGF19 levels were measured in a fasting blood sample. The definition of insulin resistance was based on the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) threshold: >2.5. There was a significant difference between mean FGF19 levels in patients with NAFLD and controls (142.2 vs. 206 pg/mL, p=0.04). Mean fasting FGF19 levels were decreased in insulin-resistant patients in comparison with the non-insulin-resistant group (155.0 vs. 221.0 pg/mL, p=0.05). There was an inverse correlation between FGF19 and alanine aminotransferase levels (R=-0.3, pexogenous delivery of FGF19 might be therapeutically beneficial.

  12. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  14. Changing face of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eamonn MM Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is evident that this is a truly global disease associated with significant symptoms and impairments in personal and social functioning for afflicted individuals. Advances in our understanding of gut flora-mucosal interactions, the enteric nervous system and the brain-gut axis have led to substantial progress in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS and have provided some hints towards the basic etiology of this disorder, in some subpopulations, at the very least. We look forward to a time when therapy will be addressed to pathophysiology and perhaps, even to primary etiology. In the meantime, a model based on a primary role for intestinal inflammation serves to integrate the various strands, which contribute to the presentation of IBS

  15. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  16. Homeopathy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Emily J; Nelson, E Andrea; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Cooper, Katy; Roberts, E Rachel; Agrawal, Anurag

    2013-11-13

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that leads to decreased health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have not been able to give guidance on the effects of homeopathic treatment for IBS because no systematic reviews have been carried out to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS. Two types of homeopathic treatment were evaluated in this systematic review. In clinical homeopathy a specific remedy is prescribed for a specific condition. This differs from individualised homeopathic treatment, where a homeopathic remedy based on a person's individual symptoms is prescribed after a detailed consultation. To assess the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic treatment for treating IBS. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cochrane IBD/FBD Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field Specialised Register and the database of the Homeopathic Library (Hom-inform) from inception to February 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies that compared homeopathic treatment with placebo, other control treatments, or usual care, in adults with IBS were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was global improvement in IBS. The overall quality of the evidence supporting this outcome was assessed using the GRADE criteria. We calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous outcomes and the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Three RCTs (213 participants) were included. No cohort or case-control studies were identified. Two studies published in 1976 and 1979 compared clinical homeopathy (homeopathic remedy) to placebo for constipation-predominant IBS

  17. In vivo skin penetration of macromolecules in irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-12-30

    Recently, a selective preferential accumulation of polymeric nanoparticles (in the size range around 100nm) has been observed in the follicular system of dermatitis skin. The present investigation aimed at clearly investigating the effect of irritant contact dermatitis on the barrier permeability for colloidal systems below this size range, namely quantum dots and hydrophilic macromolecules. Irritant dermatitis was induced in mice and the penetrability of quantum dots (5nm) and hydrophilic dextran molecules has been tracked in both healthy and inflamed skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The selective accumulation of the quantum dots was clearly observed in inflamed skin while hydrophilic dextran behaved similarly in both healthy and inflamed skin. The therapeutic potential for the transdermal delivery of peptide drugs through inflamed skin has been also tested in rats. Results revealed that the transdermal permeation of insulin and calcitonin was not significantly enhanced in dermatitis compared to healthy skin. On the other side, permeation through stripped skin was significantly higher. However, the effect was limited and shorter compared to the SC injection where t min was 0.5h and 2h with a 70% and 46% reduction in blood glucose levels for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. Similarly, t min was 4h and 8h with area under the curve of 161±65% and 350±97% for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. In conclusion, the changes in skin permeability accompanied with skin inflammation did not affect its permeability to peptide drugs. Our findings also underline that experiments with the tape stripped skin model as a surrogate for inflamed skin can risk misleading conclusions due to significant difference of skin permeability between the tape stripped skin and inflamed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased astrocytic thrombospondin-1 secretion after chronic ammonia treatment reduces the level of synaptic proteins: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Tong, Xiao Y; Curtis, Kevin M; Ruiz-Cordero, Roberto; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Abuzamel, Missa; Johnstone, Joshua; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is a major complication in patients with severe liver disease. Elevated blood and brain ammonia levels have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and astrocytes are the principal neural cells involved in this disorder. Since defective synthesis and release of astrocytic factors have been shown to impair synaptic integrity in other neurological conditions, we examined whether thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an astrocytic factor involved in the maintenance of synaptic integrity, is also altered in CHE. Cultured astrocytes were exposed to ammonia (NH₄Cl, 0.5-2.5 mM) for 1-10 days, and TSP-1 content was measured in cell extracts and culture media. Astrocytes exposed to ammonia exhibited a reduction in intra- and extracellular TSP-1 levels. Exposure of cultured neurons to conditioned media from ammonia-treated astrocytes showed a decrease in synaptophysin, PSD95, and synaptotagmin levels. Conditioned media from TSP-1 over-expressing astrocytes that were treated with ammonia, when added to cultured neurons, reversed the decline in synaptic proteins. Recombinant TSP-1 similarly reversed the decrease in synaptic proteins. Metformin, an agent known to increase TSP-1 synthesis in other cell types, also reversed the ammonia-induced TSP-1 reduction. Likewise, we found a significant decline in TSP-1 level in cortical astrocytes, as well as a reduction in synaptophysin content in vivo in a rat model of CHE. These findings suggest that TSP-1 may represent an important therapeutic target for CHE. Defective release of astrocytic factors may impair synaptic integrity in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. We found a reduction in the release of the astrocytic matricellular proteins thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in ammonia-treated astrocytes; such reduction was associated with a decrease in synaptic proteins caused by conditioned media from ammonia-treated astrocytes. Exposure of neurons to CM from ammonia-treated astrocytes, in which TSP-1 is over

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after giardia infection: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-11-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Decreased 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 Level and Activity in Murine Pancreatic Islets Caused by Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chowdhury

    Full Text Available We have reported a high expression of IGF-I in pancreatic islet β-cells of transgenic mice under the metallothionein promoter. cDNA microarray analysis of the islets revealed that the expression of 82 genes was significantly altered compared to wild-type mice. Of these, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1, which is responsible for the conversion of inert cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone, DHC in rodents to active cortisol (corticosterone in the liver and adipose tissues, has not been identified previously as an IGF-I target in pancreatic islets. We characterized the changes in its protein level, enzyme activity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In freshly isolated islets, the level of 11β-HSD1 protein was significantly lower in MT-IGF mice. Using dual-labeled immunofluorescence, 11β-HSD1 was observed exclusively in glucagon-producing, islet α-cells but at a lower level in transgenic vs. wild-type animals. MT-IGF islets also exhibited reduced enzymatic activities. Dexamethasone (DEX and DHC inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from freshly isolated islets of wild-type mice. In the islets of MT-IGF mice, 48-h pre-incubation of DEX caused a significant decrease in insulin release, while the effect of DHC was largely blunted consistent with diminished 11β-HSD1 activity. In order to establish the function of intracrine glucocorticoids, we overexpressed 11β-HSD1 cDNA in MIN6 insulinoma cells, which together with DHC caused apoptosis and a significant decrease in proliferation. Both effects were abolished with the treatment of an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor. Our results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of IGF-I on 11β-HSD1 expression and activity within the pancreatic islets, which may mediate part of the IGF-I effects on cell proliferation, survival and insulin secretion.

  1. An in vitro model for detecting skin irritants: methyl green-pyronine staining of human skin explant cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. J. L.; Lehé, C.; Cammans, K. D. A.; Das, P. K.; Elliott, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of human organotypic skin explant cultures (hOSECs) for screening skin irritants. Test chemicals were applied to the epidermis of the skin explants which were incubated for 4, 24 or 48 h in tissue culture medium. A decrease in epidermal RNA staining, visualised in frozen

  2. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  3. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of tight junction dysfunction in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Yao, Jianning; Wang, Chunfeng; Zhang, Lianfeng; Kong, Wuming

    2015-09-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, are complex and have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tight junction (TJ) dysfunction in IBS. Intestinal tissues of IBS and non‑IBS patients were examined to observe cellular changes by cell chemical tracer electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and intestinal claudin‑1 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the control group, TJ broadening and the tracer extravasation phenomenon were observed in the diarrhea‑predominant IBS group, and a greater number of neuroendocrine cells and mast cells filled with high‑density particles in the endocrine package pulp as well as a certain extent of vacuolization were present. The expression of claudin‑1 in diarrhea‑predominant IBS patients was decreased, while it was increased in constipation‑predominant IBS patients. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that changes in cellular structure and claudin‑1 levels were associated with Tjs in IBS.

  4. The influence of distal colon irritation on the changes of cystometry parameters to esophagus and colon distentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezidin G. Kaddumi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The co-occurrence of multiple pathologies in the pelvic viscera in the same patient, such as, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis, indicates the complexity of viscero-visceral interactions and the necessity to study these interactions under multiple pathological conditions. In the present study, the effect of distal colon irritation (DCI on the urinary bladder interaction with distal esophagus distention (DED, distal colon distention (DCD, and electrical stimulation of the abdominal branches of vagus nerve (abd-vagus were investigated using cystometry parameters. The DCI significantly decreased the intercontraction time (ICT by decreasing the storage time (ST; nonetheless, DED and Abd-vagus were still able to significantly decrease the ICT and ST following DCI. However, DCD had no effect on ICT following the DCI. The DCI, also, significantly decreased the Intravesical pressure amplitude (P-amplitude by increasing the resting pressure (RP. Although DED has no effect on the P-amplitude, both in the intact and the irritated animals, the abd-vagus significantly increased the P-amplitude following DCI by increasing the maximum pressure (MP. In the contrary, 3mL DCD significantly increased the P-amplitude by increasing the MP and lost that effect following the DCI. Concerning the pressure threshold (PT, none of the stimuli had any significant changes in the intact animals. However, DCI significantly decreased the PT, also, the abd-vagus and 3mL DCD significantly decreased the PT. The results of this study indicate that chemical irritation of colon complicates the effects of mechanical irritation of esophagus and colon on urinary bladder function.

  5. miR-375-3p negatively regulates osteogenesis by targeting and decreasing the expression levels of LRP5 and β-catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Sun

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling pathways are essential for bone formation. Previous studies showed that Wnt signaling pathways were regulated by miR-375. Thus, we aim to explore whether miR-375 could affect osteogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the roles of miR-375 and its downstream targets. Firstly, we revealed that miR-375-3p negatively modulated osteogenesis by suppressing positive regulators of osteogenesis and promoting negative regulators of osteogenesis. In addition, the results of TUNEL cell apoptosis assay showed that miR-375-3p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis. Secondly, miR-375-3p targeted low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5, a co-receptor of the Wnt signaling pathways, and β-catenin as determined by luciferase activity assay, and it decreased the expression levels of LRP5 and β-catenin. Thirdly, the decline of protein levels of β-catenin was determined by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Finally, silence of LRP5 in osteoblast precursor cells resulted in diminished cell viability and cell proliferation as detected by WST-1-based colorimetric assay. Additionally, all the parameters including the relative bone volume from μCT measurement suggested that LRP5 knockout in mice resulted in a looser and worse-connected trabeculae. The mRNA levels of important negative modulators relating to osteogenesis increased after the functions of LRP5 were blocked in mice. Last but not least, the expression levels of LRP5 increased during the osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1, while the levels of β-catenin decreased in bone tissues from osteoporotic patients with vertebral compression fractures. In conclusion, we revealed miR-375-3p negatively regulated osteogenesis by targeting LRP5 and β-catenin. In addition, loss of functions of LRP5 damaged bone formation in vivo. Clinically, miR-375-3p and its targets might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for osteoporosis and might be also as novel therapeutic agents in osteoporosis

  6. Level of Discomfort Decreases After the Administration of Continuous Palliative Sedation: A Prospective Multicenter Study in Hospices and Palliative Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deijck, Rogier H P D; Hasselaar, Jeroen G J; Verhagen, Stans C A H H V M; Vissers, Kris C P; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2016-09-01

    A gold standard or validated tool for monitoring the level of discomfort during continuous palliative sedation (CPS) is lacking. Therefore, little is known about the course of discomfort in sedated patients, the efficacy of CPS, and the determinants of discomfort during CPS. To identify the course of discomfort in patients receiving CPS. A prospective observational multicenter study in nine hospices and palliative care units was performed. The Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DS-DAT) was independently assessed for monitoring of patient discomfort during CPS. The DS-DAT scores range from 0 (no observed discomfort) to a maximum of 27 (high level of observed discomfort). Using a mixed model, the mean group score of discomfort between four predefined time frames of CPS was compared, correcting for confounding patient characteristics. A total of 130 patients were sedated, and the DS-DAT was completed in 106 patients at least once. The median duration of the sedation in these 106 patients was 25.5 hours (range 2-161). The mean score of the DS-DAT in the phase before sedation was 12.16 (95% CI 9.83-14.50) and decreased significantly to 8.06 (95% CI 5.53-10.58) in the titration phase of sedation. The mean score of the DS-DAT in the final phase of sedation was 7.42 (95% CI 4.90-9.94). This study shows that CPS is associated with a decrease in the level of discomfort within an acceptable time frame, although in some sedated patients higher levels of discomfort in the last hours of life occurred. Although the DS-DAT seems to be of value for monitoring the level of discomfort during CPS, the results of this study should be interpreted within the constraints of the limitations, and further research on the psychometric properties of this tool is needed before the DS-DAT can be used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace - an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Xaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory irritants represent a major cause of occupational obstructive airway diseases. We provide an overview of the evidence related to irritative agents causing occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Methods We searched MEDLINE via PubMed. Reference lists of relevant reviews were also screened. The SIGN grading system was used to rate the quality of each study. The modified RCGP three-star system was used to grade the body of evidence for each irritant agent regarding its causative role in either occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Results A total of 474 relevant papers were identified, covering 188 individual agents, professions or work-sites. The focus of most of the studies and the predominant diagnosis was occupational asthma, whereas occupational COPD arose only incidentally. The highest level assigned using the SIGN grading was 2+ (well-conducted systematic review, cohort or case–control study with a low risk of confounding or bias. According to the modified RCGP three-star grading, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent, profession or work-site (“**” was found for 17 agents or work-sites, including benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylicacid-1,2-anhydride, chlorine, platinum salt, isocyanates, cement dust, grain dust, animal farming, environmental tobacco smoke, welding fumes or construction work. Phthalic anhydride, glutaraldehyde, sulphur dioxide, cotton dust, cleaning agents, potrooms, farming (various, foundries were found to be moderately associated with occupational asthma or occupational COPD (“*[+]”. Conclusion This study let us assume that irritant-induced occupational asthma and especially occupational COPD are considerably underreported. Defining the evidence of the many additional occupational irritants for causing airway disorders will be the subject of continued studies with implications for diagnostics and preventive measures.

  8. Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gminski, Richard; Marutzky, Rainer; Kevekordes, Sebastian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Bürger, Werner; Hauschke, Dieter; Ebner, Winfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-01

    Due to the reduction of air change rates in low-energy houses, the contribution to indoor air quality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from oriented strand boards (OSB) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory irritations, pulmonary effects and odor annoyance of emissions from OSB in healthy human volunteers compared to clean air. Twenty-four healthy non-smokers were exposed to clean air and OSB emissions for 2 h under controlled conditions in a 48 m(3) test chamber at three different time points: to fresh OSB panels and to the same panels after open storage for 2 and 8 weeks. Chemosensory irritation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, eye blink frequency, lung function and subjective perception of irritation of eyes, nose and throat were examined before, during and after exposure. Additionally, olfactory perception was investigated. Total VOC exposure concentrations reached 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/m(3) for the fresh OSB panels. Emissions consisted predominantly of α-pinene, Δ(3)-carene and hexanal. Two-hour exposure to high VOC concentrations revealed no irritating or pulmonary effects. All the subjective ratings of discomfort were at a low level and the medians did not exceed the expression 'hardly at all.' Only the ratings for smell of emissions increased significantly during exposure in comparison to clean air. In conclusion, exposure of healthy volunteers to OSB emissions did not elicit sensory irritations or pulmonary effects up to a VOC concentration of about 9 mg/m(3). Sensory intensity of OSB emissions in the chamber air was rated as 'neutral to pleasant.'

  9. The effect of irritant dermatitis on cutaneous bioavailability of a metronidazole formulation, investigated by microdialysis and dermatopharmacokinetic method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, P.G.; Hansen, S.H.; Shah, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Determination of drug penetration in diseased skin represents a challenge. Objective: To compare dermal microdialysis and tape-strip sampling of drug penetration in normal skin and skin with irritant dermatitis. Methods: The two methodologies were employed simultaneously in 16 healthy...... methods. Results: Microdialysis showed a significant threefold increase in metronidazole penetration in skin with irritant dermatitis compared with unmodified skin. Conversely, the concentration of metronidazole in tape-strip samples was significantly decreased in irritant dermatitis. Conclusion......: The selection of sampling methodology should be based on the skin layer of interest as well as the integrity of the skin barrier. Whenever the dermal tissue is the target for topical treatment, microdialysis sampling should be the method of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Alpha-ketoglutarate decreases serum levels of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: six-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Rafał S; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Lindegard, Birger; Wernerman, Jan; Haratym-Maj, Agnieszka; Podgurniak, Małgorzata

    2007-03-01

    Several studies have shown that alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) increases serum levels of proline and has beneficial effects on skeletal development. We studied the effect of alpha-ketoglutaric (AKG) acid calcium salt (6 g AKG and 1.68 Ca/day) or calcium alone (1.68 Ca/day) on serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC), as well as on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in a randomized, parallel group, double-blind, 6-month study conducted on 76 postmenopausal women with osteopenia. The maximum decrease of the mean CTX level in the AKG-Ca group was observed after 24 weeks (37.0%, p = 0.006). The differences in CTX between study groups were statistically significant after 12 and 24 weeks. The OC serum level was not affected by treatments. The BMD of the AKG-Ca group increased by 1.6% from baseline; however, the difference between treatment groups was estimated as 0.9% (non-significant). This study suggests the potential usefulness of AKG-Ca in osteopenic postmenopausal women. AKG-Ca induced beneficial changes in serum CTX, which was consistent with preserving the bone mass in the lumbar spine; however, the long-term effect needs to be further investigated.

  11. An in vitro iron superoxide dismutase inhibitor decreases the parasitemia levels of Trypanosoma cruzi in BALB/c mouse model during acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Francisco; Urbanová, Kristína; Rosales, Maria Jose; Martín-Escolano, Ruben; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Marín, Clotilde

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify new compounds to treat Chagas disease during the acute phase with higher activity and lower toxicity than the reference drug benznidazole (Bz), two hydroxyphthalazine derivative compounds were prepared and their trypanocidal effects against Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated by light microscopy through the determination of IC50 values. Cytotoxicity was determined by flow cytometry assays against Vero cells. In vivo assays were performed in BALB/c mice, in which the parasitemia levels were quantified by fresh blood examination; the assignment of a cure was determined by reactivation of blood parasitemia levels after immunosuppression. The mechanism of action was elucidated at metabolic and ultra-structural levels, by (1)H NMR and TEM studies. Finally, as these compounds are potentially capable of causing oxidative damage in the parasites, the study was completed, by assessing their activity as potential iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) inhibitors. High-selectivity indices observed in vitro were the basis of promoting one of the tested compounds to in vivo assays. The tests on the murine model for the acute phase of Chagas disease showed better parasitemia inhibition values than those found for Bz. Compound 2 induced a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitemia after immunosuppression. Compound 2 turned out to be a great inhibitor of Fe-SOD. The high antiparasitic activity and low toxicity together with the modest costs for the starting materials render this compound an appropriate molecule for the development of an affordable anti-Chagas agent.

  12. Long-term exposure to endogenous levels of tributyltin decreases GluR2 expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro; Takishita, Tomoko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used commercially as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT on neuronal glutamate receptors. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to 1-50 nM TBT for 9 days (from day 2 to day 10 in vitro). The number of neurons was reduced by long-term exposure to 50 nM TBT, but not to 1-20 nM TBT. Long-term exposure to 20 nM TBT decreased the mRNA expression of glutamate receptors NR1, NR2A, GluR1 and GluR2, and increased that of NR2B, GluR3 and GluR4. GluR2 protein was also reduced by long-term exposure to TBT. Because AMPA receptor lacking GluR2 exhibits Ca 2+ permeability, we investigated whether Ca 2+ influx or glutamate toxicity was affected. Indeed, glutamate-induced Ca 2+ influx was increased in TBT-treated neurons. Consistent with this, neurons became more susceptible to glutamate toxicity as a result of long-term exposure to TBT and this susceptibility was abolished by an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptor. Thus, it is suggested that long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT induces a decrease of GluR2 protein, causing neurons become more susceptible to glutamate toxicity.

  13. Long-term exposure to endogenous levels of tributyltin decreases GluR2 expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro; Takishita, Tomoko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2009-10-15

    Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used commercially as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT on neuronal glutamate receptors. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to 1-50 nM TBT for 9 days (from day 2 to day 10 in vitro). The number of neurons was reduced by long-term exposure to 50 nM TBT, but not to 1-20 nM TBT. Long-term exposure to 20 nM TBT decreased the mRNA expression of glutamate receptors NR1, NR2A, GluR1 and GluR2, and increased that of NR2B, GluR3 and GluR4. GluR2 protein was also reduced by long-term exposure to TBT. Because AMPA receptor lacking GluR2 exhibits Ca2+ permeability, we investigated whether Ca2+ influx or glutamate toxicity was affected. Indeed, glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx was increased in TBT-treated neurons. Consistent with this, neurons became more susceptible to glutamate toxicity as a result of long-term exposure to TBT and this susceptibility was abolished by an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptor. Thus, it is suggested that long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT induces a decrease of GluR2 protein, causing neurons become more susceptible to glutamate toxicity.

  14. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Methods Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Results Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels. PMID:18348715

  15. Structural Interpretation of the Large Slowdown of Water Dynamics at Stacked Phospholipid Membranes for Decreasing Hydration Level: All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Calero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydration water determines the stability and function of phospholipid membranes as well as the interaction of membranes with other molecules. Experiments and simulations have shown that water dynamics slows down dramatically as the hydration decreases, suggesting that the interfacial water that dominates the average dynamics at low hydration is slower than water away from the membrane. Here, based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we provide an interpretation of the slowdown of interfacial water in terms of the structure and dynamics of water–water and water–lipid hydrogen bonds (HBs. We calculate the rotational and translational slowdown of the dynamics of water confined in stacked phospholipid membranes at different levels of hydration, from completely hydrated to poorly hydrated membranes. For all hydrations, we analyze the distribution of HBs and find that water–lipids HBs last longer than water–water HBs and that at low hydration most of the water is in the interior of the membrane. We also show that water–water HBs become more persistent as the hydration is lowered. We attribute this effect (i to HBs between water molecules that form, in turn, persistent HBs with lipids; (ii to the hindering of the H-bonding switching between water molecules due to the lower water density at the interface; and (iii to the higher probability of water–lipid HBs as the hydration decreases. Our interpretation of the large dynamic slowdown in water under dehydration is potentially relevant in understanding membrane biophysics at different hydration levels.

  16. [Effect of piperine on 5-HT and synaptophysin expression of rats with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Juan; Wang, Ren-Ye; Xue, Ji-Xiong; Pan, Jian-Chun

    2013-12-01

    This study is to explore the amelioration of piperine on chronic acute combining stress rat with depression-like behavior, visceral sensitivity, and its effect on the expression of serotonin (5-HT) and synaptophysin. Forty two SD rats were divided into seven groups: blank group, model group, piperine (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, ig) and imipramine (10 mgkg-1, ip) groups. The rat model of irritable bowel syndrome was established by chronic acute combining stress, and then to evaluate depression-like behavior and visceral sensitivity. The expressions of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the hippocampus and colon were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blotting, respectively. The duration of immobility of IBS rat in the forced swimming test had been significantly increased, the sucrose consumption of IBS rat had been reduced and visceral sensitivity was obviously elevated in the IBS model group as compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). As compared with those in the normal control group, the expression of 5-HT significantly decreased, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio significantly increased in the hippocampus of IBS model group (P<0.05), but opposite presentations were noted in the colon (P<0.05). As compared with that in the normal control group, the synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly but obviously increased in the colon (P<0.05). Piperine improved the behavior of IBS rats, and reversed the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, and 5-HIAA/5-HT proportion in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05); besides, they significantly reverse the synaptophysin level in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05). The presence of depression and visceral sensitivity had been changed in IBS rats, with abnormal expression of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the brain-gut system. Piperine can ameliorate the changes of the behavior and regulation of serotonin and synaptophysin expression in IBS rat model.

  17. Neurodevelopmental maturation as a function of irritable temperament: Insights From a Naturalistic Emotional Video Viewing Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Helmet T; Perlman, Susan B

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the neural systems involved in decreasing behavioral reactivity to emotional stimuli as children age. It has been suggested that this process may interact with temperament-linked variations in neurodevelopment to better explain individual differences in the maturation of emotion regulation. In this investigation, children ages 4 to 12 (n = 30, mean age = 7.62 years, SD = 1.71 years) and adults (n = 21, mean age = 26.67 years) watched clips from popular children's films containing positive, negative, or neutral emotional content during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to adults, children demonstrated greater activation in subcortical and visual regions (hippocampus, thalamus, visual cortex, fusiform) during negative clips and greater activation of subcortical and prefrontal regions during positive clips (hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, ACC, OFC, superior frontal cortex). In children only, we found an age by temperament interaction in frontal and subcortical regions indicating that activation increased as a function of age in the most irritable children, but decreased as a function of age in the least irritable children. Findings were not present in the temperament domain of fear. Findings replicate and extend the existing irritability literature, indicating that healthy children highest in irritability may develop comparatively greater activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex in order to support adaptive regulation during emotional challenges. These results are discussed within the context of the emerging literature on the utility of complex, multidimensional, and naturalistic stimuli, which present a complementary alternative to understanding ecologically valid and sustained neural responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5307-5321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. In vitro assessment of eye irritancy using the Reconstructed Human Corneal Epithelial SkinEthic HCE model: application to 435 substances from consumer products industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotovio, José; Grandidier, Marie-Hélène; Lelièvre, Damien; Bremond, Christelle; Amsellem, Carolle; Maloug, Saber; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Lee, Aline Van Der; Minondo, Anne-Marie; Capallere, Christophe; Bertino, Béatrice; Alépée, Nathalie; Tinois-Tessonneaud, Estelle; de Fraissinette, Anne De Brugerolle; Meunier, Jean-Roch; Leclaire, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    The 7th amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive led to the ban of eye irritation testing for cosmetic ingredients in animals, effective from March 11th 2009. Over the last 20years, many efforts have been made to find reliable and relevant alternative methods. The SkinEthic HCE model was used to evaluate the in vitro eye irritancy potential of substances from a cosmetic industry portfolio. An optimized protocol based on a specific 1-h treatment and a 16-h post-treatment incubation period was first assessed on a set of 102 substances. The prediction model (PM) based on a 50% viability cut-off, allowed to draw up two classes (Irritants and Non-Irritants), with good associated sensitivity (86.2%) and specificity (83.5%). To check the robustness of the method, the evaluated set was expanded up to 435 substances. Final performances maintained a high level and were characterized by an overall accuracy value > 82% when using EU or GHS classification rules. Results showed that the SkinEthic HCE test method is a promising in vitro tool for the prediction of eye irritancy. Optimization datasets were shared with the COLIPA Eye Irritation Project Team and ECVAM experts, and reviewed as part of an ongoing progression to enter an ECVAM prospective validation study for eye irritation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using the Slug Mucosal Irritation Assay to Investigate the Tolerability of Tablet Excipients on Human Skin in the Context of the Use of a Nipple Shield Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Richard; Lenoir, Joke; Gerrard, Stephen; Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Slater, Nigel K H; Tuleu, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form METHODS: Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]. Slugs were exposed to blends slurried in human breast milk to assess their stinging, itching or burning potential, using objective values such as mucus production to categorize irritation potency RESULTS: Presently an in vivo assay, previously validated for prediction of ocular and nasal irritation, was used as an alternative to vertebrate models to anticipate the potential maternal dermatological tolerability issues to NSDS tablet components. The excipients did not elicit irritancy. However, mild irritancy was observed when zinc sulphate was present in blends. These promising good tolerability results support the continued investigation of these excipients within NSDS rapidly disintegrating tablet formulations. Topical local tolerance effects being almost entirely limited to irritation, the slug assay potentially adds to the existing preformulation toolbox, and may sit in between the in vitro and existing in vivo assays.

  20. Estimation of the in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust by using reconstituted human corneal epithelium tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Kjærgaard, Søren K

    2015-01-01

    Eye irritation is a common complaint in indoor environment, but the causes have still not been identified among the multiple exposures in house environments. To identify the potential environmental factors responsible for eye irritation and study the possible mechanisms, an in vitro model for eye irritation is suggested. In this study, reconstituted human corneal epithelium (HCE) tissue cultures were used to study the eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust. HCE tissue cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of LPS for 6 h and dust for 24 h, respectively. After exposure, viability and secretion of interleukins (IL) IL-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were examined. Histology was used to indicate the morphological changes after dust exposure. Both LPS and dust affected HCE viability. There was an increased level of IL-8 after LPS exposure, while the concentrations of IL-1β and TNFα remained unaffected. Dust exposure resulted in an elevation of both IL-1β and IL-8, but not TNFα. Histology study showed increased vacuolization and reduced thickness after 24 h exposure to 5 mg/mL dust. LPS and dust showed in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential, and cytokines/chemokines like IL-1β and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanisms of eye irritation. The HCE tissue culture may be used as an in vitro model to study environmental exposure induced eye irritation and inflammation.

  1. Decreased levels of irisin, a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine, are related to emphysema associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yukari; Asai, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kureya, Yuko; Ijiri, Naoki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Hirata, Kazuto

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking-induced oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD through epithelial cell apoptosis. Irisin is a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine associated with physical activity. Irisin is also known to decrease oxidant-induced apoptosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the correlation between irisin and emphysema in COPD and its role in epithelial cell apoptosis remains unknown. Forty patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. Pulmonary function tests and measurements of the percentage of low-attenuation area on high-resolution computed tomography images were performed, and the results were evaluated for correlation with serum irisin levels. The effect of irisin on cigarette-smoke extract-induced A549 cell apoptosis and the expression of Nrf2, a transcription factor for antioxidants, was also examined in vitro. Serum irisin levels were significantly correlated with lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide divided by alveolar volume ( r =0.56, P emphysema in patients with COPD and involved in epithelial apoptosis, resulting in emphysema. Irisin could be a novel treatment for emphysema in patients with COPD.

  2. Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Connes

    Full Text Available Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC- and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties. The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR, which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio may play a role.

  3. [Curcumin improves learning and memory function through decreasing hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Yue, Shuangzhu

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of curcumin on learning and memory function of rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the possible mechanism. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham group, SAH group and curcumin (Cur) therapy group. Experimental SAH rat models were established by injecting autologous blood into the cisterna magna. Neurological deficits of rats were examined at different time points. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze test. The hippocampal tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by ELISA. RESULTS Experimental SAH rat models were established successfully. Neurological scores of the SAH rats were significantly lower than those of the sham group. Curcumin therapy obviously improved the neurological deficits of rats compared with the SAH rats. Morris water maze test showed that SAH caused significant cognitive impairment with longer escape latency compared with the sham group. After treatment with curcumin for 4 weeks, the escape latency decreased significantly. The levels of TNF-α and iNOS in the curcumin-treated group were significantly lower than those of the SAH group. SAH can cause learning and memory impairment in rats. Curcumin can recover learning and memory function through down-regulating hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels.

  4. Decreased nitric oxide levels in the hippocampus may play a role in learning and memory deficits in ovariectomized rats treated by a high dose of estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Sadeghian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a high estradiol dose on memory and on nitric oxide metabolites in hippocampal tissues were investigated. Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups were treated with 4 mg/kg of estradiol valerate for 12 weeks. Time latency and path length were significantly higher in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups than in the Sham and OVX Groups, respectively (p<0.001. The animals in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups spent lower time in the target quadrant (Q1 than those of the Sham and OVX Groups during the probe trial test (p<0.05 and <0.001, respectively. Significantly lower nitric oxide metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups were observed than in the Sham and OVX ones (p<0.001. These results suggest that decreased nitric oxide levels in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits observed after treatment with a high dose of estradiol, although the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  5. Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizeba, Yustina A; Mirambo, Mariam M; Kayange, Neema; Mhada, Tumaini; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Smart, Luke R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-12-13

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 decreases active gibberellin levels and creates a dominant semi-dwarf phenotype in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Tang, Ding; Shen, Yi; Qin, Baoxiang; Hong, Lilan; You, Aiqing; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase plays a key role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2beta-hydroxylation. In the present study, we isolated a CaMV 35S-enhancer activation tagged mutant, H032. This mutant exhibited a dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotype, with a final stature that was less than half of its wild-type counterpart. The endogenous bioactive GAs are markedly decreased in the H032 mutant, and application of bioactive GAs (GA(3) or GA(4)) can reverse the dwarf phenotype. The integrated T-DNA was detected 12.8 kb upstream of the OsGA2ox6 in the H032 genome by TAIL-PCR. An increased level of OsGA2ox6 mRNA was detected at a high level in the H032 mutant, which might be due to the enhancer role of the CaMV 35S promoter. RNAi and ectopic expression analysis of OsGA2ox6 indicated that the dwarf trait and the decreased levels of bioactive GAs in the H032 mutant were a result of the up-regulation of the OsGA2ox6 gene. BLASTP analysis revealed that OsGA2ox6 belongs to the class III of GA 2-oxidases, which is a novel type of GA2ox that uses C20-GAs (GA(12) and/or GA(53)) as the substrates. Interestingly, we found that a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulated the OsGA2ox6 gene. Unlike the over-expression of OsGA2ox1, which led to a high rate of seed abortion, the H032 mutant retained normal flowering and seed production. These results indicate that OsGA2ox6 mainly affects plant stature, and the dominant dwarf trait of the H032 mutant can be used as an efficient dwarf resource in rice breeding. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-06-01

    Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

  8. An in vitro iron superoxide dismutase inhibitor decreases the parasitemia levels of Trypanosoma cruzi in BALB/c mouse model during acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Olmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify new compounds to treat Chagas disease during the acute phase with higher activity and lower toxicity than the reference drug benznidazole (Bz, two hydroxyphthalazine derivative compounds were prepared and their trypanocidal effects against Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated by light microscopy through the determination of IC50 values. Cytotoxicity was determined by flow cytometry assays against Vero cells. In vivo assays were performed in BALB/c mice, in which the parasitemia levels were quantified by fresh blood examination; the assignment of a cure was determined by reactivation of blood parasitemia levels after immunosuppression. The mechanism of action was elucidated at metabolic and ultra-structural levels, by 1H NMR and TEM studies. Finally, as these compounds are potentially capable of causing oxidative damage in the parasites, the study was completed, by assessing their activity as potential iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD inhibitors. High-selectivity indices observed in vitro were the basis of promoting one of the tested compounds to in vivo assays. The tests on the murine model for the acute phase of Chagas disease showed better parasitemia inhibition values than those found for Bz. Compound 2 induced a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitemia after immunosuppression. Compound 2 turned out to be a great inhibitor of Fe-SOD. The high antiparasitic activity and low toxicity together with the modest costs for the starting materials render this compound an appropriate molecule for the development of an affordable anti-Chagas agent.

  9. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  10. Elevated Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Increases Risk of Post-partum Depression by Decreasing Prefrontal Cortex BDNF and 5-HT Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yuhang; Liu, Aihua; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is a common mental disease in the perinatal period that profoundly affects mothers and their offspring. Some clinical studies have found that PPD is related to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs); however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with adenovirus encoding the cDNA of the full-length mTPO (mTPO-Ad) were used to establish the isolated TPOAb-positive mouse model in the present study. Maternal depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and tail suspension test (TST) post-partum. The serum TPOAb titer was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before pregnancy and post-partum. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex, the mRNA and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured, serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), and total thyroxine (TT4) levels were determined by ELISA. Compared with the controls, the mice immunized with mTPO-Ad displayed depressive behaviors, with a significantly lower sucrose preference (SP) at the 12-h time point and a longer immobility time in the FST and TST, which were accompanied by a lower expression of BDNF and 5-HT but no change in the TT4 concentration in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that elevated TPOAb may increase the risk of subsequent PPD and decrease the concentration of BDNF and 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex.

  11. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haicui; Ma, Qibin; Ye, Kaixin; Yang, Cunyi; Tang, Yujuan; Hao, Juan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Chen, Mingluan; Feng, Yuqi; Nian, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellic acids (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3) once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20)-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  12. Decreased hippocampal homoarginine and increased nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase levels in rats parallel training in a radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Ajinkya; Nawaratna, Gayan; Hu, Shengdi; Wu, Guoyao; Lubec, Gert

    2016-09-01

    L-homoarginine (hArg) is derived from enzymatic guanidination of lysine. It was demonstrated that hArg is a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, blocks lysine transport and inhibits the uptake of arginine into synaptosomes and modulates GABA responses ex vivo. As there is limited information on its physiological roles in the brain, the aim of the study was to show whether hippocampal or frontal lobe (FL) hArg is paralleling training in the radial arm maze (RAM) or NO formation. Hippocampi and FL of male Sprague-Dawley rats were taken from trained or yoked in a RAM. Then hArg and metabolites, NO and NO synthase (NOS) were determined by standard methods. The animals learned the task in the RAM showing significant reduction of working memory errors. hArg showed decreased levels in both brain regions of trained animals as compared to yoked animals. Nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) concentrations and NOS activity were significantly increased in hippocampi, F(1,36) = 170.5; P ≤ 0.0001 and FL, F(1,36) = 74.67; P ≤ 0.0001 of trained animals as compared to yoked animals. Levels of hArg were negatively correlated with NOx in hippocampus (r = -0.6355; P = 0.0483) but not in FL and with lysine in the FL (r = -0.6650; P = 0.0358). NOx levels were positively correlated with NOS in both the hippocampus (r = 0.7474; P = 0.0129) and FL (r = 0.9563; P ≤  0.0001). These novel findings indicate that hArg is linked to NO formation in hippocampus but not in FL and is paralleling spatial memory in the RAM.

  13. A follow up of the decrease of non exchangeable organically bound tritium levels in the surroundings of a nuclear research center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglan, N; Alanic, G; Le Meignen, R; Pointurier, F

    2011-07-01

    In the past decades limited amounts of tritium were handled on the CEA site of Bruyères le Châtel with authorised atmospheric releases. A small fraction of the tritium released entered into environmental samples under three forms: (i) as part of free water (TFWT - Tissue Free Water Tritium), or associated with organic matter in two ways; either (ii) bound to the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the material as exchangeable organically bound tritium (E-OBT), or (iii) bound to carbon atoms as non exchangeable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT). The first two components provide only a picture of atmospheric tritium concentrations at the sampling time as they are in equilibrium with atmospheric moisture and soil humidity. Unlike these exchangeable forms, however, NE-OBT is tightly bound to the organic matter and provides an integrated record of atmospheric tritium during the growing phase of the vegetation. We mapped NE-OBT in tree leaf samples in an area of about 25×30km(2) around the centre of the CEA site and compared the results with those obtained during a previous sampling exercise in 1989. At this time, the activity levels were almost ten times higher than those observed presently in a similar area almost 20 years later which is consistent with the decrease of atmospheric releases issued from the centre. As the activity levels are now close to environmental background specific attention was also paid to the analytical procedure to ensure reliable low level NE-OBT detection. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized

  15. High-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level associate with decreasing risk of erectile dysfunction in 1,000 apparently healthy cardiovascular risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettala, Otto O; Syvänen, Kari T; Korhonen, Päivi E; Kaipia, Antti J; Vahlberg, Tero J; Boström, Peter J; Aarnio, Pertti T

    2014-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is especially common in men with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the data are scarce concerning populations without manifested CVD. The aim of this study was to describe factors associated with ED, especially those associated with decreasing risk of ED, in men with cardiovascular risk factors but without CVD, diabetes, or chronic renal disease. In 2004 to 2007, a cross-sectional population-based sample of men 45 to 70 years old in two rural towns in Finland was collected. Men with previously diagnosed CVD, diabetes, or kidney disease were not invited to the study. In total 1,000 eligible men with cardiovascular risk factors, i.e., central obesity, high scores in the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, high blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, or family history of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or stroke, were included in the analysis. Questionnaires, clinical measurements, and laboratory tests were obtained. The prevalence of ED was studied comparing the means, and risk factors were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of ED was defined by the International Index of Erectile Function short form (IIEF-5) and by two questions (2Q) about the ability to achieve and to maintain an erection. The prevalence of ED was 57% or 68% using IIEF-5 or 2Q, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR]: up to 9.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.00-16.79; P physical activity (OR: 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86; P = 0.045), high education (OR: 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83; P = 0.013), and stable relationship (OR: 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21-0.88; P = 0.046) were associated with ED. In apparently healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors, decreasing risk of ED is associated with high-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Societal benefits from EU reduction measures to decrease lead levels in the environment; Combining results from the EU funded projects INTARESE and HEIMTSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens J. G. E. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper combines the results of two Sixth Framework Program EU research projects aimed at developing and testing methods for integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors, i.e. the INTARESE and the HEIMTSA project, both of which covered a case study on environmental lead. The INTARESE case study on lead in Europe was meant to illustrate the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. The HEIMTSA case study on the other hand involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR in response to current and future legislation. Analysing environmental data, significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 μg/m3 (P95: 0.94; n=98 prior to 1990 to 0.045 μg/m3 (P95:0.11; n=256 in 2007 (latest

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: towards an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders are defined as chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea (Tally, 1994; University of North Carolina, 1998. These disorders are of concern because of their high incidence, associated morbidity, expense and the impact of these disorders on people's quality of life. Drossman (1993, in University of North Carolina (UNC, 1998 found that of 5 400 U.S. households, 69% of people met the criteria for at least one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders which represents a 59% increase in the incidence of functional gastrointestinal disorders since 1983 (Drossman, in UNC, 1998; Drossman, 1983. In particular, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS sufferers account for 2,4 - 3,5 million visits to doctors annually. Furthermore, IBS sufferers spend $40 million annually on treatment for their condition. They also tend to have 3 to 4 times more disability days than other workers, which illustrates the debilitating effect of this disorder (Drossman, in UNC, 1998. It is therefore necessary that the etiology of IBS be researched, as well as the course and management of this debilitating disease. The studies presented in this series aimed to improve the understanding of the multiple agents that influence the development and course of IBS.

  18. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Asian motility studies in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-04-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotility in Asian IBS patients were reviewed. MEDLINE search work was performed including following terms, 'IBS,' 'motility,' 'transit time,' 'esophageal motility,' 'gastric motility,' 'small intestinal motility,' 'colonic motility,' 'anorectal function,' and 'gallbladder motility' and over 100 articles were categorized under 'esophagus,' 'stomach,' 'small intestine,' 'colon,' 'anorectum,' 'gallbladder,' 'transit,' 'motor pattern,' and 'effect of stressors.' Delayed gastric emptying, slow tansit in constipation predominant IBS patients, rapid transit in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, accelerated motility responses to various stressors such as meals, mental stress, or corticotrophin releasing hormones, and altered rectal compliance and altered rectal accomodation were reported in many Asian studies regarding IBS. Many conflicting results were found among these studies and there are still controversies to conclude these as unique features of Asian IBS patients. Multinational and multicenter studies are needed to be performed vigorously in order to elaborate characteristics as well as differences of altered motililty in Asian patients with IBS.

  20. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  1. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits.

  2. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  3. Neurobiology of Depression and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Donat Eker

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disabling functional disorder with a frequent comorbidity of depression though underlying mechanisms remain yet little understood. Various signs and symptoms have been determined as diagnostic criteria in recent years and standardized as Rome-III criteria. Irritable bowel syndrome can have constipation-dominant, diarrhea-dominant or mixed clinical presentations. Main features can be summarized as continuous and recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a change of stool frequency or consistency and usually relief of symptoms with defe-cation in the absence of physical or laboratory abnormalities indicative of an organic etiology. The frequency of major depressive disorder diagnosis reaches up to two thirds of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Moreover, the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome among patients with major depression is highly frequent (30%. The mechanism underlying irritable bowel syndrome which have been considered as a kind of a somatization disorder for a long time and now as a functional bowel disease is in the brain-gut axis. Low grade mucosal inflammation and cytokines originating from mucosal inflammation have important functions in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and its comorbidity with major depression. Besides the inflammatory factors lumbosacral visceral hyperexcitability which is an individual variation is proposed as the main underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome. Visceral hyper-excitability is mediated by cytokines and neuro-mediators and stress is known to increase the effect of this mechanism. Furthermore, molecules participating in this mechanism (e.g. cytokines, corticotrophin releasing factor, neurokinins and monoamines play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Increased activation in the pain matrix (thalamus – insula – prefrontal cortex and insufficiency of endogenous pain inhibitory system are regarded as possible

  4. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can ... Some people with IBS have more symptoms after eating gluten, even though they do not have celiac ...

  5. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  6. Use of debridat in therapy of irritable colon syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that debridat is an effective means for treatment of patients with irritable colon syndrome. All patients underwent roentgenological and endoscopy examinations for determination of diagnosis and effect of their treatment

  7. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-07-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients.

  8. Maternal exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles during pregnancy and lactation alters offspring hippocampal mRNA BAX and Bcl-2 levels, induces apoptosis and decreases neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Mohammadipour, Abbas; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rajabzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-07-05

    The usage of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) covers a vast area in different fields ranging from cosmetics and food to the production of drugs. Maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs during developmental period has been associated with hippocampal injury and with a decrease in learning and memory status of the offspring. However, little is known about its injury mechanism. This paper describes the in vivo neurotoxic effects of TiO 2 -NPs on rat offspring hippocampus during developmental period. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats received intragastric TiO 2 -NPs (100mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day (GD) 2 to (GD) 21 and postnatal day (PD) 2 to (PD) 21 respectively. Animals in the control groups received an equal volume of distilled water via gavage. At the end of the treatment process, offspring were deeply anesthetized and sacrificed. Then brains of each group were collected and sections of the rat offspring's brains were stained using TUNEL staining (for detection of apoptotic cells) and immunostaining (for neurogenesis). Moreover, the right hippocampus (n=6 per each group) were removed from the right hemisphere for evaluating the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 level. Results of histopatological examination by TUNEL staining showed that maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs during pregnancy and lactation periods increased apoptotic cells significantly (P<0.01) in the offspring hippocampus. The immunolabeling of double cortin (DCX) protein as neurogenesis marker also showed that TiO 2 -NPs reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the offspring (P<0.05). Moreover, in comparison with the control group, the mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in the TiO 2 -NPs group significantly increased and decreased, respectively (P<0.01). These findings provide strong evidence that maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs significantly impact hippocampal neurogenesis and apoptosis in the offspring. The potential impact of nanoparticle exposure for millions of pregnant mothers and

  9. Augmentation of skin response by exposure to a combination of allergens and irritants - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Held, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Clinical experimental studies on contact dermatitis (CD) often evaluate the effect of one allergen or one irritant at a time. In real life, the skin is often exposed to more allergens, more irritants or allergens and irritants in combination. This combined exposure may potentially influence irrit...

  10. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  11. Social-ecological factors and preventive actions decrease the risk of dengue infection at the household-level: Results from a prospective dengue surveillance study in Machala, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Kenneson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, dengue virus (DENV infections transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito are among the greatest public health concerns in urban coastal communities. Community- and household-level vector control is the principal means of controlling disease outbreaks. This study aimed to assess the impact of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs and social-ecological factors on the presence or absence of DENV infections in the household.In 2014 and 2015, individuals with DENV infections from sentinel clinics in Machala, Ecuador, were invited to participate in the study, as well as members of their household and members of four neighboring households located within 200 meters. We conducted diagnostic testing for DENV on all study participants; we surveyed heads of households (HOHs regarding demographics, housing conditions and KAPs. We compared KAPs and social-ecological factors between households with (n = 139 versus without (n = 80 DENV infections, using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models with and without interactions.Significant risk factors in multivariate models included proximity to abandoned properties, interruptions in piped water, and shaded patios (p<0.05. Significant protective factors included the use of mosquito bed nets, fumigation inside the home, and piped water inside the home (p<0.05. In bivariate analyses (but not multivariate modeling, DENV infections were positively associated with HOHs who were male, employed, and of younger age than households without infections (p<0.05. DENV infections were not associated with knowledge, attitude, or reported barriers to prevention activities.Specific actions that can be considered to decrease the risk of DENV infections in the household include targeting vector control in highly shaded properties, fumigating inside the home, and use of mosquito bed nets. Community-level interventions include cleanup of abandoned properties, daily garbage collection, and reliable

  12. The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) raloxifene and tamoxifen improve ANP levels and decrease nuclear translocation of NF-kB in estrogen-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Aline Z; Nascimento, Andrews M; Medeiros, Ana Raquel S; Caliman, Izabela F; Dalpiaz, Polyana L M; Firmes, Luciana B; Sousa, Glauciene J; Oliveira, Phablo Wendell C; Andrade, Tadeu U; Reis, Adelina M; Gouvea, Sônia A; Bissoli, Nazaré S

    2017-08-01

    The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) raloxifene and tamoxifen are used for the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer, respectively, in women. The impairment of both the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) cell signaling system and the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) to the cell nucleus are associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects and inflammation. The effects of SERMs on these parameters in the cardiac tissue of estrogen-deficient rats has not been reported. We investigated the effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen on ANP signaling, p65 NF-kB nuclear translocation, cardiac histology and contractility. Female rats were divided into five groups: control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX-treated 17-β-estradiol (E), OVX-treated raloxifene (RLX) and OVX-treated tamoxifen (TAM). The treatments started 21days after ovariectomy and continued for 14days. Ovariectomy reduced ANP mRNA in the left atrium (LA), decreased the content of ANP protein in the LA and in plasma, and increased the level of p65 NF-kB nuclear translocation in the left ventricle. Both 17-β-estradiol and SERMs were able to reverse these alterations, which were induced by the estrogen deficient state. The hemodynamic and cardiac structural parameters analyzed in the present work were not modified by the interventions. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, the additional benefits of raloxifene and tamoxifen in an estrogen-deficient state. These include the normalization of plasmatic and cardiac ANP levels and cardiac p65 NF-kB translocation. Therefore, these treatments promote cardiovascular protection and may contribute to the prevention of cardiac dysfunction observed long-term in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  13. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  14. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Moreno Ortega, Marta; Garcia Alonso, Monica-Olga; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-07-07

    To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 +/- 10.8 vs 102.8 +/- 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 +/- 9.4 vs 49.6 +/- 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS.

  15. Carcinogenesis after sublethal ionizing irradiation and regular avoidance irritation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisnik, M.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Logonder-Mlinsek, M.; Zorc-Pleskovic, R.; Pajer, Z.; Kham-Lindtner, T.; Zorc, M.; Skrk, J.

    1982-01-01

    160 mice of the BALB/C strain of both sexes, aged 3 months, were divided into four equal groups of which two were regularly irritated by a combination of an optical signal and electrical stroke. After one month of irritation one nonirritated and one irritated group were whole body irradiated with an acute dose of 6.65 Gy (1.83 Gy/min), the other two groups were sham irradiated. The mice lived until spontaneous death or one year after irradiation, when the rest of the animals were sacrificed. Malignant tumors were recorded. Irradiation shortened the survival time while the irritation had an appeasing, compensatory effect, more marked in the males than in the females. After irradiation the number and assortment of the tumors increased and the latent period was significantly shorter. In the irritated animals the number and assortment of the malignant tumors were reduced and the latent time period tended to be longer. These differences, however, were not statistically significant. In spite of some differences the response of both sexes to irradiation and irritation or their combination was similar. (author)

  16. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  17. A cross-cultural perspective on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal illness, defined by symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome has been described as a biopsychosocial condition, in which colonic dysfunction is affected by psychological and social factors. As a result of this unusual constellation, irritable bowel syndrome may be subject to cultural variables that differ in different parts of the globe. In this article, we describe some of the ways in which irritable bowel syndrome may be experienced differently, depending on local belief systems, psychological pressures, acceptance or resistance to a mind-body paradigm, and breakdown in support or relationship structure. Examples are given in which irritable bowel syndrome investigators from countries around the world describe various aspects of the syndrome that may affect the illness experience of their patients. We describe our own research studies that have demonstrated possible adverse effects on disease severity from relationship conflict, attribution of symptoms to physical rather than emotional cause, and the belief that irritable bowel syndrome is enduring and mysterious. Also described is our finding that symptom patterns may differ significantly between different geographic locations. Finally, we discuss the importance of "cultural competence" on the part of healthcare professionals in regard to caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  18. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M.; Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M.; Esteban-Carretero, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  19. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  20. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products.

  1. Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. The administration of endocannabinoid uptake inhibitors OMDM-2 or VDM-11 promotes sleep and decreases extracellular levels of dopamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-17

    The family of the endocannabinoid system comprises endogenous lipids (such as anandamide [ANA]), receptors (CB(1)/CB(2) cannabinoid receptors), metabolic enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH]) and a putative membrane transporter (anandamide membrane transporter [AMT]). Although the role of ANA, FAAH or the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor in sleep modulation has been reported, the effects of the inhibition of AMT on sleep remain unclear. In the present study, we show that microdialysis perfusion in rats of AMT inhibitors, (9Z)-N-[1-((R)-4-hydroxbenzyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-9-octadecenamide (OMDM-2) or N-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (VDM-11; 10, 20 or 30 μM; each compound) delivered into the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVA) increased sleep and decreased waking. In addition, the infusion of compounds reduced the extracellular levels of dopamine collected from nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these findings illustrate a critical role of AMT in sleep modulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cysteamine attenuates the decreases in TrkB protein levels and the anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice induced by corticosterone treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Kutiyanawalla

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Stress and glucocorticoid hormones, which are released into the circulation following stressful experiences, have been shown to contribute significantly to the manifestation of anxiety-like behaviors observed in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling through its receptor TrkB plays an important role in stress-mediated changes in structural as well as functional neuroplasticity. Studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby TrkB signaling is regulated in chronic stress might provide valuable information for the development of new therapeutic strategies for several stress-related psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to attenuate anxiety and depression like behaviors in a mouse model of anxiety/depression induced by chronic corticosterone exposure. RESULTS: Cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg/day, through drinking water for 21 days significantly ameliorated chronic corticosterone-induced decreases in TrkB protein levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, cysteamine treatment reversed the anxiety and depression like behavioral abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in behavioral tests, suggesting that TrkB signaling plays an important role in the antidepressant effects of cysteamine. CONCLUSIONS: The animal studies described here highlight the potential use of cysteamine as a novel therapeutic strategy for glucocorticoid-related symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  4. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-05

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50, LD50, and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stair climbing/descending exercise for a short time decreases blood glucose levels after a meal in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroto; Igaki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Yuki; Komatsu, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Miki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Taiga; Takaishi, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether stair climbing-descending exercise (ST-EX), a convenient method to increase physical activity in daily life, for a short period would acutely improve the postprandial blood glucose (BG) response in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). 16 people with T2D (age 65.4±1.1 years) participated in 2 separate sessions. After an overnight fast, each participant consumed a test meal and then kept resting for 180 min, except when performing each 3 min bout of ST-EX at 60 and 120 min after the meal (ST-EX session), or kept resting for 180 min (REST session). ST-EX comprised 6 continuous repetitions of climbing to the second floor (21 steps) at a rate of 80-110 steps/min followed by walking down slowly to the first floor at a free step rate. The BG at 60 min after the meal during the ST-EX session (immediately before the first ST-EX) did not differ from that during the REST session, but analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between time and treatment (pstrategy to accelerate the decrease in postprandial BG levels in people with T2D.

  6. Decreased chronic morbidity but elevated HIV associated cytokine levels in HIV-infected older adults receiving HIV treatment: benefit of enhanced access to care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia C Mutevedzi

    Full Text Available The association of HIV with chronic morbidity and inflammatory markers (cytokines in older adults (50+years is potentially relevant for clinical care, but data from African populations is scarce.To examine levels of chronic morbidity by HIV and ART status in older adults (50+years and subsequent associations with selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and body mass index.Ordinary, ordered and generalized ordered logistic regression techniques were employed to compare chronic morbidity (heart disease (angina, arthritis, stroke, hypertension, asthma and diabetes and cytokines (Interleukins-1 and -6, C-Reactive Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha by HIV and ART status on a cross-sectional random sample of 422 older adults nested within a defined rural South African population based demographic surveillance.Using a composite measure of all morbidities, controlling for age, gender, BMI, smoking and wealth quintile, HIV-infected individuals on ART had 51% decreased odds (95% CI:0.26-0.92 of current morbidity compared to HIV-uninfected. In adjusted regression, compared to HIV-uninfected, the proportional odds (aPOR of having elevated inflammation markers of IL6 (>1.56 pg/mL was nearly doubled in HIV-infected individuals on (aPOR 1.84; 95%CI: 1.05-3.21 and not on (aPOR 1.94; 95%CI: 1.11-3.41 ART. Compared to HIV-uninfected, HIV-infected individuals on ART had >twice partial proportional odds (apPOR=2.30;p=0.004 of having non-clinically significant raised hsCRP levels(>1 ug/mL; ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals had >double apPOR of having hsCRP levels indicative of increased heart disease risk(>3.9 ug/mL;p=0.008.Although HIV status was associated with increased inflammatory markers, our results highlight reduced morbidity in those receiving ART and underscore the need of pro-actively extending these services to HIV-uninfected older adults, beyond mere provision at fixed clinics. Providing health services through regular community chronic disease

  7. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  8. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  9. Prion protein is decreased in Alzheimer's brain and inversely correlates with BACE1 activity, amyloid-β levels and Braak stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrP(C has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD. PrP(C decreases amyloid-β (Aβ production, which is involved in AD pathogenesis, by inhibiting β-secretase (BACE1 activity. Contactin 5 (CNTN5 has also been implicated in the development of AD by a genome-wide association study. Here we measured PrP(C and CNTN5 in frontal cortex samples from 24 sporadic AD and 24 age-matched control brains and correlated the expression of these proteins with markers of AD. PrP(C was decreased in sporadic AD compared to controls (by 49%, p = 0.014 but there was no difference in CNTN5 between sporadic AD and controls (p = 0.217. PrP(C significantly inversely correlated with BACE1 activity (rs = -0.358, p = 0.006, Aβ load (rs = -0.456, p = 0.001, soluble Aβ (rs = -0.283, p = 0.026 and insoluble Aβ (rs = -0.353, p = 0.007 and PrP(C also significantly inversely correlated with the stage of disease, as indicated by Braak tangle stage (rs = -0.377, p = 0.007. CNTN5 did not correlate with Aβ load (rs = 0.040, p = 0.393, soluble Aβ (rs = 0.113, p = 0.223 or insoluble Aβ (rs = 0.169, p = 0.125. PrP(C was also measured in frontal cortex samples from 9 Down's syndrome (DS and 8 age-matched control brains. In contrast to sporadic AD, there was no difference in PrP(C in the DS brains compared to controls (p = 0.625. These data are consistent with a role for PrP(C in regulating Aβ production and indicate that brain PrP(C level may be important in influencing the onset and progression of sporadic AD.

  10. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoleit, H G; Grigoleit, P

    2005-08-01

    In a literature search 16 clinical trials investigating 180-200 mg enteric-coated peppermint oil (PO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or recurrent abdominal pain in children (1 study) with 651 patients enrolled were identified. Nine out of 16 studies were randomized double blind cross over trials with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) run in and/or wash out periods, five had a randomized double blind parallel group design and two were open labeled studies. Placebo served in 12 and anticholinergics in three studies as comparator. Eight out of 12 placebo controlled studies show statistically significant effects in favor of PO. Average response rates in terms of "overall success" are 58% (range 39-79%) for PO and 29% (range 10-52%) for placebo. The three studies versus smooth muscle relaxants did not show differences between treatments hinting for equivalence of treatments. Adverse events reported were generally mild and transient, but very specific. PO caused the typical GI effects like heartburn and anal/perianal burning or discomfort sensations, whereas the anticholinergics caused dry mouth and blurred vision. Anticholinergics and 5HT3/4-ant/agonists do not offer superior improvement rates, placebo responses cover the range as in PO trials. Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS PO (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.

  13. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  14. [Comparison of gut microbiotal compositional analysis of patients with irritable bowel syndrome through different bioinformatics pipelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S W; Liu, Z J; Li, M; Zhu, H Q; Duan, L P

    2018-04-18

    To assess whether the same biological conclusion, diagnostic or curative effects regarding microbial composition of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients could be reached through different bioinformatics pipelines, we used two common bioinformatics pipelines (Uparse V2.0 and Mothur V1.39.5)to analyze the same fecal microbial 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data. The two pipelines were used to analyze the diversity and richness of fecal microbial 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data of 27 samples, including 9 healthy controls (HC group), 9 diarrhea IBS patients before (IBS group) and after Rifaximin treatment (IBS-treatment, IBSt group). Analyses such as microbial diversity, principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) were used to find out the microbial differences among HC group vs. IBS group and IBS group vs. IBSt group. (1) Microbial composition comparison of the 27 samples in the two pipelines showed significant variations at both family and genera levels while no significant variations at phylum level; (2) There was no significant difference in the comparison of HC vs. IBS or IBS vs. IBSt (Uparse: HC vs. IBS, F=0.98, P=0.445; IBS vs. IBSt, F=0.47,P=0.926; Mothur: HC vs.IBS, F=0.82, P=0.646; IBS vs. IBSt, F=0.37, P=0.961). The Shannon index was significantly decreased in IBSt; (3) Both workshops distinguished the significantly enriched genera between HC and IBS groups. For example, Nitrosomonas and Paraprevotella increased while Pseudoalteromonadaceae and Anaerotruncus decreased in HC group through Uparse pipeline, nevertheless Roseburia 62 increased while Butyricicoccus and Moraxellaceae decreased in HC group through Mothur pipeline.Only Uparse pipeline could pick out significant genera between IBS and IBSt, such as Pseudobutyricibrio, Clostridiaceae 1 and Clostridiumsensustricto 1. There were taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity differences between the two

  15. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2015-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction.

  16. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  17. Review article: Associations between immune activation, intestinal permeability and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricon, J; Meleine, M; Gelot, A; Piche, T; Dapoigny, M; Muller, E; Ardid, D

    2012-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, markedly impairing patients' quality of life. Drug development for IBS treatment has been hampered by the lack of understanding of IBS aetiology. In recent years, numerous data have emerged that suggest the involvement of immune activation in IBS, at least in a subset of patients. To determine whether immune activation and intestinal permeabilisation are more frequently observed in IBS patients compared with healthy controls. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, inflammation, immune activation, permeabilisation, intestine, assay, histology and human. The retrieved studies, including blood, faecal and histological studies, were analysed to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the available data including the type of assay, type of inflammatory marker investigated or intestinal segment studied. Immune activation was more frequently observed in IBS patients than in healthy controls. An increase in the number of mast cells and lymphocytes, an alteration in cytokine levels and intestinal permeabilisation were reported in IBS patients. No consistent changes in the numbers of B cells or enterochromaffin cells or in mucosal serotonin production were demonstrated. The changes observed were modest and often heterogeneous among the studied population. Only appropriate interventions improving irritable bowel syndrome symptoms could highlight and confirm the role of immune activation in this pathophysiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to

  19. Evaluation of Ocular Irritation and Bioavailability of Voriconazole Loaded Microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Voriconazole (VCZ), a second-generation antifungal with excellent attributes like, broad-spectrum activity, targeted delivery, and tolerability. VCZ loaded microemulsion could be an effective strategy for efficient ocular delivery of the drug. To perform corneal irritation studies and in vivo delivery of VCZ microemulsion to establish its potential as an efficient ocular delivery system. Ocular irritancy was performed by HETCAM (Hen's Egg Test Chorio Allantoic Membrane) assay, corneal histopathology and Draize test. Ex vivo and in vivo studies were performed to determine permeation efficiency of VCZ microemulsion. The irritation studies suggested the non-irritant nature of the microemulsion. The ex vivo studies performed on excised cornea displayed significant enhancement in drug permeation/penetration from microemulsion in contrast to the drug suspension. Further, the in vivo study confirmed the higher availability of VCZ (from microemulsion) in aqueous humor with minimal nasolacrimal drainage (lower plasma drug content) when compared with the drug suspension. The non-irritant nature and high corneal permeation of VCZ encourages the role of microemulsion as a potential ocular delivery system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  2. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  3. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  4. Identification of cornifelin and early growth response-1 gene as novel biomarkers for in vitro eye irritation using a 3D reconstructed human cornea model MCTT HCE™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seunghye; Lee, Miri; Lee, Su-Hyon; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Kim, Seol-Yeong; Chung, Tae-Young; Choe, Tae-boo; Chun, Young-Jin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of the eye irritation is essential in the development of new cosmetic products. Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been widely used in which chemicals are directly applied to rabbit eye, and the symptoms and signs of eyes are scored. However, due to the invasive procedure, it causes substantial pain and discomfort to animals. Recently, we reported in vitro eye irritation test method using a 3D human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE™) which is reconstructed from remaining human tissues after a corneal transplantation. This model exhibited an excellent predictive capacity for 25 reference chemicals (sensitivity 100%, specificity 77% and accuracy 88% vs. GHS). To improve the test performance, we explored new biomarkers for the eye irritation through transcriptomic approach. Three surfactants were selected as model eye irritants that include sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100. After test chemicals were treated, we investigated differentially expressed genes through a whole-gene microarray (Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Gene 2.0 ST Array, 48,000 probes). As a result, we identified that mRNAs of cornifelin (CNFN), a constituent of the insoluble cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia, and early growth response-1 (EGR1), a nuclear transcriptional regulator, were significantly up-regulated by all three irritants. Up-regulation of CNFN and EGR1 was further confirmed by Q-RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry revealed increased level of CNFN in irritant-treated tissues, supporting the relevance of CNFN and EGR1 as new biomarkers for eye irritation.

  5. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. 2015 FRAME.

  6. Improved irritative voiding symptoms three years after stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakie eRana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritative voiding symptoms are common in elderly men and following prostate radiotherapy. The impact of hypofractionated treatment on irritative voiding symptoms has not been determined. This study sought to evaluate urgency, frequency and nocturia following SBRT for prostate cancer. Methods: Patients treated with SBRT monotherapy for localized prostate cancer from August 2007 to July 2011 at Georgetown University Hospital were included in this study. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® with doses of 35 Gy-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Patient-reported urinary symptoms were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months post-treatment and every 6 months thereafter.Results: 204 patients at a median age of 69 years received SBRT with a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Prior to treatment, 50.0% of patients reported moderate to severe lower urinary track symptoms and 17.7% felt that urinary frequency was a moderate to big problem. The mean prostate volume was 39 cc and 8% had prior procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. A mean baseline IPSS-irritative score of 4.8 significantly increased to 6.5 at 1 month (p 8 at baseline, the mean IPSS-I decreased from a baseline score of 6.8 to 4.9 at three years post-SBRT. This decrease was both statistically (p < 0.0001 and clinically significant (MID = 1.45. Only 14.6% of patients felt that urinary frequency was a moderate to big problem at three years post-SBRT (p = 0.23.Conclusions: Treatment of prostate cancer

  7. Correction of Intestinal Microbiocenosis Violations in Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Yaroshevskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on an actual problem of trea­ting functional bowel diseases with clinical signs of dysbiosis in children. Objective of the study is assessment of effectiveness of comprehensive therapy with modern symbiotic containing strains Lactobacollus rhamnosus GG and fructooligosaccharides in irritable bowel syndrome children. Materials and methods. The study involves 35 children with irritable bowel syndrome and clinical manifestations of intestinal dysbiosis on the basis of subjective and objective symptoms, character of stool, coprogram and microbiological analysis of feces. Treatment efficacy is assessed taking into account the dynamics of the main symptoms of the disease (impaired stool, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, normalization of coprogram indicators, results of the control microbiological analysis of feces. Objectification of the clinical manifestations of the disease is performed at baseline and before discharge of the child from hospital. Results. As a result of the developed schemes of treatment, the abdominal pain syndrome and symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia were quickly stopped. In children with skin manifestation of allergy, their severity has decreased. The clinical manifestations of the digestive disorders syndrome decreased, indicators of coprogram improved. A significant positive dynamics of fecal microbial composition is marked. More than a half of the patients achieve normalization of the quantitative composition of bifid bacteria and lactobacilli; the number of E.coli with altered enzymatic properties reduced, opportunistic and fungal flora was eliminated. The tolerability of prescribed treatment in all patients is good. Conclusions. Correction of intestinal biocenosis occupies an important place in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome children. The study shows a high efficacy and safety of the combination of Lactobacollus rhamnosus GG and fructooligosaccharides in the comprehensive

  8. Temperature shift experiments suggest that metabolic impairment and enhanced rates of photorespiration decrease organic acid levels in soybean leaflets exposed to supra-optimal growth temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate in soybean leaflets decreased 40 to 80% when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Glycerate was not temperature responsive in this study. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organi...

  9. Antioxidant activity and irritation property of venoms from Apis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwongin, Suvimol; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Chaiyana, Wantida

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay were used to determine the antioxidant activity, whereas, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay was used to determine the irritation property of each bee venom extracts. Melittin was the major constituent in all bee venom extracts. The melittin content in A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. florea, and A. cerena were 95.8 ± 3.2%, 76.5 ± 1.9%, 66.3 ± 8.6%, and 56.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. Bee venom extract from A. dorsata possessed the highest antioxidant activity with the inhibition of 41.1 ± 2.2% against DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 10.21 ± 0.74 mM Trolox/mg and equivalent concentration (EC 1 ) of 0.35 ± 0.02 mM FeSO 4 /mg. Bee venom extract from A. mellifera exhibited the highest irritation, followed by A. cerena, A. dorsata, and A. florea, respectively. Melittin was the compound responsible for the irritation property of bee venom extracts since it could induce severe irritation (irritation score was 13.7 ± 0.5, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml). The extract from A. dorsata which possessed the highest antioxidant activity showed no irritation up to the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. Therefore, bee venom extract from A. dorsata at the concentration not more than 0.1 mg/ml would be suggested for using

  10. Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to achieve safe levels in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Valentine, Charles S [ORNL; Gregory, Scott M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and White Oak Creek (WOC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EFPC by 85 %. Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WOC are an order of magnitude lower than in EFPC. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations, fish fillet concentrations in WOC have also been above the AWQC, making the most recent aqueous Hg target of 200 ng/L in EFPC seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WOC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EFPC and in other point-source contaminated streams.

  11. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  12. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Age-Dependent Decrease in Serum Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-Beta 1 in Healthy Japanese Individuals; Population Study of Serum TGF-Beta 1 Level in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, a multi-functional cytokine, is involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities and the serum/plasma TGF-β1 level is altered with various diseases. However, most published reports have described adult patients, and so we investigated the clinical significance of serum TGF-β1 level in pediatric patients. The diagnostic application of the measurement of serum TGF-β1 level depends critically on the control value, however, there is no information on the control value of serum TGF-β1 for children.

  14. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging...... density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls...

  15. Effectiveness of a nursing intervention in decreasing the anxiety levels of family members of patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamester, Letícia; Souza, Emiliane Nogueira de; Cielo, Cibele; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; Pellanda, Lúcia Campos

    2016-08-15

    to verify the effectiveness of nursing orientation provided to families of patients in the immediate post-operative following cardiac surgery before the first visit to the post-anesthesia care unit, in decreasing anxiety levels, compared to the unit's routine orientation. open randomized clinical trial addressing family members in the waiting room before the first visit in the immediate post-operative period. The family members assigned to the intervention group received audiovisual orientation concerning the patients' conditions at the time and the control group received the unit's routine orientation. Outcome anxiety was assessed using the STAI-State. 210 individuals were included, 105 in each group, aged 46.4 years old on average (±14.5); 69% were female and 41% were the patients' children. The mean score obtained on the anxiety assessment in the intervention group was 41.3±8.6, while the control group scored 50.6±9.4 (pde enfermagem a familiares de pacientes em pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca, antes da primeira visita na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, nos níveis de ansiedade, comparados com a orientação de rotina da unidade. ensaio clínico randomizado, realizado com familiares abordados na sala de espera, antes da primeira visita no pós-operatório imediato. Familiares alocados no grupo intervenção receberam orientações audiovisuais sobre as condições em que o paciente se encontrava naquele momento, e o grupo controle recebeu as orientações de rotina da unidade. O desfecho ansiedade foi avaliado pelo inventário IDATE. foram incluídos 210 sujeitos, 105 em cada grupo, com idade média de 46,4±14,5 anos, sendo 69% do sexo feminino e 41% filhos dos pacientes. Na avaliação da ansiedade, o escore médio para o grupo intervenção foi de 41,3±8,6 pontos e, para o grupo controle, 50,6±9,4 pontos (pde enfermagem voltada à orientação de familiares, no momento que antecede a primeira visita no pós-operatório imediato de

  16. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi F. H.; Molck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different...... substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain......The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels...

  17. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  18. The evaluation of the local tolerance of vaginal formulations containing dapivirine using the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Marijke M M; Adriaens, Els; Roey, Jens Van; Remon, Jean Paul

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local tolerance of vaginal gels (three gels containing dapivirine, the placebo gel, and Conceptrol) with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and to compare the results with those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. The irritation potential on the slug mucosa was assessed by the mucus production caused by a repeated treatment for 5 successive days. Additionally, membrane damage was estimated by the protein and enzyme release. By means of a classification prediction model the formulations were classified into four irritation classes. The effect of a 10-day intravaginal application of the gels on the rabbit vaginal and cervical mucosa was evaluated by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The placebo and dapivirine gels induced no irritation of the slug mucosa (low mucus production and protein release, no enzyme release) and no vaginal or cervical irritation in rabbits. Conceptrol caused severe irritation of the slug mucosa (increased mucus production, protein release, and enzyme release) and irritation of the rabbit vagina and cervix. The results obtained with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test were comparable to those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

  19. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  20. Decreased serum levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, but not its precursor proBDNF, in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have identified serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF as a potential biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD. However, at the time, commercially available human ELISA kits are unable to distinguish between proBDNF (precursor of BDNF and mature BDNF because of limited BDNF antibody specificity. In this study, we examined whether serum levels of proBDNF, mature BDNF, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, which converts proBDNF to mature BDNF, are altered in patients with MDD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-nine patients with MDD and 78 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. Patients were evaluated using 17 items on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the CogState battery. Serum levels of proBDNF, mature BDNF, and MMP-9 were measured using ELISA kits. Serum levels of mature BDNF in patients with MDD were significantly lower than those of normal controls. In contrast, there was no difference in the serum levels of proBDNF and MMP-9 between patients and normal controls. While neither proBDNF nor mature BDNF serum levels was associated with clinical variables, there were significant correlations between MMP-9 serum levels and the severity of depression, quality of life scores, and social function scores in patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that mature BDNF may serve as a biomarker for MDD, and that MMP-9 may play a role in the pathophy