WorldWideScience

Sample records for level counting elementary

  1. Elementary Modeling: Connecting Counting with Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.; Aytes, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an important and accessible process for elementary school students because it allows them to use mathematics to engage with the world and consider if and when to use it to help them reason about a situation. It fosters productive struggle and twenty-first-century skills that will aid them throughout their lifetime.

  2. Engineering at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

  3. Introducing Technology Education at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are seeing a need to introduce technology education to students at the elementary level. Pennsylvania's Penn Manor School District is one of them. Pennsylvania has updated science and technology standards for grades 3-8, and after several conversations the author had with elementary principals and the assistant superintendent…

  4. Counting statistics in low level radioactivity measurements fluctuating counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A divergence between the probability distribution of the number of nuclear disintegrations and the number of observed counts, caused by counting efficiency fluctuation, is discussed. The negative binominal distribution is proposed to describe the probability distribution of the number of counts, instead of Poisson distribution, which is assumed to hold for the number of nuclear disintegrations only. From actual measurements the r.m.s. amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation is estimated. Some consequences of counting efficiency fluctuation are investigated and the corresponding formulae are derived: (1) for detection limit as a function of the number of partial measurements and the relative amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation, and (2) for optimum allocation of the number of partial measurements between sample and background. (author)

  5. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  6. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  7. System Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…

  8. Elementary School Students Perception Levels of Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…

  9. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  10. Low level scintillation counting of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Minarik, F.; Cierna, V.

    1984-01-01

    For measuring the content of 239 Pu in samples taken from the working or living environment, methods should be used which are sufficiently sensitive for determining activities of the order of 10 -3 Bq. It is useful to use liquid scintillators for reasons of their 4π geometry and the exclusion of kinetic energy losses of particles detected in the sample and on the path between the sample and the detector. The method of background discrimination according to pulse shape may be used to suppress gamma background in the area of alpha particle peaks to the level 2.5x10 -4 s -1 . The diagram is given of electronic circuits for shape discrimination. The scintillator used was a SLS-31 with a PBD activator, a POPOP spectrum shifter and a mixture of solvents: toluene, dioxane and methanol. The efficiency of 239 Pu alpha particle detection is estimated at 78% and may further be improved by improving shape discrimination. (M.D.)

  11. On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level

    OpenAIRE

    A, Michaud

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.

  12. Vessel used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Glover, J.S.; Shephard, B.P.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns the vessels used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels. These vessels prove to be particularly useful in analyses of the kind where a radioactive element or compound is separated into two phases and the radioactivity of one phase is determined. Such a vessel used in the counting of radiation includes an organic plastic substance tube appreciably cylindrical in shape whose upper end is open whilst the lower end is closed and integral with it, and an anti-radiation shield in metal or in metal reinforced plastic located at the lower end of the tube and extending along the wall of the tube up to a given height. The vessel contains a reaction area of 1 to 10 ml for holding fluid reagents [fr

  13. Application of PSD for low level alpha counting using liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamachari, G.; Vaze, P.K.; Iyer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the liquid scintillator the light produced by alpha particles decays differently than those produced by electrons. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) methods are employed to estimate low levels of alpha emitting radionuclides by reducing the background due to either beta or gamma events. An attempt is being made to develop a liquid scintillation counting sytem using a simple PSD circuit to achieve a background of 0.01 counts/min. The PSD circuit is based on measuring zero cross over points to differentiate particle types. The input signal is first differentiated by a delay line and subsequently by a RC circuit. The width of the initial part of the doubly differentiated pulse is different for alpha and beta pulses. This width is converted to amplitude by a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The higher amplitude pulses from the TAC are due to alpha particles and they are separated by an integral discriminator. The output from the integral discriminator opens a linear gate to record the pulse height spectrum. The figure of merit of the PSD circuit and background in the alpha energy channel have been worked out using different scintillator types. (author). 4 figs

  14. What ''Counts'' as Algebra in the Eyes of Preservice Elementary Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined conceptions of algebra held by 30 preservice elementary teachers. In addition to exploring participants' general ''definitions'' of algebra, this study examined, in particular, their analyses of tasks designed to engage students in relational thinking or a deep understanding of the equal sign as well as student work on these…

  15. Development of low level alpha particle counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minobe, Masao; Kondo, Hiraku; Chinuki, Takashi; Hirano, Hiromichi

    1987-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the trace analysis of uranium and thorium contained in the base material of LSI or VLSI, since the so-called ''soft-error'' of the memory device was known to be due to alpha particles emitted from these radioactive elements. We have developed an apparatus to meet the needs of estimating such a very small quantity of U and Th of the level of ppb, by directly counting alpha particles using a gas-flow type proportional counter. This method requires no sophisticated analytical skill, and the accuracy of the result is satisfactory. The instrumentation and some application of this apparatus are described. (author)

  16. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  17. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  18. Low-level measurements by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting has become a convenient tool for analysis of many beta- and alpha-emitters even in ultra low-level concentration ranges. Extremely low background is achieved in a commercially available counter by an active shielding and heavy lead shielding. Thus special time saving radiochemical separation processes could be designed. Extremely simple sample preparation techniques can be used. Counting time can be reduced and sample throughput enhanced. Also precision can be enhanced. From the author's research, several applications are discussed. They include: tritium in water without enrichment, tritium in urine (excretion analysis), carbon-14 in samples like alcohol or vinegar, Rn-222 in water and air, even gaseous Kr-85. A simple and fast method for Sr-90 in environmental samples and food has been developed and the Ra-226-concentration in water can be measured as low as 30 mBq/l without any chemical separation or enrichment. The instrument has been used successfully for screening purposes after the Chernobyl accident as well as for monitoring groundwater after a large scale contamination in Lower Austria. Using a 'gross-beta-measurement' effluents from a nuclear installation are monitored, clearly showing advantages over traditional methods. α-β-discrimination reduces the background for alpha emitters to practically zero. Examples from the determination of Ra-226 in water are shown

  19. The Effects of Social Capital Levels in Elementary Schools on Organizational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of social capital levels at elementary schools on organizational information sharing as reported by teachers. Participants were 267 teachers selected randomly from 16 elementary schools; schools also selected randomly among 42 elementary schools located in the city center of Batman. The data were analyzed by…

  20. Gender Representation in Elementary Level, African Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Folarin Schleicher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learners' perceptions and understanding of a target culture(s are affected by the infonnation presented by their teacher(s, textbooks and other instructional materials. This paper focuses on an analysis of gender representation in elementary level, African language textbooks, with a specific concentration on Hausa, Swahili, Yoruba, and Zulu textbooks. Although the study of gender representation in textbooks is not new (see Blankenship, 1984; Clausen, 1982; Neussel, 1977 and others, relatively few authors have focused on gender representation in foreign language textbooks (Graci, 1989; Rifkin, 1998. This study seeks to extend the work of these scholars into the field of African languages. As a result, the present analysis focuses on (1 establishing criteria for evaluating African language textbooks for gender representation; (2 applying these criteria to seventeen different, elementary level, African language textbooks to create a basis for a comparative case study; (3 presenting the findings of a detailed analysis; and ( 4 utilizing the findings to formulate guidelines for future textbook writers.

  1. Non-Print Social Studies Materials--Elementary School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    Types of non-print social studies materials developed for presentation to, and use by, elementary school students are identified. "Non-print" materials include films, filmstrips, video cassettes, audio recordings, computer databases, telecommunications, and hypertext. An explanation of why elementary school students can benefit from the use of…

  2. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  3. Normalization at the field level: fractional counting of citations

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Van Raan et al. (2010; arXiv:1003.2113) have proposed a new indicator (MNCS) for field normalization. Since field normalization is also used in the Leiden Rankings of universities, we elaborate our critique of journal normalization in Opthof & Leydesdorff (2010; arXiv:1002.2769) in this rejoinder concerning field normalization. Fractional citation counting thoroughly solves the issue of normalization for differences in citation behavior among fields. This indicator can also be used to obtain ...

  4. Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Level of Relating Mathematical Concepts in Daily Life Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Oylum

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary mathematics teachers' ability of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context. Two research questions were set; what is the preservice elementary mathematics teachers' level of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context regarding to their education year and…

  5. Low-level flow counting of liquid chromatography column eluates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, N.G.L.; Farid, Y.; Stewart, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The principal parameters which determine the operation of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity radioactive flow monitor are described: a) Sample preparation to ensure adequate recovery of radiolabelled sample, metabolites and internal standard. b) The instrument background count rate, when no sample or radiolabel is present in the flow cell, is a function of shielding and a reduction in noise obtained with a coincidence time below one microsecond. c) The minimum detectable amount of label depends upon the machine background, HPLC eluent and scintillator flow, whether or not packed flow cells are used, flow cell geometry, and the scintillator used. d) Three types of flow cell have been designed to cover the majority of HPLC and isotope applications. e) The performance of solid and liquid scintillators. It is shown that an instrument has been designed taking account of these parameters. The resulting design satisfies present high sensitivity counting requirements and maintains the resolution of current HPLC procedures when detection is by simultaneous flow radioassay and by optical methods. (orig.)

  6. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low-level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  7. The Relationship between Pollen Count Levels and Prevalence of Japanese Cedar Pollinosis in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Honda

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that pollen count levels may correlate with the rate of sensitization for JC pollinosis, but may not affect the rate of onset among sensitized children in northeast Japan.

  8. Coherence modulation at the photon-counting level: A new scheme for secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, William T; Boughanmi, Abdellatif; Moreno, Yezid Torres

    2016-01-01

    When operated at the photon-counting level, coherence modulation can provide quantifiably secure binary signal transmission between two entities, security being based on the nonclonability of photons. (paper)

  9. Mitosis Counting in Breast Cancer: Object-Level Interobserver Agreement and Comparison to an Automatic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veta, Mitko; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Pluim, Josien P W

    2016-01-01

    Tumor proliferation speed, most commonly assessed by counting of mitotic figures in histological slide preparations, is an important biomarker for breast cancer. Although mitosis counting is routinely performed by pathologists, it is a tedious and subjective task with poor reproducibility, particularly among non-experts. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of mitosis counting can be improved when a strict protocol is defined and followed. Previous studies have examined only the agreement in terms of the mitotic count or the mitotic activity score. Studies of the observer agreement at the level of individual objects, which can provide more insight into the procedure, have not been performed thus far. The development of automatic mitosis detection methods has received large interest in recent years. Automatic image analysis is viewed as a solution for the problem of subjectivity of mitosis counting by pathologists. In this paper we describe the results from an interobserver agreement study between three human observers and an automatic method, and make two unique contributions. For the first time, we present an analysis of the object-level interobserver agreement on mitosis counting. Furthermore, we train an automatic mitosis detection method that is robust with respect to staining appearance variability and compare it with the performance of expert observers on an "external" dataset, i.e. on histopathology images that originate from pathology labs other than the pathology lab that provided the training data for the automatic method. The object-level interobserver study revealed that pathologists often do not agree on individual objects, even if this is not reflected in the mitotic count. The disagreement is larger for objects from smaller size, which suggests that adding a size constraint in the mitosis counting protocol can improve reproducibility. The automatic mitosis detection method can perform mitosis counting in an unbiased way, with substantial

  10. Enhancing Established Counting Routines to Promote Place-Value Understanding: An Empirical Study in Early Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraivillig, Judith L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding place value is a critical and foundational competency for elementary mathematics. Classroom teachers who endeavor to promote place-value development adopt a variety of established practices to varying degrees of effectiveness. In parallel, researchers have validated models of how young children acquire place-value understanding.…

  11. Impact of Professional Development on Level of Technology Integration in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miktuk, Darlynda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative study was to evaluate the impact of professional development on the level of technology integration within the elementary classroom using an online survey known as the LoTi (levels of teaching innovation) survey. Information about the history of computers, technology integration, andragogy, and effective…

  12. A computer simulation used to investigate optimization in low level counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Kephart, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The differential form of the interval distribution for randomly spaced events such as radioactive decay is represented as dP/sub t/=ae - /supat/dt, the Poisson distribution. As applied to radioactive decay, this states that the probability (dP/sub t/) of the duration of a particular interval (elapsed time between counts) will be between t and t+dt as a function of the count rate (a). Thus a logarithmic transformation of this probability distribution results in a linear function whose slope and intercept are defined by the count rate. The effort expended in defining the interval distribution of a given radiation measurement equates in the laboratory to measuring and accumulating discrete time intervals between events rather than the usual approach of counting events per unit time. It follows from basic information theory that this greater effort should result in an improved statistical confidence in determinations of the ''true'' count rate (a). Using a random number generator as an analog of the discrete decay event, the authors have devised a Monte Carlo approach to investigate application of the above theory to the low level counting situation. This investigative approach is well suited to sensitivity analyses such that any constraints on proposed optimization techniques can be well defined prior to introducing these methods into the counting requirements in the laboratory

  13. From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Cynthia D.

    Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for

  14. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  15. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  16. Gender Disparity at Elementary Education Level in Jammu and Kashmir: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to explore gender disparity at elementary education level in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender disparity in education refers to differences in outcomes observed between two sexes. Education disparities can be seen in different enrolment rates, dropout rates, and survival rates among the sexes. The central government and…

  17. Development of Speaking Skills through Activity Based Learning at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…

  18. Between Kohlberg and Gilligan: Levels of Moral Judgment among Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitton, Charles J.; Wasonga, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated levels of moral judgment among public elementary school principals as measured by the Defining Issues Test Version 2 for occupationally relevant and other moral dilemmas. The participants scored lower (38.7) than the predicted average P score (postconventional thinking) for individuals who have attained graduate level…

  19. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…

  20. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during

  1. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1±0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7±0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb

  2. The Teaching of Controversial Issues during Elementary-Level History Instruction: Greek-Cypriot Teachers' Perceptions and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Kambani, Froso

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological study of 18 Greek-Cypriot teachers' perceptions and emotions in relation to the teaching of controversial issues during elementary-level history instruction. Findings indicate that although participating teachers see the general value of this approach at the elementary school level, they become less…

  3. the effect of cd4 count level on the middle ear dynamics of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... THE EFFECT OF CD4 COUNT LEVEL ON THE MIDDLE EAR DYNAMICS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS .... compliance and pressure values were the ones causing ... of sound wave than in the control group (non-HIV infected ...

  4. A Bayesian interpretation of a decision level in radioactivity counting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.; Navarro, E.; Senent, F.

    1988-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure is applied to derive a posterior gamma distribution which describes the inferential content of the radsioactivity counting data without incorporating any other information. A formulation leading to both dsetection and decision limits is developed. A tabulation of significance levels is given for some experimental situations. (Author)

  5. Partial-Interval Estimation of Count: Uncorrected and Poisson-Corrected Error Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Harbison, Amy L.; Tapp, Jon T.

    2018-01-01

    A simulation study that used 3,000 computer-generated event streams with known behavior rates, interval durations, and session durations was conducted to test whether the main and interaction effects of true rate and interval duration affect the error level of uncorrected and Poisson-transformed (i.e., "corrected") count as estimated by…

  6. Examination of background contamination levels for gas counting and AMS target preparation in Trondheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulliksen, S.; Thomsen, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    conventional gas proportional counting (GPC) system. We have also studied contamination levels of our target preparation for C-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating in Uppsala. A significant lower background is obtained for Icelandic double spar than for marbles, probably due to a crystal structure...

  7. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  8. Fifth-Grade Turkish Elementary School Students' Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels with Regard to Text Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…

  9. Using observation-level random effects to model overdispersion in count data in ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier A. Harrison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Overdispersion is common in models of count data in ecology and evolutionary biology, and can occur due to missing covariates, non-independent (aggregated data, or an excess frequency of zeroes (zero-inflation. Accounting for overdispersion in such models is vital, as failing to do so can lead to biased parameter estimates, and false conclusions regarding hypotheses of interest. Observation-level random effects (OLRE, where each data point receives a unique level of a random effect that models the extra-Poisson variation present in the data, are commonly employed to cope with overdispersion in count data. However studies investigating the efficacy of observation-level random effects as a means to deal with overdispersion are scarce. Here I use simulations to show that in cases where overdispersion is caused by random extra-Poisson noise, or aggregation in the count data, observation-level random effects yield more accurate parameter estimates compared to when overdispersion is simply ignored. Conversely, OLRE fail to reduce bias in zero-inflated data, and in some cases increase bias at high levels of overdispersion. There was a positive relationship between the magnitude of overdispersion and the degree of bias in parameter estimates. Critically, the simulations reveal that failing to account for overdispersion in mixed models can erroneously inflate measures of explained variance (r2, which may lead to researchers overestimating the predictive power of variables of interest. This work suggests use of observation-level random effects provides a simple and robust means to account for overdispersion in count data, but also that their ability to minimise bias is not uniform across all types of overdispersion and must be applied judiciously.

  10. The Role of Games in Teaching English Numbers to Iranian EFL Learners at the Elementary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zardoshti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available English vocabulary, especially at the elementary stage of language learning process, is easily forgotten. Language games seem to be a good strategy for learning a foreign language. This study aimed to find a way to help elementary EFL learners fix the new English numbers in their minds. First, the general test of English numbers as a pretest was administered to 60 participants. They were required to write equivalents of the target numbers in the blank spaces. After giving the pre-test, the researcher divided the learners into the experimental group and the control group. Students in experimental group were taught new English numbers through games including: One to TEN, Slap that, Number of chairs, How many plastic apples?, Count in jumps, Cooperative numbers Circling math challenge, Answer me, Buzz fizz, Circling math challenge, Choose your score now. In the control group, the new numbers were presented through traditional methods such as repetition or translation. The study was conducted at Poyandegan language Institute in Neyriz. Thirty students as an experimental group and 30 students as a control group aged between 9-12 participated in this study. The collected data were analyzed using paired and independent samples T- test. The study indicated that there were statistically significant differences in mean scores of vocabulary tests in favor of the experimental group in the post test. It is hoped that due to the findings of this study teachers will reconsider the role of games and appreciate its value.

  11. Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III

    Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.

  12. Determination of the thoron daughter working level by a one gross alpha-count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Lau, W.K.

    1983-02-01

    A study has been done on the determination of the thoron daughter Working Level, WL(Tn), by a one gross α-count. The relationship between the gross α-count rate per unit of volume of air sampled and WL(Tn), denoted the F-factor, has been investigated as a function of sampling time, elapsed time from the end of the sampling period, i.e., waiting time, and the thoron daughter disequilibrium ratio [ThC]/[ThB]. It has been found that F depends on both the waiting time and [ThC]/[ThB]. If α-count measurements are made at least 300 min after the end of sampling, F changes by less than 10 percent over the full range of theoretical values of [ThC]/[ThB], i.e., from 0 to 1. The F-factor is independent of [ThC]/[ThB] at approximately 215 min after the end of sampling. This feature can be used to determine WL(Tn) with higher accuracy and at least 1.5 hr earlier than is commonly done using other one gross α-count methods reported in the literature

  13. Full counting statistics of level renormalization in electron transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Junyan; Shen Yu; Cen Gang; He Xiaoling; Wang Changrong; Jiao Hujun

    2011-01-01

    We examine the full counting statistics of electron transport through double quantum dots coupled in series, with particular attention being paid to the unique features originating from level renormalization. It is clearly illustrated that the energy renormalization gives rise to a dynamic charge blockade mechanism, which eventually results in super-Poissonian noise. Coupling of the double dots to an external heat bath leads to dephasing and relaxation mechanisms, which are demonstrated to suppress the noise in a unique way.

  14. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  15. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha (α) and gross beta (β) activity, uranium isotopes 233/234 U and 238 U, plutonium 239/240 Pu, and americium 241 Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns (μ) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross α was essentially removed 100%, and gross β was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150μ were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of 239/240 Pu and 241 Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species

  16. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  17. Comparison of approximate formulas for decision levels and detection limits for paired counting with the exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    The exact probability density function for paired counting can be expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions of integral order when the expected blank count is known. Exact decision levels and detection limits can be computed in a straightforward manner. For many applications perturbing half-integer corrections to Gaussian distributions yields satisfactory results for decision levels. When there is concern about the uncertainty for the expected value of the blank count, a way to bound the errors of both types using confidence intervals for the expected blank count is discussed. (author)

  18. The statistical interpretations of counting data from measurements of low-level radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donn, J.J.; Wolke, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The statistical model appropriate to measurements of low-level or background-dominant radioactivity is examined and the derived relationships are applied to two practical problems involving hypothesis testing: 'Does the sample exhibit a net activity above background' and 'Is the activity of the sample below some preselected limit'. In each of these cases, the appropriate decision rule is formulated, procedures are developed for estimating the preset count which is necessary to achieve a desired probability of detection, and a specific sequence of operations is provided for the worker in the field. (author)

  19. The Research on Submissive Behaviour of Students in the Second Level of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ATLİ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the submissive behaviors of second level of elementary school students at with respect to some variables. Participants were 430 students, 172 (42,6 % girls and 231 (57,4 % boys. Among these participants, 156 (38,6 % were 6th graders, 104 (26% were 7th graders, and 143 (35,4% were 8th graders. The data were collected using Student Personal Information Form developed by researchers and Submissive Behaviors Scale. The data collected were analyzed using t-test, One-way ANOVA, Tukey Test, and Mann–Whitney U test. The findings revealed that students’ levels of submissive behaviors significantly differed by the variables including school type, gender, school class level, achievement, residence, economic level, mother’s and father’s education level, violence by mother and father.

  20. The Effect of Three Levels of Inquiry on the Improvement of Science Concept Understanding of Elementary School Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artayasa, I. Putu; Susilo, Herawati; Lestari, Umie; Indriwati, Sri Endah

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to compare the effect of the implementation of three levels of inquiry: level 2 (structured inquiry), level 3 (guided inquiry), and level 4 (open inquiry) toward science concept understanding of elementary school teacher candidates. This is a quasi experiment research with pre-test post-test nonequivalent control group design.…

  1. Fatigue, serum cytokine levels, and blood cell counts during radiotherapy of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, Hans; Zimmermann, Frank B.; Stoll, Peter; Thamm, Reinhard; Kaffenberger, Walter; Ansorg, Kai; Keller, Monika; Busch, Raymonde; Beuningen, Dirk van; Molls, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the level of fatigue during the course of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer patients and its relation to anxiety, depression, serum cytokines, and blood count levels. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients who received adjuvant RT after breast-conserving surgery were prospectively studied. All patients underwent RT without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients rated their fatigue with two standardized self-assessment instruments, the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire and a visual analog scale on fatigue intensity, before RT, during weeks 1-5 of RT, and 2 months after RT completion. In addition, the anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A differential blood cell count and the serum levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined in parallel to the fatigue assessments. Results: Fatigue intensity as assessed with the visual analog scale increased (p<0.001) until treatment week 4 and remained elevated until week 5. Two months after RT, the values had fallen to the pretreatment levels. Fatigue measured with the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire did not increase significantly during treatment, but the subscores on physical (p=0.035) and cognitive (p=0.015) fatigue were elevated during treatment weeks 4 and 5. Affective fatigue did not change significantly. Anxiety, as rated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, declined during RT (p=0.002), but the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score did not change significantly. IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels did not change during therapy and did not correlate with fatigue. Peripheral blood cell levels declined significantly during therapy and were still low 2 months after treatment. Until treatment week 5, lymphocytes were reduced to almost 50% of their initial values. Hemoglobin levels did not correlate with fatigue. Conclusions: We observed an increase in

  2. Mitosis counting in breast cancer : object-level interobserver agreement and comparison to an automatic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.; van Diest, P.J.; Jiwa, M.; Al-Janabi, S.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor proliferation speed, most commonly assessed by counting of mitotic figures in histological slide preparations, is an important biomarker for breast cancer. Although mitosis counting is routinely performed by pathologists, it is a tedious and subjective task with poor

  3. Mitosis Counting in Breast Cancer : Object-Level Interobserver Agreement and Comparison to an Automatic Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, Mitko; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Pluim, JPW

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor proliferation speed, most commonly assessed by counting of mitotic figures in histological slide preparations, is an important biomarker for breast cancer. Although mitosis counting is routinely performed by pathologists, it is a tedious and subjective task with poor

  4. Estimation of low level gross alpha activities in the radioactive effluent using liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Johnson, Bella E.; Singh, Sanjay; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration in low level liquid effluent samples in presence of higher activity concentrations of tritium. For this purpose, alpha beta discriminating Pulse Shape Analysis Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used. Main advantages of this technique are easy sample preparation, rapid measurement and higher sensitivity. The calibration methodology for Quantulus1220 LSC based on PSA technique using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y as alpha and beta standards respectively was described in detail. LSC technique was validated by measuring alpha and beta activity concentrations in test samples with known amount of 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities spiked in distilled water. The results obtained by LSC technique were compared with conventional planchet counting methods such as ZnS(Ag) and end window GM detectors. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in spiked samples, obtained by LSC technique were found to be within ±5% of the reference values. (author)

  5. A 'delayed' counting method to determine indoor Rn-222 levels indirectly

    CERN Document Server

    Iannopollo, V; Trimarchi, M; Tripepi, M G; Vermiglio, G

    2001-01-01

    A new indirect and 'delayed' way is presented to determine indoor concentration of Rn-222 by best-fitting methods. If a rapid knowledge of Rn-222 levels is required and if a detection system is not available in situ, it is possible to obtain concentration of radioactive gas by determining of 'delayed' counts of Po-214. The 'delay' time consists of two or three hours. The method is based on the use of cellulose filters for particulate collection and on the analysis of samples by alpha spectroscopy. It is also possible to obtain concentrations of short-lived radon daughters Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, which are very important quantities in a medical framework.

  6. Boys and girls smoking within the Danish elementary school classes: a group-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Due, Pernille

    2002-01-01

    smokers within school classes does not correlate. There is high variation in male and female smoking behaviour between school classes. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of social classroom environment on the processes causing smoking behaviour may be different for boys and girls. This paper illustrates......AIMS: To quantify the correlation between male and female smoking prevalence in elementary school classes by group-level analysis. METHODS: This study was the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 1998. Ninety school classes at grade nine (1......,515 students) from a random sample of schools in Denmark took part. The proportion of male and female "at all" smokers and daily smokers in the school class was calculated. RESULTS: The mean "at all" smoking proportion in the school classes is 39% for girls and 32% for boys. The proportion of male and female...

  7. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

  8. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are

  9. Level conceptual change pre-service elementary teachers on electric current conceptions through visual multimedia supported conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermita, N.; Suhandi, A.; Syaodih, E.; Samsudin, A.; Marhadi, H.; Sapriadil, S.; Zaenudin, Z.; Rochman, C.; Mansur, M.; Wibowo, F. C.

    2018-05-01

    Now a day, conceptual change is the most valuable issues in the science education perspective, especially in the elementary education. Researchers have already dialed with the aim of the research to increase level conceptual change process on the electric conceptions through Visual Multimedia Supported Conceptual Change Text (VMMSCCText). We have ever utilized research and development method namely 3D-1I stands for Define, Design, Development, and Implementation. The 27 pre-service elementary teachers were involved in the research. The battery function in circuit electric conception is the futuristic concept which should have been learned by the students. Moreover, the data which was collected reports that static about 0%, disorientation about 0%, reconstruction about 55.6%, and construction about 25.9%. It can be concluded that the implementation of VMMSCCText to pre-service elementary teachers are increased to level conceptual change categories.

  10. Determination of Np, Pu and Am in high level radioactive waste with extraction-liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dazhu; Zhu Yongjun; Jiao Rongzhou

    1994-01-01

    A new method for the determination of transuranium elements, Np, Pu and Am with extraction-liquid scintillation counting has been studied systematically. Procedures for the separation of Pu and Am by HDEHP-TRPO extraction and for the separation of Np by TTA-TiOA extraction have been developed, by which the recovery of Np, Pu and Am is 97%, 99% and 99%, respectively, and the decontamination factors for the major fission products ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs etc.) are 10 4 -10 6 . Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique has been introduced to liquid scintillation counting, by which the counting efficiency of α-activity is >99% and the rejection of β-counts is >99.95%. This new method, combining extraction and pulse shape discrimination with liquid scintillation technique, has been successfully applied to the assay of Np, Pu and Am in high level radioactive waste. (author) 7 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Qi, Yicheng; Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-11-29

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients.

  12. Architectural education and its role in teaching of art education in the second level of elementary schools

    OpenAIRE

    PRAŽANOVÁ, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the work was effort to find reasons why to include the education in the field of architecture and environmental culture in teaching systems, mainly in the second level of elementary schools. I tried to apply these reasons into the topics of architecture training in the lessons of art education. The research among nearly 250 pupils of the 8.and 9.class of the elementary schools in big and small towns and last but not least also the discussion with the teachers of art education at e...

  13. Prospective Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Knowledge Level about the Greenhouse Effect and Their Views on Environmental Education in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisoglu, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Hasan; Erkol, Mehmet; Akar, Muhammed Said; Akilli, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers' knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership…

  14. Teacher's Guide in Population Education for Social Studies, Grades I-VI. Elementary Level. (Revised for Muslim Filipinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).

    Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these elementary-level social studies units will help Filipino children understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…

  15. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  16. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  17. Assessment of Elementary School Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and Attitude regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A. Awad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this cross-sectional study, the level of knowledge and attitude of elementary school teachers regarding traumatic dental injuries (TDI were assessed. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to 330 elementary school teachers in 30 randomly selected schools in the Emirates of Sharjah and Dubai. The questionnaire collected information on participants’ demographic characteristics, first aid training, and attitude about emergency management of TDI. Results. 292 teachers (88% completed the questionnaires; of these, 95% were females, and 50% of the participants had first aid training. Knowledge about tooth avulsion was inadequate, and first aid training was not associated with correct responses to management of avulsed teeth (p>0.05. A significantly higher percentage of younger teachers (p<0.05 expressed the need for future education on TDI management. A significantly higher percentage of participants who had an educational position (95% indicated that they did not have enough knowledge regarding TDI compared to physical education teachers (79% and administrators (87% (p<0.05. Conclusions. Elementary school teachers in the UAE have a low level of knowledge regarding the management of dental trauma. Educational programs that address TDI are needed and could improve the elementary school teachers’ level of knowledge in emergency management of TDI.

  18. The impact of noise level on students' learning performance at state elementary school in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchari, Matondang, Nazaruddin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level and impact of noise on pupils' learning performance that was observed through a survey at State Elementary School (SDN 060882), which is located on the corner of Abdullah Lubis Street and Pattimura Medan Street. The study was done by measuring the noise level using the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) by taking 24 locations as the measurement points. The results indicated that the noise levels exceeded the standard TLV >55 dBA as regulated in the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. KEP/48/MENLH/11/1996. According to the data processing, the noise level at school was 70.79 dBA. The classrooms were classified into noisy zones based on the Noise Mapping. Those in Red Zone which noise level were in the range of (69-75 dBA) were Class IIIa, Class IVb, and Class VI. In addition, those in Yellow Zone which were in the range of (65-69 dBA) were Class II, Class IIIa, Class IVa and Class V. The noise brought the physiological impact in the forms of dizziness that had the highest percentage of 22% and emotional and uncomfortable feeling of 21%; the communication impact of teacher's explanation disturbance of 22%; and Pupils' learning performance was evidenced to decline of 22%. Some improvements are suggested to reduce the noise such as the reposition of windows, acoustic material to cover the classrooms' wall, and bamboo trees or grasses as the barried around the school area.

  19. Temperature Control & Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Ming Su; Mei-Shu Huang

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue when we are faced with the challenge of climate change. Through literature review, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect to a degree. Because there are not enough open space and parks, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary schools ar...

  20. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  1. Increased levels of C-reactive protein and leukocyte count are poor predictors of anastomotic leakage following laparoscopic colorectal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Roikjær, Ole; Jess, Per

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic procedure and fast-track regimen with short post-operative hospital stay are gaining ground in colorectal surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell counts (WBC) have a role as early predictors of post...

  2. Opinions of Elementary Level EFL Learners on The Use of Weblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur ISTIFCI

    Full Text Available Technology is an indispensable part of our lives and education cannot be taught without it. Since technology is in every part of our lives, foreign language education also makes use of the new technology. By the use of the Internet, virtual classrooms and materials are easy to access and learning takes place beyond the boundaries of the classrooms. Weblogs or blogs are one of the tools that are used to teach language skills in EFL courses and students have a chance to reflect on what they wrote in the blogs. The aim of this study is to find the opinions of elementary level EFL learners on using weblogs and distance education. The subjects of the study were 10 Native speakers of English in London and 15 Turkish EFL learners who are learning English in the School of Foreign Languages. Turkish EFL learners created a class blog and every week they were given assignments by their class teacher. They wrote paragraphs and they gave and receive feedback on their writing in terms of content, vocabulary and grammar by their classmates and by native English speakers in a virtual environment. This procedure lasted for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, students were given an evaluation questionnaire and they were asked to write their opinions about using weblogs. They were also interviewed by their teacher and the opinions of the students were categorized. Findings indicate that the students found the idea of weblogs as a distant learning tool motivating, enjoyable and encouraging.

  3. ESCOLEX: a grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Medeiros, José Carlos; Simões, Alberto; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; de Almeida, José João; Pinheiro, Ana P; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases .

  4. Controversy among giants: Young's experiment and loss of fringe visibility at low photon-count levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, William T.

    2011-09-01

    An ideal beam splitter model for an absorber presented by Leonhardt in his book Measuring the Quantum State of Light (Cambridge University Press, 1997) has intriguing implications for the simple Young's fringe experiment in the photon-counting regime. Specifically, it suggests that different results will be obtained depending on whether the light forming the fringes is attenuated at the source or at the slits.

  5. The measurement of Rn-222 in drinking water by low-level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; McKlveen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Radon-222 has consistently been found in well water. The research objectives are to establish a method to collect well water and to measure the Rn in ground water using liquid scintillation (LS) counting. Water is collected at the well head while the well is pumping. The water is adjusted to a slow, non-aerated, steady flow through a clear tube, and a 437 mL (16 oz) glass bottle is filled. The sample is tightly capped after a high meniscus has developed. In the laboratory, standard 22 mL LS glass vials are filled with 10 mL of a toluene based mineral oil LS cocktail. Then, two 5 mL sample aliquots are pipetted into the vial. Vials are capped tightly, shaken vigorously, and placed in the LS counter. Secular equilibrium is established in approximately 3.5 hours, after which samples are counted for 100 minutes each. Quality assurance and control is performed weekly on the LS counter's electronics, spectral window, counting efficiency, and background. The counting efficiency ranges between 315-345 percent depending on the chosen spectral window. The average background is about 6 cpm. A total of 28 wells were tested for Rn in the Carefree-Cave Creek, Arizona, USA area, and 12 wells were selected, each over 50 Bq/L (1,350 pCi/L), for an extended 6 month period. The area's average Rn concentration was found to be 46.5 Bq/L (1,255 pCi/L); it is a geometric mean. The associated estimated lung dose is 1.13 mSv/a

  6. Students’ Learning Obstacles and Alternative Solution in Counting Rules Learning Levels Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Jatmiko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The counting rules is a topic in mathematics senior high school. In the learning process, teachers often find students who have difficulties in learning this topic. Knowing the characteristics of students' learning difficulties and analyzing the causes is important for the teacher, as an effort in trying to reflect the learning process and as a reference in constructing alternative learning solutions which appropriate to anticipate students’ learning obstacles. This study uses qualitative methods and involves 70 students of class XII as research subjects. The data collection techniques used in this study is diagnostic test instrument about learning difficulties in counting rules, observation, and interview. The data used to know the learning difficulties experienced by students, the causes of learning difficulties, and to develop alternative learning solutions. From the results of data analysis, the results of diagnostic tests researcher found some obstacles faced by students, such as students get confused in describing the definition, students difficulties in understanding the procedure of solving multiplication rules. Based on those problems, researcher analyzed the causes of these difficulties and make hypothetical learning trajectory as an alternative solution in counting rules learning.

  7. Prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about the greenhouse effect and their views on environmental education in university

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kışoğlu; Hasan Gürbüz; Mehmet Erkol; Muhammed Said Akar; Mustafa Akıllı

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership in the environmental foundations on their knowledge. We also aimed to learn their views on environmental education given in universi...

  8. Teaching vocabulary to elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language: topic "My family and I"

    OpenAIRE

    Vesnina, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a lesson "My Family and I" for elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language. This topic is the first in the academic subject Russian Vocabulary. The article sums up the experience of teaching this subject to Chinese students learning Russian at the Ural State Pedagogical University. The content and the aims of the lesson "My Family and I", as well as the subject Russian Vocabulary, are based on the communicative approach to teaching Russian as a forei...

  9. Student, Teacher and Class-Level Correlates of Flemish Late Elementary School Children's Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde; Merchie, Emmelien

    2016-01-01

    In Flanders, there are neither Flemish assessments nor teacher surveys to provide insights into the current practice and outcomes of writing instruction. In the present study, we provide a-state-of-the-art study of the practice of writing instruction in Flemish late elementary education by investigating: (a) how writing is taught, (b) how teachers…

  10. The National Physical Education Standards and Grade-Level Outcomes: The Future of Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt/Hale, Shirley Ann; Persse, Dan

    2015-01-01

    It is during the early educational years that skills are developed, habits are formed, and values are shaped. The skills for a lifetime of physical activity are developed through quality teaching, deliberate practice, assessment and reflection. Research supports the importance of elementary physical education experiences and the importance of…

  11. Relationships among Teacher Absenteeism, Evaluation Scores, and Satisfaction with Teaching at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marilyn D.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to determine what factors were believed to influence teacher absenteeism in a small southwestern rural district in Tennessee, a study was conducted using information from Survey Monkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/satisfaction_absences) to obtain responses from 89 teachers in grades third through fifth at seven elementary schools…

  12. Power distribution and substrate noise coupling investigations on the behavioral level for photon counting imaging readout circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; Abdalla, Suliman; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    In modern mixed-signal system design, there are increasing problems associated with noise coupling caused by switching digital parts to sensitive analog parts. As a consequence, there is a growing necessity to understand these problems. In order to avoid costly design iterations, noise coupling simulations should be initiated as early as possible in the design chain. The problems associated with on-chip noise coupling have been discovered in photon counting pixel detector readout systems, where the level of integration of analog and digital circuits is very high on a very small area, and it would appear that these problems will continue to increase for future system designs in this field. This paper deals with the functionality of utilizing behavioral level models for simulating noise coupling in these readout systems. The methods and models are described and simulation results are shown for a photon counting pixel detector readout system

  13. Determination of 241Pu by low level β-proportional counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical separation procedure is described which allows the direct determination of low 241 Pu activities in environmental samples with a windowless gas-flow proportional counter. While current separation schemes based on anion exchange yield counting sources of sufficient purity for subsequent α-spectrometry, for β-counting of 241 Pu additional purification steps are required. A combination of anion exchange from 9 mol/1 HCl, LaF 3 precipitation and TTA extraction was found to be suitable even for analysis of long-range Chernobyl fallout samples which contained interfering radionuclides with β-activities at least 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than usually encountered. No difference is detectable between the results of the present, direct procedure and the results of the conventional indirect method based on the build-up of 241 Am. Average 241 Pu/ 239+241 Pu ratios in air and deposition samples taken at Neuherberg near Munich were 70±6 with the present procedure and 66±9 from 241 Am build-up. (author) 29 refs.; 3 tabs

  14. The measurement of 222Rn in drinking water by low-level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; McKlveen, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 (Rn) has universally been found in well water. Non-stagnant ground water is collected at the well head while the well is pumping. The water is adjusted to a slow, non-aerated, steady flow through a clear tube, and a 500 ml glass bottle is filled. The sample is tightly capped after a high meniscus has developed. In the laboratory, standard 22 ml glass vials are filled with 10 ml of a toluene based mineral oil LS cocktail. Then, two 5 ml sample aliquots are pipetted into the vial. Vials are capped tightly, shaken vigorously, and placed in the liquid scintillation (LS) counter. Secular equilibrium is established in approximately 4 hours, after which samples are counted for 100 minutes each. The counting efficiency for Rn and progeny ranges between 315 to 345 percent depending on the chosen spectral window. The average background is about 6 cpm. A total of 28 wells were tested for Rn in the Carefree-Cave Creek, Arizone, USA area. The area's geometric average Rn concentration was found to be 46.5 Bq*1 -1 . The associated estimated lung dose is 0.51 mSv*y -1 . (author) 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  15. Experimental procedure for the determination of counting efficiency and sampling flow rate of a grab-sampling working level meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Bigu, J.

    1982-07-01

    The calibration procedures used for a working level meter (WLM) of the grab-sampling type are presented in detail. The WLM tested is a Pylon WL-1000C working level meter and it was calibrated for radon/thoron daughter counting efficiency (E), for sampling pump flow rate (Q) and other variables of interest. For the instrument calibrated at the Elliot Lake Laboratory, E was 0.22 +- 0.01 while Q was 4.50 +- 0.01 L/min

  16. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  17. Inferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens; Babiker, Abdel; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL. Rates and predictors of opportunistic disease...... or death (OD/death) and the relative risk (RR) in DC versus VS groups according to the latest CD4+ cell count and HIV RNA level are reported. RESULTS: During a mean of 16 months of follow-up, DC patients spent more time with a latest CD4+ cell count ...%) and with a latest HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL (71% vs. 28%) and had a higher rate of OD/death (3.4 vs. 1.3/100 person-years) than VS patients. For periods of follow- up with a CD4+ cell count

  18. A Novel Scheme to Minimize Hop Count for GAF in Wireless Sensor Networks: Two-Level GAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Soni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, geographic adaptive fidelity (GAF is one of the most popular energy-aware routing protocols. It conserves energy by identifying equivalence between sensors from a routing perspective and then turning off unnecessary sensors, while maintaining the connectivity of the network. Nevertheless, the traditional GAF still cannot reach the optimum energy usage since it needs more number of hops to transmit data packets to the sink. As a result, it also leads to higher packet delay. In this paper, we propose a modified version of GAF to minimize hop count for data routing, called two-level GAF (T-GAF. Furthermore, we use a generalized version of GAF called Diagonal-GAF (DGAF where two diagonal adjacent grids can also directly communicate. It has an advantage of less overhead of coordinator election based on the residual energy of sensors. Analysis and simulation results show significant improvements of the proposed work comparing to traditional GAF in the aspect of total hop count, energy consumption, total distance covered by the data packet before reaching the sink, and packet delay. As a result, compared to traditional GAF, it needs 40% to 47% less hop count and consumes 27% to 35% less energy to extend the network lifetime.

  19. CD68+ cell count, early evaluation with PET and plasma TARC levels predict response in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Annarosa; Annunziata, Salvatore; Cupelli, Elisa; Martini, Maurizio; Calcagni, Maria L; Rufini, Vittoria; Giachelia, Manuela; Bartolomei, Francesca; Galli, Eugenio; D'Alò, Francesco; Voso, Maria T; Leone, Giuseppe; Giordano, Alessandro; Larocca, Luigi M; Hohaus, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Early response evaluation with [(18) F]fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (interim PET) has been indicated as the strongest predictor for outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We studied the prognostic role of the number of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ cells and of the plasma levels of TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) in the context of interim PET in 102 patients with classical HL treated with Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine (ABVD). After 2 ABVD cycles, interim PET according to Deauville criteria was negative (score 0-3) in 85 patients and positive (score 4-5) in 15 patients (2 patients technically not evaluable). TARC levels were elevated in 89% of patients at diagnosis, and decreased after 2 cycles in 82% of patients. Persistently elevated TARC levels in 18% of patients were significantly associated with a positive PET result (P = 0.007). Strong predictors for progression-free survival (PFS) were a negative interim PET (85% vs. 28%, P evaluation had no prognostic role. In multivariate analysis, interim PET, CD68+ cell counts and presence of B-symptoms were independently associated with PFS. We conclude that although TARC levels are a biomarker for early response evaluation, they cannot substitute for interim PET as outcome predictor in HL. The evaluation of CD68 counts and B-symptoms at diagnosis may help to identify low-risk patients regardless positive interim PET. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Stefanie J M; Cardon, Greet M; De Clercq, Dirk L R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M M

    2006-08-01

    During recess, children can be active on a daily basis, making it an important school environmental factor for the promotion of health-related physical activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of providing game equipment on children's physical activity levels during morning recess and lunch break in elementary schools. Seven elementary schools were randomly assigned to the intervention group (four schools), including 122 children (75 boys, 47 girls, mean age: 10.8 +/- 0.6 years), and to the control group (three schools), including 113 children (46 boys, 67 girls, mean age: 10.9 +/- 0.7 years). Children's activity levels were measured before and three months after providing game equipment, using MTI accelerometers. During lunch break, children's moderate and vigorous physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group (moderate: from 38 to 50%, vigorous: from 10 to 11%), while it decreased in the control group (moderate: from 44 to 39%, vigorous: from 11 to 5%). At morning recess, providing game equipment was effective in increasing children's moderate physical activity (from 41 to 45%), while it decreased in the control group (from 41 to 34%). Providing game equipment during recess periods was found to be effective in increasing children's physical activity levels. This finding suggests that promoting physical activity through game equipment provision during recess periods can contribute to reach the daily activity levels recommended for good health.

  1. Ameliorative effects of curcumin on the spermatozoon tail length, count, motility and testosterone serum level in metronidazole-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalay-Doust, S; Noorafshan, A

    2011-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) is used as an antiparasitic drug. Curcumin is considered as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The ameliorative effects of curcumin on MTZ induced toxicity on mice spermatozoon tail length, count, motility and testosterone level were investigated. MTZ was administered in 500 and 165 (high and therapeutic doses) mg/kg/day, with and without curcumin (100 mg/kg/day). After 16 days the above parameters were assessed. Spermatozoon count and motility and serum testosterone level MTZ-treated (500 and 165) mice were reduced. In the mice treated with MTZ+curcumin these parameters decreased but in a lesser extent than the MTZ-treated animals. Mid-piece and total lengths of the spermatozoon tail in control animals were 31.6 ± 9.0 μm and 100.3 ± 15.0 μm and in the mice treated with high doses (500) of MTZ were reduced. The mid-piece and total spermatozoon tail length has been decreased in a lesser extent in the mice treated with high dose MTZ+curcumin than the mice treated with high dose MTZ (paverage increase in mid-piece and total lengths in comparison with the MTZ-treated (500) animals. Stereological estimation of the sperm tail length, including sampling of spermatozoa and also counting of the intersections of their tails with the stereological grids was a rapid technique and took only 5-10 minutes. It can be concluded that curcumin has an ameliorative effect on the spermatozoon, testosterone level and tail length in MTZ-treated mice.

  2. A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting to determine 63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celine; Colin, Christele; Garcia, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting was performed to measure 63 Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Three dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-based radiochemical procedures (solvent extraction, precipitation, extraction chromatography) were investigated, the solvent extraction method being considered as the reference method. Theoretical speciation calculations enabled to better understand the chemical reactions involved in the three protocols and to optimize them. In comparison to the method based on DMG precipitation, the method based on extraction chromatography allowed to achieve the best results in one single step in term of recovery yield and accuracy for various samples. (author)

  3. Providing Retraining and Advancement Training for Primary/Elementary School Teachers at the State Level in Great Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chychuk Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain and the USA the normative basis of primary/elementary school teachers’ qualification advancement is being actively developed, i. e. this issue is considered at the state level. For a long time the development of retraining and advancement training system for primary/elementary school teachers has been grounded on conceptual foundations of pedagogy that ensures the functionality of the mentioned system. The research results on conceptual foundations for forming an education sy...

  4. Low-level counting techniques in the underground laboratory `Felsenkeller` in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niese, S [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Low radioactivity measurements are characterized by low detection limits. They are mainly determined by the background. The contribution of cosmic rays may be reduced drastically by installation of measurement devices in an underground laboratory. In 1982 we installed a chamber with a shield of ultramafic rock for low-level measurements within a cave of an old brewery named `Felsenkeller`. In this laboratory we used low-level {gamma}-spectrometry for the measurement of neutron activated samples of semiconductor silicon (Niese (1986)), of cosmic induced radioactivity in meteorites, chemically separated long-lived nuclides in low-level wastes, contaminated materials and of environmental samples. (orig./DG)

  5. Correlation of the severity of atopic dermatitis with absolute eosinophil counts in peripheral blood and serum IgE levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .

  6. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low-cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled...... to switch with a three-level output voltage, where the middle neutral potential is uniquely tapped from the star-point of a wye-connected capacitive filter placed before the front-end diode rectifier for input current filtering. Through careful control, the resulting converter can produce the correct volt...

  7. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  9. Improvements on the determination of low level of tritium by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Diaz, M. F

    2002-01-01

    Tritium is an essential tool for hydrological investigations such as the identification of modern recharge in aquifers, the estimation of hydraulic parameters related to pollutant transfer and the determination of the turnover time of groundwater. natural tritium is produced in the upper atmosphere from the interaction of cosmic radiation with atmospheric gases. The nuclear tests carried out in the 1959s and 1960s into the atmosphere increased the natural levels of tritium. Since the maximum of bomb 3H reached in the early 1960s, the tritium content of precipitation has decreased, and during the last few years, has approached to natural levels. Therefore, the demand for analysis of tritium in a large number of water samples and of decreasing tritium concentration has stimulated the development of electrolysis as the most practical and economical tritium enrichment method. Nevertheless, in some ground water systems and in the oceans, the tritium concentration is near the detection limit. There is therefore an urgent need to achieve a higher level of sensitivity for measurements. (Author) 6 refs

  10. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Daedalus TMS Imagery Digital Counts in BIL Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Two flights of the Daedalus TMS instrument were made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 16-Sep-1994 and 17-Sep-1994.

  11. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  12. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  13. Morbidity at elementary school entry differs by sex and level of residence urbanization: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kuan-Chia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health is vital to a child's learning in school and success in life. Therefore, early physical examination, and follow-up if necessary, would bring parents' attention to their child's health and would likely improve outcomes. The purposes of this study are twofold: to assess the health status of first-graders and to examine the health status differences between sexes, levels of residence urbanization, and quantity of available medical resources. Methods This is a comparative descriptive study. Data from the 2002 Student Entry Physical Examination (SEPE and Student Medical History Inventory (SMHI were obtained from 203 public and private elementary schools in northern Taiwan where a population of 53,053 students was included. Frequencies, independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA along with Scheff's post hoc test, and Pearson's correlation were conducted using SPSS. Results This study showed that 13.7% of students had at least one diagnosed disease from the SMHI reported by parents. Moreover, the SEPE indicated that 79.5% students had at least one health concern. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among the first-graders (69.6%, 27.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Research results show that there were significant differences in the prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and obesity between different sexes and among levels of urbanization. However, the quantity of available medical resources made no significant difference. Conclusion Elementary school entry physical examination is an important way to detect students' health problems. It is suggested that school health interventions consider students' health profiles along with their sex and level of urbanization in planning. More research is needed to find the risk factors of the health problems. Additionally, the creation of a school health committee is suggested to implement and evaluate the entry health examination program.

  14. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of an Elementary Algebra Course on Success in a College-Level Liberal Arts Math Course and Persistence in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lori Ann

    2017-01-01

    Many students enter community college underprepared for college-level math and are placed into developmental elementary algebra without consideration if the algebra will provide a foundation for their needed college-level math course. Large percentages of those students are unable to succeed in the developmental course and, therefore, are unable…

  16. Prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about the greenhouse effect and their views on environmental education in university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KIŞOĞLU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership in the environmental foundations on their knowledge. We also aimed to learn their views on environmental education given in university. Twenty-six Likert-scale items developed by Cin (2006 were used for data collection. The scale was applied to 215prospective teachers from two universities in eastern Turkey. Results indicated that the majority of prospective teachers had misunderstandings about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect. According to the analysis of demographic variables, there were significant differences in participants’ mean scores based on gender and information sources. Additionally, prospective teachers found environmental education inadequate fordifferent reasons.

  17. Prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about the greenhouse effect and their views on environmental education in university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kışoğlu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership in the environmental foundations on their knowledge. We also aimed to learn their views on environmental education given in university. Twenty-six Likert-scale items developed by Cin (2006 were used for data collection. The scale was applied to 215 prospective teachers from two universities in eastern Turkey. Results indicated that the majority of prospective teachers had misunderstandings about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect. According to the analysis of demographic variables, there were significant differences in participants’ mean scores based on gender and information sources. Additionally, prospective teachers found environmental education inadequate for different reasons.

  18. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, cortisol, ADM, calcium, magnesium levels and platalet count in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Weihua; Huang Weiliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, cortisol, ADM, Ca ++ , Mg ++ levels and platalet count in neonates with HIE. Methods: Serum NSE, ADM(with RIA), cortisol(with CLIA), Ca ++ and Mg ++ (with biochemistry) levels and platalet count were determined in 52 neonates with HIE(mild, n=26, moderate, n=16, advanced, n=10) and 30 controls. Results: In the neonates with mild HIE, the serum NSE and ADM levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05) but cortisol levels were significantly higher (P ++ and Mg ++ levels as well as decrease of platelet count, might reflect the severity of the disease process of HIE in neonates and might be of prognostic importance. (authors)

  1. Elementary Environmental Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  2. Departmentalized, Self-Contained, or Somewhere in Between: Understanding Elementary Grade-Level Organizational Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Audra; Rakes, Lori; Arndt, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Recent trends indicate a move away from self-contained classrooms and toward content-focused departmentalization in elementary schools. This study takes a snapshot of the existing organizational structures used in elementary schools in one district and explores administrators' beliefs and practices regarding this phenomenon. Our findings suggest…

  3. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  4. Study on serum TNF-α level, B-cell count and T-cell subsets distribution in peripheral blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Buqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum TNF-α levels, B-cell count and T-cell subsets distribution in peripheral blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), B cell as well as T cell subsets distribution type (with monoclonal antibody technique) were examined in 37 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 controls. Results Serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 and CD 4 /CD 8 were obviously lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  5. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  6. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  7. The Level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the Teachers of the First Three Elementary Grades' Teachers at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi; Obaidat, Luai Taleb; Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the teachers of the first Three Elementary Grades at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District, and its relationship to the variables of gender, academic qualification, and years of experience. The sample of the study consisted of (264) male and female…

  8. The Effect of Target Language and Code-Switching on the Grammatical Performance and Perceptions of Elementary-Level College French Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viakinnou-Brinson, Lucie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.; Haight, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Grammar instruction is at the center of the target language (TL) and code-switching debate. Discussion revolves around whether grammar should be taught in the TL or using the TL and the native language (L1). This study investigated the effects of French-only grammar instruction and French/English grammar instruction on elementary-level students'…

  9. Successes and Challenges in Using Group-Level Incentives to Increase Children's Aggregate Fruit and Vegetable Consumption for Lunch in One Wisconsin Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchanachokchai, Sydney; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Existing research has investigated the effects of using individual incentives and positive reinforcements to influence children to eat more fruits and vegetables for lunch and snack during school. This study explored using group-level incentives to motivate children in a Wisconsin elementary school to eat more fruits and…

  10. An Investigation of Burn-Out Levels of Teachers Working in Elementary and Secondary Educational Institutions and Their Attitudes to Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the burn-out levels of teachers working in elementary and secondary educational institutions and their attitudes and beliefs regarding classroom management are investigated with respect to gender, job seniority, class size and the types of schools they have been working in. This is a survey method research and quantitative…

  11. Elementary migration around the Oklo nuclear reactors. Implications for high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menet-Dressayre, C.; Menager, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The study of Uranium and rare earths near the reactors has displayed the radioelements transfer in the reactors neighbourhood. The main implications for high level radioactive wastes disposal in geological formations are discussed. 12 refs

  12. Swimming level of pupils from elementary schools with own swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Zálupská, Klára

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming level of pupils from primary school with private swimming pool. Work objectives: The aim is to identify assess level of swimming of pupils from first to ninth grade of primary school with a private pool in Chomutov district using continuous swimming test with regular swimming lessons, which is started in the first grade and persists until the ninth grade. The condition was organizing a school swimming lessons once a week for 45 minutes in all grades. Methodology: Swimming leve...

  13. 'We want to learn English to communicate' : Can this be motivation for elementary level Japanese undergraduates?

    OpenAIRE

    Anne, Swan; 平安女学院大学現代文化学部現代福祉学科; Heian Jogakuin (St. Agnes') College,

    2002-01-01

    Getting low-level students to speak up in class is an ongoing issue for foreign teachers in Japan. Having recognised the unwillingness of Japanese students to contribute to class discussions, the foreign teacher has to find ways of overcoming this reluctance. This paper explores some of the background knowledge which foreign teachers need to be aware of if they are to contribute successfully to their students' language learning. It looks at part of a typical lesson with a group of low-level f...

  14. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  15. Level of Students' Achievement in Mathematics at the End of Elementary Education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…

  16. Bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count might be a significant predictor for the treatment outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sun; Gang, Ga Won; Lee, Se Ryun; Sung, Hwa Jung; Park, Young; Kim, Dae Sik; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo

    2015-10-01

    Developing a parameter to predict bone marrow invasion by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an important unmet medical need for treatment decisions. This study aimed to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level might be correlated with the risk of bone marrow involvement and the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed. Bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count was significantly associated with old age (≥ 65 years), poor performance score (≥ 2), high International prognosis index (≥ 3) and bone marrow invasion. The patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) showed a significantly lower complete response rate than the others. On Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels (≥ 655 pg/ml) or high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) demonstrated a significantly shorter overall survival and progression-free survival than the others. In the patients without bone marrow involvement, bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count had a significant relationship with overall survival and progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patients without

  17. Job Motivation Level for Elementary School Teachers Who Made Field Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif; Dalkiran, Merve

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the job motivation levels of primary school teachers who have made or have had to make field changes due to the new education system (4+4+4). The sample of the research consists of 512 teachers working in primary and secondary schools in Balikesir province in 2016-2017. The data needed for the research were…

  18. Elementary operators - still not elementary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of elementary operators, that is, finite sums of two-sided multiplications on a Banach algebra, have been studied under a vast variety of aspects by numerous authors. In this paper we review recent advances in a new direction that seems not to have been explored before: the question when an elementary operator is spectrally bounded or spectrally isometric. As with other investigations, a number of subtleties occur which show that elementary operators are still not elementary to handle.

  19. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  20. Variation in pre-treatment count lead time and its effect on baseline estimates of cage-level sea lice abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Boerlage, A S; Vanderstichel, R; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2016-11-01

    Treatment efficacy studies typically use pre-treatment sea lice abundance as the baseline. However, the pre-treatment counting window often varies from the day of treatment to several days before treatment. We assessed the effect of lead time on baseline estimates, using historical data (2010-14) from a sea lice data management programme (Fish-iTrends). Data were aggregated at the cage level for three life stages: (i) chalimus, (ii) pre-adult and adult male and (iii) adult female. Sea lice counts were log-transformed, and mean counts by lead time relative to treatment day were computed and compared separately for each life stage, using linear mixed models. There were 1,658 observations (treatment events) from 56 sites in 5 Bay Management Areas. Our study showed that lead time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was moderated by season. During the late summer and autumn periods, counting on the day of treatment gave significantly higher values than other days and would be a more appropriate baseline estimate, while during spring and early summer abundance estimates were comparable among counts within 5 days of treatment. A season-based lead time window may be most appropriate when estimating baseline sea lice levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Levels of Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Lexical Knowledge in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Motta Bandini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between oral language, phonological awareness, and working memory have been empirically demonstrated, however, phonological awareness encompasses different abilities, assessed at different levels. The present study investigated the possible associations between specific phonological awareness abilities and phonological working memory in first-grade students. In the initial phase ( n = 254, the study evaluated the abilities of phonological awareness and phonological working memory and found a high positive correlation between these abilities, thus confirming the findings of previous studies. The second phase ( n = 12 evaluated the vocabulary of individuals who, in the initial phase, showed low or high working memory and phonological awareness scores. Students with low working memory and low phonological awareness capacities had low scores in expressive language abilities, suggesting that phonological working memory may have direct effects on lexical knowledge. These results contribute to the understanding of the relationships investigated in this study and have important implications for planning teaching strategies.

  2. Olympiads for Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchner, George

    1985-01-01

    The goals and history of the Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary Schools are described. Teams, levels, and gender are discussed, as well as teacher training, administration, scoring, and awards. Sample problems are included. (MNS)

  3. Optimisation of liquid scintillation counting conditions to determine low activity levels of tritium and radiostrontium in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauret, Gemma; Mestres, J.S.; Ribera, Merce; Rajadel, Pilar (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Analitica)

    1990-08-01

    An optimisation of the counting conditions for the measurement of aqueous solutions of tritium or radiostrontium using Insta-Gel II as scintillator is presented. The variables optimised were the window, the ratio of mass of sample to mass of scintillator and the total volume of the counting mixture. An optimisation function which takes into account each of these variables, the background and also the efficiency is proposed. The conditions established allow the lowest possible detection limit to be reached. For tritium, this value was compared with that obtained when the standard method for water analysis was applied. (author).

  4. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  5. Sperm counts and serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels before and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in men with testicular germ cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelsen, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sperm counts were low (median, 15 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were moderately elevated (median, 31 IU/l) after unilateral orchiectomy and immediately before radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 34 patients with seminomas and 20 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. The scattered radiation (0.2 to 1.3 Gray [Gy]) reaching the remaining testicle during radiotherapy caused azoospermia in more than two thirds of the patients. A median of 540 days elapsed after the end of treatment before spermatozoa were again found in semen samples, while a median of 1250 days passed before the pretreatment sperm count was reached. One to 5 years after treatment, sperm counts were still low (median, 6 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and serum FSH was elevated (median, 61 IU/l). The adjuvant chemotherapy given to the 20 patients with nonseminomatous tumors did not appear to affect restitution appreciably

  6. Characteristics of Febrile Patients with Normal White Blood Cell Counts and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in an Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is one of the more common chief complaints of patients who visit emergency departments (ED. Many febrile patients have markedly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels and normal white blood cell (WBC counts. Most of these patients have bacterial infection and no previous underlying disease of impaired WBC functioning. We reviewed patients who visited our ED between November 2003 and July 2004. The WBC count and CRP level of patients over 18 years of age who visited the ED because of or with fever were recorded. Patients who had normal WBC count (4,000–10,000/mL and high CRP level (> 100 mg/L were included. The data, including gender, age and length of hospital stay, were reviewed. Underlying diseases, diagnosis of the febrile disease and final condition were recorded according to the chart. Within the study period, 54,078 patients visited our ED. Of 5,628 febrile adults, 214 (3.8% had elevated CRP level and normal WBC count. The major cause of febrility was infection (82.24%. Most of these patients were admitted (92.99%. There were 32 patients with malignant neoplasm, nine with liver cirrhosis, 66 with diabetes mellitus and 11 with uremia. There were no significant differences in age and gender between patients with and those without neoplasm. However, a higher inhospital mortality rate and other causes of febrility were noted in patients with neoplasm. It was not rare in febrile patients who visited the ED to have a high CRP level but normal WBC count. These patients did not necessarily have an underlying malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness. Factors other than malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness may be associated with the WBC response, and CRP may be a better indicator of infection under such conditions.

  7. [Full blood count reference values in children of 8 to 12 years old residing at 2,760 m above sea level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando García-Miranda, L; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-04-01

    To determine reference values for full blood count parameters in a population of children 8 to 12 years old, living at an altitude of 2760 m above sea level. Our sample consisted of 102 individuals on whom a full blood count was performed. The parameters included: total number of red blood cells, platelets, white cells, and a differential count (millions/μl and %) of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Additionally, we obtained values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric test, to divide the sample in quartiles and obtain the lower and upper limits for our intervals. Moreover, the values for the intervals obtained from this analysis were compared to intervals obtained estimating+- 2 standard deviations above and below from our mean values. Our results showed significant differences compared to normal interval values reported for the adult Mexican population in most of the parameters studied. The full blood count is an important laboratory test used routinely for the initial assessment of a patient. Values of full blood counts in healthy individuals vary according to gender, age and geographic location; therefore, each population should have its own reference values. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The relative prognostic value of plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts in advanced HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Katzenstein, T L; Ullum, H

    1998-01-01

    . RESULTS: The plasma HIV RNA (median 101410 copies/ml; range (range 200-7200000) and the CD4 lymphocyte count (median 250 cells x 10(6)/l; range 1-1247) were negatively correlated (Pearson r = -0.53; P

  9. [Cynomorium songaricum improves sperm count and motility and serum testosterone level and promotes proliferation of undifferentiated spermatogonia in oligoasthenospermia rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-Juan; Li, Zhen-Bei; Qi, Yu-Juan; Liu, Ying; Gu, Juan; Hu, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Wen-da; Hao, Lin; Hou, Jian-Quan; Han, Cong-Hui

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cynomorium songaricum (CS) decoction on the testis weight, serum testosterone level, and sperm parameters of rats with oligoasthenospermia (OAS), explore its action mechanism of improving the proliferation of undifferentiated spermatogonial cells, and provide some experimental and theoretical evidence for the development of new Chinese drugs for OAS. Thirty 8-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: blank control, model control, high-dose CS, medium-dose CS, and low-dose CS. OAS models were established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and, a month later, treated intragastrically with normal saline or CS at 2, 1, and 0.5 g per kg of the body weight per day, all for 4 weeks. Then, the testes of the animals were harvested to obtain the testicular weight, sperm concentration and motility, and the level of serum testosterone (T), detect the expressions of the transcription factor 1 (Oct4), Thy-1 cell surface antigen (Thy1), promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (C-kit) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the testis tissue of the rats in the low-dose CS group by real-time PCR. The testis weights in the blank control, model control, high-dose CS, medium-dose CS, and low-dose CS groups were (1.52±0.06), (1.55±0.06), (1.43±0.30), (1.35±0.40) and (1.34±0.04) g, respectively, not significantly different in the blank and model controls from those in the CS groups (P>0.05). The visual field sperm count per 10 HP was significantly increased in the high-, medium-, and low-dose CS groups (202±20, 196±5 and 216±25) as compared with the blank and model controls (200±15 and 134±30) (P0.05). The visual field sperm motility per 10 HP was markedly increased in the blank control ([52.1±5.5]%), model control ([38.1±2.5]%), high-dose CS ([59.1±9.5]%), medium-dose CS ([58.7±9.5]%), and low-dose CS ([49.6±1.0

  10. Increased tissue leptin hormone level and mast cell count in skin tags: A possible role of adipoimmune in the growth of benign skin growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (ST are common tumors. They mainly consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Decrease in endocrine, hormone level and other factors are thought to play a role in the evolution of ST. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a major regulatory hormone for food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin deficiency or resistance can result in profound obesity and diabetes in humans. A role of mast cell in the pathogenesis of ST is well recognized. Aims: To investigate the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of ST and to clarify whether there is a correlation between mast cell count and leptin level in ST. Methods: Forty-five skin biopsies were taken from 15 patients with ST. From each patient, a biopsy of a large ST (length >4 mm, a small ST (length <2 mm and a normal skin biopsy (as a control were taken. The samples were processed for leptin level. Skin biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue-uranyl nitrate metachromatic method for mast cell count was used. Results: There was a significant increased level of leptin in the ST compared to the normal skin. It was highly significant in small ST than in big ST (P = 0.0001 and it was highly significant in small and big ST compared to controls, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively. There was a significant increase in mast cell count in the ST, which did not correlate with the increased levels of leptin. Conclusion: This is the first report to demonstrate that tissue leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of ST. The significant increase in the levels of leptin and mast cell count in ST may indicate a possible role of adipoimmune in the benign skin growths.

  11. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  12. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice After a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the course of this study. The primary data sources were (a) assessment of the elementary teachers' NOS views before and after the graduate level NOS course using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire Version B (VNOS-B) (Lederman et al., 2002) coupled with interviews, and (b) a classroom observation and videotaped recording of the elementary teachers' best NOS lessons coupled with interview. We identified three distinct but related factors that mediated the translation of NOS views into classroom practice: the teachers' perspectives about the developmental appropriateness of the NOS aspect, the teachers' selection of target NOS aspects, and the relative importance placed by teachers on each NOS aspect.

  13. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  14. Standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations for low-level and environmental radionuclide mass spectrometry and atom counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; McCurdy, D.; Bell III, T.; Loesch, R.; Barss, N.M.; Morton, J.S.; Povinec, P.; Burns, K.; Henry, R.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the demand for higher sensitivity radionuclide measurements, atom counting technology will become an increasingly used modality in geo-and bio-studies, and process control operations. It is anticipated that requests, intercomparisons and performance evaluations services will surge in near future. In anticipation of such requests, the state-of-the-art needed to be assessed for proactive planning purposes. The results of a workshop focused on these issues indicated that there are several ongoing standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations thrusts which are expected to expand in the future. Furthermore, new projects were planned and the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (Public and Environmental Radiation Protection subcommittee) ws proposed as an information coordinator. (author)

  15. Plasma centrifugation does not influence thrombin-antithrombin and plasmin-antiplasmin levels but determines platelet microparticles count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Ewa; Gruszczyński, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Przemysław; Kowalik, Artur; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugation is an essential step for plasma preparation to remove residual elements in plasma, especially platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs). Our working hypothesis was that centrifugation as a preanalytical step may influence some coagulation parameters. Healthy young men were recruited (N=17). For centrifugation, two protocols were applied: (A) the first centrifugation at 2500xg for 15 min and (B) at 2500xg for 20 min at room temperature with a light brake. In protocol (A), the second centrifugation was carried out at 2500xg for 15 min, whereas in protocol (B), the second centrifugation involved a 10 min spin at 13,000 x g. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMPs were stained with CD41 antibody and annexin V, and analyzed by flow cytometry method. Procoagulant activity was assayed by the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram method as a slope of thrombin formation (CAT velocity). Median TAT and PAP concentrations did not differ between the centrifugation protocols. The high speed centrifugation reduced the median (IQR) PMP count in plasma from 1291 (841-1975) to 573 (391-1010) PMP/µL (P=0.001), and CAT velocity from 2.01 (1.31-2.88) to 0.97 (0.82-1.73) nM/min (P=0.049). Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed correlation between TAT and PMPs in the protocol A plasma which was (rho=0.52, PCentrifugation protocols do not influence the markers of plasminogen (PAP) and thrombin (TAT) generation but they do affect the PMP count and procoagulant activity.

  16. Program-level and contextual-level determinants of low-median CD4+ cell count in cohorts of persons initiating ART in eight sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Denis; Wu, Yingfeng; Elul, Batya; Hoos, David; El Sadr, Wafaa

    2011-07-31

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 cell counts much lower than those recommended in national guidelines. We examined program-level and contextual-level factors associated with low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART. Multilevel analysis of aggregate and program-level service delivery data. We examined data on 1690 cohorts of patients initiating ART during 2004-2008 in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Cohorts with median CD4 less than 111 cells/μl (the lowest quartile) were classified as having low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation. Cohort information was combined with time-updated program-level data and subnational contextual-level data, and analyzed using multilevel models. The 1690 cohorts had median CD4 cell count of 136 cells/μl and included 121,504 patients initiating ART at 267 clinics. Program-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included urban setting [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3], lower provider-to-patient ratio (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-4.0), no PMTCT program (AOR 3.6; 95% CI 1.0-12.8), outreach services for ART patients only vs. both pre-ART and ART patients (AOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.9), fewer vs. more adherence support services (AOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.5), and smaller cohort size (AOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.5). Contextual-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included initiating ART in areas where a lower proportion of the population heard of AIDS, tested for HIV recently, and a higher proportion believed 'limiting themselves to one HIV-uninfected sexual partner reduces HIV risk'. Determinants of CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART operate at multiple levels. Structural interventions targeting points upstream from ART initiation along the continuum from infection to diagnosis to care engagement are needed.

  17. Effect of a 21-day balneotherapy program on blood cell counts, ponogen levels, and blood biochemical indexes in servicemen in sub-health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased significantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program significantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition.

  18. Elementary Thermal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes...

  19. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Direct reconstruction of parametric images for brain PET with event-by-event motion correction: evaluation in two tracers across count levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Mary; Gallezot, Jean-Dominque; Yan, Jianhua; Carson, Richard E.

    2017-07-01

    Parametric images for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) are typically generated by an indirect method, i.e. reconstructing a time series of emission images, then fitting a kinetic model to each voxel time activity curve. Alternatively, ‘direct reconstruction’, incorporates the kinetic model into the reconstruction algorithm itself, directly producing parametric images from projection data. Direct reconstruction has been shown to achieve parametric images with lower standard error than the indirect method. Here, we present direct reconstruction for brain PET using event-by-event motion correction of list-mode data, applied to two tracers. Event-by-event motion correction was implemented for direct reconstruction in the Parametric Motion-compensation OSEM List-mode Algorithm for Resolution-recovery reconstruction. The direct implementation was tested on simulated and human datasets with tracers [11C]AFM (serotonin transporter) and [11C]UCB-J (synaptic density), which follow the 1-tissue compartment model. Rigid head motion was tracked with the Vicra system. Parametric images of K 1 and distribution volume (V T  =  K 1/k 2) were compared to those generated by the indirect method by regional coefficient of variation (CoV). Performance across count levels was assessed using sub-sampled datasets. For simulated and real datasets at high counts, the two methods estimated K 1 and V T with comparable accuracy. At lower count levels, the direct method was substantially more robust to outliers than the indirect method. Compared to the indirect method, direct reconstruction reduced regional K 1 CoV by 35-48% (simulated dataset), 39-43% ([11C]AFM dataset) and 30-36% ([11C]UCB-J dataset) across count levels (averaged over regions at matched iteration); V T CoV was reduced by 51-58%, 54-60% and 30-46%, respectively. Motion correction played an important role in the dataset with larger motion: correction increased regional V T by 51% on average in the [11C

  1. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... was sustained. There was no association between plasma viral load and the increase in naive CD4 + cell count. Importantly, baseline naive CD4 + cell count was significantly associated with the change in naive CD4 + cell count, suggesting that the naive cell count at baseline does influence the immunological...

  2. Manganese and lead levels in settled dust in elementary schools are correlated with biomarkers of exposure in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Juliana L G; Bandeira, Matheus J; Araújo, Cecília F S; Dos Santos, Nathália R; Anjos, Ana Laura S; Koin, Ng Lai; Pereira, Laiz C; Oliveira, Sérgio S P; Mergler, Donna; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2018-05-01

    Previously, we showed that manganese (Mn) levels in settled dust in elementary schools increased at a rate of 34.1% per km closer to a ferro-manganese alloy plant in the rainy season. In this study, we investigated how this environmental pollution indicator varied in the dry season and if there was an association with Mn biomarker levels in school-aged children. Dust samples were collected with passive samplers (disposable Petri dishes) placed in interior and exterior environments of 14 elementary schools. Occipital hair, toenails and blood samples were collected from 173 students aged 7-12 years from three of these schools, with varying distance from the industrial plant. Mn and lead (Pb) levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mn concentration geometric means (GM) in dust fall accumulation in interior environments of schools located at 2, 4, 6 and > 6 km-radii from the plant were 2212, 584, 625 and 224 μg Mn/m 2 /30 days, respectively. The modelled rate of change of dust Mn levels decreases by 59.8% for each km further from the plant. Pb levels in settled dust varied between 18 and 81 μg/m 2 /30 days with no association with distance from the plant. Blood lead levels median (range) were 1.2 μg/dL (0.2-15.6), of which 97.8% were children's age; and also with log MnTn (β = 2.31 × 10 -5 , p children exposure to Mn, independently of age, increases significantly with school proximity to the ferro-manganese alloy plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  4. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  5. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SWINE INFLUENZA A (H1N1- BASING ONEPIDEMIOLOGIC CLUE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, IMAGING FINDINGS, PERIPHERAL LEUCOCYTE COUNTS AND SPO2 LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao Kopparti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is a retrospective study of 22 cases of RT-PCR positive swine influenza spanning from 2014 to 20-09-2017 with main objective of early identification of influenza A H1N1 basing on epidemiological clue, clinical presentation, imaging findings and lab parameters as early antiviral therapy and judicious management of ARDS brings good outcome as per available literature. 1,2,3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 22 confirmed adult cases of swine influenza by throat/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR for H1N1 were studied in terms of clinical presentation, imaging findings, lab manifestations and SpO2 levels4 with particular emphasis on imaging findings. RESULTS 95% presented with symptoms of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI. Nearly, 80% of patients belonged to fourth to fifth decades. Leucocyte count was normal in 75% and 25% had low leucocyte count (<4000, SpO2 levels were normal in 25% and low in 75% cases. CXR was abnormal in 82% of cases of which 83% had mid/lower zone peripheral, patchy, pleural-based consolidations and 17% showed all lung zone opacities. HRCT chest done in 32% of cases showed similar features of chest xray findings with dominant mid/lower zone pleural-based consolidations to ground-glass haziness without pleural effusions and no mediastinal nodal involvement. CONCLUSION As intermittent outbreaks of swine influenza are still continuing in India with recent spurt in incidence in the months of April/May 2017, early diagnosis of H1N1 A is necessary for improved outcome. Early diagnosis is feasible by ILI presentation, normal or low leucocyte count, low SpO2 levels and characteristic radiologic findings of bilateral mid/lower zone pleural-based peripheral patchy opacities to consolidations. As this can be done at peripheral level, primary care physicians need to be sensitised in early diagnosis and treatment and prompt referral to higher centres when needed. Since, the present study is a retrospective one and of public health

  6. Early intraoperative blood collection does not affect complete blood counts, von Willebrand factor or factor VIII levels in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hanni; Mundell, Gillianne; Engen, Dale; Lillicrap, David; Silva, Mariana; James, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining blood from children for research studies can be difficult, particularly for controls. One solution is to obtain samples during elective surgery; however, consideration must be given to the potential effects of the timing of phlebotomy. Ten children were recruited and phlebotomy was carried out during a preoperative clinic visit and intraoperatively immediately after the induction of anesthesia but before the start of surgery. CBCs, VWF, and FVIII levels were measured at both time points and no significant differences were seen. This negative result may be beneficial to pediatric research by suggesting that early intraoperative blood collection for controls does not affect the results.

  7. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  8. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  9. Natural functional SNPs in miR-155 alter its expression level, blood cell counts and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus and humans (Homo sapiens. In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B. Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans.

  10. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-03-18

    The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos' overall presence on the platform. To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform's impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. YouTube is a major information-sharing platform for electronic cigarettes

  11. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  12. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  13. Models to estimate lactation curves of milk yield and somatic cell count in dairy cows at the herd level for the use in simulations and predictive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Græsbøll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC for fitting to sparse data to parameterise herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds.Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and SCC of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for SCC. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two or one-parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and SCC were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring.The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and SCC were 0.2-0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the SCC, and the total SCC was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per ml. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total SCC and the milk yield.The variation of lactation and SCC curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible estimate, but may more precisely predict persistence, and given the independence of parameters, these can be

  14. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  15. Categorical counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2010-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-level liquid scitillation counting for quantification of annual {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations in tree disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, B [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Schikowski, J [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Porstendoerfer, J [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung

    1997-03-01

    The government of Schleswig Holstein funded a study to perform the retrospective determination of airborne {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations. It is well known, that in tree rings most of the hydrogen and cabron is fixed after insertion in the matrix of wood and that the radionuclide concentration correlates with former airborne activity concentrations. For the retrospective study wood disks of trees located in the region near the nuclear power plant of Kruemmel and control disks of unsuspected areas were selected. The hydrogen of the wood was transformed to water and the carbon to carbondioxide by classical oxidation processes (combustion in a furnace). The contents of {sup 3}H in the water and {sup 14}C of the carbondioxide (solved in scintillation liquid) were determined by liquid scintillation counting, using a low-level counter (type Quantulus 1220, Wallac). (orig.)

  17. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level...... by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) over time by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. pHi values were initially 7 to 7.5 and decreased in both attached and planktonic L. monocytogenes cells during exposure to sublethal and lethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES. The response of the bacterial population...... was homogenous; hence, subpopulations were not detected. However, pregrowth with NaCl protected the planktonic bacterial cells during disinfection with Incimaxx (0.0015%) since pHi was higher (6 to 6.5) for the bacterial population pregrown with NaCl than for cells grown without NaCl (pHi 5 to 5.5) (P

  19. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  20. Elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)

  1. Making the case for STEM integration at the upper elementary level: A mixed methods exploration of opportunity to learn math and science, teachers' efficacy and students' attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brianna M.

    Student achievement in science and math has been linked to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth propagating the belief that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is an important factor in economic prosperity. However, The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), favors math over science, positioning the subjects as competitors rather than collaborators. Additionally, NCLB focuses almost exclusively on the cognitive outcome of students' achievement with the affective outcome of students' attitudes being nearly ignored. Positive attitudes toward science and math early on are essential for subsequent and cumulative decisions students make in taking courses, choosing majors, and pursuing careers. Positioning students' attitudes as a desirable educational outcome comparable to students' achievement is an emerging goal in the literature. Using the case of one school district in south-central Pennsylvania with three elementary schools, 15 upper elementary teachers, and 361 students, the purpose of this study was to better understand influences on upper elementary students' attitudes toward STEM (SA) subjects and careers. The study aimed to explore two influences on SA, opportunity to learn (OTL) and teacher's efficacy (TE), in the comparative contexts of math and science. The studied employed a mixed methods convergent design in which five data sets from four sources were collected over three phases to triangulate three constructs: OTL, TE, and SA. The goal of the study was to offer recommendations to the case school district for enhancing OTL, TE, and thus SA. Findings regarding OTL revealed that the opportunity to learn science was lower than math. Finding regarding TE revealed that outcome expectancy was lower than personal teaching efficacy in both science and math; and, teachers had low STEM career awareness, STEM integration, and technology use. Findings regarding SA revealed a lower perceived usefulness of science compared to math

  2. An investigation of the trade-off between the count level and image quality in myocardial perfusion SPECT using simulated images: the effects of statistical noise and object variability on defect detectability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xin; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    Quantum noise as well as anatomic and uptake variability in patient populations limits observer performance on a defect detection task in myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relative importance of these two effects by varying acquisition time, which determines the count level, and assessing the change in performance on a myocardial perfusion (MP) defect detection task using both mathematical and human observers. We generated ten sets of projections of a simulated patient population with count levels ranging from 1/128 to around 15 times a typical clinical count level to simulate different levels of quantum noise. For the simulated population we modeled variations in patient, heart and defect size, heart orientation and shape, defect location, organ uptake ratio, etc. The projection data were reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with no compensation or with attenuation, detector response and scatter compensation (ADS). The images were then post-filtered and reoriented to generate short-axis slices. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was applied to the short-axis images, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was computed. For each noise level and reconstruction method, we optimized the number of iterations and cutoff frequencies of the Butterworth filter to maximize the AUC. Using the images obtained with the optimal iteration and cutoff frequency and ADS compensation, we performed human observer studies for four count levels to validate the CHO results. Both CHO and human observer studies demonstrated that observer performance was dependent on the relative magnitude of the quantum noise and the patient variation. When the count level was high, the patient variation dominated, and the AUC increased very slowly with changes in the count level for the same level of anatomic variability. When the count level was low, however, quantum noise dominated, and changes in the count level

  3. Copy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Lee R.

    1970-01-01

    The level of difficulty of straight copy, which is used to measure typewriting speed, is influenced by syllable intensity (the average number of syllables per word), stroke intensity (average number of strokes per word), and high-frequency words. (CH)

  4. Living in Space. Book II. Levels D, E, F for Grades 4, 5, 6. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students which deal with space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 4 to 6 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  5. Living in Space. Book 1. Levels A, B, C for Grades 1, 2, 3. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students that relate to space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 1 to 3 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  6. Elementary metallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Sayyed M.

    1992-01-01

    Materials and Processes 1 (MET 141) is offered to freshmen by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Purdue University. The goal of MET 141 is to broaden the technical background of students who have not had any college science courses. Hence, applied physics, chemistry, and mathematics are included and quantitative problem solving is involved. In the elementary metallography experiment of this course, the objectives are: (1) introduce the vocabulary and establish outlook; (2) make qualitative observations and quantitative measurements; (3) demonstrate the proper use of equipment; and (4) review basic mathematics and science.

  7. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  8. Elementary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A

    1966-01-01

    Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

  9. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  10. Diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin levels in children with meningitis: a comparison with blood leukocyte count and C-reactive protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, K.A.; Wahab, A.A.A.; Ibrahim, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the level of serum procalcitonin, blood leukocyte count (TLC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children with bacterial and non bacterial meningitis and document their efficacy in differential diagnosis. Also described are procalcitonin levels variation during treatment. Methods: From March 2005 to February 2008, we evaluated 38 clinically suspected meningitis patients in the paediatric departments, Al-Jedaany Hospital, Jeddah, KSA, for Serum procalcitonin, CRP, TLC and Lumbar punctures and CSF analysis. Patients were classified into bacterial meningitis group I (18) and non bacterial meningitis group II (20). Results: Serum PCT levels were significantly higher in bacterial meningitis (BM) 9 mean 4.8 +- 3.85 ng/ml (2.9-11.6)) compared with non bacterial meningitis (NBM) (mean 0.38 +- 0.25 ng/ml(0.31-0.61)) P< 0.001). Mean of all CSF parameters, TLC (15,000 +- 2,900 cell/ml(BM) and 9,500 +-1,105 cell/ml(NBM))and CRP (20 +- 6.8 mg/l (BM) and 12.5 +-12.0 mg/l(NBM))showed a zone of overlapping between the two groups. There is a positive correlation between serum PCT, TLC and CRP in bacterial and non bacterial meningitis cases but this relation becomes highly significant with bacterial meningitis positive group. Day 3 and day 6 treatment serum PCT was less than on admission levels (P<0.001). Conclusion: PCT can be used in the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and may be a useful adjunct in differentiating bacterial and non bacterial meningitis than CRP or TLC and diminishing the value of lumbar puncture performed 48-72 hours after admission to assess treatment efficacy. (author)

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels, B lymphocyte count and T subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuntao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels B lymphocytes count and T lyonphocyte subsets distribation type after treatment in patients with vitiligo. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA), SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels, B lymphocytes count and T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were examined in 40 patients with vitiligo both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum SIL-2R, TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2, CD3, CD4 levels CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower(P<0.01). After treatment for 6 months, the data were greatly corrected but remanied significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Vitiligo is a kind of auto-immune diseases with abnormal immuno-regulation. (authors)

  12. An Investigation on Elementary School Students' Level of Math Learning, Using Math E-Books (A Case Study: Pishtazan Computer Primary School, 4th Zone of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Naseri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the focus on technology exists in all schools and classes, teachers need to know how to apply it in their teaching practices. The use of ICT in education is an undeniable necessity. Since the use of information and communication technology can smooth the paths of teaching-learning process for students, the researchers in this study tried to apply one of the information and communication technology tools, called electronic books (E-books in teaching math. The aim of this study is to examine elementary school students' level of math learning, using math e-books with the focus on teaching multiplication (Case Study: Pishtazan computer primary school, the 4th zone of Tehran. Using a quasi-experimental study, 61 third grade students from two primary schools for girls located in the 4th education zone of Tehran were selected. Math tests were used to collect data. Using T-test for independent samples, the results showed that level of math learning was higher in the students who have been trained with the help of e-book, compared to the students who have been trained through traditional teaching method.

  13. A Correlation of the Platelet Count with D-Dimer Levels as an Indicator for Component Therapy in Children with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Arthi; Sunil Kumar, B M; Rau, Aarathi; Rau, A T K

    2017-06-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) may evolve into two life threatening forms-Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). DHF is associated with increased vascular permeability and plasma leakage causing thrombocytopenia and loss of clotting factors into the third space and may result in bleeding initially due to thrombocytopenia and later due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), often as a terminal event. Prompt recognition and treatment of minor bleeds in DF children with incipient DIC with component therapy may be associated with improved survival while failure to do so is usually catastrophic. A sensitive marker for early DIC is the presence of D-dimer (DD) in the blood. To determine the correlation between the severity of thrombocytopenia and early DIC in children with DHF. The impact of additional factors like age and shock will also be evaluated. Case control prospective study of 60 DHF sero -positive children (1-15 years) with thrombocytopenia. After clinical evaluation they were divided into two equal groups based on the degree of thrombocytopenia (more than/less than 30,000/mm 3 ). PT/APTT and DD levels were estimated in all children of both groups and statistical correlation was done. There was no significant difference in the DD levels between the two groups. However, children in either group, presenting with clinical features of shock and thrombocytopenia had significantly higher DD levels. Empirical component therapy in children with DHF based purely on their low platelet counts may not be justified. However, in DHF children with thrombocytopenia and features of shock, aggressive component therapy may prevent subsequent bleeding and may be justified.

  14. Survey on the presence of 90Sr in milk samples by a validated ultra low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Oro D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is one of the most biologically hazardous radionuclides produced in nuclear fission processes and decays emitting high-energy beta particles turning 90Y. 90Sr is transferred from soil-plant to cow’s milk and then to humans if it is introduced into the environment. Radiostrontium is chemically similar to calcium entering the human body through several food chains and depositing in bone and blood-forming tissue (bone marrow. Among main foodstuffs assumed in human diet, milk is considered of special interest for radiostrontium determination, especially in emergency situations, because the consumption of contaminated milk is the main source of internal radiation exposure, particularly for infants. In this work an analytical method for the determination of radiostrontium in milk was developed and validated in order to determine low activity levels by liquid scintillation counting (LSC after achieving 90Y secular equilibrium condition. The analytical procedure was applied both in surveillance and routine programmes to detect radiocontamination in cow’s, goat and sheep milk samples.

  15. Radiostrontium accumulation in animal bones: development of a radiochemical method by ultra low-level liquid scintillation counting for its quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; Dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2018-03-31

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a fission product, resulting from the use of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and weapons. Consequently, it may be found in the environment as a consequence of nuclear fallouts, nuclear weapon testing, and not correct waste management. When present in the environment, strontium-90 may be taken into animal body by drinking water, eating food, or breathing air. The primary health effects are bone tumors and tumors of the blood-cell forming organs, due to beta particles emitted by both 90Sr and yttrium-90 (90Y). Moreover, another health concern is represented by inhibition of calcification and bone deformities in animals. Actually, radiometric methods for the determination of 90Sr in animal bones are lacking. This article describers a radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr in animal bones, by ultra low-level liquid scintillation counting. The method precision and trueness have been demonstrated through validation tests (CV% = 12.4%; mean recovery = 98.4%). Detection limit and decision threshold corresponding to 8 and 3 mBecquerel (Bq) kg-1, respectively, represent another strong point of this analytical procedure. This new radiochemical method permits the selective extraction of 90Sr, without interferences, and it is suitable for radiocontamination surveillance programs, and it is also an improvement with respect to food safety controls.

  16. Beta emitter radionuclides (90Sr contamination in animal feed: validation and application of a radiochemical method by ultra low level liquid scintillation counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iammarino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq kg–1. All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1. In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1, followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1 and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1. In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B lymphocyte count and T lymphocyte subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B cell count and T subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), peripheral B cell count as well as T subsets (with monoclonal technique) were examined in 34 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome and 35 controls. Results: The serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 , CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy induced hY- pertension syndrome is a kind of autoimmune diseases with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  18. Elementary Thermal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes......-Cummings interaction in rotating wave approximation and draw a connection to standard descriptions of thermalisation. We then prove that elementary thermal operations present tighter constraints on the allowed transformations than thermal operations. Mathematically, this illustrates the failure at finite temperature...... to do so, including necessary and sufficient conditions for a given change of the population to be possible. As an example, we describe the resource theory of the Jaynes-Cummings model. Finally, we initiate an investigation into how our resource theories can be applied to Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling...

  19. Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  1. Development of elementary models of comprehensive safety assessment model for shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wakabayashi, Noriaki

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation model for the prediction of leaching of radionuclides from a concrete wall which lines the inside of a steel drum (concrete lined drum) has been developed to evaluate the source term of a shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The leaching system to be evaluated here consists of a waste as an infinite source, in which radionuclides uniformly disperse on the macroscopic scale regardless of the time, an infinite liquid phase with a uniform composition, and a concrete wall which contacts with both the liquid phase and the waste. The mass-transport equation derived from the mass balance in the system considered here was solved under the initial and boundary conditions assumed, and the rate equation was derived to describe the leaching of radionuclides from the concrete wall. Numerical analyses have been carried out by using the analysis code (WPLATE) which was developed based on the rate equation, and the effect of the wall on the reduction in the amounts of radionuclides leached has been clarified in relation to the thickness of the wall. (author)

  2. Using seismology to raise science awareness in kindergarten and elementary levels, with the help of high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.; Moreira, G.; Afonso, I. P.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Melo, M. O.; Neto, R. P.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Hartmann, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching students, aged from 4 up to 18 years old, is a challenging task. It continuously implies new strategies and new subjects adapted to all of them. This is even more evident, when we have to teach natural-hazards scientific aspects and safe attitudes toward risk. We often see that most of the high-school students (16 -18 years old) are not motivated for extra-curricular activities implying science and/or behaviours changes. But, they have a very positive response when we give them some responsibility. On top of that, we also realised that young children are quite receptive to the involvement of older students in the school environment Taking this into consideration, our project use the k12 students to prepare scientific activities and subjects, based in questions, which they need to answer themselves. The students need to answer those questions and, only then, adapt and teach the right answers to the different school-levels. With this approach, we challenged the students to solve three questions: How to use a SEP seismometer at school, and its data? How to set up a shaking table? How to introduce waves and vibrations contents to all ages of students? During the project they developed many science skills, and worked in straight cooperation with teachers, the parents association and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz. As a result, it was possible to reach all school students with the help of the k-12 ones. This is an outcome of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  3. Two reports: (i) Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission. (ii) Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Isaev, S.G.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Pshakin, G.M.

    1998-10-01

    The document includes the following two reports: 'Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission' and 'Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting. A separate abstract was prepared for each report

  4. High levels of viral suppression among East African HIV-infected women and men in serodiscordant partnerships initiating antiretroviral therapy with high CD4 counts and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujugira, Andrew; Baeten, Jared; Kidoguchi, Lara; Haberer, Jessica; Celum, Connie; Donnell, Deborah; Ngure, Kenneth; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mugo, Nelly; Asiimwe, Stephen; Odoyo, Josephine; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Bulya, Nulu; Katabira, Elly; Heffron, Renee

    2017-09-13

    People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts. We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Differences in viral suppression (HIV RNA 500 cells/mm3) and during pregnancy were estimated using Poisson regression. Of 865 HIV-infected participants retained after becoming eligible for ART during study follow-up, 95% initiated ART. Viral suppression 24-months after ART initiation was high overall (97%), and comparable among those initiating ART at CD4 counts >500, 351-500 and ≤350 cells/mm3 (96% vs 97% vs 97%; relative risk [RR] 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93-1.03 for CD4 >500 vs <350 and RR 0.99; 95% CI: (0.93-1.06) for CD4 351-500 vs ≤350). Viral suppression was as likely among women initiating ART primarily to prevent perinatal transmission as ART initiation for other reasons (p=0.9 at 6 months and p=0.5 at 12 months). Nearly all HIV-infected partners initiating ART were virally suppressed by 24 months, irrespective of CD4 count or pregnancy status. These findings suggest that people initiating ART at high CD4 counts or due to pregnancy can adhere to ART as well as those starting treatment with symptomatic HIV disease or low CD4 counts.

  5. Dataset of longitudinal analysis of tear cytokine levels, CD4, CD8 counts and HIV viral load in dry eye patients with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Balne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article shows the longitudinal analysis of tear fluid cytokine profiles, blood CD4 and CD8 counts and HIV viral load in 34 dry eye patients with HIV infection during the HAART therapy. Clinical samples were collected from HIV patients with dry eye disease at the time of presentation to the clinic (visit 1, three months (visit 2 and 6 months (visit 3 after the presentation. At each time point tear samples were evaluated for 41 cytokines using Luminex bead based multiplex assay and blood samples were tested for HIV viral load and CD4 and CD8 counts.

  6. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  7. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows

  8. Elementary School Organization: Self-Contained and Departmentalized Classroom Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    Surveys were conducted to investigate contemporary thought regarding organizational practices at the elementary level, with particular attention to identifying the extent to which departmentalization was supported by research and actually employed in 24 elementary schools in the Midwest and in 41 Des Moines elementary schools. Four committees…

  9. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  10. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241 Am decays by alpha emission to 237 Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237 Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241 Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 131 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  12. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  13. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  14. Polycystic ovarian morphology and the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: redefining threshold levels for follicle count and serum anti-Müllerian hormone using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie Fong, S; Laven, J S E; Duhamel, A; Dewailly, D

    2017-08-01

    ' clusters had their similarly aged counterpart of 'non-PCOM' clusters. Likewise, two clusters comprised women younger than 30 years, with (n = 28, 'PCOM regularly cycling women') or without (n = 118, 'normal regularly cycling women') features of PCOM (increased FNPO and/or serum AMH). The two other clusters in older women could be labelled 'normal regularly cycling women' or 'PCOM regularly cycling women' (n = 100 and 51, respectively). The prevalence of PCOM was significantly greater in old than in young regularly cycling women controls. In the young population, after exclusion of the 'PCOM regularly cycling women', the diagnostic performance of AMH, expressed by area under the curve (AUC) (AUC = 0.903; CI (0.876-0.930)) to differentiate PCOS women from normal regularly cycling women was similar to that using the FNPO (AUC = 0.915, CI (0.891-0.940)) (P = 0.25), confirming results from earlier studies. In the old population, the diagnostic performance of AMH was greater than that of FNPO (AUCs = 0.948 (0.927-0.970) vs 0.874 (0.836-0.912), respectively, P = 0.00035). Cut-off levels of AMH and antral follicle count distinguishing regularly cycling non-PCOM women from PCOS women were higher in young women than in older women. Data of normal women were obtained from earlier studies, aiming to measure normal endocrine values. Apparently, the strong effect of age in cluster analysis revealed a dichotomy in the age distribution among the cohort of regularly cycling women included. This was involuntary since in none of the original studies, eligibility was limited by age and there was considerable overlap in age ranges of the cohorts. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed using a 6.5-8 mHz probe and our data confirm that this threshold level for FNPO is still valid if using such probe frequencies, although the use of devices with a maximum frequency lower than 8 mHz has become obsolete. Obviously, newer ultrasound scanner using higher transducer frequency will facilitate the

  15. Does the thought count? Gratitude understanding in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelker, Katelyn E; Kuebli, Janet E

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude, although studied throughout history by scholars from diverse backgrounds, has been largely understudied in psychology until recently. The psychological literature on gratitude is expanding, but it is still particularly limited with children. The authors compared younger (first- and second-grade students; n = 30) and older (fourth- and fifth-grade students; n = 27) children on gratitude-related ratings surrounding gift giving vignettes that included either a desirable (e.g., a birthday cupcake) or an undesirable (e.g., a melted ice cream cone) gift. Empathy was also measured. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns of predictors for desirable and undesirable gifts. For desirable gifts, liking significantly predicted gratitude and liking predicted effort. For undesirable gifts, older children and those who perceived the target as liking the gift more predicted higher gratitude ratings. Finally, higher gratitude rating predicted both higher ratings of giver effort (i.e., intention or how hard did the giver try to give a nice gift) and liking of the undesirable gifts. More research on children's understanding of gratitude is needed but these results suggest that school-aged children take into account givers' intentions and thoughts behind gift giving in determining feelings of gratitude. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

  16. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  18. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Association of Low B Cell Count and IgG Levels With Infection, and Poor Vaccine Response With All-Cause Mortality in an Immunosuppressed Vasculitis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Morgan, Matthew; Richter, Alex; Al-Ali, Samer; Flint, Julia; Yiannakis, Constantina; Drayson, Mark; Goldblatt, David; Harper, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Patients with systemic vasculitis (SV) have an increased risk of all-cause mortality, often due to infection, compared to the healthy population. We investigated whether humoral response to vaccination and biomarkers of immune dysfunction were associated with infection and death. Patients with SV in remission were vaccinated with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine and meningococcal polysaccharide groups A, C, Y, and W135 vaccines. Total IgG and antibody titers against specific antigens and lymphocyte subset analysis were performed before vaccination. Postvaccination antibody titers were measured at 4 weeks and 2 years, from which an antibody response score was calculated. Infections and death following vaccination were collected prospectively following vaccination. A total of 92 patients were safely vaccinated with no increase in disease relapse, median followup 4.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-4.8 years). Eighteen patients died at a median of 2 years and the overall infection rate was 0.4 (IQR 0.2-1.3) infections/patient/year. Reduced serum IgG, B cell count, and CD4+ cell counts predicted poor vaccine response and infection but not death. The response rates to individual vaccine antigens was highly variable, with a median response rate of 46% (IQR 39-58%) of patients responding to each individual antigen. Vaccine response, age, and reduced renal function were independent predictors of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis. Total IgG and B cell counts predict infection and response to vaccination. Vaccination in patients with SV in remission is safe and the response predicts all-cause mortality. Vaccine response is a surrogate marker of immune system health. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  1. Let's Make Data Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, A. E.; Abrams, S.; Chodacki, J.; Cruse, P.; Fenner, M.; Jones, M. B.; Lowenberg, D.; Rueda, L.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of research has traditionally been measured by citations to journal publications and used extensively for evaluation and assessment in academia, but this process misses the impact and reach of data and software as first-class scientific products. For traditional publications, Article-Level Metrics (ALM) capture the multitude of ways in which research is disseminated and used, such as references and citations within social media and other journal articles. Here we present on the extension of usage and citation metrics collection to include other artifacts of research, namely datasets. The Make Data Count (MDC) project will enable measuring the impact of research data in a manner similar to what is currently done with publications. Data-level metrics (DLM) are a multidimensional suite of indicators measuring the broad reach and use of data as legitimate research outputs. By making data metrics openly available for reuse in a number of different ways, the MDC project represents an important first step on the path towards the full integration of data metrics into the research data management ecosystem. By assuring researchers that their contributions to scholarly progress represented by data corpora are acknowledged, data level metrics provide a foundation for streamlining the advancement of knowledge by actively promoting desirable best practices regarding research data management, publication, and sharing.

  2. Elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-12-01

    The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

  3. Dynamic model of elementary particles and the nature of mass and “electric” charge

    OpenAIRE

    Kreidik, Leonid G.; Institute of Mathematics & Physics, UTA; Shpenkov, George P.; Institute of Mathematics & Physics, UTA

    2009-01-01

    The physical model of elementary particles, based on the wave features of their behavior, is described here. Elementary particles are regarded as elementary dynamical structures of the microworld, interrelated with all levels of the Universe, i.e., inseparable from the structure of the Universe as a whole. Between any elementary particles and the ambient field of matter-space-time, as well as between elementary particles themselves, there exists an interchange of matter-space-time occurring b...

  4. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  5. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  7. Counting It Twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattschneider, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Provided are examples from many domains of mathematics that illustrate the Fubini Principle in its discrete version: the value of a summation over a rectangular array is independent of the order of summation. Included are: counting using partitions as in proof by pictures, combinatorial arguments, indirect counting as in the inclusion-exclusion…

  8. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  9. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis

  10. Antimüllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count as prognostic indicators in a personalized prediction model of live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Fleming, Richard; Gaudoin, Marco; Choi, Bokyung; Santo-Domingo, Kenny; Yao, Mylene

    2015-08-01

    To compare antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) separately and in combination with clinical characteristics for the prediction of live birth after controlled ovarian stimulation. Retrospective development and temporal external validation of prediction model. Outpatient IVF clinic. We applied the boosted tree method to develop three prediction models incorporating clinical characteristics plus AMH or AFC or the combination on 2,124 linked IVF cycles from 2006 to 2010 and temporally externally validated predicted live-birth probabilities with an independent data set comprising 1,121 cycles from 2011 to 2012. None. Predictive power (posterior log of odds ratio compared to age, or PLORA), reclassification, receiver operator characteristic analysis, calibration, dynamic range. Predictive power, was highest for the AMH model (PLORA = 29.1), followed by the AMH-AFC model (PLORA = 28.3) and AFC model (PLORA = 22.5). The prediction errors were 1% to models, except for the predicted live-birth probabilities of model, where the prediction error was 8%. The improvement in predictive power was highest for the AMH model: 76.2% improvement over age alone relative to 59% improvement for AFC and 73.3% for the combined model. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the AMH and the combined model had comparable discrimination (area under the curve = 0.716) and similar prediction error for high and low strata of live-birth prediction, with an improvement of 6.3% over age alone. The validated prediction model confirmed that AMH when combined with clinical characteristics can accurately identify the likelihood of live birth with a low prediction error. AFC provided no added predictive value beyond AMH. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Departmentalize Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Jarman, Delbert

    2004-01-01

    In elementary schools today, most students receive their education in a single classroom from one teacher who is responsible for teaching language arts, social studies, math, and science. The self-contained classroom organization is predicated on the assumption that an elementary school teacher is a Jack (or Jill)-of-all-trades who is equally…

  12. The effect of volume and quenching on estimation of counting efficiencies in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, H.W.; Parkhurst, A.M.; Tam, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of volume on the liquid scintillation counting performance of 14 C-samples has been investigated. A decrease in counting efficiency was observed for samples with volumes below about 6 ml and those above about 18 ml when unquenched samples were assayed. Two quench-correction methods, sample channels ratio and external standard channels ratio, and three different liquid scintillation counters, were used in an investigation to determine the magnitude of the error in predicting counting efficiencies when small volume samples (2 ml) with different levels of quenching were assayed. The 2 ml samples exhibited slightly greater standard deviations of the difference between predicted and determined counting efficiencies than did 15 ml samples. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the errors indicate that if the sample channels ratio method of quench correction is employed, 2 ml samples may be counted in conventional counting vials with little loss in counting precision. (author)

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  15. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  16. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  17. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  18. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  1. The Kruskal Count

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simula...

  2. Elementary Particles A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FranciscoMartnezFlores.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is shown the inexistence of neutrinos to define precisely the concept of relativistics mass under this scheme to elementarys particles as electron and interactions particles like photons correspond an electromagnetic and virtual mass. Nucleons protons and neutrons have real or inertial mass for being composite particles since inertia needs structure it is provided by an interactive network originated by strong and weak forces. This mass is building up atoms and all the material world under Classical Physics and Chemistrys laws.These actual masses may be considered as electromagnetic and virtual one thanks to its charge in order to establish the high energies level needed to obtain all particles physics elementary or not which are governed by the laws of Quantum Physics. With all this one may set up amore reasonable and understandable new Standard Model which being projected into Cosmological Model can get rid of some inconsistencies and concepts difficult to be admitted.

  3. Application of nuclear activation analysis (NAA) and low-level gamma counting to determine the radionuclide and trace element pollutant releases from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduong, P.; Thanh, V.T.; Dien, P.Q.; Binh, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Results are reported of the application of NAA using research reactors TRIGA II in Dalat, Vietnam, and Vienna, Austria (with pyrolysis separation for Hg, Se, and As before irradiation), to determine As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Co, Pb, Sn and Zn. Low-level gamma counting was used to measure Ra-226, Th-228 and K-40, released from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam. Results showed that: (1) the content of the air pollutants in the vicinity of the operating power plants (in 1991, the Phalai plant produced 1700 million kWh, and the Ninhbinh plant 100 million kWh) depends on the coal combustion which is used for their applied operation technology, both plants used Quangninh anthracite as fuel. The content of trace elements pollutants (TEP) in the environment of the Ninhbinh plant is higher than in the Phalai plant. (2) In the vicinity of both plants, rain water is highly polluted by trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cd, Se, U, Th and sulphuric acid. Therefore, this kind of water is not acceptable for human consumption. (3) The algae growing in the waterfield in the vicinity of the power plants can be used to monitor TEP. Four NAA methods, in combination with low-level gamma counting and AAS, can be successfully used to monitor TEP released from power plants

  4. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  5. Upper Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Spelling Instruction: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted regarding spelling instruction at the early childhood and lower elementary levels, but not at the upper elementary level. This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of upper elementary teachers to gain a better understanding of how they instruct spelling and their related…

  6. Design, set up and optimization of a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer with an active shielding for a low level counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.; Travesi, A.; Palomares, J.; Vidal-Quadras, A.

    1988-01-01

    The detector system is based on a HpGe detector with an efficiency of 27%, surrounded by a NaI(Tl) crystal of 11.03 cm 3 and the electronic chain with a coincidence unit. The peak to Compton edge ratio is about 550, with an increasement factor of 7 related to the normal spectrum, and the maximum Compton continuum suppression is about 6.4 for a Cs-137 source. The background levels reached are presented and are comparable to others. (Author)

  7. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  8. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  9. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  10. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  11. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  12. Time series analysis based on two-part models for excessive zero count data to detect farm-level outbreaks of swine echinococcosis during meat inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasumoto; Makita, Kohei

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a parasite that causes highly pathogenic zoonoses and is maintained in foxes and rodents on Hokkaido Island, Japan. Detection of E. multilocularis infections in swine is epidemiologically important. In Hokkaido, administrative information is provided to swine producers based on the results of meat inspections. However, as the current criteria for providing administrative information often results in delays in providing information to producers, novel criteria are needed. Time series models were developed to monitor autocorrelations between data and lags using data collected from 84 producers at the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center between April 2003 and November 2015. The two criteria were quantitatively compared using the sign test for the ability to rapidly detect farm-level outbreaks. Overall, the time series models based on an autoexponentially regressed zero-inflated negative binomial distribution with 60th percentile cumulative distribution function of the model detected outbreaks earlier more frequently than the current criteria (90.5%, 276/305, ppart model with autoexponential regression can adequately deal with data involving an excessive number of zeros and that the novel criteria overcome disadvantages of the current criteria to provide an earlier indication of increases in the rate of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): revisiting the threshold values of follicle count on ultrasound and of the serum AMH level for the definition of polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, D; Gronier, H; Poncelet, E; Robin, G; Leroy, M; Pigny, P; Duhamel, A; Catteau-Jonard, S

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) at ultrasound is currently used in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that the previously proposed threshold value of 12 as an excessive number of follicles per ovary (FN) is no longer appropriate because of current technological developments. In this study, we have revisited the thresholds for FN and for the serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level (a possible surrogate for FN) for the definition of PCOM. Clinical, hormonal and ultrasound data were consecutively recorded in 240 patients referred to our department between 2008 and 2010 for exploration of hyperandrogenism (HA), menstrual disorders and/or infertility. According to only their symptoms, patients were grouped as: non-PCOS without HA and with ovulatory cycles (group 1, n = 105), presumption of PCOS with only HA or only oligo-anovulation (group 2, n = 73) and PCOS with HA and oligo-anovulation (group 3, n = 62). By cluster analysis using androgens, LH, FSH, AMH, FN and ovarian volume, group 1 appeared to be constituted of two homogeneous clusters, most likely a non-PCOM non-PCOS subgroup (n = 66) and a PCOM, non-PCOS (i.e. asymptomatic) subgroup (n = 39). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to distinguish the non-PCOM non-PCO members of group 1 and to group 3. For FN and serum AMH respectively, the areas under the curve were 0.949 and 0.973 and the best compromise between sensitivity (81 and 92%) and specificity (92 and 97%) was obtained with a threshold values of 19 follicles and 35 pmol/l (5 ng/ml). For the definition of PCOM, the former threshold of >12 for FN is no longer valid. A serum AMH >35 pmol/l (or >5 ng/ml) appears to be more sensitive and specific than a FN >19 and should be therefore included in the current diagnostic classifications for PCOS.

  14. Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in the Taiwanese elementary school classrooms: Assessment of the risk to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yan-You; Que, Danielle E; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Wen; Chuang, Kuo Pin; Tsai, Chih-Chung; Tayo, Lemmuel L

    2016-12-01

    Elementary school classroom dust is an important source of exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and diphenyl ethers (PBDD/DF/DEs) for school-age children. Our goal is thus to investigate concentrations of PBDD/DF/DEs in elementary school classroom dust to further assess the impact on school-age children via ingestion. The dust from classrooms, including both normal (NR) and computer classrooms (CR), was collected from six urban and four rural schools. Fourteen PBDEs and twelve PBDD/Fs were measured using high-resolution gas-chromatography/high-resolution mass-spectrometry. The mean levels of Σ 14 PBDEs in NR and CR dust from the urban classrooms were 370 and 2510ng/g and those whose dust from the rural classrooms were 464 and 1780ng/g. The means of ΣPBDD/Fs were 0.0401ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (concentration: 4.72ng/g) in urban NR dust, 0.0636ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (7.51ng/g) in urban CR dust, 0.0281ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (3.60ng/g) in rural NR dust, and 0.0474ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (6.28ng/g) in rural CR dust. The PBDEs pattern in NR dust was quite different from that in CR dust, but the PBDD/Fs patterns in NR and CR dust were similar. A linearly significant correlation coefficient (n=20, r=0.862, pschool classrooms. This study assessed the risks (daily intake and cancer and non-cancer risks) of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs for the children from the classroom dust, and the calculated risk values did not exceed the related thresholds. With regard to the exposure scenarios for school-age children in an indoor environment, the results suggest that they might ingest more dust PBDD/DF/DEs in their homes than in the schools. In conclusion, the exposure of Taiwanese elementary school children to PBDD/DF/DEs via indoor dust was with a safe range based on our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 786 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 414 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 869 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 094 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  7. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 033 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  11. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm. (2004 Summer). Immature Reticulocyte Fraction(IRF). The Pathology Center Newsletter v9(1). [On-line information]. Available ... Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Levin, M. (2007 March 8, Updated). Reticulocyte Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On- ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  13. Radiation intensity counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 043 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 ...

  15. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  16. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  17. Upper Elementary Grades Bear the Brunt of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    2009-01-01

    Upper elementary teachers won't be surprised to learn that in every state, students enrolled in grades 3 through 8 bear the brunt of educational accountability. All states test all students at these grade levels in English/language arts and mathematics. Furthermore, an increasing number of states are testing students at selected elementary and…

  18. Prediction of Optimal Daily Step Count Achievement from Segmented School Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity in childhood is needed for prevention of disease and for healthy social and psychological development. There is limited research examining how segmented school physical activity patterns relate to a child achieving optimal physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between step counts during specific school segments and achieving optimal school (6,000 steps/day and daily (12,000 steps/day step counts in children. Participants included 1,714 school-aged children (mean age = 9.7±1.0 years recruited across six elementary schools. Physical activity was monitored for one week using pedometers. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of achieving both school and daily step count standards for every 1,000 steps taken during each school segment. The school segment that related in strongest way to a student achieving 6,000 steps during school hours was afternoon recess (OR = 40.03; P<0.001 and for achieving 12,000 steps for the entire day was lunch recess (OR = 5.03; P<0.001. School segments including lunch and afternoon recess play an important role for optimizing daily physical activity in children.

  19. Standardization of {sup 241}Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpardo, C., E-mail: balpardo@cae.cnea.gov.a [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The nuclide {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission to {sup 237}Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of {sup 237}Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of {sup 241}Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  20. Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary? Over centuries, naïve notions about this have turned out incorrect. Particles are not really pointlike. The word elementary is not necessarily well-defined. Notes:

  1. Elementary excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited

  2. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M

    2008-01-01

    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  3. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  4. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  5. {sup 90}Sr in human excretion samples. Comparison of MC-ICP-MS and conventional low-level beta-counting; {sup 90}Sr in menschlichen Ausscheidungsproben. Vergleich zwischen MC-ICP-MS und konventioneller Low Level Beta-Messung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burow, M.; Schumacher, C.; Zoriy, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich fuer Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    At the present for determination of {sup 90}Sr in different human excretion samples manly radiochemical methods are applied, for example LL-beta- counter or liquid scintillation method. These methods require an isolation of strontium from other interfering radioactive species such as e.g. lead, polonium, plutonium, neptunium and potassium (for example, separation on Sr Resin, Fa. Eichrom, France) and afterwards long counting time restrict the usage in some application fields. On the other hand, the liquid scintillation techniques that may be used for detection present a challenge in the analysis of {sup 90}Sr in the presence of {sup 90}Y. However spectra of both radionuclides overlap in a certain zone and this may be resolved by mathematical calculations of {sup 90}Y ingrowth or by simply waiting for radiochemical equilibrium to be reached (2-3 weeks). In the case of emergency, monitoring of operating personal or civil population for possible incorporation of {sup 90}Sr via excretion samples a readily available, faster and reliable analytical procedure may prove to be of great importance. For these purposes, an analytical method for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in urine with high-sensitive MC-ICP-MS was developed in the radiochemical laboratory of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection. The method was optimized to avoid a multitude of isobaric interferences that occur on m/z 90 using a cold-plasma operation condition of ICP-MS. The reported LOD as low as 0,3-1 Bq/l in the water samples was found to be acceptable for majority of our analytical tasks.

  6. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, André; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 microm) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm(-3)) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm(-3) (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm(-3) (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm(-3) (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10000 cm(-3) increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm(-3) (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on days in which a strong

  7. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: Model development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, Andre; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 μm) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm -3 ) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm -3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11 596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm -3 (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm -3 (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10 000 cm -3 increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm -3 (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on days in which a strong indoor UFP

  8. Observations on English education in elementary schools

    OpenAIRE

    カドゥアー, ドナルド; 藤澤, 良行; カドゥアー, ドナルド; フジサワ, ヨシユキ; Donald, KADUHR; Yoshiyuki, FUJISAWA

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines English-language teaching in the People's Republic of China through visitations to some elementary school grades in two large urban centres, Beijing and Dalian, in March 2008. Observations of English classes in China for students in grades 1 to 6, provide the basis of what we feel needs to be addressed for the implementation of English-language teaching in lower levels of Japanese elementary schools (grade 5 and above) from 2011. After giving a brief overview of the develo...

  9. Elementary Business Calculus with Computer Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Phoebe T.

    1990-01-01

    Described are various ways that a computer algebra system (MAPLE) was used to facilitate the resequencing of skills and applications within an elementary college-level business calculus course. Experimental results confirmed earlier findings that skills acquisition is not a prerequisite to conceptual understanding or problem-solving ability. (JJK)

  10. Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…

  11. Counseling in the Elementary Feeder Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Virginia

    This brief paper presents the concept of transition counseling between a junior high school and its feeder school(s), designed to make the change from elementary into junior high less traumatic. Aside from routine sixth grade counseling, the counselors expanded their base of counseling to include all types of problems as well as all grade levels.…

  12. Transitions from Elementary to Middle School Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielack, Janie; Seeley, Cathy L.

    2010-01-01

    In the move from elementary to middle school mathematics, students encounter major changes in instructional materials and approaches, work expectations, school structure, and general level of difficulty in material. Research shows that, in general, students suffer significant declines in academic achievement in the transition from elementary…

  13. Protecting count queries in study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinterbo, Staal A; Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

  14. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to μ + and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics

  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY CONCERNED WITH DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE REPORTED IN STATISTICAL TABLES WHICH ARE ACCOMPANIED BY DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTARY. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY, THE DEFINITION OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS RESTRICTED TO INCLUDE ONLY THOSE SITUATIONS IN WHICH STUDENTS RECEIVE INSTRUCTION IN THE VARIOUS ACADEMIC…

  16. Elementary Science Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide for elementary teachers provides information on getting ideas into action, designing and implementing the right situation, ways in which to evaluate science process activities with students, and seven sample units. The units cover using the senses, magnets, forces, weather forecasting, classification of living things, and the physical…

  17. Elementary School Mathematics Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…

  18. Vision in elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, W W

    2003-01-01

    Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems.

  19. Playing Golf Is Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jill S.; Pfluge, Kevin F.

    2010-01-01

    Golf is a lifelong activity that people of all ages can enjoy if they experience success and have fun. Early involvement in the sport facilitates the development of the ability to strike an object with an implement. Striking with implements can be challenging for young children and teachers, but golf can be taught in all elementary school settings…

  20. Generalized elementary functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141

  1. Piaget and Elementary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Edward A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the intellectual development stages ascribed to children by Jean Piaget. Characteristics and examples are given for sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational thinking periods. Implications are given for elementary school science education, including (1) formal instruction does not accelerate acquisition…

  2. Elementary particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It is discussed the physics in Brazil in the next decade with regard to elementary particles and field theories. The situation of brazilian research institutes as well as its personnel is also presented. Some recommendations and financing of new projects are also considered. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. Detection limits for radioanalytical counting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, J.K.

    1975-06-01

    In low-level radioanalysis it is usually necessary to test the sample net counts against some ''Critical Level'' in order to determine if a given result indicates detection. This is an interpretive review of the work by Nicholson (1963), Currie (1968) and Gilbert (1974). Nicholson's evaluation of three different computational formulas for estimation of the ''Critical Level'' is discussed. The details of Nicholson's evaluation are presented along with a basic discussion of the testing procedures used. Recommendations are presented for calculation of confidence intervals, for reporting of analytical results, and for extension of the derived formula to more complex cases such as multiple background counts, multiple use of a single background count, and gamma spectrometric analysis

  4. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  5. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  6. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Limits of reliability for the measurement of integral count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbeszkorn, L.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for exact and approximate calculation of reliability limits of measured nuclear integral count. The formulae are applicable in measuring conditions which assure the Poisson distribution of the counts. The coefficients of the approximate formulae for 90, 95, 98 and 99 per cent reliability levels are given. The exact reliability limits for 90 per cent reliability level are calculated up to 80 integral counts. (R.J.)

  8. Prediction value of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels and antral follicle count (AFC) in hormonal contraceptive (HC) users and non-HC users undergoing IVF-PGD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Lando, Maayan; Rabinowitz, Ron; Farkash, Rivka; Algur, Nurit; Rubinstein, Esther; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2017-10-01

    Use of hormone contraceptives (HC) is very popular in the reproductive age and, therefore, evaluation of ovarian reserve would be a useful tool to accurately evaluate the reproductive potential in HC users. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 41 HC users compared to 57 non-HC users undergoing IVF-preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) aiming to evaluate the effect of HC on the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), small (2-5 mm), large (6-10 mm) and total antral follicle count (AFC) and the ability of these markers to predict IVF outcome. Significant differences in large AFC (p = 0.04) and ovarian volume (p users (p users these correlations were weaker. In HC users, the significant predictors of achieving 18 oocytes were AFC (ROC-AUC; 0.958, p = 0.001 and 0.883, p = 0.001) and AMH (ROC-AUC-0.858, p = 0.01 and 0.878, p = 0.001), respectively. The predictive values were less significant in non-HC users. These findings are important in women treated for PGD, in ovum donors and for assessing the fertility prognosis in women using HC and wishing to postpone pregnancy.

  9. Characterization of mathematics instructional practises for prospective elementary teachers with varying levels of self-efficacy in classroom management and mathematics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of teachers' instructional practises during the qualitative phase. In this phase, video-recorded lessons were analysed based on tasks, representations, discourse, and classroom management. Findings indicate that PTs with higher levels of mathematics teaching efficacy taught lessons characterised by tasks of higher cognitive demand, extended student explanations, student-to-student discourse, and explicit connections between representations. Classroom management efficacy seems to bear influence on the utilised grouping structures. These findings support explicit attention to PTs' mathematics teaching and classroom management efficacy throughout teacher preparation and a need for formative feedback to inform development of beliefs about teaching practises.

  10. Modal Logics with Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

    We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

  11. Digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.M.; Ius, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method. (orig.)

  12. Digital coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  13. Elementary particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Paty, M.

    2000-01-01

    The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

  14. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  15. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p Candida counts. Unstimulated whole saliva significantly (p Candida counts of 0 versus or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  16. Making elementary particles visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Eyal [ArSciMed (art, science, media), 100, rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012 Paris (France)

    1994-07-15

    Ever since the days of the ancient Greek atomists, the notion that matter is made up of tiny fundamental elements has dominated the history of scientific theories. Elementary particles (and now strings...) are the latest in this chronological list of fundamental objects. Our notions of what a physical theory should be like, and what precisely ''matter is made up of...'' really means, have evolved with the years, undergoing a profound revolution with quantum mechanics.

  17. Making elementary particles visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Eyal

    1994-01-01

    Ever since the days of the ancient Greek atomists, the notion that matter is made up of tiny fundamental elements has dominated the history of scientific theories. Elementary particles (and now strings...) are the latest in this chronological list of fundamental objects. Our notions of what a physical theory should be like, and what precisely ''matter is made up of...'' really means, have evolved with the years, undergoing a profound revolution with quantum mechanics

  18. Introduction to elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2008-01-01

    This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

  19. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  20. An excursion through elementary mathematics, volume iii discrete mathematics and polynomial algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This third and last volume covers Counting, Generating Functions, Graph Theory, Number Theory, Complex Numbers, Polynomials, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Ol...

  1. Elementary school on the move– moving in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Hildebrandt-Stramann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Elementary school in Germany has changed during the last five years because, among other reasons, movement has entered it. The title's pun calls attention for two lines of work that characterize school pedagogy contemporary discussion. One of these lines is related to the last 15 years changing process at elementary school: it states that elementary school must be a learning and living place for children. The other line is related to movement pedagogy processes, which has been achieving higher and higher dimensions. Elementary school must be seen from movement point of view and must be transformed in a place for movement.

  2. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  3. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  4. An excursion through elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...

  5. An excursion through elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...

  6. Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of space like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of tachyons. Particular attention is paid : 1) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions (''internal lines''); e.g., to the links between ''virtual particles'' and superluminal objects; 2) to the possibility of ''vacuum decays'' at the classical level; 3) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; 4) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles (''elementary tachyons'') and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism

  7. Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of space-like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of Tachyons. Particular attention is paid: (i) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions ('internal lines'); e.g., to the links between 'virtual particles' and superluminal objects; (ii) to the possibility of 'vacuum decays' at the classical level; (iii) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; (iv) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles ('elementary tachyons') and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism. (Author) [pt

  8. Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    1998-01-01

    The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by particle-antiparticle pa...

  9. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  10. Sea-level response to melting of Antarctic ice shelves on multi-centennial timescales with the fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet model (f.ETISh v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Antarctic ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise is dominated by the potential of its marine sectors to become unstable and collapse as a response to ocean (and atmospheric forcing. This paper presents Antarctic sea-level response to sudden atmospheric and oceanic forcings on multi-centennial timescales with the newly developed fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet (f.ETISh model. The f.ETISh model is a vertically integrated hybrid ice sheet–ice shelf model with vertically integrated thermomechanical coupling, making the model two-dimensional. Its marine boundary is represented by two different flux conditions, coherent with power-law basal sliding and Coulomb basal friction. The model has been compared to existing benchmarks. Modelled Antarctic ice sheet response to forcing is dominated by sub-ice shelf melt and the sensitivity is highly dependent on basal conditions at the grounding line. Coulomb friction in the grounding-line transition zone leads to significantly higher mass loss in both West and East Antarctica on centennial timescales, leading to 1.5 m sea-level rise after 500 years for a limited melt scenario of 10 m a−1 under freely floating ice shelves, up to 6 m for a 50 m a−1 scenario. The higher sensitivity is attributed to higher ice fluxes at the grounding line due to vanishing effective pressure. Removing the ice shelves altogether results in a disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet and (partially marine basins in East Antarctica. After 500 years, this leads to a 5 m and a 16 m sea-level rise for the power-law basal sliding and Coulomb friction conditions at the grounding line, respectively. The latter value agrees with simulations by DeConto and Pollard (2016 over a similar period (but with different forcing and including processes of hydrofracturing and cliff failure. The chosen parametrizations make model results largely independent of spatial resolution so

  11. Sea-level response to melting of Antarctic ice shelves on multi-centennial timescales with the fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet model (f.ETISh v1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2017-08-01

    The magnitude of the Antarctic ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise is dominated by the potential of its marine sectors to become unstable and collapse as a response to ocean (and atmospheric) forcing. This paper presents Antarctic sea-level response to sudden atmospheric and oceanic forcings on multi-centennial timescales with the newly developed fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet (f.ETISh) model. The f.ETISh model is a vertically integrated hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model with vertically integrated thermomechanical coupling, making the model two-dimensional. Its marine boundary is represented by two different flux conditions, coherent with power-law basal sliding and Coulomb basal friction. The model has been compared to existing benchmarks. Modelled Antarctic ice sheet response to forcing is dominated by sub-ice shelf melt and the sensitivity is highly dependent on basal conditions at the grounding line. Coulomb friction in the grounding-line transition zone leads to significantly higher mass loss in both West and East Antarctica on centennial timescales, leading to 1.5 m sea-level rise after 500 years for a limited melt scenario of 10 m a-1 under freely floating ice shelves, up to 6 m for a 50 m a-1 scenario. The higher sensitivity is attributed to higher ice fluxes at the grounding line due to vanishing effective pressure. Removing the ice shelves altogether results in a disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet and (partially) marine basins in East Antarctica. After 500 years, this leads to a 5 m and a 16 m sea-level rise for the power-law basal sliding and Coulomb friction conditions at the grounding line, respectively. The latter value agrees with simulations by DeConto and Pollard (2016) over a similar period (but with different forcing and including processes of hydrofracturing and cliff failure). The chosen parametrizations make model results largely independent of spatial resolution so that f.ETISh can potentially be

  12. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  13. Nuclear energy levels and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wet, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Considering only exchange forces, the binding energies and excited states of nuclei up to 24 Mg are predicted to within charge independence, and there is no reason why the model should not be extended to cover all of the elements. A comparison of theory with experiment shows that the energy of one exchange is 2.56 MeV. Moreover, there is an attractive well of depth 30 MeV, corresponding to the helium nucleus. before exchange forces become operative. A possible explanation of the origin of mesons is also presented

  14. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools/İngilizceyi Yabancı Dil olarak Öğrenen İlköğretim Öğrencilerinde Yabancı Dil Kaygısını Etkileyen Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety among young learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) and the relationship between test anxiety and factors such as gender, age, grade, achieveme...

  15. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  16. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  17. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P

    1976-01-01

    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  19. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R

    2012-01-01

    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  20. Elementary particles. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics

  1. Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2018-02-01

    To understand students' argumentation abilities, there have been practices that focus on counting and analyzing argumentation schemes such as claim, evidence, warrant, backing, and rebuttal. This analytic approach does not address the dynamics of epistemic criteria of children's reasoning and decision-making in dialogical situations. The common approach also does not address the practice of argumentation in lower elementary grades (K-3) because these children do not master the structure of argumentation and, therefore, are considered not ready for processing argumentative discourse. There is thus little research focusing on lower elementary school students' argumentation in school science. This study, drawing on the societal-historical approach by L. S. Vygotsky, explored children's argumentation as social relations by investigating the genesis of evidence-related practices (especially burden of proof) in second- and third-grade children. The findings show (a) students' capacity for connecting claim and evidence/responding to the burden of proof and critical move varies and (b) that teachers play a significant role to emphasize the importance of evidence but experience difficulties removing children's favored ideas during the turn taking of argumentative dialogue. The findings on the nature of dialogical reasoning and teacher's role provide further insights about discussions on pedagogical approaches to children's reasoning and argumentation.

  2. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidman, H W; Bentzen, J G; Thuesen, L L; Lauritsen, M P; Forman, J L; Loft, A; Pinborg, A; Nyboe Andersen, A

    2016-05-01

    Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile patients aged 20-39 years compared with a control group of the same age with no history of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The management of patients with a low ovarian reserve and a poor response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) remains a challenge in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Both AMH levels and AFC reflect the ovarian reserve and are valuable predictors of the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins. However, there is a large inter-individual variation in the age-related depletion of the ovarian reserve and a broad variability in the levels of AMH and AFC compatible with conception. Women with an early depletion of the ovarian reserve may experience infertility as a consequence of postponement of childbearing. Thus, low ovarian reserve is considered to be overrepresented among infertile patients. A prospective cohort study including 382 women with a male partner referred to fertility treatment at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark during 2011-2013 compared with a control group of 350 non-users of hormonal contraception with no history of infertility recruited during 2008-2010. Included patients and controls were aged 20-39 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome were excluded. On Cycle Days 2-5, AFC and ovarian volume were measured by transvaginal sonography, and serum levels of AMH, FSH and LH were assessed. Infertile patients had similar AMH levels (11%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1;24%) and AFC (1%, 95% CI: -7;8%) compared with controls with no history of infertility in an age-adjusted linear regression analysis. The prevalence of very low AMH levels (<5 pmol/l) was similar in the two cohorts (age-adjusted odds ratio: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5;1.7). The findings

  3. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, H. W.; Bentzen, J. G.; Thuesen, L. L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile p...

  4. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  5. Track counting in radon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenbeck, Ingo; Koehler, Bernd; Reichert, Klaus-Martin

    2013-01-01

    The newly developed, computer-controlled track counting system is capable of imaging and analyzing the entire area of nuclear track detectors. The high optical resolution allows a new analysis approach for the process of automated counting using digital image processing technologies. This way, higher exposed detectors can be evaluated reliably by an automated process as well. (orig.)

  6. Crowdfunding for Elementary Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jessica; Miller, Kurtz

    2017-01-01

    The inadequate funding of science education in many school districts, particularly in underserved areas, is preventing elementary science educators from realizing the full potential of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). Yet many elementary science teachers may be unaware that millions of dollars per year are…

  7. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  8. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…

  9. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  10. Elementary chaotic snap flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munmuangsaen, Buncha; Srisuchinwong, Banlue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. → Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. → Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. → A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x .... =f(x ... ,x .. ,x . ,x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamical properties are described.

  11. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  12. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  13. Big drop. [Decline in sperm counts from environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castleman, M.

    Statisticians at the University of Copenhagen have published a review of sperm-count studies carried out from 1938-1990. After controlling for such things as counting techniques and sexual activity, they found that average sperm counts have decreased 42% over the last 50 years. After eliminating possible causes such as heat and differences in counting techniques, the only plausible cause left was environmental pollution. This finding correlates with a study performed in 1979 which found abnormally high concentrations of such toxic pollutants as DDT and PCBs in semen. The Copenhagen study suggests that even at low levels of exposure, environmental pollution is having biological consequences.

  14. Implementing Elementary School Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Katheryn B.

    Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards requires developing elementary teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge of science and engineering concepts. Teacher preparation for this undertaking appears inadequate with little known about how in-service Mid-Atlantic urban elementary science teachers approach this task. The purpose of this basic qualitative interview study was to explore the research questions related to perceived learning needs of 8 elementary science teachers and 5 of their administrators serving as instructional leaders. Strategies needed for professional growth to support learning and barriers that hamper it at both building and district levels were included. These questions were considered through the lens of Schon's reflective learning and Weick's sensemaking theories. Analysis with provisional and open coding strategies identified informal and formal supports and barriers to teachers' learning. Results indicated that informal supports, primarily internet usage, emerged as most valuable to the teachers' learning. Formal structures, including professional learning communities and grade level meetings, arose as both supportive and restrictive at the building and district levels. Existing formal supports emerged as the least useful because of the dominance of other priorities competing for time and resources. Addressing weaknesses within formal supports through more effective planning in professional development can promote positive change. Improvement to professional development approaches using the internet and increased hands on activities can be integrated into formal supports. Explicit attention to these strategies can strengthen teacher effectiveness bringing positive social change.

  15. Automated uranium analysis by delayed-neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Loevborg, L.; Christiansen, E.M.

    1980-10-01

    Automated uranium analysis by fission-induced delayed-neutron counting is described. A short description is given of the instrumentation including transfer system, process control, irradiation and counting sites, and computer operations. Characteristic parameters of the facility (sample preparations, background, and standards) are discussed. A sensitivity of 817 +- 22 counts per 10 -6 g U is found using irradiation, delay, and counting times of 20 s, 5 s, and 10 s, respectively. Presicion is generally less than 1% for normal geological samples. Critical level and detection limits for 7.5 g samples are 8 and 16 ppb, respectively. The importance of some physical and elemental interferences are outlined. Dead-time corrections of measured count rates are necessary and a polynomical expression is used for count rates up to 10 5 . The presence of rare earth elements is regarded as the most important elemental interference. A typical application is given and other areas of application are described. (auther)

  16. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  17. Total lymphocyte count as a substitute to cd4 count in management of hiv infected individuals in resource limited society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.Y.; Qazi, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is a resource limited society and gold standard parameters to monitor HIV disease activity are very costly. The objective of the study was to evaluate total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate to CD4 count to monitor disease activity in HIV/AIDS in resource limited society. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at HIV/AIDS treatment centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. A total of seven hundred and seventy four (774) HIV positive patients were enrolled in this study, and their CD4 count and total lymphocyte count were checked to find any correlation between the two by using Spearman ranked correlation coefficient. Results: The mean CD4 count was (434.30 ± 269.23), with minimum CD4 count of (9.00), and maximum of (1974.00). The mean total lymphocyte count (TLC) was (6764.0052 ± 2364.02) with minimum TLC (1200.00) and maximum TLC was (20200.00). Using the Pearson's correlation (r) there was a significant and positive correlation between TLC and CD4 count. (r2=0.127 and p=0.000) at 0.01 level. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant positive correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count (TLC), so TLC can be used as a marker of disease activity in HIV infected patients. (author)

  18. Elementary Bayesian biostatistics

    CERN Document Server

    Moyé, Lemuel A

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEINTRODUCTIONPROLOGUE: OPENING SALVOSBASIC PROBABILITY AND BAYES THEOREMProbability's RoleObjective and Subjective Probability Relative Frequency and Collections of EventsCounting and CombinatoricsSimple Rules in ProbabilityLaw of Total Probability and Bayes TheroemCOMPOUNDING AND THE LAW OF TOTAL PROBABILITYIntroduction The Law of Total Probability: CompoundingProportions and the Binomial DistributionNegative Binomial DistributionThe Poisson ProcessThe Uniform Distribution Exponential Distribution Proble

  19. Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.

  20. In vivo counting of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.

    1985-03-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detector system consisting of six individually mounted intrinsic germanium planar detectors, each 20 cm 2 by 13 mm thick, mounted together such that the angle of the whole system can be changed to match the slope of the chest of the person being counted, is described. The sensitivity of the system for counting uranium and plutonium in vivo and the precedures used in calibrating the system are also described. Some results of counts done on uranium mill workers are presented. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  1. A Multi-Method Investigation of Mathematics Motivation for Elementary Age Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sandra M.; Smart, Julie B.; Cribbs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-method study examining elementary students with high self-reported levels of mathematics motivation. Second- through fifth-grade students at a Title One school in the southeastern United States completed the Elementary Mathematics Motivation Instrument (EMMI), which examines levels of mathematics…

  2. Supersymmetry of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanashvili, G.A.; Zakharov, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Some difficulties, connected with correct application of supersymmetry mathematical tools in the field and elementary particle theory are pointed out. The role of Grassman algebra in the usual field theory and the role of Lee superalgebra in supertransformations mixing bosons and fermions are shown. Grassman algebra in the theory of supersymmetries plays a role of numerical field. A supersymmetrical model, when indexes {i} of Grassman algebra corresponding to ''color'', and indexes {α} of Lee superalgebra representations - to ''flavor'', is considered. It is marked that the problem of interpretation of Grassman algebra indexes is a key one for the theory of supersymmetries. In particular, it gives no possibility to come from the theory of supersymmetries to the usual field theory, whose indexes of Grassman algebra possess obvious physical meaning

  3. Notes on elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  4. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  5. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  6. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  7. Anthropology that counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    and is expected to deliver “practice oriented” research, preferably evidence based and ready to “apply” - or sometimes even in the case of action research supposedly “applied in the process”. The development opens the question of where the borders are between anthropology and consulting business, whether...... professional practices in schools, hospitals, and other welfare institutions that has to “apply research”, or could it also be the political levels, that were subject to “applications”? In any case, anthropology becomes extremely political, and has to find a position between different ideological knowledge...

  8. Ghost counting in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.K.

    1978-04-01

    The elimination of unphysical degrees of freedom from a quantized massless Rarita-Schwinger field interacting with a (quantized or classical) gravitational field is analyzed on the one-loop level. It is shown that, besides the ordinary Faddeev-Popov ghosts, an extra ghost is needed to remove the effects of unphysical modes. The new ghost only couples to the S matrix if the gauge-fixing of the Rarita-Schwinger field involves the gravitational field, but it is necessary in the partition function for other gauge choices. (Auth.)

  9. Ghost counting in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.K.

    1978-01-01

    The elimination of unphysical degrees of freedom from a quantized massless Rarita-Schwinger field interacting with a (quantized or classical) gravitational field is analyzed on the one-loop level. It is shown that, besides the ordinary Faddeev-Popov ghosts, an extra ghost is needed to remove the effects of unphysical modes. The new ghost only couples to the S-matrix if the gauge-fixing of the Rarita-Schwinger field involves the gravitational field, but it is necessary in the partition function for other gauge choices. (Auth.)

  10. Counting the Minutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Sternberg, Henrik; Sohrabpor, Vahid

    on drivers’ efficiency, departing from previous fuel-centred approaches. Secondly the paper gives directions on how to re-interpret findings from previous literature that has used flawed tachometer-based approaches. On a strategic level, this paper advices the motor carrier industry to address drivers...... and that tacho-meter based approaches are unreliable. Finally, this paper gives novel insights on using nomadic devices (e.g., smart-phones) as tools to interact with the driver. The research impact of this work can be identified in two separate areas. Firstly, the paper addresses the need for a broader view...

  11. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  12. Liquid scintillation counting of chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fric, F.; Horickova, B.; Haspel-Horvatovic, E.

    1975-01-01

    A precise and reproducible method of liquid scintillation counting was worked out for measuring the radioactivity of 14 C-labelled chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b solutions without previous bleaching. The spurious count rate caused by luminescence of the scintillant-chlorophyll system is eliminated by using a suitable scintillant and by measuring the radioactivity at 4 to 8 0 C after an appropriate time of dark adaptation. Bleaching of the chlorophyll solutions is necessary only for measuring of very low radioactivity. (author)

  13. Decay counting in the age of AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Up to the advent of AMS, all the accomplishments of 14 C dating, and the studies of 10 Be and other long-lived radionuclides, were made by low-level decay counting, the technique pioneered by W.F. Libby. It will hardly be news to people at this conference that, while much was accomplished in the three decades when counting prevailed, the world has now changed decisively. I will try to give an account of where low-level counting was 'before the revolution', and of what its usefulness is today. There are still some remarkable examples of its application, the best being the neutrino experiment of Raymond Davis, and its potential successors. Some cosmogenic nuclides, whose half-lives are less than 10 3 yr, are still best measured by decay; this will continue unless the overall ion yield of AMS systems rises markedly from present levels. One long-lived nuclide, 53 Mn, is still best measured by neutron activation as 312-day 54 Mn, but this may not continue. (orig.)

  14. Decay counting in the age of AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Up to the advent of AMS, all the accomplishments of 14 C dating, and the studies of 10 Be and other long-lived radionuclides, were made by low-level decay counting, the technique pioneered by W.F. Libby. It will hardly be news to people at this conference that, while much was accomplished in the three decades when counting prevailed, the world has now changed decisively. He will try to give an account of where low-level counting was before the revolution, and of what its usefulness is today. There are still some remarkable examples of its application, the best being the neutrino experiment of Raymond Davis, and its potential successors. Some cosmogenic nuclides, whose half-lives are less than 10 3 yr, are still best measured by decay; this will continue unless the overall ion yield of AMS systems rises markedly from present levels. One long-lived nuclide, 53 Mn, is still best measured by neutron activation as 312-day 54 Mn, but this may not continue

  15. Cosmic objects and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozental, I L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

    1977-02-01

    Considered are the connections between the parameters of elementary particles (mass ''size'') and the characteristics of stars (the main sequence stars, white dwarf stars and pulsars). Presented is the elementary theory of black hole radiation in the framework of which all the regularities of the process are derived. The emphiric numerical sequence connecting nucleon mass and universe constants (G, h, c) with the masses of some cosmic objects is given.

  16. Improved AMD counters quicky type to achieve a level of 0.2 log derivative mSv output in counts refills; Mejora de la AMD en contadores tipo quicky para conseguir un nivel derivado de registro de 0,2 mSV en contajes de salida en recargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravp Perez-Tinao, B.; Marchena Gonzalez, P.; Sollet Danudo, E.

    2011-07-01

    To ensure that no worker receives contract exposed by internal exposure dose computed not exceed 1 mSv / year, the Nuclear Security Council requested the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom that in 2010 would ensure a level derived from registration in internal dosimetry counts refills output equal to or less than 0.2 mSv, which represented a reduction of AMD computers.

  17. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m 2 ), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m 2 ). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  20. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Brigham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA in every discipline or for every student. With funding from several U.S. philanthropic organizations, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL is launching Learning Counts, a national online service that will offer students a range of opportunities to have their learning evaluated for college credit. This online service will expand the capacity of institutions offering PLA to students and provide an efficient and scalable delivery mechanism for the awarding of credit through PLA.

  1. Statistical Methods for Unusual Count Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; Gammill, Hilary S.; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    microchimerism data present challenges for statistical analysis, including a skewed distribution, excess zero values, and occasional large values. Methods for comparing microchimerism levels across groups while controlling for covariates are not well established. We compared statistical models for quantitative...... microchimerism values, applied to simulated data sets and 2 observed data sets, to make recommendations for analytic practice. Modeling the level of quantitative microchimerism as a rate via Poisson or negative binomial model with the rate of detection defined as a count of microchimerism genome equivalents per...

  2. Proposals of counting method for bubble detectors and their intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Eduardo; Silva, Ademir X.; Bellido, Luis F.; Facure, Alessandro; Pereira, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The study of neutron's spectrometry and dosimetry has become significantly easier due to relatively new devices called bubble detectors. Insensitive to gamma rays and composed by superheated emulsions, they still are subjects of many researches in Radiation Physics and Nuclear Engineering. In bubble detectors, either exposed to more intense neutron fields or for a long time, when more bubbles are produced, the statistical uncertainty during the dosimetric and spectrometric processes is reduced. A proposal of this nature is set up in this work, which presents ways to perform counting processes for bubble detectors and an updated proceeding to get the irradiated detectors' images in order to make the manual counting easier. Twelve BDS detectors were irradiated by RDS111 cyclotron from IEN's (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) and photographed using an assembly specially designed for this experiment. Counting was proceeded manually in a first moment; simultaneously, ImagePro was used in order to perform counting automatically. The bubble counting values, either manual or automatic, were compared and the time to get them and their difficult levels as well. After the bubble counting, the detectors' standardizes responses were calculated in both cases, according to BDS's manual and they were also compared. Among the results, the counting on these devices really becomes very hard at a large number of bubbles, besides higher variations in counting of many bubbles. Because of the good agreement between manual counting and the custom program, the last one revealed a good alternative in practical and economical levels. Despite the good results, the custom program needs of more adjustments in order to achieve more accuracy on higher counting on bubble detectors for neutron measurement applications. (author)

  3. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  4. Photon-counting image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.

  5. Examining LGBTQ-Based Literature Intended for Primary and Intermediate Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, John H., III

    2018-01-01

    This content analysis research examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals and issues are represented in elementary-level trade books. The data pool included every LGBTQ-based trade book with intended audiences of primary (grades K-2) and intermediate (grades 3-5) elementary students. Trade books…

  6. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  7. Caught in the Balance: An Organizational Analysis of Science Teaching in Schools with Elementary Science Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Bujosa, Lisa M.; Levy, Abigail Jurist

    2016-01-01

    Elementary schools are under increasing pressure to teach science and teach it well; yet, research documents that classroom teachers must overcome numerous personal and school-based challenges to teach science effectively at this level, such as access to materials and inadequate instructional time. The elementary science specialist model…

  8. Achievement and Intelligence in Primary and Elementary Classes for the Educable Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundean, David A.; Salopek, Thomas F.

    1971-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test scores of educable mentally handicapped children in primary and elementary classes were correlated with their Binet or Wechsler IQ scores. It was found that the WISC was a better differential predictor of achievement in reading, spelling and arithmetic at the elementary level only. (Author)

  9. Exploring the Effects of Concreteness Fading across Grades in Elementary School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Tomi; Veermans, Koen

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that concreteness fading has on learning and transfer across three grade levels (4-6) in elementary school science education in comparison to learning with constantly concrete representations. 127 9- to 12-years-old elementary school students studied electric circuits in a computer-based simulation…

  10. Studying Peace in Elementary Schools: Laying a Foundation for the "Peaceable Kingdom."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Examines peace education at the elementary school level, stressing the need to include interpersonal and international relations when teaching peace. Suggests peace education can lead children to prosocial behavior. Sees peace as a positive of being. Urges the infusion of peace education throughout the elementary social studies curriculum. (CH)

  11. Toward a New Vision of Equality: Perspectives of Male Teachers in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research concerning men working in predominantly female environments has suggested that stereotyping can occur when gender norms are violated, such as men teaching at the elementary school level. The present study investigated the presence and perspectives of male elementary school music teachers in specific geographical regions of the…

  12. Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…

  13. Teachers' Perspectives of Children's Mental Health Service Needs in Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Horvath, Violet E.; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a phenomenological approach to investigate elementary school teachers' perspectives on children's mental health service needs. Focus groups were conducted at two elementary schools with differing levels of available social services in a moderate-sized urban midwestern school district. Data collection centered on six prominent…

  14. Elementary School Students' Mental Models about Formation of Seasons: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim; Ocak Iskeleli, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the mental models of elementary school students on seasons and to analyze how these models change in terms of grade levels. The study was conducted with 294 students (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th graders) studying in an elementary school of Turkey's Black Sea Region. Qualitative and quantitative data collection…

  15. Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary Schools: Needs Assessment and a Pilot Study of Brain Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Thushanthi; Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    A sedentary life style contributes to many chronic diseases and poor educational performance. Since elementary school-aged children spend most wakeful hours in school, classroom teachers are essential for providing physical activity (PA) breaks during school. As first objective, we assessed current PA levels for Oregon public elementary schools…

  16. Conceptualizing Routines of Practice That Support Algebraic Reasoning in Elementary Schools: A Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Store, Jessie Chitsanzo

    2012-01-01

    There is ample literature documenting that, for many decades, high school students view algebra as difficult and do not demonstrate understanding of algebraic concepts. Algebraic reasoning in elementary school aims at meaningfully introducing algebra to elementary school students in preparation for higher-level mathematics. While there is research…

  17. Project A+, Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools, 1991-92: The Second Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Todd; Frazer, Linda

    The Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program, where four elementary schools were equipped with computer hardware and software, was made possible by grants from IBM and Apple, Inc. The goals of the program were, in 3 years, to reduce by 50% the number of students not in their age appropriate grade level and those students not achieving…

  18. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  19. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and

  20. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  1. Liquid scintillation, counting, and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E.A.; Tolbert, B.M.; Sutula, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The emissions of radioactive isotopes in both aqueous and organic samples can be measured by liquid scintillation counting in micellar systems. The micellar systems are made up of scintillation solvent, scintillation solute and a mixture of surfactants, preferably at least one of which is relatively oil-soluble water-insoluble and another which is relatively water-soluble oil-insoluble

  2. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  3. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  4. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  5. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  6. Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the correctness of the vote counting software once the certificate has been validated. Using a rule...

  8. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  9. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  10. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances roads as the zone of primary interest. Census data at the city and neighborhood levels were used to evaluate relationships between school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of

  11. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...... subsamples and repeated egg counts on the same subsamples, whereas the variability of FECs between following days can be considered negligible. The findings of this study have implication for designing and performing field surveillance of strongyle FEC levels and applying the FEC reduction test...

  12. Elementary functions algorithms and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...

  13. Three-dimensional passive sensing photon counting for object classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2007-04-01

    In this keynote address, we address three-dimensional (3D) distortion-tolerant object recognition using photon-counting integral imaging (II). A photon-counting linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is discussed for classification of photon-limited images. We develop a compact distortion-tolerant recognition system based on the multiple-perspective imaging of II. Experimental and simulation results have shown that a low level of photons is sufficient to classify out-of-plane rotated objects.

  14. Elementary particles and particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de

  15. Dimensional considerations about elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocconi, G.

    1978-01-01

    The search for fundamental elementary particles responsible for the observed behaviour of matter during the past decades is briefly reviewed, and the possibility is considered that the four fundamental interactions that shape things merge into a unique field when matter is so compressed that particles are at extremely small distances from one another. These interactions are the gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction. It is thought that a simple geometrical criterion, termed the 'elementary criterion', would suffice to indicate how the various interactions should behave as particles are brought closer to one another and thus approach the situation where all interactions merge. (6 references). (U.K.)

  16. Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenson, Bilha

    2007-01-01

    The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...

  17. Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of space-like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of Tachyons. Particular attention is paid: (i) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions; (ii) to the possibility of ''vacuum decays'' at the classical level; (iii) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; (iv) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism. (author)

  18. Robustifying Bayesian nonparametric mixtures for count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Prünster, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Our motivating application stems from surveys of natural populations and is characterized by large spatial heterogeneity in the counts, which makes parametric approaches to modeling local animal abundance too restrictive. We adopt a Bayesian nonparametric approach based on mixture models and innovate with respect to popular Dirichlet process mixture of Poisson kernels by increasing the model flexibility at the level both of the kernel and the nonparametric mixing measure. This allows to derive accurate and robust estimates of the distribution of local animal abundance and of the corresponding clusters. The application and a simulation study for different scenarios yield also some general methodological implications. Adding flexibility solely at the level of the mixing measure does not improve inferences, since its impact is severely limited by the rigidity of the Poisson kernel with considerable consequences in terms of bias. However, once a kernel more flexible than the Poisson is chosen, inferences can be robustified by choosing a prior more general than the Dirichlet process. Therefore, to improve the performance of Bayesian nonparametric mixtures for count data one has to enrich the model simultaneously at both levels, the kernel and the mixing measure. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Determining Gate Count Reliability in a Library Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Phillips

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Patron counts are a common form of measurement for library assessment. To develop accurate library statistics, it is necessary to determine any differences between various counting devices. A yearlong comparison between card reader turnstiles and laser gate counters in a university library sought to offer a standard percentage of variance and provide suggestions to increase the precision of counts. Methods – The collection of library exit counts identified the differences between turnstile and laser gate counter data. Statistical software helped to eliminate any inaccuracies in the collection of turnstile data, allowing this data set to be the base for comparison. Collection intervals were randomly determined and demonstrated periods of slow, average, and heavy traffic. Results – After analyzing 1,039,766 patron visits throughout a year, the final totals only showed a difference of .43% (.0043 between the two devices. The majority of collection periods did not exceed a difference of 3% between the counting instruments. Conclusion – Turnstiles card readers and laser gate counters provide similar levels of reliability when measuring patron activity. Each system has potential counting inaccuracies, but several methods exist to create more precise totals. Turnstile card readers are capable of offering greater detail involving patron identity, but their high cost makes them inaccessible for libraries with lower budgets. This makes laser gate counters an affordable alternative for reliable patron counting in an academic library.

  20. Tutorial on X-ray photon counting detector characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism. Currently available methods and techniques for charactering major aspects including energy response, noise floor, energy resolution, count rate performance (detector efficiency), and charge sharing effect of photon counting detectors are comprehensively reviewed. Other characterization aspects such as point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF), contrast transfer function (CTF), modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), bias voltage, radiation damage, and polarization effect are also remarked. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) pixelated photon counting detector is employed for part of the characterization demonstration and the results are presented. This review can serve as a tutorial for X-ray imaging researchers and investigators to understand, operate, characterize, and optimize photon counting detectors for a variety of applications.

  1. Peer Assessment of Elementary Science Teaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2007-01-01

    In this study, peer assessment was applied in assessing elementary science teaching skills. Preservice teachers taught a science topic as a team to their peers in an elementary science methods course. The peers participating in the science lesson assessed teacher-groups' elementary science teaching skills on an assessment form provided by the…

  2. 34 CFR 300.13 - Elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elementary school. 300.13 Section 300.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.13 Elementary school. Elementary school means a...

  3. PERCEPTIONS OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COUNSELOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRADEN, BILLY; AND OTHERS

    FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COUNSELOR AS THEY WERE PERCEIVED BY SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COUNSELORS, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS, COUNSELOR EDUCATORS, AND STATE SUPERVISORS IN THE SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION FOR COUNSELOR EDUCATION AND SUPERVISION (SACES) REGION WERE IDENTIFIED. THREE INSTRUMENTS WERE…

  4. Supersymmetry violation in elementary particle-monopole scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casher, A.; Shamir, Y.

    1991-10-01

    We show that the scattering of elementary particles on solitons (monopoles, fluxons, etc.) in supersymmetric gauge theories violates the relations dictated by supersymmetry at tree level. The violation arises because of the discrepancy between the spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations and because of the fermionic nature of the supersymmetry generators. (author). 14 refs

  5. School Counseling Faculty Perceptions and Experiences Preparing Elementary School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo; Martin, Ian; Biles, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    School counselors' job roles and preferences reportedly vary by educational level (i.e., elementary, middle and high school); however, several organizations, such as the American School Counselor Association, conceptualize and recommend school counseling practice and preparation through a K-12 lens. Little is known about how or if school…

  6. Differentiated Instruction in an Elementary School EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school English teachers in Taiwan face classes of students with differing levels of English proficiency, to the point where about one-third of the students may have never learned English before, and another third may already have read Harry Potter in English. A successful teacher recognizes that diversity may affect learning and works…

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Departmentalization on Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Florence C.; Muñoz, Marco A.; Koshewa, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    The increasing accountability demands are leading some districts to departmentalize or consider departmentalizing at the elementary school level (Delviscio & Muffs, 2007). Departmentalization allows teachers to specialize and teach one content area in-depth which may, in turn, lead to higher accountability test scores. Although, due to…

  8. Job Satisfaction of Elementary Principals in Large Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction levels of elementary principals in "major urban" districts in Texas and to identify strategies these principals used to cope with the demands of the position. Additionally, the project sought to find structures and supports needed to attract and retain principals in the…

  9. Challenges for Cooperative Learning Implementation: Reports from Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Céline; Filippou, Dimitra; Pulfrey, Caroline; Volpé, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-established benefits of cooperative learning, implementation remains a challenge. This research aims to document these challenges at the elementary school level, drawing on teachers' beliefs regarding learning as well as the difficulties teachers report. Results indicate that the most frequent instructional strategies reported are…

  10. Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students' Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students' comprehension…

  11. An Elementary Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Jeanie I.; Roth, Bradley J.

    2007-01-01

    This article is intended as a guide for teaching geomagnetism in a high school or university introductory physics class. Many students find this subject fascinating. Instructors, however, often have a difficult time introducing this topic at an elementary level. Suggestions will be made on how to accomplish this using three electricity and…

  12. Pre-Calculus Instructional Guide for Elementary Functions, Analytic Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This is a guide for use in semester-long courses in Elementary Functions and Analytic Geometry. A list of entry-level skills and a list of approved textbooks is provided. Each of the 18 units consists of: (1) overview, suggestions for teachers, and suggested time; (2) list of objectives; (3) cross-references guide to approved textbooks; (4) sample…

  13. Linking Children's Literature with Social Studies in the Elementary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The author shares information related to integrating quality literature written for children into the teaching of social studies at the elementary school level. Research within the past decade informs educators of the strong impact of curriculum standards for the social studies as developed by professional organizations. Teachers today are…

  14. Online Software Applications for Learning: Observations from an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Lee Yong; Lim, Cher Ping; Nair, Shanthi Suraj; Lim, Siew Khiaw

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory case study research describes the integration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) into the teaching and learning of English, mathematics and science in an elementary school in Singapore. The school in this case study research is one of the first primary-level future schools that was set up under the…

  15. Theory of photoelectron counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present essay is to provide a detailed analysis of those theoretical aspects of photoelectron counting which are capable of experimental verification. Most of our interest is in the physical phenomena themselves, while part is in the mathematical techniques. Many of the mathematical methods used in the analysis of the photoelectron counting problem are generally unfamiliar to physicists interested in the subject. For this reason we have developed the essay in such a fashion that, although primary interest is focused on the physical phenomena, we have also taken pains to carry out enough of the analysis so that the reader can follow the main details. We have chosen to present a consistently quantum mechanical version of the subject, in that we follow the Glauber theory throughout. (orig./WL)

  16. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  17. Card counting in continuous time

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal betting strategy for a house-banked casino card game that is played for several coups before reshuffling. The sampling without replacement makes it possible to take advantage of the changes in the expected value as the deck is depleted, making large bets when the game is advantageous. Using such a strategy, which is easy to implement, is known as card counting. We consider the case of a large number of decks, making an approximat...

  18. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  19. Geometrical Meaning of Arithmetic Series [Image Omitted], [Image Omitted] and [Image Omitted] in Terms of the Elementary Combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The formula [image omitted] is closely related to combinatorics through an elementary geometric exercise. This approach can be expanded to the formulas [image omitted], [image omitted] and [image omitted]. These formulas are also nice examples of showing two approaches, one algebraic and one combinatoric, to a problem of counting. (Contains 6…

  20. Quality control of radiation counting systems and measurement of minimum detectable activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Byoung Chul; Han, Sung Sim; Kim, Young Bok; Jee, Kwang Yong; Sohn, Se Chul

    2004-01-01

    Various radiation counters have been using to determine radioactivity of radwastes for disposal. A radiation counting system was set up using a radiation detector chosen in this study and its stability was investigated through the periodic determination of background and counting efficiencies in accordance with a quality control program to increase the confidence level. The average background level for the γ-spectrometer was 1.59 cps and the average counting level for the standard sample was 45248 dps within 20 confidence levels. The average alpha background level for the low background α/β counting system was 0.31 cpm and the efficiency for alpha counting was 34.38 %. The average beta background level for the α/β counting system was 1.30 cpm and the efficiency for beta counting was 46.5%. The background level in the region of 3H and 14C for the liquid scintillation counting system was 2.52 and 3.31 cpm and the efficiency for alpha counting was 58.5 and 95.6%, respectively. The minimum detectable activity for the γ-spectrometer was found to be 3.2 Bq/mL and 3.8 Bq/mL for the liquid scintillation counter, and 20.5 and 23.0 Bq/mL, respectively for the α and β counting system

  1. Quantitative clinical uptake measurements using conjugate counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Bartlett, R.D.; Chen, C.T.; Chou, J.S.; Faulhaber, P.F.; Harper, P.V.; Stark, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    While the use of conjugate counting for determination of organ uptake in human subjects has been extensively described, in the present study the determination of the organ uptake of ortho-iodohippurate presented several opportunities for validation of the in vivo counting data. Ortho-iodohippurate is distributed in the extracellular space, is largely extracted on each pass through the kidneys, and is not significantly deiodinated in vivo. Thus, the kidney uptake rate should be proportional to the blood level, the appearance rate of activity in the bladder is equal to the disappearance rate from the kidneys, and direct measurement of activity in the urine after voiding provides an internal standard for imaging measurements of bladder activity. Since the activity levels in the kidneys, bladder, and remainder of the body changed fairly rapidly, especially in the first 20 to 30 minutes following injection, posterior images of the trunk including kidneys and bladder were obtained continuously using a gamma camera fitted with a diverging collimator for 30 minutes and then at intervals for several hours. Simultaneous conjugate counting determinations were made using a whole body scanning system previously described at these meetings. Imaging data corrected for decay and adjacent background were fitted by least squares methods to curves representing a sum of exponentials, and the curves were normalized to the conjugate uptake measurements. The uptake curves of the kidneys and bladder matched well with the direct measurements of the urinary excretion. Data were collected in 16 normal subjects, and the estimated absorbed dose was calculated for the kidneys, the bladder and the remainder of the body for seven radioisotopes of iodine. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  2. Digital Photography for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…

  3. Innovation in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Geoffrey A.; Jones, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an innovation curriculum that can be taught to elementary-aged students to expand their creative and innovative abilities and potential. The curriculum focuses on divergent and convergent thinking principles embedded in a hands-on learning pedagogy. The curriculum framework is based on an innovation model known…

  4. Topics in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in elementary particle physics are discussed. Models with N = 2 supersymmetry are constructed. The CP violation properties of a class of N = 1 supergravity models are analyzed. The structure of a composite Higgs model is investigated. The implications of a 17 keV neutrino are considered

  5. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  6. Robotics Literacy Captivates Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Madeleine

    1986-01-01

    Describes a robotics literacy course offered for elementary age children at Broward Community College (Florida) and discusses the motivation for offering such a course, the course philosophy and objectives, and participant reactions. A sampling of robots and robotics devices and some of their teaching applications are included. (MBR)

  7. Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

  8. Marketing School Music: It's Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill Kuespert

    1992-01-01

    Explores methods of promoting elementary school music programs. Suggests inviting visitors to the class as a means of increasing awareness of school music. Recommends sending press releases to school newsletters and local newspapers. Reminds teachers to make use of educational access channels on area cable television systems. (SG)

  9. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  10. Atomic nucleus and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Negatively charged leptons and hadrons can be incorporated into atomic shells forming exotic atoms. Nucleon resonances and Λ hyperons can be considered as constituents of atomic nuclei. Information derived from studies of such exotic systems enriches our knowledge of both the interactions of elementary particles and of the structure of atomic nuclei. (author)

  11. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  12. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  13. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  14. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Boulyga, E.G.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V

    1999-06-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2{center_dot}10{sup 5} tracks/cm{sup 2}. The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements.

  15. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Boulyga, E.G.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2·10 5 tracks/cm 2 . The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements

  16. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V

    1999-01-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2 centre dot 10 sup 5 tracks/cm sup 2. The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements.

  17. Limit of sensitivity of low-background counting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazards Control Department's Radiological Measurements Laboratory (RML) analyzes many types of sample media in support of the Laboratory's health and safety program. The Department has determined that the equation for the minimum limit of sensitivity, MDC(α,β) = 2.71 + 3.29 (r b t s ) 1/2 is also adequate for RML counting systems with very-low-background levels. This paper reviews the normal distribution case and address the special case of determining the limit of sensitivity of a counting system when the background count rate is well known and small. In the latter case, we must use an exact test procedure based on the binomial distribution. However, the error in using the normal distribution for calculating a detection system's limit of sensitivity is not significant even as the total observed number of counts approaches or equals zero. 2 refs., 4 figs

  18. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  19. Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.

  20. Increasing the Rate of Presentation and Use of Signals in Elementary Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnine, Douglas W.; Fink, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Two issues relevant to competency-based teacher training were investigated with 13 elementary teachers--the specification of acceptable implementation levels for validated techniques and the necessity and feasibility of providing training on those techniques. (Author)

  1. Iteration in Early-Elementary Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland Kendall, Amber Leigh

    K-12 standards and curricula are beginning to include engineering design as a key practice within Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. However, there is little research on how the youngest students engage in engineering design within the elementary classroom. This dissertation focuses on iteration as an essential aspect of engineering design, and because research at the college and professional level suggests iteration improves the designer's understanding of problems and the quality of design solutions. My research presents qualitative case studies of students in kindergarten and third-grade as they engage in classroom engineering design challenges which integrate with traditional curricula standards in mathematics, science, and literature. I discuss my results through the lens of activity theory, emphasizing practices, goals, and mediating resources. Through three chapters, I provide insight into how early-elementary students iterate upon their designs by characterizing the ways in which lesson design impacts testing and revision, by analyzing the plan-driven and experimentation-driven approaches that student groups use when solving engineering design challenges, and by investigating how students attend to constraints within the challenge. I connect these findings to teacher practices and curriculum design in order to suggest methods of promoting iteration within open-ended, classroom-based engineering design challenges. This dissertation contributes to the field of engineering education by providing evidence of productive engineering practices in young students and support for the value of engineering design challenges in developing students' participation and agency in these practices.

  2. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  5. Cooperative learning during math lessons in multi-ethnic elementary schools : counting on each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortwijn, Michiel B.

    2007-01-01

    How do social peer interactions (i.e. verbal helping behavior) during a cooperative learning (CL) curriculum in math affect the mathematical, linguistic, and social skills of 10-12 year old pupils from multiethnic classrooms? We developed a CL math curriculum in this thesis to investigate this

  6. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  7. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  8. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary

  9. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  10. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  11. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  12. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables

  13. The determination of the optimum counting conditions for a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurasevic, M.M.; Kandic, A.B.; Novkovic, D.N; Vukanac, I.S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: mirad@vin.bg.ac.yu; Djurasevic, M.M.)

    2005-01-01

    The methods that use scintillation counting with ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector are widely used for gross alpha activity determination. The common criteria for the selection of optimum counting condition for a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector do not consider simultaneously operating voltage and discrimination level variation. In presented method a relationship between voltage and discrimination level is derived for counting efficiency. (author)

  14. Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-05

    These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

  15. Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

  16. Elementary quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxon, David S

    2012-01-01

    Based on lectures for an undergraduate UCLA course in quantum mechanics, this volume focuses on the formulas of quantum mechanics rather than applications. Widely used in both upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, it offers a broad self-contained survey rather than in-depth treatments.Topics include the dual nature of matter and radiation, state functions and their interpretation, linear momentum, the motion of a free particle, Schrödinger's equation, approximation methods, angular momentum, and many other subjects. In the interests of keeping the mathematics as simple as possible, m

  17. Automatic quench compensation for liquid scintillation counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nather, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A method of automatic quench compensation is provided, where a reference measure of quench is taken on a sample prior to taking a sample count. The measure of quench is then compared with a reference voltage source which has been established to vary in proportion to the variation of the measure of quench with the level of a system parameter required to restore at least one isotope spectral energy endpoint substantially to a selected counting window discriminator level in order to determine the amount of adjustment of the system parameter required to restore the endpoint. This is followed by the appropriate adjustment of the system parameter required to restore the relative position of the discriminator windows and the sample spectrum and is followed in turn by taking a sample count

  18. Radon counting statistics - a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive decay is a Poisson process, and so the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of open-quotes nclose quotes counts of a single nuclide is usually estimated as 1/√n. This is only true if the count duration is much shorter than the half-life of the nuclide. At longer count durations, the COV is smaller than the Poisson estimate. Most radon measurement methods count the alpha decays of 222 Rn, plus the progeny 218 Po and 214 Po, and estimate the 222 Rn activity from the sum of the counts. At long count durations, the chain decay of these nuclides means that every 222 Rn decay must be followed by two other alpha decays. The total number of decays is open-quotes 3Nclose quotes, where N is the number of radon decays, and the true COV of the radon concentration estimate is 1/√(N), √3 larger than the Poisson total count estimate of 1/√3N. Most count periods are comparable to the half lives of the progeny, so the relationship between COV and count time is complex. A Monte-Carlo estimate of the ratio of true COV to Poisson estimate was carried out for a range of count periods from 1 min to 16 h and three common radon measurement methods: liquid scintillation, scintillation cell, and electrostatic precipitation of progeny. The Poisson approximation underestimates COV by less than 20% for count durations of less than 60 min

  19. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  20. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  1. Mass counting of radioactivity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, D.L.; Obrycki, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for concurrently counting a plurality of radioactive samples is claimed. The position sensitive circuitry of a scintillation camera is employed to sort electrical pulses resulting from scintillations according to the geometrical locations of scintillations causing those pulses. A scintillation means, in the form of a scintillating crystal material or a liquid scintillator, is positioned proximate to an array of radioactive samples. Improvement in the accuracy of pulse classification may be obtained by employing collimating means. If a plurality of scintillation crystals are employed to measure the iodine-125 content of samples, a method and means are provided for correcting for variations in crystal light transmission properties, sample volume, and sample container radiation absorption. 2 claims, 7 drawing figures

  2. Strengthening Children's Math Skills with Enhanced Instruction: The Impacts of Making Pre-K Count and High 5s on Kindergarten Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Shira K.; Jacob, Robin; Morris, Pamela A.

    2018-01-01

    Early math skills are a strong predictor of later achievement for young children, not only in math, but in other domains as well. Exhibiting strong math skills in elementary school is predictive of later high school completion and college attendance. To that end, the Making Pre-K Count and High 5s studies set out to rigorously assess whether…

  3. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Al-Hosni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.

  4. On an elementary definition of visual saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based on probabi......Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based...... on probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all...

  5. A cryptosystem based on elementary cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Lian, Shiguo; Ismail, I. A.; Amin, M.; Diab, H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on elementary cellular automata, a new image encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a special kind of periodic boundary cellular automata with unity attractors is used. From the viewpoint of security, the number of cellular automata attractor states are changed with respect to the encrypted image, and different key streams are used to encrypt different plain images. The cellular neural network with chaotic properties is used as the generator of a pseudo-random key stream. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have both confirmed that the proposed algorithm possesses high security level and good performances against differential and statistical attacks. The comparison with other existing schemes is given, which shows the superiority of the proposal scheme.

  6. Factors Influencing Science Content Accuracy in Elementary Inquiry Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Barbara L.; Sullivan-Watts, Barbara; Shim, Minsuk K.; Young, Betty; Pockalny, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Elementary teachers face increasing demands to engage children in authentic science process and argument while simultaneously preparing them with knowledge of science facts, vocabulary, and concepts. This reform is particularly challenging due to concerns that elementary teachers lack adequate science background to teach science accurately. This study examined 81 in-classroom inquiry science lessons for preservice education majors and their cooperating teachers to determine the accuracy of the science content delivered in elementary classrooms. Our results showed that 74 % of experienced teachers and 50 % of student teachers presented science lessons with greater than 90 % accuracy. Eleven of the 81 lessons (9 preservice, 2 cooperating teachers) failed to deliver accurate science content to the class. Science content accuracy was highly correlated with the use of kit-based resources supported with professional development, a preference for teaching science, and grade level. There was no correlation between the accuracy of science content and some common measures of teacher content knowledge (i.e., number of college science courses, science grades, or scores on a general science content test). Our study concluded that when provided with high quality curricular materials and targeted professional development, elementary teachers learn needed science content and present it accurately to their students.

  7. Influence of passive smoking on learning in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juliana Gomes; Botelho, Clóvis; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Moi, Gisele Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the association between household smoking and the development of learning in elementary schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study with 785 students from the 2nd to the 5th year of elementary school. Students were evaluated by the School Literacy Screening Protocol to identify the presence of learning disabilities. Mothers/guardians were interviewed at home through a validated questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis, as well as multivariate Poisson regression, were performed. In the final model, the variables associated with learning difficulties were current smoking at the household in the presence of the child (PR=6.10, 95% CI: 4.56 to 8.16), maternal passive smoking during pregnancy (PR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.01), students attending the 2nd and 3rd years of Elementary School (PR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.90), and being children of mothers with only elementary level education (PR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.79). The study demonstrated an association between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and learning difficulties at school. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. In-Service Turkish Elementary and Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Science and Science Teaching: A Sample from Usak Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal Turkish elementary teachers' and science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching. The sample of the study, 138 in-service elementary level science teachers from a province of Turkey, was selected by a clustered sampling method. The Science Teaching Attitude Scale-II was employed to measure the…

  9. An Examination of Pay Facets and Referent Groups for Assessing Pay Satisfaction of Male Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey; Okhremtchouk, Irina; Castaneda, Jose Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Pay satisfaction was assessed according to different facets (pay level, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises) and potential referent groups (teachers and elementary school principals) for a random sample of male elementary school principals. A structural model approach was used that considers facets of the pay process, potential others as…

  10. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  11. Elementary Preservice Teachers' and Elementary Inservice Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the differences in knowledge of mathematical modeling between a group of elementary preservice teachers and a group of elementary inservice teachers. Mathematical modeling has recently come to the forefront of elementary mathematics classrooms because of the call to add mathematical modeling tasks in mathematics classes through…

  12. Changes in neutrophil count, creatine kinases and muscle soreness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. A primary objective was to examine circulating neutrophil count after repeated bouts of downhill running. An additional aim was to determine creatine kinase (CK) levels during the initial 12 hours, after repeated DHRs. Design. Eleven healthy, untrained Caucasian males performed 2 x 60 min bouts of DHR ...

  13. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two......-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cram\\'er- Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors...

  14. Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)

  15. The elementary process of Bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the theory and experiment of the elementary process of bremsstrahlung, where photons are detected in coincidence with decelerated outgoing electrons. Such experiments allow for a more stringent check of the theoretical work. The main emphasis is laid on electron-atom bremsstrahlung and electron-electron bremsstrahlung, but further bremsstrahlung processes are also dealt with. In the theoretical parts, triply differential cross sections are derived in various approximations, including electron spin and photon-polarization. In the experimental sections, electron-photon coinc

  16. Nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a short introduction to the physics of the nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles for students of physics. Important facts and model imaginations on the structure, the decay, and the scattering of nuclei, the 'zoology' of the hadrons and basic facts of hadronic scattering processes, a short introduction to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics and the most important processes of lepton and parton physics, as well as the current-current approach of weak interactions and the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory are presented. (orig.) With 153 figs., 10 tabs [de

  17. Elementary linear programming with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program

  18. Instrumentation in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabjan, C W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Pilcher, J E [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); eds.

    1988-01-01

    The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs.

  19. Instrumentation in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C.W.; Pilcher, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. The Relationship among Elementary Teachers’ Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Instructional Practices, and Student Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hadley, Kristin M.; Dorward, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Many elementary teachers have been found to have high levels of mathematics anxiety but the impact on student achievement was unknown. Elementary teachers (N = 692) completed the modified Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (Hopko, 2003) along with a questionnaire probing anxiety about teaching mathematics and current mathematics instructional practices. Student mathematics achievement data were collected for the classrooms taught by the teachers. A positive relationship was found betwee...