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Sample records for level co-occurrence matrix

  1. 3D shape recovery from image focus using gray level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fahad; Munir, Umair; Mehmood, Fahad; Iqbal, Javaid

    2018-04-01

    Recovering a precise and accurate 3-D shape of the target object utilizing robust 3-D shape recovery algorithm is an ultimate objective of computer vision community. Focus measure algorithm plays an important role in this architecture which convert the color values of each pixel of the acquired 2-D image dataset into corresponding focus values. After convolving the focus measure filter with the input 2-D image dataset, a 3-D shape recovery approach is applied which will recover the depth map. In this document, we are concerned with proposing Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix along with its statistical features for computing the focus information of the image dataset. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix quantifies the texture present in the image using statistical features and then applies joint probability distributive function of the gray level pairs of the input image. Finally, we quantify the focus value of the input image using Gaussian Mixture Model. Due to its little computational complexity, sharp focus measure curve, robust to random noise sources and accuracy, it is considered as superior alternative to most of recently proposed 3-D shape recovery approaches. This algorithm is deeply investigated on real image sequences and synthetic image dataset. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is also compared with the state of art 3-D shape recovery approaches. Finally, by means of two global statistical measures, root mean square error and correlation, we claim that this approach -in spite of simplicity generates accurate results.

  2. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  3. A novel method for morphological pleomorphism and heterogeneity quantitative measurement: Named cell feature level co-occurrence matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Numata, Yasushi; Hamada, Takuya; Horisawa, Tomoyoshi; Cosatto, Eric; Graf, Hans-Peter; Kuroda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular pathology and genetic/epigenetic analysis of cancer tissue have resulted in a marked increase in objective and measurable data. In comparison, the traditional morphological analysis approach to pathology diagnosis, which can connect these molecular data and clinical diagnosis, is still mostly subjective. Even though the advent and popularization of digital pathology has provided a boost to computer-aided diagnosis, some important pathological concepts still remain largely non-quantitative and their associated data measurements depend on the pathologist's sense and experience. Such features include pleomorphism and heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a method for the objective measurement of pleomorphism and heterogeneity, using the cell-level co-occurrence matrix. Our method is based on the widely used Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), where relations between neighboring pixel intensity levels are captured into a co-occurrence matrix, followed by the application of analysis functions such as Haralick features. In the pathological tissue image, through image processing techniques, each nucleus can be measured and each nucleus has its own measureable features like nucleus size, roundness, contour length, intra-nucleus texture data (GLCM is one of the methods). In GLCM each nucleus in the tissue image corresponds to one pixel. In this approach the most important point is how to define the neighborhood of each nucleus. We define three types of neighborhoods of a nucleus, then create the co-occurrence matrix and apply Haralick feature functions. In each image pleomorphism and heterogeneity are then determined quantitatively. For our method, one pixel corresponds to one nucleus feature, and we therefore named our method Cell Feature Level Co-occurrence Matrix (CFLCM). We tested this method for several nucleus features. CFLCM is showed as a useful quantitative method for pleomorphism and heterogeneity on histopathological image

  4. Histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix on gray-scale ultrasound images for diagnosing lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Gyung; Yoo, Jaeheung; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether texture analysis using histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters can help clinicians diagnose lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and differentiate LT according to pathologic grade. The background thyroid pathology of 441 patients was classified into no evidence of LT, chronic LT (CLT), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Histogram and GLCM parameters were extracted from the regions of interest on ultrasound. The diagnostic performances of the parameters for diagnosing and differentiating LT were calculated. Of the histogram and GLCM parameters, the mean on histogram had the highest Az (0.63) and VUS (0.303). As the degrees of LT increased, the mean decreased and the standard deviation and entropy increased. The mean on histogram from gray-scale ultrasound showed the best diagnostic performance as a single parameter in differentiating LT according to pathologic grade as well as in diagnosing LT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender classification from face images by using local binary pattern and gray-level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbaş, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2018-04-01

    Gender is an important step for human computer interactive processes and identification. Human face image is one of the important sources to determine gender. In the present study, gender classification is performed automatically from facial images. In order to classify gender, we propose a combination of features that have been extracted face, eye and lip regions by using a hybrid method of Local Binary Pattern and Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix. The features have been extracted from automatically obtained face, eye and lip regions. All of the extracted features have been combined and given as input parameters to classification methods (Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural Networks, Naive Bayes and k-Nearest Neighbor methods) for gender classification. The Nottingham Scan face database that consists of the frontal face images of 100 people (50 male and 50 female) is used for this purpose. As the result of the experimental studies, the highest success rate has been achieved as 98% by using Support Vector Machine. The experimental results illustrate the efficacy of our proposed method.

  6. Combination of radiological and gray level co-occurrence matrix textural features used to distinguish solitary pulmonary nodules by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haifeng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Wang, Wei; Huo, Da; Lv, Pingxin; He, Wen; Wang, Keyang; Guo, Xiuhua

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the method of the combination of radiological and textural features for the differentiation of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules by computed tomography. Features including 13 gray level co-occurrence matrix textural features and 12 radiological features were extracted from 2,117 CT slices, which came from 202 (116 malignant and 86 benign) patients. Lasso-type regularization to a nonlinear regression model was applied to select predictive features and a BP artificial neural network was used to build the diagnostic model. Eight radiological and two textural features were obtained after the Lasso-type regularization procedure. Twelve radiological features alone could reach an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.84 in differentiating between malignant and benign lesions. The 10 selected characters improved the AUC to 0.91. The evaluation results showed that the method of selecting radiological and textural features appears to yield more effective in the distinction of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules by computed tomography.

  7. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging for detecting pathological patterns in patients with lupus nephritis: a preliminary study using gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huilan; Jia, Junya; Li, Dong; Wei, Li; Shang, Wenya; Zheng, Zhenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Objective Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) is a noninvasive technique useful in patients with renal disease. The current study was performed to determine whether BOLD MRI can contribute to the diagnosis of renal pathological patterns. Methods BOLD MRI was used to obtain functional magnetic resonance parameter R2* values. Gray-level co-occurrence matrixes (GLCMs) were generated for gray-scale maps. Several GLCM parameters were calculated and used to construct algorithmic models for renal pathological patterns. Results Histopathology and BOLD MRI were used to examine 12 patients. Two GLCM parameters, including correlation and energy, revealed differences among four groups of renal pathological patterns. Four Fisher's linear discriminant formulas were constructed using two variables, including the correlation at 45° and correlation at 90°. A cross-validation test showed that the formulas correctly predicted 28 of 36 samples, and the rate of correct prediction was 77.8%. Conclusions Differences in the texture characteristics of BOLD MRI in patients with lupus nephritis may be detected by GLCM analysis. Discriminant formulas constructed using GLCM parameters may facilitate prediction of renal pathological patterns.

  8. Detection of LSB+/-1 steganography based on co-occurrence matrix and bit plane clipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Mojtaba; Aghaeinia, Hassan; Faez, Karim; Mehrabi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Spatial LSB+/-1 steganography changes smooth characteristics between adjoining pixels of the raw image. We present a novel steganalysis method for LSB+/-1 steganography based on feature vectors derived from the co-occurrence matrix in the spatial domain. We investigate how LSB+/-1 steganography affects the bit planes of an image and show that it changes more least significant bit (LSB) planes of it. The co-occurrence matrix is derived from an image in which some of its most significant bit planes are clipped. By this preprocessing, in addition to reducing the dimensions of the feature vector, the effects of embedding were also preserved. We compute the co-occurrence matrix in different directions and with different dependency and use the elements of the resulting co-occurrence matrix as features. This method is sensitive to the data embedding process. We use a Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) classifier and test our algorithm on different databases and embedding rates. We compare our scheme with the current LSB+/-1 steganalysis methods. It is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in detecting the LSB+/-1 steganographic method for grayscale images.

  9. A study on the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using a co-occurrence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Shimada, Tetsuo; Kaeriyama, Tomoharu; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    We studied the possibility of making an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. An image of the cerebral parenchyma was created from original MR images, and the brain, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the amount of the features from the co-occurrence matrix were measured. When the brain-intracranial ratio, hippocampus-intracranial ratio, and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio were computed, a significant difference was not detected. Discriminant analysis using the hippocampus-intracranial ratio and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio showed an overall accuracy of 63.8%. These are not sufficient results to use clinically. Therefore it is possible to make an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using the co-occurrence matrix. A statistically significant difference was found in 8 of the 13 features obtained from the co-occurrence matrix. Moreover, discriminant analysis using the eight features showed an overall accuracy of 85.1%. These results indicate that they can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  10. Parallel implementation of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices and Haralick texture features on cell architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbahrami, A.; Pham, T.A.; Bertels, K.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Texture features extraction algorithms are key functions in various image processing applications such as medical images, remote sensing, and content-based image retrieval. The most common way to extract texture features is the use of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCMs). The GLCM contains the

  11. Material microstructures analyzed by using gray level Co-occurrence matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yansu; Wang Zhijun; Fan Xiaoguang; Li Junjie; Gao Ang

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of materials greatly depend on the microstructure morphology. The quantitative characterization of material microstructures is essential for the performance prediction and hence the material design. At present, the quantitative characterization methods mainly rely on the microstructure characterization of shape, size, distribution, and volume fraction, which related to the mechanical properties. These traditional methods have been applied for several decades and the subjectivity of human factors induces unavoidable errors. In this paper, we try to bypass the traditional operations and identify the relationship between the microstructures and the material properties by the texture of image itself directly. The statistical approach is based on gray level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), allowing an objective and repeatable study on material microstructures. We first present how to identify GLCM with the optimal parameters, and then apply the method on three systems with different microstructures. The results show that GLCM can reveal the interface information and microstructures complexity with less human impact. Naturally, there is a good correlation between GLCM and the mechanical properties. (paper)

  12. Enhanced Living by Assessing Voice Pathology Using a Co-Occurrence Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alhamid, Mohammed F; Hossain, M Shamim; Almogren, Ahmad S; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-01-29

    A large number of the population around the world suffers from various disabilities. Disabilities affect not only children but also adults of different professions. Smart technology can assist the disabled population and lead to a comfortable life in an enhanced living environment (ELE). In this paper, we propose an effective voice pathology assessment system that works in a smart home framework. The proposed system takes input from various sensors, and processes the acquired voice signals and electroglottography (EGG) signals. Co-occurrence matrices in different directions and neighborhoods from the spectrograms of these signals were obtained. Several features such as energy, entropy, contrast, and homogeneity from these matrices were calculated and fed into a Gaussian mixture model-based classifier. Experiments were performed with a publicly available database, namely, the Saarbrucken voice database. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system in light of its high accuracy and speed. The proposed system can be extended to assess other disabilities in an ELE.

  13. PENGENALAN PENY AKIT NODA PADA CITRA DAUN TEBU BERDASARKAN CIRI TEKSTUR FRACTAL DIMENSION CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX DAN L*a*b* COLOR MOMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Kamilah Ratnasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit yang menyerang tebu dapat disebabkan oleh bakteri, jamur maupun virus. Penyakit noda merupakan penyakit pada tanaman tebu yang disebabkan oleh jamur dengan menampakkan lesi atau bercak pada permukaan daun. Penyakit noda tersebut dapat menghambat proses fotosintesis yang akan berakibat menurunkan produksi gula karena mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tebu. Upaya pengendalian dini dapat dilakukan dengan mengenali jenis penyakit melalui lesinya yang bermanfaat dalam menentukan tindakan penanganan yang tepat. Lesi yang disebabkan oleh penyakit noda masing-masing dapat dikenali secara visual karena memiliki ciri warna dan tekstur yang unik. Tetapi pengamatan secara visual memiliki beberapa kekurangan seperti subjektifitas dan kurang akurat. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pengenalan penyakit noda tanaman tebu yang terdiri dari noda cincin, noda karat, dan noda kuning berdasarkan fitur tekstur yang merupakan kombinasi dari konsep Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM dan dimensi fraktal yang dinamakan Fractal Dimension Co-Occurrence Matrix (FDCM. Sedangkan fitur warna didapatkan dari perhitungan statistik col or moments pada citra L*a*b*. Kombinasi fitur tersebut menghasilkan 12 fitur warna dan 6 fitur tekstur yang kemudian digunakan sebagai masukan klasifikasi k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. Pengenalan penyakit noda pada tanaman tebu menggunakan metode tersebut dapat menghasilkan akurasi tertinggi 90%.

  14. Support Vector Machine Untuk Klasifikasi Citra Jenis Daging Berdasarkan Tekstur Menggunakan Ekstraksi Ciri Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneng Neneng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Texture is one of the most important features for image analysis, which provides informations such as the composition of texture on the surface structure, changes of the intensity, or brightness. Gray level co-occurence matrix (GLCM is a method that can be used for statistical texture analysis. GLCM has proven to be the most powerful texture descriptors used in image analysis. This study uses the four-way GLCM 0o, 45o, 90o, and 135o. Support vector machine (SVM is a machine learning that can be used for image classification. SVM has a high generalization capability without any requirement of additional knowledge, even with the high dimension of the input space. The data used in this study are the image of goat meat, buffalo meat, horse meat, and beef with shooting distance 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm. The result of this study shows that the best recognition rate of 87.5% was taken at a distance of 20 cm with neighboring pixels distance d = 2 in the direction GLCM 135o.

  15. Coupled X-ray computed tomography and grey level co-occurrence matrices as a method for quantification of mineralogy and texture in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, M. A.; Miller, J. A.; Becker, M.

    2018-02-01

    Texture is one of the most basic descriptors used in the geological sciences. The value derived from textural characterisation extends into engineering applications associated with mining, mineral processing and metal extraction where quantitative textural information is required for models predicting the response of the ore through a particular process. This study extends the well-known 2D grey level co-occurrence matrices methodology into 3D as a method for image analysis of 3D x-ray computed tomography grey scale volumes of drill core. Subsequent interrogation of the information embedded within the grey level occurrence matrices (GLCM) indicates they are sensitive to changes in mineralogy and texture of samples derived from a magmatic nickel sulfide ore. The position of the peaks in the GLCM is an indication of the relative density (specific gravity, SG) of the minerals and when interpreted using a working knowledge of the mineralogy of the ore presented a means to determine the relative abundance of the sulfide minerals (SG > 4), dense silicate minerals (SG > 3), and lighter silicate minerals (SG < 3). The spread of the peaks in the GLCM away from the diagonal is an indication of the degree of grain boundary interaction with wide peaks representing fine grain sizes and narrow peaks representing coarse grain sizes. The method lends itself to application as part of a generic methodology for routine use on large XCT volumes providing quantitative, timely, meaningful and automated information on mineralogy and texture in 3D.

  16. Cloud field classification based upon high spatial resolution textural features. I - Gray level co-occurrence matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R. M.; Sengupta, S. K.; Chen, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Stratocumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds were identified on the basis of cloud textural features which were derived from a single high-resolution Landsat MSS NIR channel using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis. It is shown that, using this method, it is possible to distinguish high cirrus clouds from low clouds with high accuracy on the basis of spatial brightness patterns. The largest probability of misclassification is associated with confusion between the stratocumulus breakup regions and the fair-weather cumulus.

  17. Retrospective analysis of cytopathology using gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm for thyroid malignant nodules in the ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Ju; Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study evaluated the applicability of computer-aided diagnosis by retrospective analysis of GLCM algorithm based on cytopathological diagnosis of normal and malignant nodules in thyroid ultrasound images. In the experiment, the recognition rate and ROC curve of thyroid malignant nodule were analyzed using 6 parameters of GLCM algorithm. Experimental results showed 97% energy, 93% contrast, 92% correlation, 92% homogeneity, 100% entropy and 100% variance. Statistical analysis showed that the area under the curve of each parameter was more than 0.947 (p = 0 .001) in t he ROC curve, which was s ignificant in the recognition of thyroid malignant nodules. In the GLCM, the cut-off value of each parameter can be used to predict the disease through analysis of quantitative computer-aided diagnosis.

  18. CO-OCCURRENCE OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cardiovascular disease (CVD), and when they co-exist ... and hypertension among patients with co-occurrence ... are any clinical and metabolic differences between those ... The last 3 readings of their fasting blood .... as insulin resistance, aging, obesity, use of thiazide ... therapy as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Cracklike defects detection and sizing from co-occurrence matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.; Benoist, P.; Magnin, I.

    1991-01-01

    The inspection of austenitic welds used in nuclear field with ultrasounds poses problems in interpretation: strong grain noise makes difficult the detection of the crack top and the crack bottom. Since corresponding echoes enable the defect sizing, defect sizing also becomes difficult. The formation of 2D images (BSCAN), and their processing enable an increase in the effectiveness of testing. We present a segmentation method, based on co-occurrence matrix, which separates defects zones and noise zones. Examples of segmentation improvement applied to artificial defects are presented

  20. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  1. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  2. Co-occurrence of chancroid and gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Tayeh, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Gonorrhea and chancroid are common sexually transmitted infections in many parts of the world. Still, co-occurrence of these two conditions is uncommonly reported. We present here a patient who presented with painful genital ulcers and urethral discharge simultaneously acquired from a single exposure, which turned out to be chancroid and gonorrhea, respectively. Both conditions responded well to a single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone 250 mg. This report describes the uncommon occurrence of gonorrhea and chancroid in a patient. Clinical features, relevant investigations, treatment options of these two sexually transmitted infections, and possible implications in view of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic are briefly discussed.

  3. Co-occurrence of Local Anisotropic Gradient Orientations (CoLlAGe): A new radiomics descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Prateek; Tiwari, Pallavi; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-11-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new radiomic descriptor, Co-occurrence of Local Anisotropic Gradient Orientations (CoLlAGe) for capturing subtle differences between benign and pathologic phenotypes which may be visually indistinguishable on routine anatomic imaging. CoLlAGe seeks to capture and exploit local anisotropic differences in voxel-level gradient orientations to distinguish similar appearing phenotypes. CoLlAGe involves assigning every image voxel an entropy value associated with the co-occurrence matrix of gradient orientations computed around every voxel. The hypothesis behind CoLlAGe is that benign and pathologic phenotypes even though they may appear similar on anatomic imaging, will differ in their local entropy patterns, in turn reflecting subtle local differences in tissue microarchitecture. We demonstrate CoLlAGe's utility in three clinically challenging classification problems: distinguishing (1) radiation necrosis, a benign yet confounding effect of radiation treatment, from recurrent tumors on T1-w MRI in 42 brain tumor patients, (2) different molecular sub-types of breast cancer on DCE-MRI in 65 studies and (3) non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinomas) from benign fungal infection (granulomas) on 120 non-contrast CT studies. For each of these classification problems, CoLlAGE in conjunction with a random forest classifier outperformed state of the art radiomic descriptors (Haralick, Gabor, Histogram of Gradient Orientations).

  4. Analysis of co-occurrence toponyms in web pages based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Liu, Jiajun; Gao, Yong; Wu, Lun

    2017-01-01

    A large number of geographical toponyms exist in web pages and other documents, providing abundant geographical resources for GIS. It is very common for toponyms to co-occur in the same documents. To investigate these relations associated with geographic entities, a novel complex network model for co-occurrence toponyms is proposed. Then, 12 toponym co-occurrence networks are constructed from the toponym sets extracted from the People's Daily Paper documents of 2010. It is found that two toponyms have a high co-occurrence probability if they are at the same administrative level or if they possess a part-whole relationship. By applying complex network analysis methods to toponym co-occurrence networks, we find the following characteristics. (1) The navigation vertices of the co-occurrence networks can be found by degree centrality analysis. (2) The networks express strong cluster characteristics, and it takes only several steps to reach one vertex from another one, implying that the networks are small-world graphs. (3) The degree distribution satisfies the power law with an exponent of 1.7, so the networks are free-scale. (4) The networks are disassortative and have similar assortative modes, with assortative exponents of approximately 0.18 and assortative indexes less than 0. (5) The frequency of toponym co-occurrence is weakly negatively correlated with geographic distance, but more strongly negatively correlated with administrative hierarchical distance. Considering the toponym frequencies and co-occurrence relationships, a novel method based on link analysis is presented to extract the core toponyms from web pages. This method is suitable and effective for geographical information retrieval.

  5. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Stuart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV was created. The article presents the practical analysis (frequency, keyword, collocation and cluster analysis that was carried out in the initial phases of the study aimed at establishing the theoretical and practical background and framework for our matrix and network analysis of the scientific discourse of the UPV. In the methodology section, the processes that have allowed us to extract from the corpus the linguistic elements needed to develop co-occurrence matrices, as well as the computer tools used in the research, are described. From these co-occurrence matrices, semantic networks of subject and discipline knowledge were generated. Finally, based on the results obtained, we suggest that it may be viable to extract and to represent the intellectual capital of an academic institution using corpus linguistics methods in combination with the formulations of network theory.En este artículo describimos la investigación que se ha desarrollado en el diseño de una metodología para la representación reticular del conocimiento que se genera en el seno de una institución a partir de un corpus representativo de la producción científica de los integrantes de dicha comunidad discursiva, la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.. Para ello, presentamos las acciones que se realizaron en las fases iniciales del estudio encaminadas a establecer el marco teórico y práctico en el que se inscribe nuestro análisis. En la sección de metodología se describen las herramientas informáticas utilizadas, así como los procesos que nos permitieron disponer de aquellos elementos presentes en el corpus, que nos llevarían al desarrollo de

  6. Modeling Geometric-Temporal Context With Directional Pyramid Co-Occurrence for Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chunfeng; Li, Xi; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new geometric-temporal representation for visual action recognition based on local spatio-temporal features. First, we propose a modified covariance descriptor under the log-Euclidean Riemannian metric to represent the spatio-temporal cuboids detected in the video sequences. Compared with previously proposed covariance descriptors, our descriptor can be measured and clustered in Euclidian space. Second, to capture the geometric-temporal contextual information, we construct a directional pyramid co-occurrence matrix (DPCM) to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of the vector-quantized local feature descriptors extracted from a video. DPCM characterizes the co-occurrence statistics of local features as well as the spatio-temporal positional relationships among the concurrent features. These statistics provide strong descriptive power for action recognition. To use DPCM for action recognition, we propose a directional pyramid co-occurrence matching kernel to measure the similarity of videos. The proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance and improves on the recognition performance of the bag-of-visual-words (BOVWs) models by a large margin on six public data sets. For example, on the KTH data set, it achieves 98.78% accuracy while the BOVW approach only achieves 88.06%. On both Weizmann and UCF CIL data sets, the highest possible accuracy of 100% is achieved.

  7. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The effect of evaluation on co-occurrence memory judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Amzaleg-David, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effect of an attitude towards an object on the memory judgement of whether this object co-occurred with positive versus negative stimuli. We induced positive or negative attitudes towards novel male stimuli, and paired each man with an equal number of positive and negative animals. In a memory test, participants reported more co-occurrences of same-valence man/animal pairs than opposite-valence pairs. This valence-compatibility effect occurred even when attitudes were induced after the pairing (Experiment 1), when participants knew that each man occurred with an equal number of positive and negative animals (Experiment 2), and in reports of clear memory of pairs that did not co-occur (Experiment 3). The present findings suggest that evaluation causes illusory correlation even when the co-occurring stimuli are not traits or behaviours attributed to the attitude object. The results question the validity of co-occurrence memory judgements as measures of co-occurrence awareness in evaluative conditioning (EC) research.

  9. Non-negative matrix factorization in texture feature for classification of dementia with MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwinda, D.; Bustamam, A.; Ardaneswari, G.

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates applications of non-negative matrix factorization as feature selection method to select the features from gray level co-occurrence matrix. The proposed approach is used to classify dementia using MRI data. In this study, texture analysis using gray level co-occurrence matrix is done to feature extraction. In the feature extraction process of MRI data, we found seven features from gray level co-occurrence matrix. Non-negative matrix factorization selected three features that influence of all features produced by feature extractions. A Naïve Bayes classifier is adapted to classify dementia, i.e. Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and normal control. The experimental results show that non-negative factorization as feature selection method able to achieve an accuracy of 96.4% for classification of Alzheimer's and normal control. The proposed method also compared with other features selection methods i.e. Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

  10. Co-occurrence Models in Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Music genre classification has been investigated using many different methods, but most of them build on probabilistic models of feature vectors x\\_r which only represent the short time segment with index r of the song. Here, three different co-occurrence models are proposed which instead consider...... genre data set with a variety of modern music. The basis was a so-called AR feature representation of the music. Besides the benefit of having proper probabilistic models of the whole song, the lowest classification test errors were found using one of the proposed models....

  11. Codon based co-occurrence network motifs in human mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Shinde

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide polymorphism in human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA tolled by codon position bias plays an indispensable role in human population dispersion and expansion. Herein, we constructed genome-wide nucleotide co-occurrence networks using a massive data consisting of five different geographical regions and around 3000 samples for each region. We developed a powerful network model to describe complex mitochondrial evolutionary patterns between codon and non-codon positions. It was interesting to report a different evolution of Asian genomes than those of the rest which is divulged by network motifs. We found evidence that mtDNA undergoes substantial amounts of adaptive evolution, a finding which was supported by a number of previous studies. The dominance of higher order motifs indicated the importance of long-range nucleotide co-occurrence in genomic diversity. Most notably, codon motifs apparently underpinned the preferences among codon positions for co-evolution which is probably highly biased during the origin of the genetic code. Our analyses manifested that codon position co-evolution is very well conserved across human sub-populations and independently maintained within human sub-populations implying the selective role of evolutionary processes on codon position co-evolution. Ergo, this study provided a framework to investigate cooperative genomic interactions which are critical in underlying complex mitochondrial evolution.

  12. Co-occurrence of carbohydrate malabsorption and primary epiploic appendagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Kalmar, Peter; Mangge, Harald; Krause, Robert; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    Unspecific abdominal complaints including bloating and irregular bowel movements may be caused by carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes, e.g., lactose and fructose malabsorption. These symptoms were investigated with hydrogen (H2) breath tests and correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption. During performing these H2-breath tests the patient presented with an acute, localized, non-migratory pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints and diagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is made when computed tomography reveals a characteristic lesion. We report on a patient with co-occurrence of lactose and fructose malabsorption, which was treated successfully with a diet free of culprit carbohydrates, with PEA recovering without medication or surgical treatment within few days. Since the abdominal unspecific symptoms had been present for months, they appeared not to be correlated to the acute localized abdominal pain, therefore we speculate on a random co-occurrence of combined carbohydrate malabsorption and PEA. PMID:26401090

  13. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, J.; Lovejoy, C.; Crevecoeur, S.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a north-south permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units, OTUs), and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify variables controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley; however, the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial "keystone species". These highly connected nodes (OTUs) in the network were not merely the numerically dominant taxa, and their loss would alter the organization of microbial consortia and ultimately the food web structure and functioning of these aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a "Work Hard, Play Hard"-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure.

  15. Co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneses, Carmen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.

    Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y

  16. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-05

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  17. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC, <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18. The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr 25.0%, followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4% and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%. The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4% and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%. All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb, 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb, 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb. Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  18. Microbial co-occurrence relationships in the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Faust

    Full Text Available The healthy microbiota show remarkable variability within and among individuals. In addition to external exposures, ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic between microbial inhabitants are important contributors to this variation. It is thus of interest to assess what relationships might exist among microbes and determine their underlying reasons. The initial Human Microbiome Project (HMP cohort, comprising 239 individuals and 18 different microbial habitats, provides an unprecedented resource to detect, catalog, and analyze such relationships. Here, we applied an ensemble method based on multiple similarity measures in combination with generalized boosted linear models (GBLMs to taxonomic marker (16S rRNA gene profiles of this cohort, resulting in a global network of 3,005 significant co-occurrence and co-exclusion relationships between 197 clades occurring throughout the human microbiome. This network revealed strong niche specialization, with most microbial associations occurring within body sites and a number of accompanying inter-body site relationships. Microbial communities within the oropharynx grouped into three distinct habitats, which themselves showed no direct influence on the composition of the gut microbiota. Conversely, niches such as the vagina demonstrated little to no decomposition into region-specific interactions. Diverse mechanisms underlay individual interactions, with some such as the co-exclusion of Porphyromonaceae family members and Streptococcus in the subgingival plaque supported by known biochemical dependencies. These differences varied among broad phylogenetic groups as well, with the Bacilli and Fusobacteria, for example, both enriched for exclusion of taxa from other clades. Comparing phylogenetic versus functional similarities among bacteria, we show that dominant commensal taxa (such as Prevotellaceae and Bacteroides in the gut often compete, while potential pathogens (e.g. Treponema and

  19. Microbial Co-occurrence Relationships in the Human Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Jacques; Segata, Nicola; Gevers, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The healthy microbiota show remarkable variability within and among individuals. In addition to external exposures, ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic) between microbial inhabitants are important contributors to this variation. It is thus of interest to assess what relationships might exist among microbes and determine their underlying reasons. The initial Human Microbiome Project (HMP) cohort, comprising 239 individuals and 18 different microbial habitats, provides an unprecedented resource to detect, catalog, and analyze such relationships. Here, we applied an ensemble method based on multiple similarity measures in combination with generalized boosted linear models (GBLMs) to taxonomic marker (16S rRNA gene) profiles of this cohort, resulting in a global network of 3,005 significant co-occurrence and co-exclusion relationships between 197 clades occurring throughout the human microbiome. This network revealed strong niche specialization, with most microbial associations occurring within body sites and a number of accompanying inter-body site relationships. Microbial communities within the oropharynx grouped into three distinct habitats, which themselves showed no direct influence on the composition of the gut microbiota. Conversely, niches such as the vagina demonstrated little to no decomposition into region-specific interactions. Diverse mechanisms underlay individual interactions, with some such as the co-exclusion of Porphyromonaceae family members and Streptococcus in the subgingival plaque supported by known biochemical dependencies. These differences varied among broad phylogenetic groups as well, with the Bacilli and Fusobacteria, for example, both enriched for exclusion of taxa from other clades. Comparing phylogenetic versus functional similarities among bacteria, we show that dominant commensal taxa (such as Prevotellaceae and Bacteroides in the gut) often compete, while potential pathogens (e.g. Treponema and Prevotella in the

  20. Fixed versus dynamic co-occurrence windows in TextRank term weights for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Wei; Cheng, Qikai; Lioma, Christina

    2012-01-01

    iteratively is a score for each vertex, i.e. a term weight, that can be used for information retrieval (IR) just like conventional term frequency based term weights. So far, when computing TextRank term weights over co-occurrence graphs, the window of term co-occurrence is always fixed. This work departs from...

  1. The Co-Occurrence of Reading Disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, Treatment, Psychosocial Impact, and Economic Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Chris C.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Bell, Jill A.; Classi, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially…

  2. Ecological traits influence the phylogenetic structure of bird species co-occurrences worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnagaud, J.-Y.; Kissling, W.D.; Sandel, B.; Eiserhardt, W.L.; Şekercioğlu, Ç.H.; Enquist, B.J.; Tsirogiannis, C.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which species’ ecological and phylogenetic relatedness shape their co-occurrence patterns at large spatial scales remains poorly understood. By quantifying phylogenetic assemblage structure within geographic ranges of >8000 bird species, we show that global co-occurrence patterns are

  3. The reflection of hierarchical cluster analysis of co-occurrence matrices in SPSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Q.; Leng, F.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the problems arising from hierarchical cluster analysis of co-occurrence matrices in SPSS, and the corresponding solutions. Design/methodology/approach: We design different methods of using the SPSS hierarchical clustering module for co-occurrence matrices in order to compare

  4. Co-occurrence and associations of pain and fatigue in a community sample of Dutch adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creavin, S.T.; Dunn, K.M.; Mallen, C.D.; Nijrolder, I.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Widespread pain and chronic fatigue are common in the general population. Previous research has demonstrated co-occurrence of syndromes that are associated with pain and fatigue (fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome), but there is limited existing data on the co-occurrence of these symptoms in

  5. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. The co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits is associated to increased suicidal ideation in nonclinical young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Raynal, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The co-occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is not rare and has been linked to increased suicidality. Despite this significant comorbidity between ASD and BPD, no study had examined the co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits in the general population. The aim of the present study was to examine the co-occurrence of autistic and borderline traits in a non-clinical sample of young adults and its influence on the levels of suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology. Participants were 474 college students who completed self-report questionnaires. Data were analysed using correlation and cluster analyses. Borderline personality traits and autistic traits were weakly correlated. However, cluster analysis yielded four groups: a low traits group, a borderline traits group, an autistic traits group, and a group characterized by high levels of both traits. Cluster analysis revealed that autistic and borderline traits can co-occur in a significant proportion of young adults. The high autistic and borderline traits group constituted 17% of the total sample and had higher level of suicidal ideation than the borderline traits group, despite similar levels of depressive symptoms. This result suggests that the higher suicidality observed in patients with comorbid ASD and BPD may extent to non-clinical individuals with high levels of co-occurrent autistic and borderline traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deciphering microbial interactions and detecting keystone species with co-occurrence networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBerry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence networks produced from microbial survey sequencing data are frequently used to identify interactions between community members. While this approach has potential to reveal ecological processes, it has been insufficiently validated due to the technical limitations inherent in studying complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we simulate multi-species microbial communities with known interaction patterns using generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics, construct co-occurrence networks, and evaluate how well networks reveal the underlying interactions, and how experimental and ecological parameters can affect network inference and interpretation. We find that co-occurrence networks can recapitulate interaction networks under certain conditions, but that they lose interpretability when the effects of habitat filtering become significant. We demonstrate that networks suffer from local hot spots of spurious correlation in the neighborhood of hub species that engage in many interactions. We also identify topological features associated with keystone species in co-occurrence networks. This study provides a substantiated framework to guide environmental microbiologists in the construction and interpretation of co-occurrence networks from microbial survey datasets.

  8. Deciphering microbial interactions and detecting keystone species with co-occurrence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David; Widder, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence networks produced from microbial survey sequencing data are frequently used to identify interactions between community members. While this approach has potential to reveal ecological processes, it has been insufficiently validated due to the technical limitations inherent in studying complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we simulate multi-species microbial communities with known interaction patterns using generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics. We then construct co-occurrence networks and evaluate how well networks reveal the underlying interactions and how experimental and ecological parameters can affect network inference and interpretation. We find that co-occurrence networks can recapitulate interaction networks under certain conditions, but that they lose interpretability when the effects of habitat filtering become significant. We demonstrate that networks suffer from local hot spots of spurious correlation in the neighborhood of hub species that engage in many interactions. We also identify topological features associated with keystone species in co-occurrence networks. This study provides a substantiated framework to guide environmental microbiologists in the construction and interpretation of co-occurrence networks from microbial survey datasets.

  9. Parametric Level Statistics in Random Matrix Theory: Exact Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzieper, E.

    1999-01-01

    During recent several years, the theory of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles has experienced a sound progress motivated by new ideas in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and mesoscopic physics. Invariant non-Gaussian random matrix models appear to describe universal features of low-energy part of the spectrum of Dirac operator in QCD, and electron level statistics in normal conducting-superconducting hybrid structures. They also serve as a basis for constructing the toy models of universal spectral statistics expected at the edge of the metal-insulator transition. While conventional spectral statistics has received a detailed study in the context of RMT, quite a bit is known about parametric level statistics in non-Gaussian random matrix models. In this communication we report about exact solution to the problem of parametric level statistics in unitary invariant, U(N), non-Gaussian ensembles of N x N Hermitian random matrices with either soft or strong level confinement. The solution is formulated within the framework of the orthogonal polynomial technique and is shown to depend on both the unfolded two-point scalar kernel and the level confinement through a double integral transformation which, in turn, provides a constructive tool for description of parametric level correlations in non-Gaussian RMT. In the case of soft level confinement, the formalism developed is potentially applicable to a study of parametric level statistics in an important class of random matrix models with finite level compressibility expected to describe a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition. In random matrix ensembles with strong level confinement, the solution presented takes a particular simple form in the thermodynamic limit: In this case, a new intriguing connection relation between the parametric level statistics and the scalar two-point kernel of an unperturbed ensemble is demonstrated to emerge. Extension of the results obtained to higher-order parametric level statistics is

  10. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle P. Oswald

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  11. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  12. Using species co-occurrence networks to assess the impacts of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rozenfeld, Alejandro; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Viable populations of species occur in a given place if three conditions are met: the environment at the place is suitable; the species is able to colonize it; co-occurrence is possible despite or because of interactions with other species. Studies investigating the effects of climate change...... on species have mainly focused on measuring changes in climate suitability. Complex interactions among species have rarely been explored in such studies. We extend network theory to the analysis of complex patterns of co-occurrence among species. The framework is used to explore the robustness of networks...... under climate change. With our data, we show that networks describing the geographic pattern of co-occurrence among species display properties shared by other complex networks, namely that most species are poorly connected to other species in the network and only a few are highly connected. In our...

  13. Co-occurrence matrixes for the quality assessment of coded images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redi, J.A.; Gastaldo, P.; Zunino, R.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic nonlinearity complicates the modeling of perceived quality of digital images, especially when using feature-based objective methods. The research described in this paper indicates that models from Computational Intelligence can predict quality and cope with multi-dimensional data

  14. Enhanced Living by Assessing Voice Pathology Using a Co-Occurrence Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alhamid, Mohammed F.; Hossain, M. Shamim; Almogren, Ahmad S.; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    A large number of the population around the world suffers from various disabilities. Disabilities affect not only children but also adults of different professions. Smart technology can assist the disabled population and lead to a comfortable life in an enhanced living environment (ELE). In this paper, we propose an effective voice pathology assessment system that works in a smart home framework. The proposed system takes input from various sensors, and processes the acquired voice signals an...

  15. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 ;complex networks; articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  16. A Three-level 4 x 3 Conventinal Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Runjie; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology of a three-level 4 × 3 conventional matrix converter with 12 bi-directional switches. PWM control and modulation index compensation have been investigated. Operation theory has been verified by the simulation results using Matlab. The simulation results show...

  17. Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W; Nansel, Tonja R

    2010-11-01

    To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization. Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Latent class analyses (LCA) were conducted on victimization by physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying. Three latent classes were identified, including an all-types victims class (9.7% of males and 6.2% of females), a verbal/relational victims class (28.1% of males and 35.1% of females), and a nonvictim class (62.2% of males and 58.7% of females). Males were more likely to be all-type victims. There was a graded relationship between the three latent classes and level of depression, frequency of medically attended injuries, and medicine use, especially among females. Increased co-occurrence of victimization types put adolescents at greater risks for poorer physical and psychological outcomes.

  18. The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kerim M

    2016-03-01

    The study summarizes supportive epidemiological data regarding the true co-occurrence (comorbidity) and course of mental disorders in children with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorders (ID/IDD) across the lifespan. Published studies involving representative populations of children and adolescents with ID/IDD have demonstrated a three to four-fold increase in prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders. The effect of age, sex, and severity (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) and socioeconomic status on prevalence is currently not clearly understood. To date there are no prevalence estimates of co-occurring mental disorders in youth identified using the new DSM-5 (and proposed ICD-11) definition of ID/IDD using measures of intellectual functions and deficits in adaptive functioning with various severity levels defined on the basis of adaptive functioning, and not intellectual quotient scores. The true relationship between two forms of morbidity remains complex and causal relationships that may be true for one disorder may not apply to another. The new conceptualization of ID/IDD offers a developmentally better informed psychobiological approach that can help distinguish co-occurrence of mental disorders within the neurodevelopmental section with onset during the developmental period as well as the later onset of other mental disorders.

  19. Natural co-occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from Entre Ríos, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, M P; Dalcero, A M; Magnoli, C E; Chiacchiera, S M

    2013-01-01

    A total of 120 pelleted poultry feed samples from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, were evaluated. The aims were to investigate (1) the presence of relevant toxigenic fungi, as well as to determine the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) by Aspergillus section Flavi isolated strains; and (2) the natural co-occurrence of AFs, fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Total fungal counts were below the established value (1 × 10⁴ CFU g⁻¹). Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were the only aflatoxigenic species isolated. Co-occurrence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), HT-2 and T-2 toxin was detected in 100% of the feeds, with mean levels from 4502 to 5813; 6.7 to 21.6 and 19.6 to 30.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. A large number of starter samples were co-contaminated with aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), FB₁, HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Gliotoxin and DAS were not found in this survey.

  20. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  1. cooccurNet: an R package for co-occurrence network construction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuanqiang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Deng, Lizong; Wu, Aiping; Wu, Fan; Li, Kenli; Jiang, Taijiao; Peng, Yousong

    2017-06-15

    Previously, we developed a computational model to identify genomic co-occurrence networks that was applied to capture the coevolution patterns within genomes of influenza viruses. To facilitate easy public use of this model, an R package 'cooccurNet' is presented here. 'cooccurNet' includes functionalities of construction and analysis of residues (e.g. nucleotides, amino acids and SNPs) co-occurrence network. In addition, a new method for measuring residues coevolution, defined as residue co-occurrence score (RCOS), is proposed and implemented in 'cooccurNet' based on the co-occurrence network. 'cooccurNet' is publicly available on CRAN repositories under the GPL-3 Open Source License ( http://cran.r-project.org/package=cooccurNet ). taijiao@ibms.pumc.edu.cn or pys2013@hnu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Substance Use, Aggression Perpetration, and Victimization: Temporal Co-Occurrence in College Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Baucom, Brian R.; Bennett, Diana C.; Guran, Elyse L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and…

  3. Type and Degree of Co-Occurrence of the Educational Communication in a Community of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gallego-Arrufat, María-Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The study analyzes the type and quantity of co-occurrence of social, cognitive, and teaching presence in a Community of Inquiry (CoI). Content analysis of the virtual educational communication shows units of analysis that must be assigned to more than one category. By crossing the categories of the CoI model, we observe that Social Presence is…

  4. The Influence of Label Co-occurrence and Semantic Similarity on Children’s Inductive Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Matlen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantically-similar labels that co-occur in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit are more likely to promote inductive generalization in preschoolers than non-co-occurring labels (e.g., lamb-sheep. However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization. To address these issues, preschoolers were exposed to a stream of semantically-similar labels that don’t co-occur in natural language, but were arranged to co-occur in the experimental setting. In Experiment 1, children exposed to the co-occurring stream were more likely to make category-consistent inferences than children in two control conditions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar. These findings suggest that both co-occurrence information and semantic representations contribute to preschool-age children’s inductive generalization. The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

  5. Topical video object discovery from key frames by modeling word co-occurrence prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gangqiang; Yuan, Junsong; Hua, Gang; Yang, Jiong

    2015-12-01

    A topical video object refers to an object, that is, frequently highlighted in a video. It could be, e.g., the product logo and the leading actor/actress in a TV commercial. We propose a topic model that incorporates a word co-occurrence prior for efficient discovery of topical video objects from a set of key frames. Previous work using topic models, such as latent Dirichelet allocation (LDA), for video object discovery often takes a bag-of-visual-words representation, which ignored important co-occurrence information among the local features. We show that such data driven co-occurrence information from bottom-up can conveniently be incorporated in LDA with a Gaussian Markov prior, which combines top-down probabilistic topic modeling with bottom-up priors in a unified model. Our experiments on challenging videos demonstrate that the proposed approach can discover different types of topical objects despite variations in scale, view-point, color and lighting changes, or even partial occlusions. The efficacy of the co-occurrence prior is clearly demonstrated when compared with topic models without such priors.

  6. Alleviating Search Uncertainty through Concept Associations: Automatic Indexing, Co-Occurrence Analysis, and Parallel Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Martinez, Joanne; Kirchhoff, Amy; Ng, Tobun D.; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1998-01-01

    Grounded on object filtering, automatic indexing, and co-occurrence analysis, an experiment was performed using a parallel supercomputer to analyze over 400,000 abstracts in an INSPEC computer engineering collection. A user evaluation revealed that system-generated thesauri were better than the human-generated INSPEC subject thesaurus in concept…

  7. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  8. How does language change as a lexical network? An investigation based on written Chinese word co-occurrence networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Chen, Xinying

    2018-01-01

    Language is a complex adaptive system, but how does it change? For investigating this process, four diachronic Chinese word co-occurrence networks have been built based on texts that were written during the last 2,000 years. By comparing the network indicators that are associated with the hierarchical features in language networks, we learn that the hierarchy of Chinese lexical networks has indeed evolved over time at three different levels. The connections of words at the micro level are continually weakening; the number of words in the meso-level communities has increased significantly; and the network is expanding at the macro level. This means that more and more words tend to be connected to medium-central words and form different communities. Meanwhile, fewer high-central words link these communities into a highly efficient small-world network. Understanding this process may be crucial for understanding the increasing structural complexity of the language system. PMID:29489837

  9. Co-occurrence correlations of heavy metals in sediments revealed using network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Zhiping; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the correlation-based study was used to identify the co-occurrence correlations among metals in marine sediment of Hong Kong, based on the long-term (from 1991 to 2011) temporal and spatial monitoring data. 14 stations out of the total 45 marine sediment monitoring stations were selected from three representative areas, including Deep Bay, Victoria Harbour and Mirs Bay. Firstly, Spearman's rank correlation-based network analysis was conducted as the first step to identify the co-occurrence correlations of metals from raw metadata, and then for further analysis using the normalized metadata. The correlations patterns obtained by network were consistent with those obtained by the other statistic normalization methods, including annual ratios, R-squared coefficient and Pearson correlation coefficient. Both Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour have been polluted by heavy metals, especially for Pb and Cu, which showed strong co-occurrence with other heavy metals (e.g. Cr, Ni, Zn and etc.) and little correlations with the reference parameters (Fe or Al). For Mirs Bay, which has better marine sediment quality compared with Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour, the co-occurrence patterns revealed by network analysis indicated that the metals in sediment dominantly followed the natural geography process. Besides the wide applications in biology, sociology and informatics, it is the first time to apply network analysis in the researches of environment pollutions. This study demonstrated its powerful application for revealing the co-occurrence correlations among heavy metals in marine sediments, which could be further applied for other pollutants in various environment systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parametric level correlations in random-matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, Hans A

    2005-01-01

    We show that parametric level correlations in random-matrix theories are closely related to a breaking of the symmetry between the advanced and the retarded Green functions. The form of the parametric level correlation function is the same as for the disordered case considered earlier by Simons and Altshuler and is given by the graded trace of the commutator of the saddle-point solution with the particular matrix that describes the symmetry breaking in the actual case of interest. The strength factor differs from the case of disorder. It is determined solely by the Goldstone mode. It is essentially given by the number of levels that are strongly mixed as the external parameter changes. The factor can easily be estimated in applications

  11. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  12. Peer substance use associated with the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder features and drug use problems in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Scott; Taylor, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the substance use patterns of one's close friends and romantic partners would be a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and drug use problems above and beyond impulsivity and negative emotionality. Participants were 2,202 undergraduates who attended a large southeastern university between 2003 and 2006. All subjects completed measures assessing the presence of BPD symptoms, drug use problems, general personality traits, and the proportion of their friends and partners who had used illicit drugs within the past 12 months. The illicit drug use patterns of one's friends and romantic partners was a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of BPD features and drug use problems even when controlling for levels of impulsivity and negative emotionality. These findings suggest possible additional avenues for treatment focusing on helping students with BPD and drug use problems modify their social group.

  13. Are there co-occurrence patterns that structure snake communities in Central Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, F G R; Araújo, A F B

    2007-02-01

    The main factors that structure Neotropical animal communities have been the subject of discussion in ecology communities. We used a set of null models to investigate the existence of structure in snake communities from the Cerrado in Central Brazil in relation to the co-occurrence of species and guilds concerning specific resources. We used fragments (conservation units) inside the Distrito Federal and neighbor municipalities. In spite of recent human colonization in the region from the end of the 1950s, intense habitat modification and fragmentation has taken place. Sixty three snake species are present in the Distrito Federal. Co-occurrence analysis of species and guilds associated to snake diets and habitats suggested a lack of organization. The homogeneity of habitats in Central Brazil and the minor importance of ecological effects can lead to random arrangement.

  14. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  15. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Detection of stable community structures within gut microbiota co-occurrence networks from different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew A; Bonder, Marc Jan; Kuncheva, Zhana; Zierer, Jonas; Fu, Jingyuan; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D; Steves, Claire J

    2018-01-01

    Microbes in the gut microbiome form sub-communities based on shared niche specialisations and specific interactions between individual taxa. The inter-microbial relationships that define these communities can be inferred from the co-occurrence of taxa across multiple samples. Here, we present an approach to identify comparable communities within different gut microbiota co-occurrence networks, and demonstrate its use by comparing the gut microbiota community structures of three geographically diverse populations. We combine gut microbiota profiles from 2,764 British, 1,023 Dutch, and 639 Israeli individuals, derive co-occurrence networks between their operational taxonomic units, and detect comparable communities within them. Comparing populations we find that community structure is significantly more similar between datasets than expected by chance. Mapping communities across the datasets, we also show that communities can have similar associations to host phenotypes in different populations. This study shows that the community structure within the gut microbiota is stable across populations, and describes a novel approach that facilitates comparative community-centric microbiome analyses.

  18. Bacterial networks and co-occurrence relationships in the lettuce root microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grube, Martin; Erlacher, Armin; Quehenberger, Julian; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Lettuce is one of the most common raw foods worldwide, but occasionally also involved in pathogen outbreaks. To understand the correlative structure of the bacterial community as a network, we studied root microbiota of eight ancient and modern Lactuca sativa cultivars and the wild ancestor Lactuca serriola by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. The lettuce microbiota was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes, as well as abundant Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. Cultivar specificity comprised 12.5% of the species. Diversity indices were not different between lettuce cultivar groups but higher than in L. serriola, suggesting that domestication lead to bacterial diversification in lettuce root system. Spearman correlations between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed that co-occurrence prevailed over co-exclusion, and complementary fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy (FISH-CLSM) analyses revealed that this pattern results from both potential interactions and habitat sharing. Predominant taxa, such as Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Sphingomonadaceae rather suggested interactions, even though these are not necessarily part of significant modules in the co-occurrence networks. Without any need for complex interactions, single organisms are able to invade into this microbial network and to colonize lettuce plants, a fact that can influence the susceptibility to pathogens. The approach to combine co-occurrence analysis and FISH-CLSM allows reliably reconstructing and interpreting microbial interaction networks. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Exploiting automatically generated databases of traffic signs and road markings for contextual co-occurrence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-11-01

    Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.

  20. A multilayer network analysis of hashtags in twitter via co-occurrence and semantic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Ilker; Sulak, Eyüb Ekmel

    2018-02-01

    Complex network studies, as an interdisciplinary framework, span a large variety of subjects including social media. In social networks, several mechanisms generate miscellaneous structures like friendship networks, mention networks, tag networks, etc. Focusing on tag networks (namely, hashtags in twitter), we made a two-layer analysis of tag networks from a massive dataset of Twitter entries. The first layer is constructed by converting the co-occurrences of these tags in a single entry (tweet) into links, while the second layer is constructed converting the semantic relations of the tags into links. We observed that the universal properties of the real networks like small-world property, clustering and power-law distributions in various network parameters are also evident in the multilayer network of hashtags. Moreover, we outlined that co-occurrences of hashtags in tweets are mostly coupled with semantic relations, whereas a small number of semantically unrelated, therefore random links reduce node separation and network diameter in the co-occurrence network layer. Together with the degree distributions, the power-law consistencies of degree difference, edge weight and cosine similarity distributions in both layers are also appealing forms of Zipf’s law evident in nature.

  1. A Mutual Hostility Explanation for the Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Depressive Mood in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-10-01

    Different interpersonal experiences are related to delinquency and depressive mood. In many studies, delinquency has been associated with exposing others to hostility, while depressive mood has been associated with being a victim of others' hostility. In this study, we proposed that adolescents with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood may be both perpetrators and victims in their relations with parents at home, peers and teachers at school, and other people encountered in leisure time. We studied a normative sample of 1452 mid-adolescents (50.61% boys and 49.38% girls). Cluster analyses found a group with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and high depressive mood. Adolescents in this cluster group were highest on being exposed to hostility, exposing others to hostility, and being involved in mutually hostile interactions with others in different everyday contexts. The findings were especially strong when we examined being a victim and a perpetrator across contexts. The results were similar for boys and girls. We conclude that the co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood among some adolescents is intimately linked to the mutually hostile interactions that these adolescents experience in their everyday interpersonal contexts.

  2. Extraction of temporal networks from term co-occurrences in online textual sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Popović

    Full Text Available A stream of unstructured news can be a valuable source of hidden relations between different entities, such as financial institutions, countries, or persons. We present an approach to continuously collect online news, recognize relevant entities in them, and extract time-varying networks. The nodes of the network are the entities, and the links are their co-occurrences. We present a method to estimate the significance of co-occurrences, and a benchmark model against which their robustness is evaluated. The approach is applied to a large set of financial news, collected over a period of two years. The entities we consider are 50 countries which issue sovereign bonds, and which are insured by Credit Default Swaps (CDS in turn. We compare the country co-occurrence networks to the CDS networks constructed from the correlations between the CDS. The results show relatively small, but significant overlap between the networks extracted from the news and those from the CDS correlations.

  3. Co-occurrence perspective of arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Diphu, Assam, Northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Das, Aparna; Das, Nilotpal; Goswami, Ritusmita; Singh, Umesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Considerable lacunae exists in As and F(-) co-contamination investigation in the Brahmaputra and Gangetic floodplains. Therefore we selected Diphu a township in the Karbi Plateau rising from the Brahmaputra floodplains for evaluation of As and F co-occurrence, correlation with coexisting ions of the aquifer system and elucidation of potential processes for releasing As and F(-) in the groundwater. Our initial appraisal used generic plots for identification of hydro geochemical processes and major water types. Subsequently, As and F(-) co-occurrence with pH, depth, HCO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and Fe were probed for possible correlation followed by hierarchical cluster analyses to identify key processes for co-occurrence. Finally, saturation indices of groundwater minerals were calculated using MINTEQA2 to elucidate prospective As and F(-) release into groundwater. Results indicate F(-) and As presence in Ca-HCO3 rich water along with positive correlation between Ca(2+) and F(-) possibly due to limestone reserves in adjoining areas. Multivariate analyses suggest the presence of high concentrations of PO4(3-), and H4SiO4 either individually or in combination can enhance the mobility of both As and F(-) and possibly abet conditions conducive for co-contamination of aquifers. Initial release of As and F(-) from the parent rock seems driven by the anthropogenic activities while mobilization depends on chemical interactions and individual affinities of the elements. The results of speciation highlight further mobilization of As and F(-) into the groundwater which in turn require regular attention for sustainable management of scarce water resource present in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  5. Plant-soil interactions promote co-occurrence of three nonnative woody shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Classen, Aimée T; Call, Jaime J; Henning, Jeremiah A; Simberloff, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Ecosystems containing multiple nonnative plant species are common, but mechanisms promoting their co-occurrence are understudied. Plant-soil interactions contribute to the dominance of singleton species in nonnative ranges because many nonnatives experience stronger positive feedbacks relative to co-occurring natives. Plant-soil interactions could impede other nonnatives if an individual nonnative benefits from its soil community to a greater extent than its neighboring nonnatives, as is seen with natives. However, plant-soil interactions could promote nonnative co-occurrence if a nonnative accumulates beneficial soil mutualists that also assist other nonnatives. Here, we use greenhouse and field experiments to ask whether plant-soil interactions (1) promote the codominance of two common nonnative shrubs (Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii) and (2) facilitate the invasion of a less-common nonnative shrub (Rhamnus davurica) in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. In the greenhouse, we found that two of the nonnatives, L. maackii and R. davurica, performed better in soils conditioned by nonnative shrubs compared to uninvaded forest soils, which. suggests that positive feedbacks among co-occurring nonnative shrubs can promote continued invasion of a site. In both greenhouse and field experiments, we found consistent signals that the codominance of the nonnatives L. sinense and L. maackii may be at least partially explained by the increased growth of L. sinense in L. maackii soils. Overall, significant effects of plant-soil interactions on shrub performance indicate that plant-soil interactions can potentially structure the co-occurrence patterns of these nonnatives.

  6. Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Laura A; Marlin, John C; Knight, Tiffany M

    2013-03-29

    Using historic data sets, we quantified the degree to which global change over 120 years disrupted plant-pollinator interactions in a temperate forest understory community in Illinois, USA. We found degradation of interaction network structure and function and extirpation of 50% of bee species. Network changes can be attributed to shifts in forb and bee phenologies resulting in temporal mismatches, nonrandom species extinctions, and loss of spatial co-occurrences between extant species in modified landscapes. Quantity and quality of pollination services have declined through time. The historic network showed flexibility in response to disturbance; however, our data suggest that networks will be less resilient to future changes.

  7. Co-occurrence of gemination and dens invaginatus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Achalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gemination is a developmental anomaly where a single tooth bud attempts to split into two. It is also sometimes called as double tooth or twinning. Dens invaginatus is another developmental anomaly caused due to invagination of a portion of crown. These anomalies occur as separate entities. Co-occurrence of these two anomalies have been only reported four times in the literature. Here we present an extremely rare case of simultaneous occurrence of gemination and dens invaginatus in the same tooth. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 175-177

  8. The co-occurrence of physical and cyber dating violence and bullying among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS based wavelet co-occurrence feature selection in mammogram classification for breast cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi M. Pawar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is significant health problem diagnosed mostly in women worldwide. Therefore, early detection of breast cancer is performed with the help of digital mammography, which can reduce mortality rate. This paper presents wrapper based feature selection approach for wavelet co-occurrence feature (WCF using Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS in mammogram classification problem. The performance of GFS algorithm is explained using mini-MIAS database. WCF features are obtained from detail wavelet coefficients at each level of decomposition of mammogram image. At first level of decomposition, 18 features are applied to GFS algorithm, which selects 5 features with an average classification success rate of 39.64%. Subsequently, at second level it selects 9 features from 36 features and the classification success rate is improved to 56.75%. For third level, 16 features are selected from 54 features and average success rate is improved to 64.98%. Lastly, at fourth level 72 features are applied to GFS, which selects 16 features and thereby increasing average success rate to 89.47%. Hence, GFS algorithm is the effective way of obtaining optimal set of feature in breast cancer diagnosis.

  10. Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Clustering of Lifestyle Risk Factors Among UK Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Zwolinsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Men – more than women - engage in unhealthy lifestyle practices that place them at greater risk of developing non-communicable disease. This paper aims to explore the prevalence, co-occurrence and clustering of four core lifestyle risk factors and examine the socio demographic variation of their distribution, among men living in two central London boroughs. Method: A stratified street survey was undertaken with N=859 men. Prevalence odds ratios calculated risk factor clustering and a multinomial logistic regression model examined the socio-demographic variation. Results: Over 72% of men presented with combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Physical inactivity combined with a lack of fruit and vegetables was the most common combination. Co-occurrence was more prominent for unemployed, widowed, divorced/separated and white British men. Clustering was evident for adherence and non-adherence to UK health recommendations. Conclusion: Men may benefit from targeted health interventions that address multiple – rather than single – health related behaviours.

  11. Bullying and cyberbullying: overlapping and predictive value of the co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey, Rosario; Elipe, Paz; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2012-11-01

    Several studies show certain co-occurrence of the traditional bullying and the cyberbullying. However, the results about relation and homogeneity among the roles of each of them are not unanimous. The present study intends to advance in the knowledge about the above-mentioned co-occurrence by exploring the dimensions of victimization and traditional aggression and cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression and by identifying its eventual directionality. A short-term longitudinal design was developed. The sample was formed by 274 adolescents, aging 12 to 18 years-old, belonging to 2 schools of Andalusia (South of Spain). In order to value the impact of bullying and cyberbullying the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) and the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIPQ) were used. The results show important simultaneity among both phenomena and suggest that although in cyberbullying -cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression- may be predicted because of previous involvement of the subject in traditional bullying, on the contrary it does not happen. In addition, previous victimization is a risk factor for traditional bullying and for cyberbullying. Results are discussed in relation to the process and socio-group dynamics arising from the bullying and cyberbullying phenomena, and in terms of their prevention.

  12. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  13. Prevalence and co-occurrence of violence against children in the Quebec population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine; Joly, Jacques; Cyr, Mireille; Baril, Karine

    2008-08-01

    A literature review on the incidence of different forms of child maltreatment revealed that rates in Australia and Quebec (Canada) were similar. This study sought to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of various forms of violence (physical, sexual and psychological) and explore gender and age difference. A telephone inquiry was conducted with a representative sample of 1,002 adults from the province of Quebec. More than one in three adults (37%) reported having experienced at least one of three forms of violence in childhood. Twelve per cent (12%) of the adults experienced two forms of violence while 4% of the respondents reported having experienced all three forms of violence in childhood. Psychological violence (22%) was the form most frequently reported, followed by physical violence (19%) and sexual violence (16%). The different prevalence rates did not vary as a function of age. However, regarding gender, women were more likely to report having been sexually victimised (rape and fondling) and less likely to report having experienced physical violence. A lower percentage of women reported having sustained no form of childhood victimisation and a higher percentage of women reported have experienced both sexual and psychological violence compared to men. These results, including both the global rates and those particular to each gender, are comparable to findings in similar North American studies. The co-occurrence rates noted are salient enough to necessitate particular attention to diverse clinical clientele and need to be considered in future research exploring the risk factors of violence and its subsequent repercussions.

  14. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Harris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD spectrum pathology. Methods: Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Results: Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited ‘early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, ‘executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Conclusion: Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  15. Severity and Co-occurrence of Oral and Verbal Apraxias in Left Brain Damaged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral and verbal apraxias represent motor programming deficits of nonverbal and verbal movements respectively. Studying their properties may shed light on speech motor control processes. This study was focused on identifying cases with oral or verbal apraxia, their co–occurrences and severities. Materials & Methods: In this non-experimental study, 55 left adult subjects with left brain lesion including 22 women and 33 men with age range of 23 to 84 years, were examined and videotaped using oral apraxia and verbal apraxia tasks. Three speech and language pathologists independently scored apraxia severities. Data were analyzed by independent t test, Pearson, Phi and Contingency coefficients using SPSS 12. Results: Mean score of oral and verbal apraxias in patients with and without oral and verbal apraxias were significantly different (P<0.001. Forty- two patients had simultaneous oral and verbal apraxias, with significant correlation between their oral and verbal apraxia scores (r=0.75, P<0.001. Six patients showed no oral or verbal apraxia and 7 had just one type of apraxia. Comparison of co-occurrence of two disorders (Phi=0.59 and different oral and verbal intensities (C=0.68 were relatively high (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present research revealed co-occurrence of oral and verbal apraxias to a great extent. It appears that speech motor control is influenced by a more general verbal and nonverbal motor control.

  16. Using co-occurrence to evaluate belief coherence in a large non clinical sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pechey

    Full Text Available Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow "cohere" with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs. The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural. Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian's coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance.

  17. Significant Pairwise Co-occurrence Patterns Are Not the Rule in the Majority of Biotic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Sfenthourakis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate species co-occurrence patterns in a large number of published biotic communities, in order to document to what extent species associations can be found in presence-absence matrices. We also aim to compare and evaluate two metrics that focus on species pairs (the ‘natural’ and the ‘checkerboard’ metric using also artificial matrices. We applied the two metrics to many data sets from a huge variety of insular systems around the world. Both metrics reliably recover deviating species pairs and provide similar, albeit not identical, results. Nevertheless, only a few matrices exhibit significant deviations from random patterns, mostly vertebrates and higher plants. The benchmark cases cited in literature in favor of such assembly rules are indeed included in these exceptional cases. In conclusion, competitive or cooperative species interactions shaping communities cannot be inferred from patterns exhibited by presence-absence matrices. When such an analysis is attempted though, both the ‘natural’ and the ‘checkerboard’ metric should be set in a proper framework in order to provide useful insights regarding species associations. A large part of the discussion on species co-occurrence had originally been based on a few exceptional data sets that are not indicative of general patterns.

  18. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for co-occurrent avoidant personality disorder and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hypergraph-based anomaly detection of high-dimensional co-occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge; Willett, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting anomalous multivariate co-occurrences using a limited number of unlabeled training observations. A novel method based on using a hypergraph representation of the data is proposed to deal with this very high-dimensional problem. Hypergraphs constitute an important extension of graphs which allow edges to connect more than two vertices simultaneously. A variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm for detecting anomalies directly on the hypergraph domain without any feature selection or dimensionality reduction is presented. The resulting estimate can be used to calculate a measure of anomalousness based on the False Discovery Rate. The algorithm has O(np) computational complexity, where n is the number of training observations and p is the number of potential participants in each co-occurrence event. This efficiency makes the method ideally suited for very high-dimensional settings, and requires no tuning, bandwidth or regularization parameters. The proposed approach is validated on both high-dimensional synthetic data and the Enron email database, where p > 75,000, and it is shown that it can outperform other state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Patterns and correlates of co-occurrence among multiple types of child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the patterns and correlates of the types of maltreatment experienced by adolescents aged 9–12, participating in an ongoing longitudinal study on the impact of neglect on children’s development. Using case record abstraction, the study compared the child protection classification and findings from the case record abstraction with regard to the rates of four types of maltreatment (i.e. physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) as well as co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Next, the study examined the frequently observed patterns of child maltreatment. Finally, the study investigated whether aspects of caretaker functioning and the detailed incident characteristics in the cases of neglect differed by the number of different types of maltreatment the children experienced. Results showed significant discrepancies between the Child Protective Service classification and case record abstraction. Child Protective Service classification considerably underestimated the rate of co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Neglect accompanied by physical and emotional abuse was the most common form. Some of the caretaker functioning variables distinguished the number of types of maltreatment. Based on the findings, future-research directions and practice implication were discussed. PMID:29225485

  1. The Incidence of Co-occurrence of Chlamydial Cervicitis with Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusefi S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in normal vaginal bacterial flora mainly caused by the introduction of pathogenic bacteria. Failure to properly treat this condition can not only induce abortion but also increase the chance of acquiring other serious infections such as AIDS, gonorrhea and chlamydiosis. Chlamydia trchomatis is one of the causative agents of cervicitis of which 70% is totally asymptomatic. Untreated cases can lead to salpengititis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, pelvic area pains and other complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of these two conditions.Methods: A total of 137 patients were examined for both Chlamydial cervicitis and for bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and anti-chlamydial antibodies were titered by microimmunofluoresence (MIF assay. Results: According to the MIF results, 10 patients(7.3% had elevated anti-chlamydial IgG and 3 patients (2.2% showed high IgM titers. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected in 6 patients(4.7% as the causative agent of vaginosis. There were 3 cases of co-occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis and bacterial vaginosis (30%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that bacterial vaginosis can provide the pre-disposing conditions for cervicitis and its chronicity and the similarity of the cilinical singns of these two conditions, Infections with Chlamydia are often overlooked. It therefore seems necessary to check any patient with bacterial vaginosis for chlamydial co-infection.

  2. Co-occurrence of Gardnerellavaginalis and Candida sp. in women with and without vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eleutério Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To detect the co-occurrence of Gardnerellavaginalis and Candida sp.in women with and without vaginal symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in women seeking treatment in a Brazilian city from March to November 2014. Data, such as age and symptoms, were noted from patients. Vaginal content samples were obtained with a swab of the vaginal wall and were fixed in ATTS (Ambient Temperature Transport System. The Affirm VPIII test (Becton Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD, USA was used to identify the pathogen. Fisher's exact test with a 95% confidence interval was used for the statistical analysis. Results: In total, 160 women were studied, and 13 cases were excluded. Of the 147 remaining women, fifty-two women were asymptomatic, and 95 women reported symptoms. An association between Gardnerellavaginalis(Gv and Candida sp. (Ca was noted in 9 cases (6.1%. Gv + Ca was observed in 1 case (1.9% in the asymptomatic group and in 12 cases (12.6% in the symptomatic group (p= 0,0361. Vaginal inflammation signs were observed in 8/8 (100% cases of cooccurrence (p<0.005. Conclusion: The co-occurrence of Gardnerellavaginalis and Candida sp. is not rare and is frequently associated with symptoms and mucosal inflammation signs.

  3. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer M; Jones, Matthew; Gall, Claire; Richardson, Anna M T; Neary, David; du Plessis, Daniel; Pal, Piyali; Mann, David M A; Snowden, Julie S; Thompson, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum pathology. Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA) criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited 'early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, 'executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  4. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.

  5. Theoretical evaluation of matrix effects on trapped atomic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.P.; Gruen, D.M.

    1986-06-01

    We suggest a theoretical model for calculating the matrix perturbation on the spectra of atoms trapped in rare gas systems. The model requires the ''potential curves'' of the diatomic system consisting of the trapped atom interacting with one from the matrix and relies on the approximation that the total matrix perturbation is a scalar sum of the pairwise interactions with each of the lattice sites. Calculations are presented for the prototype systems Na in Ar. Attempts are made to obtain ab initio estimates of the Jahn-Teller effects for excited states. Comparison is made with our recent Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopic (MIS) data. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  6. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complex network of chemokines and pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is involved in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main enzymes responsible for matrix degradation, are important for periodontal tissue destruction, but their activity can be inhibited by tissue ...

  7. Co-occurrence and clustering of health conditions at age 11: cross-sectional findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn R; Fagg, James; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Law, Catherine; Hope, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns of co-occurrence and clustering of 6 common adverse health conditions in 11-year-old children and explore differences by sociodemographic factors. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Participants 11 399 11-year-old singleton children for whom data on all 6 health conditions and sociodemographic information were available (complete cases). Main outcome measures Prevalence, co-occurrence and clustering of 6 common health conditions: wheeze; eczema; long-standing illness (excluding wheeze and eczema); injury; socioemotional difficulties (measured using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unfavourable weight (thin/overweight/obese vs normal). Results 42.4% of children had 2 or more adverse health conditions (co-occurrence). Co-occurrence was more common in boys and children from lower income households. Latent class analysis identified 6 classes: ‘normative’ (57.4%): ‘atopic burdened’ (14.0%); ‘socioemotional burdened’ (11.0%); ‘unfavourable weight/injury’ (7.7%); ‘eczema/injury’ (6.0%) and ‘eczema/unfavourable weight’ (3.9%). As with co-occurrence, class membership differed by sociodemographic factors: boys, children of mothers with lower educational attainment and children from lower income households were more likely to be in the ‘socioemotional burdened’ class. Children of mothers with higher educational attainment were more likely to be in the ‘normative’ and ‘eczema/unfavourable weight’ classes. Conclusions Co-occurrence of adverse health conditions at age 11 is common and is associated with adverse socioeconomic circumstances. Holistic, child focused care, particularly in boys and those in lower income groups, may help to prevent and reduce co-occurrence in later childhood and adolescence. PMID:27881529

  8. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G.; Workman, Christopher T.; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision......-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41...... specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly...

  9. Co-occurrence of intraoral hemangioma and port wine stain: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are neoplastic proliferations of endothelial cells, characterized by a period of growth after birth, and eventual spontaneous involution. The course can be uneventful with spontaneous resolution; or it may be marked by complications such as infection, bleeding, ulceration, visual defects and feeding difficulties. Apart from these, rare life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure and consumption coagulopathy may also be seen. Although hemangiomas commonly occur in the head and neck region, intraoral occurrence is relatively rare. A port wine stain is defined as a macular telangiectatic patch which is present at birth and remains throughout life. They may be localized or extensive, affecting a whole limb. This article reports a rare case of co-occurrence of port wine stain with intraoral hemangioma.

  10. Using co-occurrence network structure to extract synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spackman K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text-mining can assist biomedical researchers in reducing information overload by extracting useful knowledge from large collections of text. We developed a novel text-mining method based on analyzing the network structure created by symbol co-occurrences as a way to extend the capabilities of knowledge extraction. The method was applied to the task of automatic gene and protein name synonym extraction. Results Performance was measured on a test set consisting of about 50,000 abstracts from one year of MEDLINE. Synonyms retrieved from curated genomics databases were used as a gold standard. The system obtained a maximum F-score of 22.21% (23.18% precision and 21.36% recall, with high efficiency in the use of seed pairs. Conclusion The method performs comparably with other studied methods, does not rely on sophisticated named-entity recognition, and requires little initial seed knowledge.

  11. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gülşen, İsmail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  12. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.

  13. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G.; Workman, Christopher T.; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision......-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41...... specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly...

  14. Rare co-occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta type I and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefele, Julia; Mayer, Karin; Marschall, Christoph; Alberer, Martin; Klein, Hanns-Georg; Kirschstein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    There are several clinical reports about the co-occurrence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and connective tissue disorders. A simultaneous occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I and ADPKD has not been observed so far. This report presents the first patient with OI type I and ADPKD. Mutational analysis of PKD1 and COL1A1 in the index patient revealed a heterozygous mutation in each of the two genes. Mutational analysis of the parents indicated the mother as a carrier of the PKD1 mutation and the father as a carrier of the COL1A1 mutation. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders has an estimated frequency of 3.5:100 000 000. In singular cases, ADPKD can occur in combination with other rare disorders, e.g. connective tissue disorders.

  15. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  16. Spinal pain and co-occurrence with stress and general well-being among young adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year...... follow-up of DNBC were used. As part of a web-based survey, a total of 45,371 young adolescents between 10 and 14 years old completed the Young Spine Questionnaire, the Stress in Children Questionnaire, and a one-item question on general well-being. Associations between spinal pain and, respectively......, stress and general well-being were estimated by means of multiple logistic regression models. Almost one fifth of boys and one quarter of girls reported spinal pain. Compared with adolescents who reported no stress, adolescents reporting medium and high values of stress had odds ratios (OR) of 2.19 (95...

  17. ECO: A Framework for Entity Co-Occurrence Exploration with Faceted Navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    Even as highly structured databases and semantic knowledge bases become more prevalent, a substantial amount of human knowledge is reported as written prose. Typical textual reports, such as news articles, contain information about entities (people, organizations, and locations) and their relationships. Automatically extracting such relationships from large text corpora is a key component of corporate and government knowledge bases. The primary goal of the ECO project is to develop a scalable framework for extracting and presenting these relationships for exploration using an easily navigable faceted user interface. ECO uses entity co-occurrence relationships to identify related entities. The system aggregates and indexes information on each entity pair, allowing the user to rapidly discover and mine relational information.

  18. Theoretical evaluation of matrix effects on trapped atomic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G.P.; Gruen, D.M.

    1986-06-01

    We suggest a theoretical model for calculating the matrix perturbation on the spectra of atoms trapped in rare gas systems. The model requires the ''potential curves'' of the diatomic system consisting of the trapped atom interacting with one from the matrix and relies on the approximation that the total matrix perturbation is a scalar sum of the pairwise interactions with each of the lattice sites. Calculations are presented for the prototype systems Na in Ar. Attempts are made to obtain ab initio estimates of the Jahn-Teller effects for excited states. Comparison is made with our recent Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopic (MIS) data. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. A study on expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, Matrix metalloproteinases, Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, Lamina propria ... The symptoms of UC include diarrhea with blood, fever ..... Eisen A, Jeffrey J, Gross J. Human skin collagenase. Isolation and ...

  20. [Co-occurrence of soil fauna communities with changes in altitude on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fuchun; Jin, Zhedong; Wang, Qingli; Xiao, Yihua

    2003-10-01

    The co-occurrence of soil fauna communities at different altitudes may reflect at some extent the relationships among communities, their coexistence, and the replacement of species along the altitude gradient. The continuous or disjunctive distribution of different species along altitude gradient not only reflected the environment variation at altitude gradient, but also the biological and ecological spatiality as well as the adaptability of species. The northern slope of Changbai Moutain has not only a high diversity in soil fauna types and species, but also a high variation of diversity pattern along the altitude gradient, which is a perfect transect for the research of biodiversity and gradient patterns. From 550 m to 2,560 m on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, twenty-two plots were investigated with an interval of 100 m in altitude. By using Jaccard index, the co-occurrence of soil fauna communities at different altitudes was analyzed. For the species of different life forms or for all the species as a whole, the co-occurrence of soil faunae between neighboring communities was the highest, except for that between different soil fauna types. The peak and valley values of the co-occurrence of soil fauna communities along altitude gradient were matched with their gradient patterns, and the co-occurrence of soil faunae at different layers or all of the soil fauna communities were decreased with increasing altitude difference.

  1. Discovering Multi-scale Co-occurrence Patterns of Asthma and Influenza with the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind eRamanathan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a data-driven unsupervised machine learning approach to extract geo-temporal co-occurrence patterns of asthma and the flu from large-scale electronic healthcare reimbursement claims (eHRC datasets. Specifically, we examine the eHRC data from the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 influenza season and analyze whether different geographic regions within the United States (US showed an increase in co-occurrence patterns of the flu and asthma. Our analyses reveal that the temporal patterns extracted from the eHRC data show a distinct lag time between the peak incidence of the asthma and the flu. While the increased occurrence of asthma contributed to increased flu incidence during the pandemic, this co-occurrence is predominant for female patients. The geo-temporal patterns reveal that the co-occurrence of the flu and asthma are typically concentrated within the south-east US. Further, in agreement with previous studies, large urban areas (such as New York, Miami and Los Angeles exhibit co-occurrence patterns that suggest a peak incidence of asthma and flu significantly early in the spring and winter seasons. Together, our data-analytic approach, integrated within the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit platform, demonstrates how eHRC data can provide novel insights into co-occurring disease patterns.

  2. TelCoVis: Visual Exploration of Co-occurrence in Urban Human Mobility Based on Telco Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenchao; Xu, Jiayi; Zeng, Haipeng; Zheng, Yixian; Qu, Huamin; Ni, Bing; Yuan, Mingxuan; Ni, Lionel M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding co-occurrence in urban human mobility (i.e. people from two regions visit an urban place during the same time span) is of great value in a variety of applications, such as urban planning, business intelligence, social behavior analysis, as well as containing contagious diseases. In recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones brings an unprecedented opportunity to capture large-scale and fine-grained data to study co-occurrence in human mobility. However, due to the lack of systematic and efficient methods, it is challenging for analysts to carry out in-depth analyses and extract valuable information. In this paper, we present TelCoVis, an interactive visual analytics system, which helps analysts leverage their domain knowledge to gain insight into the co-occurrence in urban human mobility based on telco data. Our system integrates visualization techniques with new designs and combines them in a novel way to enhance analysts' perception for a comprehensive exploration. In addition, we propose to study the correlations in co-occurrence (i.e. people from multiple regions visit different places during the same time span) by means of biclustering techniques that allow analysts to better explore coordinated relationships among different regions and identify interesting patterns. The case studies based on a real-world dataset and interviews with domain experts have demonstrated the effectiveness of our system in gaining insights into co-occurrence and facilitating various analytical tasks.

  3. Co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, L J; Romaine, Suzanne; Mittermeier, Russell A; Walker-Painemilla, Kristen

    2012-05-22

    As the world grows less biologically diverse, it is becoming less linguistically and culturally diverse as well. Biologists estimate annual loss of species at 1,000 times or more greater than historic rates, and linguists predict that 50-90% of the world's languages will disappear by the end of this century. Prior studies indicate similarities in the geographic arrangement of biological and linguistic diversity, although conclusions have often been constrained by use of data with limited spatial precision. Here we use greatly improved datasets to explore the co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in regions containing many of the Earth's remaining species: biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas. Results indicate that these regions often contain considerable linguistic diversity, accounting for 70% of all languages on Earth. Moreover, the languages involved are frequently unique (endemic) to particular regions, with many facing extinction. Likely reasons for co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity are complex and appear to vary among localities, although strong geographic concordance between biological and linguistic diversity in many areas argues for some form of functional connection. Languages in high biodiversity regions also often co-occur with one or more specific conservation priorities, here defined as endangered species and protected areas, marking particular localities important for maintaining both forms of diversity. The results reported in this article provide a starting point for focused research exploring the relationship between biological and linguistic-cultural diversity, and for developing integrated strategies designed to conserve species and languages in regions rich in both.

  4. The probability of object-scene co-occurrence influences object identification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Geneviève; Harmand, Mariane; Vanni, Léa; Brodeur, Mathieu B

    2017-07-01

    Contextual information allows the human brain to make predictions about the identity of objects that might be seen and irregularities between an object and its background slow down perception and identification processes. Bar and colleagues modeled the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect suggesting that the brain stocks information about the statistical regularities of object and scene co-occurrence. Their model suggests that these recurring regularities could be conceptualized along a continuum in which the probability of seeing an object within a given scene can be high (probable condition), moderate (improbable condition) or null (impossible condition). In the present experiment, we propose to disentangle the electrophysiological correlates of these context effects by directly comparing object-scene pairs found along this continuum. We recorded the event-related potentials of 30 healthy participants (18-34 years old) and analyzed their brain activity in three time windows associated with context effects. We observed anterior negativities between 250 and 500 ms after object onset for the improbable and impossible conditions (improbable more negative than impossible) compared to the probable condition as well as a parieto-occipital positivity (improbable more positive than impossible). The brain may use different processing pathways to identify objects depending on whether the probability of co-occurrence with the scene is moderate (rely more on top-down effects) or null (rely more on bottom-up influences). The posterior positivity could index error monitoring aimed to ensure that no false information is integrated into mental representations of the world.

  5. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  6. Improving pairwise comparison of protein sequences with domain co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Comparing and aligning protein sequences is an essential task in bioinformatics. More specifically, local alignment tools like BLAST are widely used for identifying conserved protein sub-sequences, which likely correspond to protein domains or functional motifs. However, to limit the number of false positives, these tools are used with stringent sequence-similarity thresholds and hence can miss several hits, especially for species that are phylogenetically distant from reference organisms. A solution to this problem is then to integrate additional contextual information to the procedure. Here, we propose to use domain co-occurrence to increase the sensitivity of pairwise sequence comparisons. Domain co-occurrence is a strong feature of proteins, since most protein domains tend to appear with a limited number of other domains on the same protein. We propose a method to take this information into account in a typical BLAST analysis and to construct new domain families on the basis of these results. We used Plasmodium falciparum as a case study to evaluate our method. The experimental findings showed an increase of 14% of the number of significant BLAST hits and an increase of 25% of the proteome area that can be covered with a domain. Our method identified 2240 new domains for which, in most cases, no model of the Pfam database could be linked. Moreover, our study of the quality of the new domains in terms of alignment and physicochemical properties show that they are close to that of standard Pfam domains. Source code of the proposed approach and supplementary data are available at: https://gite.lirmm.fr/menichelli/pairwise-comparison-with-cooccurrence PMID:29293498

  7. [Co-occurrence of anxiety and autism. The social error and allostatic load hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Perez, Isabel

    2013-02-22

    INTRODUCTION. The concept of comorbidity in neurodevelopmental disorders like autism is sometimes ambiguous. The co-occurrence of anxiety and autism is clinically significant, yet it is not always easy to determine whether it is a 'real' comorbidity, where the two comorbid conditions are phenotypically and aetiologically identical to what that anxiety would mean in persons with a neurotypical development, whether it is an anxiety that has been phenotypically modified by the pathological processes of the autism spectrum disorders, thus resulting in a specific variant of these latter, or whether we are dealing with a false comorbidity resulting from rather inaccurate differential diagnoses. DEVELOPMENT. The article puts forward two hypotheses to explain this co-occurrence, which provide each other with feedback and are little more than our reflections on the scientific evidence we have available today, but expressed aloud. The first is the 'social error' hypothesis, which considers that the maladjustments in the social behaviour of persons with autism (which arises from alterations affecting the processes involved in social cognition) help to aggravate anxiety in autism. The second hypothesis, referring to allostatic load, holds that anxiety is a response to chronic stress, wear or exhaustion that is produced by the hyperactivation of certain structures in the limbic system. CONCLUSIONS. The prototypical manifestations of anxiety present in the person with autism are not always related with the same biopsychosocial variables as those observed in persons without autism. Evidence points to hyper-reactive flee-or-fight responses (hypervigilance) when the person finds him or herself outside their comfort zone, and supports the hypotheses of 'social error' and of decompensation of the allostatic mechanism that makes it possible to cope with stress.

  8. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  9. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  10. Species co-occurrence networks: Can they reveal trophic and non-trophic interactions in ecological communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Mara A; Wieters, Evie; Broitman, Bernardo R; Marquet, Pablo A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2018-03-01

    Co-occurrence methods are increasingly utilized in ecology to infer networks of species interactions where detailed knowledge based on empirical studies is difficult to obtain. Their use is particularly common, but not restricted to, microbial networks constructed from metagenomic analyses. In this study, we test the efficacy of this procedure by comparing an inferred network constructed using spatially intensive co-occurrence data from the rocky intertidal zone in central Chile to a well-resolved, empirically based, species interaction network from the same region. We evaluated the overlap in the information provided by each network and the extent to which there is a bias for co-occurrence data to better detect known trophic or non-trophic, positive or negative interactions. We found a poor correspondence between the co-occurrence network and the known species interactions with overall sensitivity (probability of true link detection) equal to 0.469, and specificity (true non-interaction) equal to 0.527. The ability to detect interactions varied with interaction type. Positive non-trophic interactions such as commensalism and facilitation were detected at the highest rates. These results demonstrate that co-occurrence networks do not represent classical ecological networks in which interactions are defined by direct observations or experimental manipulations. Co-occurrence networks provide information about the joint spatial effects of environmental conditions, recruitment, and, to some extent, biotic interactions, and among the latter, they tend to better detect niche-expanding positive non-trophic interactions. Detection of links (sensitivity or specificity) was not higher for well-known intertidal keystone species than for the rest of consumers in the community. Thus, as observed in previous empirical and theoretical studies, patterns of interactions in co-occurrence networks must be interpreted with caution, especially when extending interaction

  11. A study on the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 are potential targets for therapeutic control of UC. Keywords: Glandular epithelium, Inflammatory cells, Inhibitors, Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs),. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, Ulcerative colitis. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science ...

  12. An additive matrix preconditioning method with application for domain decomposition and two-level matrix partitionings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5910, - (2010), s. 76-83 ISSN 0302-9743. [International Conference on Large-Scale Scientific Computations, LSSC 2009 /7./. Sozopol, 04.06.2009-08.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : additive matrix * condition number * domain decomposition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics www.springerlink.com

  13. Species co-occurrence affects the trophic interactions of two juvenile reef shark species in tropical lagoon nurseries in Moorea (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, Philip; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Mourier, Johann; Planes, Serge; Heithaus, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Food web structure is shaped by interactions within and across trophic levels. As such, understanding how the presence and absence of predators, prey, and competitors affect species foraging patterns is important for predicting the consequences of changes in species abundances, distributions, and behaviors. Here, we used plasma δ 13 C and δ 15 N values from juvenile blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and juvenile sicklefin lemon sharks (Negaprion acutidens) to investigate how species co-occurrence affects their trophic interactions in littoral waters of Moorea, French Polynesia. Co-occurrence led to isotopic niche partitioning among sharks within nurseries, with significant increases in δ 15 N values among sicklefin lemon sharks, and significant decreases in δ 15 N among blacktip reef sharks. Niche segregation likely promotes coexistence of these two predators during early years of growth and development, but data do not suggest coexistence affects life history traits, such as body size, body condition, and ontogenetic niche shifts. Plasticity in trophic niches among juvenile blacktip reef sharks and sicklefin lemon sharks also suggests these predators are able to account for changes in community structure, resource availability, and intra-guild competition, and may fill similar functional roles in the absence of the other species, which is important as environmental change and human impacts persist in coral reef ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The co-occurrence of autistic and ADHD dimensions in adults: an etiological study in 17,770 twins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Posthuma, D.; Larsson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur together. To obtain more insight in potential causes for the co-occurrence, this study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between specific ASD and ADHD disorder dimensions.

  15. Phylogenetic fields through time: temporal dynamics of geographical co-occurrence and phylogenetic structure within species ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Carotenuto, Francesco; Raia, Pasquale; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2016-04-05

    Species co-occur with different sets of other species across their geographical distribution, which can be either closely or distantly related. Such co-occurrence patterns and their phylogenetic structure within individual species ranges represent what we call the species phylogenetic fields (PFs). These PFs allow investigation of the role of historical processes--speciation, extinction and dispersal--in shaping species co-occurrence patterns, in both extinct and extant species. Here, we investigate PFs of large mammalian species during the last 3 Myr, and how these correlate with trends in diversification rates. Using the fossil record, we evaluate species' distributional and co-occurrence patterns along with their phylogenetic structure. We apply a novel Bayesian framework on fossil occurrences to estimate diversification rates through time. Our findings highlight the effect of evolutionary processes and past climatic changes on species' distributions and co-occurrences. From the Late Pliocene to the Recent, mammal species seem to have responded in an individualistic manner to climate changes and diversification dynamics, co-occurring with different sets of species from different lineages across their geographical ranges. These findings stress the difficulty of forecasting potential effects of future climate changes on biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: baseline Axis I/II and II/II diagnostic co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, T H; Grilo, C M; Skodol, A E; Gunderson, J G; Shea, M T; Morey, L C; Zanarini, M C; Stout, R L

    2000-10-01

    To describe baseline diagnostic co-occurrence in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Six hundred and sixty-eight patients were reliably assessed with diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II disorders to create five groups: Schizotypal (STPD), Borderline (BPD), Avoidant (AVPD), Obsessive-Compulsive (OCPD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) without personality disorder (PD). Mean number of Axis I lifetime diagnoses was 3.4; STPD and BPD groups had more diagnoses than AVPD, OCPD, and MDD groups. Significant Axis I co-occurrences emerged for Social Phobia/ AVPD, PTSD/BPD and Substance Use/BPD. Mean number of co-occurring PDs was 1.4; STPD had more than BPD group which had more than AVPD and OCPD groups. Significant PD co-occurrence emerged for: STPD/ Paranoid and Schizoid PDs, BPD with Antisocial and Dependent PDs, and lower frequency for OCPD/Antisocial PD. Diagnostic co-occurrences generally followed base rates, while significant departures resemble those of controlled literature.

  17. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  18. Does spatial co-occurrence of carnivores in a Central European agricultural landscape follow the null model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Padyšáková, E.; Kreisinger, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 99-107 ISSN 1612-4642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Co-occurrence * Interspecific competition * Mesopredator release * Agricultural landscape Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  19. Empirically-based modeling and mapping to consider the co-occurrence of ecological receptors and stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of the ecological risk assessment process involves examining the potential for environmental stressors and ecological receptors to co-occur across a landscape. In this study, we introduce a Bayesian joint modeling framework for use in evaluating and mapping the co-occurrence...

  20. [Sexual violence and co-occurrences suffered by children and adolescents: study of incidents over a decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jacqueline Reiter; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Santos, Clarice Alves; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Ohana Cunha

    2014-03-01

    The study analyzes the evolution of the incidence of sexual violence (SV) and co-occurrences between 2001 and 2010. The records of the Guardianship Councils in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia, Brazil were used and the incidence rates and graphs of the events during the period were calculated. Of the total of the different types of violence, 21.8 % involved co-occurrences, the majority being female, most frequently during adolescence. There was a high proportion of abuse in male children, with most offenders bring family members or acquaintances. The incidence of SV revealed an increasing trend in both sexes during the decade, more significantly in females in 2002 and 2009. The age groups indicated the same trend, with a higher proportion of cases in adolescence. The record of co-occurrences with SV was more pronounced in the second half of the decade, namely psychological violence in 2008, neglect in 2008 and physical violence in 2009. The conclusion is that the increase in the coefficients of sexual violence and co-occurrences may indicate an improvement of the reporting system of instances in reference, as well as greater citizen participation through the Dial 100 complaint hotline. The indicators help to prevent and control violence against children.

  1. Children Exposed to Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study of Co-Occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the co-occurrence of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) and examined the association between them. Method: The cross-sectional study recruited a population-based sample of 1,094 children aged 12-17 years in Hong Kong. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the children. The…

  2. The co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes: shared aetiologic features and clinical implication for MS aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Prudence; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid A F

    2015-01-15

    We reviewed the evidence for the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS), and assessed the clinical significance of this association and the shared aetiological features of the two diseases. T1D and MS contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. The co-occurrence of MS and T1D has been reported by a number of studies, suggesting that the two conditions share one or more aetiological components. Both conditions have been associated with distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes but share a number of similarities in clinical, epidemiological and immunological features, leading to suggestions of possible common mechanisms of development. While underlying genetic factors may be important for the co-occurrence of both conditions, some evidence suggests that environmental factors such as vitamin D deficiency may also modulate an individual's risk for the development of both conditions. Evidence on whether the co-occurrence of the two autoimmune conditions will affect the disease course and severity of MS is merely absent. Further studies need to be conducted to ascertain whether the neuropathology associated with T1D might influence the disease course and contribute to the severity of MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Traditional and cyberbullying co-occurrence and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Co-occurrence of Mycoplasma Species and Pigeon Herpesvirus-1 Infection in Racing Pigeons ( Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Göbel, Stephan; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Martel, An

    2017-12-01

    Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 438 live racing pigeons ( Columba livia), with and without signs of respiratory disease, that were housed in 220 lofts in 3 provinces in the western part of the Netherlands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Mycoplasma species and pigeon herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) from the samples. In 8.6% of the pigeon lofts tested, signs of respiratory disease were present in pigeons at sampling, and in 30.9% of the sampled pigeon lofts, respiratory signs were observed in pigeons during the 6-month period immediately before sampling. A total of 39.8% of tested pigeons (54.5% of tested lofts) were positive for Mycoplasma species, and 30.6% of tested pigeons (48.6% of tested lofts) were positive for PHV-1. In 15.8% of the tested pigeons (26.8% of tested pigeon lofts), coinfection by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was identified. The number of pigeon lofts having pigeons coinfected by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was higher than that where only one of the infections was identified. Neither the presence of Mycoplasma species, PHV-1, nor the co-occurrence of both infections was significantly associated with signs of respiratory disease.

  5. A novel co-occurrence-based approach to predict pure associative and semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, Andre; Franke, Nicole; Biemann, Chris; Radach, Ralph; Jacobs, Arthur M; Hofmann, Markus J

    2018-03-15

    The theoretical "difficulty in separating association strength from [semantic] feature overlap" has resulted in inconsistent findings of either the presence or absence of "pure" associative priming in recent literature (Hutchison, 2003, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(4), p. 787). The present study used co-occurrence statistics of words in sentences to provide a full factorial manipulation of direct association (strong/no) and the number of common associates (many/no) of the prime and target words. These common associates were proposed to serve as semantic features for a recent interactive activation model of semantic processing (i.e., the associative read-out model; Hofmann & Jacobs, 2014). With stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as an additional factor, our findings indicate that associative and semantic priming are indeed dissociable. Moreover, the effect of direct association was strongest at a long SOA (1,000 ms), while many common associates facilitated lexical decisions primarily at a short SOA (200 ms). This response pattern is consistent with previous performance-based accounts and suggests that associative and semantic priming can be evoked by computationally determined direct and common associations.

  6. Overlapping and co-occurrence pattern of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae in anthropic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayron Sousa Amaral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in two anthropic areas (Fazenda Areão and Monte Olimpo on the “Luiz de Queiroz” campus, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. We analyzed data from 52 collections of 14 McPhail traps distributed in both areas. A total of 1,583 females belonging to 14 species were collected, including Anastrepha amita Zucchi, A. barbiellinii Lima, A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. daciformis Bezzi, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. grandis (Macquart, A. manihoti Lima, A. montei Lima, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pickeli Lima, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wiedemann and A. sororcula Zucchi. A greater number of specimens (1,041 were collected at the Fazenda Areão compared to Monte Olimpo (542. The mean niche overlap was greater than expected at random for both areas; therefore, the ecological niches of the species largely overlap. The pattern of co-occurrence indicates that segregation was not random between two pairs of species: A. pseudoparallela × A. obliqua (Fazenda Areão and A. fraterculus × A. pseudoparallela (Monte Olimpo. This segregation suggests that there may be competition for resources in each niche. The analysis also revealed three aggregated species pairs: A. bistrigata × A. montei, A. fraterculus × A. barbiellinii (Fazenda Areão, and A. fraterculus × A. bistrigata (Monte Olimpo, indicating that each pair occurs concomitantly without interfering with the permanence of the populations in these areas.

  7. Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Elsa; Silver, Casey; Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Rosenthal, Lisa; Bruns, Emily; Yee, Sarah; Antonovics, Janis; Giraud, Tatiana; Hood, Michael E

    2017-04-01

    Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen genus, a range of overlapping host specificities was observed for four delineated Microbotryum lineages on Dianthus hosts, and their frequent co-occurrence within single-host populations was quantified at local and regional scales. In addition to potential consequences for direct pathogen competition, the sympatry of Microbotryum lineages led to hybridization between them in many populations, and these admixed genotypes suffered significant meiotic sterility. Therefore, this investigation of the anther-smut fungi reveals how variation in the degrees of host specificity can have major implications for ecological interactions and genetic integrity of differentiated pathogen lineages. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence, co-occurrence and decennial trends of family violence toward children in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil

    2016-03-14

    In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.

  9. Fire modifies the phylogenetic structure of soil bacterial co-occurrence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valera, Eduardo; Goberna, Marta; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; García, Carlos; Verdú, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Fire alters ecosystems by changing the composition and community structure of soil microbes. The phylogenetic structure of a community provides clues about its main assembling mechanisms. While environmental filtering tends to reduce the community phylogenetic diversity by selecting for functionally (and hence phylogenetically) similar species, processes like competitive exclusion by limiting similarity tend to increase it by preventing the coexistence of functionally (and phylogenetically) similar species. We used co-occurrence networks to detect co-presence (bacteria that co-occur) or exclusion (bacteria that do not co-occur) links indicative of the ecological interactions structuring the community. We propose that inspecting the phylogenetic structure of co-presence or exclusion links allows to detect the main processes simultaneously assembling the community. We monitored a soil bacterial community after an experimental fire and found that fire altered its composition, richness and phylogenetic diversity. Both co-presence and exclusion links were more phylogenetically related than expected by chance. We interpret such a phylogenetic clustering in co-presence links as a result of environmental filtering, while that in exclusion links reflects competitive exclusion by limiting similarity. This suggests that environmental filtering and limiting similarity operate simultaneously to assemble soil bacterial communities, widening the traditional view that only environmental filtering structures bacterial communities. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sex allocation promotes the stable co-occurrence of competitive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity has long been a source of wonder and scientific curiosity. Theoretically, the co-occurrence of competitive species requires niche differentiation, and such differences are well known; however, the neutral theory, which assumes the equivalence of all individuals regardless of the species in a biological community, has successfully recreated observed patterns of biodiversity. In this research, the evolution of sex allocation is demonstrated to be the key to resolving why the neutral theory works well, despite the observed species differences. The sex allocation theory predicts that female-biased allocation evolves in species in declining density and that this allocation improves population growth, which should lead to an increase in density. In contrast, when the density increases, a less biased allocation evolves, which reduces the population growth rate and leads to decreased density. Thus, sex allocation provides a buffer against species differences in population growth. A model incorporating this mechanism demonstrates that hundreds of species can co-occur over 10,000 generations, even in homogeneous environments, and reproduces the observed patterns of biodiversity. This study reveals the importance of evolutionary processes within species for the sustainability of biodiversity. Integrating the entire biological process, from genes to community, will open a new era of ecology.

  11. Co-occurrence of personality disorders in persons with kleptomania: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the co-occurrence of personality disorders in a group of persons with kleptomania. Twenty-eight subjects with DSM-IV kleptomania were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and a semistructured interview to assess demographics and clinical characteristics. Twelve subjects with kleptomania (42.9%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. The most common were: paranoid (n = 5; 17.9%), schizoid (n = 3; 10.7%), and borderline (n = 3; 10.7%). Subjects with kleptomania combined with personality disorders had an earlier age of onset of stealing behavior (13.4 +/- 5.6 years compared with 27.4 +/- 14.2 years in those who had kleptomania only; t = 3.225; df = 26; p = .006). Severity of kleptomania symptoms did not differ among the Axis II comorbidities. Persons with kleptomania appear to have a high prevalence of personality disorders. Further studies are needed to understand the relationship of kleptomania to personality.

  12. Supervised and Unsupervised Aspect Category Detection for Sentiment Analysis with Co-occurrence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Kim; van der Weijde, Onne; Frasincar, Flavius; Dekker, Rommert

    2018-04-01

    Using online consumer reviews as electronic word of mouth to assist purchase-decision making has become increasingly popular. The Web provides an extensive source of consumer reviews, but one can hardly read all reviews to obtain a fair evaluation of a product or service. A text processing framework that can summarize reviews, would therefore be desirable. A subtask to be performed by such a framework would be to find the general aspect categories addressed in review sentences, for which this paper presents two methods. In contrast to most existing approaches, the first method presented is an unsupervised method that applies association rule mining on co-occurrence frequency data obtained from a corpus to find these aspect categories. While not on par with state-of-the-art supervised methods, the proposed unsupervised method performs better than several simple baselines, a similar but supervised method, and a supervised baseline, with an -score of 67%. The second method is a supervised variant that outperforms existing methods with an -score of 84%.

  13. Networks Depicting the Fine-Scale Co-Occurrences of Fungi in Soil Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Kishida, Osamu; Katayama, Noboru; Takagi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Fungi in soil play pivotal roles in nutrient cycling, pest controls, and plant community succession in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the ecosystem functions provided by soil fungi, our knowledge of the assembly processes of belowground fungi has been limited. In particular, we still have limited knowledge of how diverse functional groups of fungi interact with each other in facilitative and competitive ways in soil. Based on the high-throughput sequencing data of fungi in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan, we analyzed how taxonomically and functionally diverse fungi showed correlated fine-scale distributions in soil. By uncovering pairs of fungi that frequently co-occurred in the same soil samples, networks depicting fine-scale co-occurrences of fungi were inferred at the O (organic matter) and A (surface soil) horizons. The results then led to the working hypothesis that mycorrhizal, endophytic, saprotrophic, and pathogenic fungi could form compartmentalized (modular) networks of facilitative, antagonistic, and/or competitive interactions in belowground ecosystems. Overall, this study provides a research basis for further understanding how interspecific interactions, along with sharing of niches among fungi, drive the dynamics of poorly explored biospheres in soil.

  14. Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, Danilo; Varoquaux, Gaël; Grisel, Olivier; Eickenberg, Michael; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand

    2016-06-01

    Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81) by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition.

  15. Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bzdok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81 by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition.

  16. Co-occurrence graphs for word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Andres; Stevenson, Mark; Martinez-Romo, Juan; Araujo, Lourdes

    2018-05-01

    Word sense disambiguation is a key step for many natural language processing tasks (e.g. summarization, text classification, relation extraction) and presents a challenge to any system that aims to process documents from the biomedical domain. In this paper, we present a new graph-based unsupervised technique to address this problem. The knowledge base used in this work is a graph built with co-occurrence information from medical concepts found in scientific abstracts, and hence adapted to the specific domain. Unlike other unsupervised approaches based on static graphs such as UMLS, in this work the knowledge base takes the context of the ambiguous terms into account. Abstracts downloaded from PubMed are used for building the graph and disambiguation is performed using the personalized PageRank algorithm. Evaluation is carried out over two test datasets widely explored in the literature. Different parameters of the system are also evaluated to test robustness and scalability. Results show that the system is able to outperform state-of-the-art knowledge-based systems, obtaining more than 10% of accuracy improvement in some cases, while only requiring minimal external resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birte; Morgenstern, Matthis; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate co-occurrence and shared personality characteristics of problematic computer gaming, problematic gambling and substance use. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 2,553 German students aged 12-25 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis), problematic gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents, SOGS-RA), problematic computer gaming (Video Game Dependency Scale, KFN-CSAS-II), and of twelve different personality characteristics were obtained. Analyses revealed positive correlations between tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use and a smaller positive correlation between problematic gambling and problematic computer gaming. Problematic computer gaming co-occurred only with cannabis use, whereas problematic gambling was associated with all three types of substance use. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed differential patterns of personality characteristics. High impulsivity was the only personality characteristic associated with all five addictive behaviours. Depression and extraversion were specific to substance users. Four personality characteristics were specifically associated with problematic computer gaming: irritability/aggression, social anxiety, ADHD, and low self-esteem. Problematic gamblers seem to be more similar to substance users than problematic computer gamers. From a personality perspective, results correspond to the inclusion of gambling in the same DSM-V category as substance use and question a one-to-one proceeding for computer gaming. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Network analysis of named entity co-occurrences in written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2016-06-01

    The use of methods borrowed from statistics and physics to analyze written texts has allowed the discovery of unprecedent patterns of human behavior and cognition by establishing links between models features and language structure. While current models have been useful to unveil patterns via analysis of syntactical and semantical networks, only a few works have probed the relevance of investigating the structure arising from the relationship between relevant entities such as characters, locations and organizations. In this study, we represent entities appearing in the same context as a co-occurrence network, where links are established according to a null model based on random, shuffled texts. Computational simulations performed in novels revealed that the proposed model displays interesting topological features, such as the small world feature, characterized by high values of clustering coefficient. The effectiveness of our model was verified in a practical pattern recognition task in real networks. When compared with traditional word adjacency networks, our model displayed optimized results in identifying unknown references in texts. Because the proposed representation plays a complementary role in characterizing unstructured documents via topological analysis of named entities, we believe that it could be useful to improve the characterization of written texts (and related systems), specially if combined with traditional approaches based on statistical and deeper paradigms.

  19. Retrospective analysis of co-occurrence of congenital aortic stenosis and pulmonary artery stenosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, M; Pasławska, U; Staszczyk, M; Cepiel, A; Pasławski, R; Mazur, G; Noszczyk-Nowak, A

    2015-01-01

    The study has focused on the retrospective analysis of cases of coexisting congenital aortic stenosis (AS) and pulmonary artery stenosis (PS) in dogs. The research included 5463 dogs which were referred for cardiological examination (including clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography) between 2004 and 2014. Aortic stenosis and PS stenosis were detected in 31 dogs. This complex defect was the most commonly diagnosed in Boxers - 7 dogs, other breeds were represented by: 4 cross-breed dogs, 2 Bichon Maltais, 3 Miniature Pinschers, 2 Bernese Mountain Dogs, 2 French Bulldogs, and individuals of following breeds: Bichon Frise, Bull Terrier, Czech Wolfdog, German Shepherd, Hairless Chinese Crested Dog, Miniature Schnauzer, Pug, Rottweiler, Samoyed, West Highland White Terrier and Yorkshire Terrier. In all the dogs, the murmurs could be heard, graded from 2 to 5 (on a scale of 1-6). Besides, in 9 cases other congenital defects were diagnosed: patent ductus arteriosus, mitral valve dysplasia, pulmonary or aortic valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve dysplasia, ventricular or atrial septal defect. The majority of the dogs suffered from pulmonary valvular stenosis (1 dog had supravalvular pulmonary artery stenosis) and subvalvular aortic stenosis (2 dogs had valvular aortic stenosis). Conclusions and clinical relevance - co-occurrence of AS and PS is the most common complex congenital heart defect. Boxer breed was predisposed to this complex defect. It was found that coexisting AS and PS is more common in male dogs and the degree of PS and AS was mostly similar.

  20. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    Full Text Available Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico, we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae, to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order

  1. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico), we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico) in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae), to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae) of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order to carry out

  2. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  3. At-risk depressive symptoms and alcohol use trajectories in adolescence: a person-centred analysis of co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Fortner, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Long-term longitudinal studies that examine whether there are distinct trajectories of at-risk depressive symptoms and alcohol use across the high school years (e.g., high co-occurrence) are rare in normative samples of adolescent boys and girls; yet, this assessment is of critical importance for developing effective prevention and intervention strategies. Moreover, the role of self-regulation and novelty-seeking behavior in differentiating among distinct subgroups of adolescents is not clear. To address these gaps, the present study sought to identify subgroups of adolescent boys and girls that indicated at-risk trajectories across the high school years for both depressive symptoms and alcohol use, and examined the role of delay of gratification and novelty seeking at baseline in differentiating among the subgroups. Canadian adolescents (N = 4,412; 49 % female) were surveyed at four time points (grades 9, 10, 11, and 12). Parallel process latent class growth analyses revealed four distinct subgroups for both boys and girls, encompassing high co-occurrence, depressive symptoms only, alcohol use only, and low co-occurrence. Across gender, delay of gratification at baseline differentiated among the four subgroups, with the High Co-Occurrence Group group scoring the lowest and the Low Co-Occurrence Group the highest. Lower novelty-seeking scores at baseline were associated more with being in the Depressive Symptoms Only Group relative to the other groups, particularly the Alcohol Use Only Group for boys. Thus, delay of gratification and novelty seeking may be useful in identifying youth at risk for co-occurring depressive symptoms and alcohol use trajectories, as well as at-risk trajectories for only one of these behaviors.

  4. Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Markos A.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Hall, John D.; Delwiche, Charles F.; Fritschie, Keith; Narwani, Anita; Venail, Patrick A.; Bentlage, Bastian; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed to support the CRH, critics have pointed out at least three limitations: (i) the use of data poor phylogenies that provide inaccurate estimates of species relatedness, (ii) the use of inappropriate statistical models that fail to detect relationships between relatedness and species interactions amidst nonlinearities and heteroskedastic variances, and (iii) overly simplified laboratory conditions that fail to allow eco-evolutionary relationships to emerge. Here, we address these limitations and find they do not explain why evolutionary relatedness fails to predict the strength of species interactions or probabilities of coexistence among freshwater green algae. First, we construct a new data-rich, transcriptome-based phylogeny of common freshwater green algae that are commonly cultured and used for laboratory experiments. Using this new phylogeny, we re-analyse ecological data from three previously published laboratory experiments. After accounting for the possibility of nonlinearities and heterogeneity of variances across levels of relatedness, we find no relationship between phylogenetic distance and ecological traits. In addition, we show that communities of North American green algae are randomly composed with respect to their evolutionary relationships in 99% of 1077 lakes spanning the continental United States. Together, these analyses result in one of the most comprehensive case studies of how evolutionary history influences

  5. A method for modeling co-occurrence propensity of clinical codes with application to ICD-10-PCS auto-coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotin, Michael; Davis, Anthony R

    2016-09-01

    Natural language processing methods for medical auto-coding, or automatic generation of medical billing codes from electronic health records, generally assign each code independently of the others. They may thus assign codes for closely related procedures or diagnoses to the same document, even when they do not tend to occur together in practice, simply because the right choice can be difficult to infer from the clinical narrative. We propose a method that injects awareness of the propensities for code co-occurrence into this process. First, a model is trained to estimate the conditional probability that one code is assigned by a human coder, given than another code is known to have been assigned to the same document. Then, at runtime, an iterative algorithm is used to apply this model to the output of an existing statistical auto-coder to modify the confidence scores of the codes. We tested this method in combination with a primary auto-coder for International Statistical Classification of Diseases-10 procedure codes, achieving a 12% relative improvement in F-score over the primary auto-coder baseline. The proposed method can be used, with appropriate features, in combination with any auto-coder that generates codes with different levels of confidence. The promising results obtained for International Statistical Classification of Diseases-10 procedure codes suggest that the proposed method may have wider applications in auto-coding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Co-occurrence of methanogenesis and N{sub 2} fixation in oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, C.E. Victoria [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9 (Canada); Siddique, Tariq, E-mail: tariq.siddique@ualberta.ca [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada have been producing biogenic gases via microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons for decades. Persistent methanogenic activity in tailings ponds without any known replenishment of nutrients such as fixed nitrogen (N) persuaded us to investigate whether N{sub 2} fixation or polyacrylamide (PAM; used as a tailings flocculant) could serve as N sources. Cultures comprising mature fine tailings (MFT) plus methanogenic medium supplemented with or deficient in fixed N were incubated under an N{sub 2} headspace. Some cultures were further amended with citrate, which is used in oil sands processing, as a relevant carbon source, and/or with PAM. After an initial delay, N-deficient cultures with or without PAM produced methane (CH{sub 4}) at the same rate as N-containing cultures, indicating a mechanism of overcoming apparent N-deficiency. Acetylene reduction and {sup 15}N{sub 2} incorporation in all N-deficient cultures (with or without PAM) suggested active N{sub 2} fixation concurrently with methanogenesis but inability to use PAM as a N source. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed little difference between archaeal populations regardless of N content. However, bacterial sequences in N-deficient cultures showed enrichment of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium members that might contain N{sub 2}-fixing species. The results are important in understanding long-term production of biogenic greenhouse gases in oil sands tailings. - Highlights: • Methanogenesis in oil sands tailings can occur under nitrogen depleted conditions. • {sup 15}N{sub 2} isotopic analysis reveals that indigenous microbes can fix N{sub 2} for microbial metabolism and methanogenesis. • 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that members of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium may be involved in N{sub 2} fixation. • This is the first report that describes co-occurrence of methanogenesis and nitrogen fixation in oil sands tailings.

  7. Characterizing Emotional Dysfunction in Borderline Personality, Major Depression, and their Co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Tull, Matthew T.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to characterize patterns of emotional reactivity and dysregulation in borderline personality, depression, and their co-occurrence. In Study 1, 488 young adult women from the community were categorized into four groups based on self-reported major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms (Low BPD/Low MDD; Low BPD/High MDD; High BPD/Low MDD; High BPD/High MDD). Immediate and prolonged subjective emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor were assessed, and participants completed self-report and behavioral measures of emotion dysregulation. Study 2 extended these findings, examining emotional reactivity and dysregulation in a clinical population of 176 substance dependent patients with diagnoses of BPD and MDD and including a biological index of emotional reactivity. Results revealed greater prolonged fear reactivity in the High BPD/High MDD (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD) group in Study 1, and greater prolonged anxiety and negative affect reactivity in both High BPD groups (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD and Low BPD/High MDD groups) in Study 2 (but no differences in cortisol reactivity). Results also demonstrated greater subjective (but not behavioral) emotion dysregulation in the High BPD/High MDD (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD) group in Study 1 and both High BPD groups (vs. both Low BPD groups) in Study 2. Finally, the High BPD/High MDD group reported greater difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors compared with all other groups in Study 1 and the Low BPD groups in Study 2. Findings suggest that BPD pathology (but not MDD pathology alone) is characterized by greater prolonged emotional (especially anxiety/fear-related) reactivity and heightened emotion dysregulation. PMID:26343484

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 level as an indicator for restenosis following cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting is an effective and safe method of reducing the risk of ischemic stroke, but it may be affected by in-stent restenosis. The present study investigated serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 as a predictor of restenosis after 40 patients underwent cervical and/or intracranial angioplasty and stenting. Results showed that restenosis occurred in 30% (3/10 of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 at 3 days after surgery was 2.5 times higher than preoperative level. No restenosis occurred when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 at 3 days after surgery was not 2.5 times higher than preoperative level. Restenosis occurred in 12% (2/17 of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was higher than preoperative level for more than 30 days after surgery, but only occurred in 4% (1/23 of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was higher than preoperative level for less than 30 days after surgery. However, the differences observed were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Experimental findings indicate that when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 is 2.5 times higher than preoperative level at 3 days after cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting, it may serve as a predictor of in-stent restenosis.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  10. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  11. A random matrix approach to the crossover of energy-level statistics from Wigner to Poisson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Kunz, Herve

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a class of parametrized random matrix models, introduced by Rosenzweig and Porter, which is expected to describe the energy level statistics of quantum systems whose classical dynamics varies from regular to chaotic as a function of a parameter. We compute the generating function for the correlations of energy levels, in the limit of infinite matrix size. The crossover between Poisson and Wigner statistics is measured by a renormalized coupling constant. The model is exactly solved in the sense that, in the limit of infinite matrix size, the energy-level correlation functions and their generating function are given in terms of a finite set of integrals

  12. [Levels of bone mineral matrix organization and the mechanisms determining parameters of its formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Tikhilov, R M; Abolin, A B; Shcherbak, I G

    2005-01-01

    Authors suggest to regard bone mineral matrix as the four-level structure. The first level is represented by an internal structure of a mineral, the second--by mineral morphological structure, the third--by coplanar association of minerals, and the fourth--by macroassociation of minerals in a single complex inside each bone. The most probable mechanisms determining stability of reproduction of mineral matrix parameters on each of these levels are shown. As a result of their functioning, the variants of bone mineral matrix structures are formed that are the programmed reflection of specificity of the given site of organic structures.

  13. The Co- Occurrence of Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children-what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eLeitner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD often co-occur. The DSM IV had specified that an ASD diagnosis is an exclusion criterion for ADHD, thereby limiting research of this common clinical co-occurrence. As neurodevelopmental disorders, both ASD and ADHD share some phenotypic similarities, but are characterized by distinct diagnostic criteria. The present review will examine the frequency and implications of this clinical co-occurrence in children, with an emphasis on the available data regarding preschool age. The review will highlight possible etiologies explaining it, and suggest future research directions necessary to enhance our understanding of both etiology and therapeutic interventions, in light of the new DSM V criteria , allowing for a dual diagnosis.

  14. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the co-occurrence of the common NCD risk factors, particularly in an urban slum setting in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of the four common NCDs risk factors among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. This analysis was based on the data collected as part of a cross-sectional survey to assess linkages among socio-economic status, perceived personal risk, and risk factors for cardiovascular and NCDs in a population of slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2008-2009. A total of 5,190 study subjects were included in the analysis. After selecting relevant variables for common NCD risk factors, we computed the prevalence of all possible combinations of the four common NCD risk factors. The analysis was disaggregated by relevant background variables. The weighted prevalences of unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, and tobacco use were found to be 57.2, 14.4, 10.1, and 12.4%, respectively. Nearly 72% of the study participants had at least one of the four NCD risk factors. About 52% of the study population had any one of the four NCD risk factors. About one-fifth (19.8%) had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Close to one in six individuals (17.6%) had two NCD risk factors, while only 2.2% had three or four NCD risk factors. One out of five of people in the urban slum settings of Nairobi had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Both comprehensive and differentiated approaches are needed for effective NCD prevention and control in these settings.

  15. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Chen

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD for invasive breast cancer (IBC is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC, an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC.A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models.Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2. This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes.We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs.

  16. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatich, Albert J.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Jianfang; Kvecher, Leonid; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Mitchell, Edith P.; Rui, Hallgeir; Shriver, Craig D.; Hu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC), an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC. Methods A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA) was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC) were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR) depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2). This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes. Conclusions We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs. PMID:26098961

  17. Niche filtering, not interspecific resource competition, explains the co-occurrence of butterfly species across the Japanese archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakadai, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Koya

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of interspecific resource competition in the context of community assembly by herbivorous insects is a well-known topic in ecology. Most previous studies focused on local species assemblies, that shared host plants. Few studies evaluated species pairs within a single taxon when investigating the effects of host plant sharing at the regional scale. Herein, we explore the effect of plant sharing on the geographical co-occurrence patterns of 229 butterflies distributed across the J...

  18. A probabilistic approach for estimating the spatial extent of pesticide agricultural use sites and potential co-occurrence with listed species for use in ecological risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budreski, Katherine; Winchell, Michael; Padilla, Lauren; Bang, JiSu; Brain, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A crop footprint refers to the estimated spatial extent of growing areas for a specific crop, and is commonly used to represent the potential "use site" footprint for a pesticide labeled for use on that crop. A methodology for developing probabilistic crop footprints to estimate the likelihood of pesticide use and the potential co-occurrence of pesticide use and listed species locations was tested at the national scale and compared to alternative methods. The probabilistic aspect of the approach accounts for annual crop rotations and the uncertainty in remotely sensed crop and land cover data sets. The crop footprints used historically are derived exclusively from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Cultivated Crops and/or Pasture/Hay classes. This approach broadly aggregates agriculture into 2 classes, which grossly overestimates the spatial extent of individual crops that are labeled for pesticide use. The approach also does not use all the available crop data, represents a single point in time, and does not account for the uncertainty in land cover data set classifications. The probabilistic crop footprint approach described herein incorporates best available information at the time of analysis from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) for 5 y (2008-2012 at the time of analysis), the 2006 NLCD, the 2007 NASS Census of Agriculture, and 5 y of NASS Quick Stats (2008-2012). The approach accounts for misclassification of crop classes in the CDL by incorporating accuracy assessment information by state, year, and crop. The NLCD provides additional information to improve the CDL crop probability through an adjustment based on the NLCD accuracy assessment data using the principles of Bayes' Theorem. Finally, crop probabilities are scaled at the state level by comparing against NASS surveys (Census of Agriculture and Quick Stats) of reported planted acres by crop. In an example application of the new method, the probabilistic

  19. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transdiagnostic Treatment of Co-occurrence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders based on Repetitive Negative Thinking: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: The transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral treatments for treating the coexistence of anxiety and mood disorders received useful empirical supports in the recent years. However, these treatments still have moderate efficacy. Following the improvements and developments in transdiagnostic protocols and considering the importance of repetitive negative thinking as a core transdiagnostic factor in emotional disorders, this study examined a new form of transdiagnostic treatment based on Repetitive Negative Thinking (TTRNT of co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders.  Methods:Treatment efficacy was assessed using single case series with multiple baselines. Three patients meeting the criteria for co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders were selected using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. The patients were treated individually for 12 weekly sessions. Participants completed the standardized outcome measures during the baseline, treatment and one-month follow-up. Results:At post-treatment, all participants showed significant clinical changes on a range of standardized outcome measures, and these gains were largely maintained through the one-month follow-up both in the principle and co-principal diagnosis. Conclusions:Although the results of this preliminary investigation indicated that TTRNT could be a time effective and efficient treatment for individuals with co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders, further controlled clinical trials are necessary to examine this new treatment approach.

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic circumstances and the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles: evidence from 206,457 Australians in the 45 and up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Research on the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles has tended to focus mainly upon the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. This study investigated the relevance of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance for multiple unhealthy lifestyles. An unhealthy lifestyle index was constructed for 206,457 participants in the 45 and Up Study (2006-2009) by summing binary responses on smoking, alcohol, physical activity and five diet-related variables. Higher scores indicated the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles. Association with self-rated health, quality of life; and risk of psychological distress was investigated using multilevel logistic regression. Association between the unhealthy lifestyle index with neighborhood characteristics (local affluence and geographic remoteness) were assessed using multilevel linear regression, adjusting for individual-level characteristics. Nearly 50% of the sample reported 3 or 4 unhealthy lifestyles. Only 1.5% reported zero unhealthy lifestyles and 0.2% had all eight. Compared to people who scored zero, those who scored 8 (the 'unhealthiest' group) were 7 times more likely to rate their health as poor (95%CI 3.6, 13.7), 5 times more likely to report poor quality of life (95%CI 2.6, 10.1), and had a 2.6 times greater risk of psychological distress (95%CI 1.8, 3.7). Higher scores among men decreased with age, whereas a parabolic distribution was observed among women. Neighborhood affluence was independently associated with lower scores on the unhealthy lifestyle index. People on high incomes scored higher on the unhealthy lifestyle index if they were in poorer neighborhoods, while those on low incomes had fewer unhealthy lifestyles if living in more affluent areas. Residents of deprived neighborhoods tend to report more unhealthy lifestyles than their peers in affluent areas, regardless of their individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Future research should investigate the trade-offs of

  2. Genetic insights into family group co-occurrence in Cryptocercus punctulatus, a sub-social woodroach from the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Garrick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae is an important member of the dead wood (saproxylic community in montane forests of the southeastern United States. However, its population biology remains poorly understood. Here, aspects of family group co-occurrence were characterized to provide basic information that can be extended by studies on the evolution and maintenance of sub-sociality. Broad sampling across the species’ range was coupled with molecular data (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences. The primary questions were: (1 what proportion of rotting logs contain two or more different mtDNA haplotypes and how often can this be attributed to multiple families inhabiting the same log, (2 are multi-family logs spatially clustered, and (3 what levels of genetic differentiation among haplotypes exist within a log, and how genetically similar are matrilines of co-occurring family groups? Multi-family logs were identified on the premise that three different mtDNA haplotypes, or two different haplotypes among adult females, is inconsistent with a single family group founded by one male–female pair. Results showed that of the 88 rotting logs from which multiple adult C. punctulatus were sampled, 41 logs (47% contained two or more mtDNA haplotypes, and at least 19 of these logs (22% overall were inferred to be inhabited by multiple families. There was no strong evidence for spatial clustering of the latter class of logs. The frequency distribution of nucleotide differences between co-occurring haplotypes was strongly right-skewed, such that most haplotypes were only one or two mutations apart, but more substantial divergences (up to 18 mutations, or 1.6% uncorrected sequence divergence do occasionally occur within logs. This work represents the first explicit investigation of family group co-occurrence in C. punctulatus, providing a valuable baseline for follow-up studies.

  3. Δ17O Isotopic Investigation of Nitrate Salts Found in Co-Occurrence with Naturally Formed Perchlorate in the Mojave Desert, California, USA and the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Parker, D.; Rech, J.; Prellwitz, J.; Michalski, G.

    2009-12-01

    Perchlorate is both a naturally occurring and manmade contaminant that has been identified in soil, groundwater and surface water. Perchlorate directly affects human health by interfering with iodide uptake in the thyroid gland, which may in turn lower the production of key hormones that are needed for proper growth and development. Until recently, the Atacama Desert, Chile was thought to be the only location where perchlorate salts formed naturally. Recent work has documented the occurrence of these salts in several semi-arid regions of the United States. This study identified putatively natural sources of perchlorate in the Mojave Desert of California. Soil samples were collected from six field sites varying in geologic age. The co-occurrence of perchlorate and nitrate in caliches from the Atacama Desert and soils from the Mojave Desert was also investigated. Although the former are richer in NO3-, near-ore-grade (~5%) deposits occur in the vicinity of Death Valley National Park. Weak but significant correlations exist between ClO4- and NO3- at both locations, but the perchlorate levels are much higher (up to 800 mg/kg) in the Chilean samples than in California (atmospheric origin for the Atacama nitrate salts, and a mixture between biological nitrate and atmospherically-derived nitrate for the Mojave samples. When corrected for the percentage of atmospheric nitrate measured in the Atacama samples, the Mojave samples still contain much lower perchlorate concentrations than would be expected if the occurrence of perchlorate correlated strictly with atmospherically derived nitrate. These results indicate that the variation in the origins of the nitrate salts is not the only factor influencing perchlorate distribution in these environments. These findings suggest that there are other geologic differences in landform age and stability that are crucial to understanding the co-occurrence of nitrate and perchlorate between the two locations.

  4. Co-occurrence dynamics of endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbits and free-ranging domestic cats: Prey responses to an exotic predator removal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R; O'Connell, Allan F

    2018-04-01

    The Lower Keys marsh rabbit ( Sylvilagus palustris hefneri ) is one of many endangered endemic species of the Florida Keys. The main threats are habitat loss and fragmentation from sea-level rise, development, and habitat succession. Exotic predators such as free-ranging domestic cats ( Felis catus ) pose an additional threat to these endangered small mammals. Management strategies have focused on habitat restoration and exotic predator control. However, the effectiveness of predator removal and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications and restoration have not been evaluated. Between 2013 and 2015, we used camera traps to survey marsh rabbits and free-ranging cats at 84 sites in the National Key Deer Refuge, Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. We used dynamic occupancy models to determine factors associated with marsh rabbit occurrence, colonization, extinction, and the co-occurrence of marsh rabbits and cats during a period of predator removal. Rabbit occurrence was positively related to freshwater habitat and patch size, but was negatively related to the number of individual cats detected at each site. Furthermore, marsh rabbit colonization was negatively associated with relative increases in the number of individual cats at each site between survey years. Cat occurrence was negatively associated with increasing distance from human developments. The probability of cat site extinction was positively related to a 2-year trapping effort, indicating that predator removal reduced the cat population. Dynamic co-occurrence models suggested that cats and marsh rabbits co-occur less frequently than expected under random conditions, whereas co-detections were site and survey-specific. Rabbit site extinction and colonization were not strongly conditional on cat presence, but corresponded with a negative association. Our results suggest that while rabbits can colonize and persist at sites where cats occur, it is the number of individual cats at a site that more strongly

  5. High-level radioactive waste fixation in sintered vitreous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The safe storage of high-level wastes from fuel elements reprocessing includes, as a first step, the fixation of the same in materials having a good resistance to the leaching in aqueous medium, such as borosilicate glass. As an alternative to the usual method of the molten glasses, a procedure for the sintering of a powdered glass and waste mixture at lower temperatures (600-700 deg C) has been developed, which minimizes the volatilization of active compounds during the process. Two glasses matrices of different composition and characteristics were used, to which the simulated wastes were added in the ratio of a 10% in weight of oxides. Two sintering techniques were employed 1: cold pressing and further sintering; 2: hot pressing and sintering under pressure. The densities were measured, the microstructure of the samples was analyzed and leaching essays were made in distilled water. The pellet's microstructure was observed by means of optical microscopy, by reflection in polished samples and by transparency in thin slices. The presence of crystalline compounds was analyzed by means of x rays and electron microprobe. The results have shown the convenience to continue with hot pressing essays, because a denser product with a higher resistance to the leaching is thus obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2006-01-01

    Background In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model – effort, rewards and ERI – are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Methods Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational -level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously ≥3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors) compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. Conclusion This study suggests that a high ratio of occupational

  7. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elovainio Marko

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI model – effort, rewards and ERI – are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Methods Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational -level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously ≥3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. Conclusion This study suggests that a high

  8. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2006-02-07

    In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model--effort, rewards and ERI--are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational-level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index > or =25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously > or =3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors) compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. This study suggests that a high ratio of occupational efforts relative to rewards may be

  9. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-occurrence analysis of microbial taxa in the Atlantic Ocean reveals high connectivity in the free-living bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eMilici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S – 47°N using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22-3 µm were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g. SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%. The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone.

  11. Review: Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups: Implications for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Khoddam, Rubin; Yu, Sheila; Wall, Tamara L; Schwartz, Anna; Sussman, Steve

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available. This review indicates very little research has examined the interrelationships of addictive behaviors among US ethnic groups. The studies that exist have focused nearly exclusively on comorbidity of substances and gambling behaviors. Overall findings suggest differences among US ethnic groups in prevalence of addictions and in prevalence of addiction among those who use substances or engage in gambling. Almost no ethnic group comparisons of other addictive behaviors including eating/food, internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping were identified in the literature. Despite large-scale research efforts to examine alcohol and substance use disorders in the United States, few studies have been published that examine these addictive behaviors among ethnic groups, and even fewer examine co-occurrence and comorbidity with other addictions. Even with the limited studies, these findings have implications for genetic research on addictive behaviors. We include a discussion of these implications, including issues of population stratification, disaggregation, admixture, and the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in understanding the etiology and treatment of addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:424-436). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. The Co-occurrence of Gambling with Substance Use and Conduct Disorder among Youth in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of gambling with substance use and conduct disorder was examined in a representative U.S. household sample of 2,274 youth 14 to 21 years old. The findings show that problem gambling occurs within a problem behavior syndrome with other substance use behaviors and conduct disorder. Male gender, being black, and being Hispanic were found to be significant in predicting problem gambling over and above the effects of all four substance use and conduct disorder variables. Clinical interventions for one specific problem behavior in youth should consider assessing the other problem behaviors as well. PMID:21314760

  13. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V

    2011-09-01

    Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-03-26

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity.

  15. Visualizing the context of citations referencing papers published by Eugene Garfield: a new type of keyword co-occurrence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Hug, Sven E

    2018-01-01

    During Eugene Garfield's (EG's) lengthy career as information scientist, he published about 1500 papers. In this study, we use the impressive oeuvre of EG to introduce a new type of bibliometric networks: keyword co-occurrences networks based on the context of citations, which are referenced in a certain paper set (here: the papers published by EG). The citation context is defined by the words which are located around a specific citation. We retrieved the citation context from Microsoft Academic. To interpret and compare the results of the new network type, we generated two further networks: co-occurrence networks which are based on title and abstract keywords from (1) EG's papers and (2) the papers citing EG's publications. The comparison of the three networks suggests that papers of EG and citation contexts of papers citing EG are semantically more closely related to each other than to titles and abstracts of papers citing EG. This result accords with the use of citations in research evaluation that is based on the premise that citations reflect the cognitive influence of the cited on the citing publication.

  16. [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakov, V N; Los, M S

    2017-10-01

    L-shaped kidney refers to a rare anomaly of the relative kidney positioning. Due to low prevalence, the literature on the co-occurrence of this anomaly with malignancy is lacking. And, if the diagnosis of a renal anomaly does not present difficulties, if a tumor is detected in such a kidney, even MSCT does not always help differentiate a pelvic tumor from a tumor of the renal parenchyma spreading to the pelvicalyceal system. This has important implications for choosing an appropriate surgical strategy. A feature of the presented clinical observation is the co-occurrence of the rare anomaly of kidney position and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma spreading to the renal pelvis. Due to the massive spread of the tumor, an organ-sparing surgery was not feasible. Due to the suspicion of tumor spread to the renal pelvis, the patient underwent nephrureterectomy of the L-shaped kidney. Introduction to renoprival state with transfer to chronic hemodialysis became the only option to maintain homeostasis and extend the patients life. Histological examination revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the pelvis and renal capsule, with no clear demarcation between the fused kidneys.

  17. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine os...

  18. Early increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Willem A.; van Kaam, Anton H. L. C.; Dekker, Tamara; Naber, Brigitta A. E.; Janssen, Daphne J.; Kroon, A. A.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Versnel, Marjan A.; Lutter, René

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an eminent role in airway injury and remodelling. We explored the hypothesis that pulmonary MMP levels would differ early after birth (2-4 days) between infants with resolving respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and infants developing chronic lung disease

  19. Matching of singly- and doubly-unresolved limits of tree-level QCD squared matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, Gabor [University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, PO Box 51 (Hungary); Trocsanyi, Zoltan [University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, PO Box 51 (Hungary); Duca, Vittorio Del [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1 - 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    We describe how to disentangle the singly- and doubly-unresolved (soft and/or collinear) limits of tree-level QCD squared matrix elements. Using the factorization formulae presented in this paper, we outline a viable general subtraction scheme for computing next-to-next-to-leading order corrections for electron-positron annihilation into jets.

  20. The unexpected co-occurrence of GRN and MAPT p.A152T in Basque families: Clinical and pathological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Moreno

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation and the p.A152T MAPT variant has been identified in 18 Basque families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD. We aimed to investigate the influence of the p.A152T MAPT variant on the clinical and neuropathological features of these Basque GRN families.We compared clinical characteristics of 14 patients who carried the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation (GRN+/A152T- with 21 patients who carried both the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation and the p.A152T MAPT variant (GRN+/A152T+. Neuropsychological data (n = 17 and plasma progranulin levels (n = 23 were compared between groups, and 7 subjects underwent neuropathological studies. We genotyped six short tandem repeat markers in the two largest families. By the analysis of linkage disequilibrium decay in the haplotype block we estimated the time when the first ancestor to carry both genetic variants emerged. GRN+/A152T+ and GRN+/A152T- patients shared similar clinical and neuropsychological features and plasma progranulin levels. All were diagnosed with an FTD disorder, including behavioral variant FTD or non fluent / agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, and shared a similar pattern of neuropsychological deficits, predominantly in executive function, memory, and language. All seven participants with available brain autopsies (6 GRN+/A152T+, 1 GRN+/A152T- showed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (type A classification, which is characteristic of GRN carriers. Additionally, all seven showed mild to moderate tau inclusion burden: five cases lacked β-amyloid pathology and two cases had Alzheimer's pathology. The co-occurrence of both genes within one individual is recent, with the birth of the first GRN+/A152T+ individual estimated to be within the last 50 generations (95% probability.In our sample, the p.A152T MAPT variant does not appear to show a discernible influence on the clinical phenotype of GRN carriers. Whether p.A152T confers a

  1. Matrix elements of Yale potential and level properties of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N; Prakash, O [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-07-01

    Shell model calculations using bare and renormalized matrix elements of the Yale potential are reported for the normal-parity states of A = 6-9 nuclei. Renormalization of the two-body matrix elements using second-order perturbation theory is not found to improve the agreements with the experimental data. Inclusion of the energy shifts of ground state rotational bands in /sup 8/Be and /sup 9/Be are, however, found to improve the agreements with the excitation energies of nuclear levels. The need for carrying out more calculations of these nuclei with realistic forces is pointed out.

  2. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in adolescents: Prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Silva Dias de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To examine the prevalence of the behavioral risk factors – both isolated and clustered – for chronic diseases, among adolescents. Additionally, its association with various social and demographic variables was estimated. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1,039 high school students, from public and private schools, elected for convenience, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, as well as crude and adjusted ordinal logistic regression were used to assess the association between the variables. Results The most frequently observed risk factors were sedentary behavior (68.8%, alcohol consumption (36.8%, and overweight (26.8%. The clustering of risk factors was observed in 67.5% of the students. Being a girl (OR=1.28; 95%CI=1.01–1.63, Caucasian (OR=1.35; 95%CI=1.06–1.72 or private school student (OR=1.46; 95%CI=1.12–1.88 increased the chance of the clustering of risk factors. The co-occurrence of risk factors was predominantly observed in the case of smoking (OR=4.94; 95%CI=1.46–16.75, alcohol consumption (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.09–1.88, high consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.19–2.07, and sedentary behavior (OR=1.40; 95%CI=1.07–1.82. Conclusion The co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors was observed to be higher among girls, Caucasian adolescents, and private school students, as well as, among smokers, alcohol users and adolescents with sedentary habits and a high consumption of ultra-processed foods.

  3. Co-occurrence of viruses and mosquitoes at the vectors' optimal climate range: An underestimated risk to temperate regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Marcus S C; Caminade, Cyril; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Sutton, Elizabeth R; Wardeh, Maya; Baylis, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses have been estimated to cause over 100 million cases of human disease annually. Many methodologies have been developed to help identify areas most at risk from transmission of these viruses. However, generally, these methodologies focus predominantly on the effects of climate on either the vectors or the pathogens they spread, and do not consider the dynamic interaction between the optimal conditions for both vector and virus. Here, we use a new approach that considers the complex interplay between the optimal temperature for virus transmission, and the optimal climate for the mosquito vectors. Using published geolocated data we identified temperature and rainfall ranges in which a number of mosquito vectors have been observed to co-occur with West Nile virus, dengue virus or chikungunya virus. We then investigated whether the optimal climate for co-occurrence of vector and virus varies between "warmer" and "cooler" adapted vectors for the same virus. We found that different mosquito vectors co-occur with the same virus at different temperatures, despite significant overlap in vector temperature ranges. Specifically, we found that co-occurrence correlates with the optimal climatic conditions for the respective vector; cooler-adapted mosquitoes tend to co-occur with the same virus in cooler conditions than their warmer-adapted counterparts. We conclude that mosquitoes appear to be most able to transmit virus in the mosquitoes' optimal climate range, and hypothesise that this may be due to proportionally over-extended vector longevity, and other increased fitness attributes, within this optimal range. These results suggest that the threat posed by vector-competent mosquito species indigenous to temperate regions may have been underestimated, whilst the threat arising from invasive tropical vectors moving to cooler temperate regions may be overestimated.

  4. Mechanisms underlying the lifetime co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescent and young adult twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Silberg, Judy L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Maes, Hermine H.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2009-01-01

    Using twins assessed during adolescence (Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development: 8–17 years) and followed up in early adulthood (Young Adult Follow-Up, 18–27 years), we tested 13 genetically informative models of co-occurrence, adapted for the inclusion of covariates. Models were fit, in Mx, to data at both assessments allowing for a comparison of the mechanisms that underlie the lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence and early adulthood. Both cannabis and tobacco use were influenced by additive genetic (38–81%) and non-shared environmental factors with the possible role of non-shared environment in the adolescent assessment only. Causation models, where liability to use cannabis exerted a causal influence on the liability to use tobacco fit the adolescent data best, while the reverse causation model (tobacco causes cannabis) fit the early adult data best. Both causation models (cannabis to tobacco and tobacco to cannabis) and the correlated liabilities model fit data from the adolescent and young adult assessments well. Genetic correlations (0.59–0.74) were moderate. Therefore, the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use is fairly similar during adolescence and early adulthood with reciprocal influences across the two psychoactive substances. However, our study could not exclude the possibility that ‘gateways’ and ‘reverse gateways’, particularly within a genetic context, exist, such that predisposition to using one substance (cannabis or tobacco) modifies predisposition to using the other. Given the high addictive potential of nicotine and the ubiquitous nature of cannabis use, this is a public health concern worthy of considerable attention. PMID:20047801

  5. Restoration of Bi-Contrast MRI Data for Intensity Uniformity with Bayesian Coring of Co-Occurrence Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Hadjidemetriou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of MRI data assumes a uniform radio-frequency field. However, in practice, the radio-frequency field is inhomogeneous and leads to anatomically inconsequential intensity non-uniformities across an image. An anatomic region can be imaged with multiple contrasts reconstructed independently and be suffering from different non-uniformities. These artifacts can complicate the further automated analysis of the images. A method is presented for the joint intensity uniformity restoration of two such images. The effect of the intensity distortion on the auto-co-occurrence statistics of each image as well as on the joint-co-occurrence statistics of the two images is modeled and used for their non-stationary restoration followed by their back-projection to the images. Several constraints that ensure a stable restoration are also imposed. Moreover, the method considers the inevitable differences between the signal regions of the two images. The method has been evaluated extensively with BrainWeb phantom brain data as well as with brain anatomic data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP and with data of Parkinson’s disease patients. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with that of the N4ITK tool. The proposed method increases tissues contrast at least 4 . 62 times more than the N4ITK tool for the BrainWeb images. The dynamic range with the N4ITK method for the same images is increased by up to +29.77%, whereas, for the proposed method, it has a corresponding limited decrease of - 1 . 15 % , as expected. The validation has demonstrated the accuracy and stability of the proposed method and hence its ability to reduce the requirements for additional calibration scans.

  6. Co-occurrence of substance use related and mental health problems in the Finnish social and health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuussaari, Kristiina; Hirschovits-Gerz, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have noted that substance abuse and mental health problems often occur simultaneously. The aim of the work reported here was to study the co-occurrence of mental health problems and problems related to substance use in a sample of clients visiting the Finnish social and health care services for issues related to substance use. We collected background information on the clients and considered the parts of the treatment system in which these clients were treated. Survey data on intoxicant-related cases in the Finnish health care and social services were gathered on a single day in 2011. During the 24 hours of data collection, all intoxicant-related cases were reported and data were obtained for 11,738 intoxicant-related cases. In this analysis we took into account the clients' background variables, mental health variables, information on the treatment type and the main reasons for the client being in treatment. The χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Half of the visiting clients had both substance use related and mental health problems. The strongest factors associated with the co-occurrence of substance use related and mental health problems were female sex, younger age and single marital status. Clients with co-occurring problems were more often treated in the health care services, whereas clients with only substance use related problems were primarily treated in specialized services for the treatment of substance abuse. It is important to identify clients with co-occurring substance use related and mental health problems. In this study, half of the clients presenting to the Finnish social and health care treatment system had both these problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Development of a matrix approach to estimate soil clean-up levels for BTEX compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbas-White, I.; San Juan, C.

    1993-01-01

    A draft state-of-the-art matrix approach has been developed for the State of Washington to estimate clean-up levels for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in deep soils based on an endangerment approach to groundwater. Derived soil clean-up levels are estimated using a combination of two computer models, MULTIMED and VLEACH. The matrix uses a simple scoring system that is used to assign a score at a given site based on the parameters such as depth to groundwater, mean annual precipitation, type of soil, distance to potential groundwater receptor and the volume of contaminated soil. The total score is then used to obtain a soil clean-up level from a table. The general approach used involves the utilization of computer models to back-calculate soil contaminant levels in the vadose zone that would create that particular contaminant concentration in groundwater at a given receptor. This usually takes a few iterations of trial runs to estimate the clean-up levels since the models use the soil clean-up levels as ''input'' and the groundwater levels as ''output.'' The selected contaminant levels in groundwater are Model Toxic control Act (MTCA) values used in the State of Washington

  8. Mobile plant for encapsulating of solid high-level radioactive waste in metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Arustamov, A.Eh.; Shiryaev, V.V.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Semenov, K.N.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Technology for disposal of spent radionuclide sources of ionizing radiation into the standard well-type storage facilities is considered. Universal mobile facility, providing for incorporation of high-level solid wastes into metallic matrices, is proposed. The facility consists of separate moduli, assembled on a transport platform. Electrical meter, wherein the matrix metal (lead and its alloys) is melted and heated up to 600-800 C constitutes the basic modulus in the facility. 4 refs., 4 figs

  9. Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, Ifeoluwa; Obadina, Adewale; Adaku, Cynthia Chilaka; De Boevre, Marthe; Okoth, Sheila; De Saeger, Sarah; Njobeh, Patrick

    2018-04-02

    Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3.66 × 10 5  CFU/mL. Among the mycotoxigenic fungal species recovered, Aspergillus flavus had the highest incidence of 26%. Previously unreported strains such as P. chrysogenum strain AD25, A. sydowii strain AD 22 and A. tritici strain AD 11 were found. Furthermore, mycotoxin quantitative analysis via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry showed that deoxynivalenol was the dominant mycotoxin occurring in 84% of the samples. This was followed by enniatin B that occurred in 75% of samples ranging from 12 to 44 μg/L and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) (incidence of 53% at a maximum level of 182 μg/L). Generally, there was low occurrence aflatoxins, whereas T-2, HT-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol were not detected. All the samples analysed had safe levels of mycotoxins tested but were contaminated by at least two mycotoxins that could pose some additive or synergistic health effects among consumers. On average: a 60 kg adult consuming 1-6 L/day of the beer was exposed to FB 1  + FB 2 at an estimated 2.20-13.20 μg/kg body weight/day. These values were far above the maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 μg/kg bw/day established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The study demonstrates that consumption of umqombothi can significantly enhance dietary exposure to multiple mycotoxins among consumers, and therefore accentuates the need for

  10. Estimation of Serum Matrix Metalloproteinases-1 Levels in Iraqi Female Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vean Sabah Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was established to investigate the correlation between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. Blood samples were collected from 55 female patients with inflammatory OA and controls for estimation of serum (MMP-1 levels. In the current study, there is significant increase (p<0.001 in the mean of serum MMP-1 levels in osteoarthritis females (4027.73 ± 1345.28 pg/ml than that in control females (798.76 ± 136.79 pg/ml. It was concluded that MMP-1 may be associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

  11. Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, L J; Robbins, J M

    1991-11-01

    Three definitions of somatization were operationalized: (a) high levels of functional somatic distress, measured by the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI) of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; (b) hypochondriasis measured by high scores on a measure of illness worry in the absence of evidence for serious illness; and (c) exclusively somatic clinical presentations among patients with current major depression or anxiety. Of 685 patients attending two family medicine clinics, 26.3% met criteria for one or more forms of somatization. While DSM-III somatization disorder had a prevalence of only 1% in this population, 16.6% of the patients met abridged criteria for subsyndromal somatization disorder (SSI 4,6). Hypochondriacal worry had a prevalence of 7.7% in the clinic sample. Somatized presentations of current major depression or anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 8%. The three forms of somatization were associated with different sociodemographic and illness behavior characteristics. A majority of patients met criteria for only one type of somatization, suggesting that distinct pathogenic processes may be involved in each of the three types.

  12. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma.

  13. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  14. Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisset, Xavier; Calbacho, Valentina; Torres, Pilar; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Dallel, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity. Conclusions There is no evidence for a high rate of other pain symptoms or somatosensory impairments co-occurring with BMS. These results thus suggest that BMS rather depends on specific mechanisms, likely at the trigeminal level. Nevertheless, more thoroughly conducted research is required to draw definitive conclusion. PMID:27657531

  15. Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Moisset

    somatosensory sensitivity.There is no evidence for a high rate of other pain symptoms or somatosensory impairments co-occurring with BMS. These results thus suggest that BMS rather depends on specific mechanisms, likely at the trigeminal level. Nevertheless, more thoroughly conducted research is required to draw definitive conclusion.

  16. Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Reduces Saliva Adipokine and Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Erkan; Işıl Saygun, N; Serdar, Muhittin A; Umut Bengi, V; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan

    2016-08-01

    Adipokines enhance the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a role in extracellular matrix degeneration. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of some adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs in the saliva of patients with periodontitis and healthy individuals and to evaluate the changes after non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Of 32 individuals included in the study, 17 had periodontitis and 15 had healthy gingiva. Saliva samples were obtained from all individuals. In patients with periodontitis, samples were recollected 3 and 6 months after NSPT. Visfatin, chemerin, progranulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with periodontitis, all of the parameters measured in the saliva were higher than those of healthy individuals. At 3 months, visfatin, progranulin, IL-8, and MMP-8 levels were significantly decreased compared with baseline values. The levels of other biochemical parameters, chemerin and IL-1β, were significantly decreased compared with baseline values at 6 months, and the levels became similar to those in healthy individuals. In the periodontitis group, positive correlations were found among visfatin and IL-8 (r = 0.909, P periodontal tissue in periodontitis by stimulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs.

  17. Human aqueous humor levels of transforming growth factor-β2: Association with matrix metalloproteinases/tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yan; Yue, Yu; Hu, Dan-Ning; Chen, Ji-Li; Zhou, Ji-Bo

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the association of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-3, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 in the aqueous humor of patients with high myopia or cataracts. The levels of TGF-β2 and MMPs/TIMPs were measured with the Luminex xMAP Technology using commercially available Milliplex xMAP kits. The association between TGF-β2 and MMPs/TIMPs levels was analyz...

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities And Some Hormones Levels During Gestation Period In Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    Many factors including proteases, growth factors and hormones play important role in implantation and tissue remodelling of endometrium during different stages of gestation.Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) such as gelatinases mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9 are implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix for tissue remodelling.The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and hormones including progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) in the gestation process. The enzyme activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in serum collected from 8 Brown Swiss cows during different periods of gestation using zymography technique were examined. Hormonal levels for both P4 and E2 were determined using radioimmunoassay and also total proteins were estimated. A significant increase in MMP-2 activity by about 98%, 115% and 110% in the 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimester of gestation were recorded, respectively, whereas it increased to be 185% in the pre-partum period as compared to non-pregnant cows (P nd trimester was recorded where the activity elevated by about 85% of non-pregnant controls (P st and 3 rd trimesters, the enzyme activity was not detectable. P4 level was increased gradually until its maximum at the 2 nd trimester then decreased until pre-partum.E2 level recorded too little increase at the beginning of the 1 st and 2 nd trimesters then sharply increased at the 3 rd one reached its maximum at pre-partum. There were significant decreases in total protein concentrations in the 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters then reached the lowest level before parturition .It could be concluded that the high activity of MMP-2 but not MMP-9 enzyme has important role throughout the gestation period in cows and P4 has important role in the fetal growth and E2 in the placental loss.

  19. Changing ASD-ADHD symptom co-occurrence across the lifespan with adolescence as crucial time window : Illustrating the need to go beyond childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Catharina A.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is strongly biased by a focus on childhood age. A review of the adolescent and adult literature was made on core and related symptoms of ADHD and ASD. In addition, an empirical

  20. Peer Substance Use Associated with the Co-Occurrence of Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Drug Use Problems in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Scott; Taylor, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the substance use patterns of one's close friends and romantic partners would be a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and drug use problems above and beyond impulsivity and negative emotionality. Participants: Participants were 2,202 undergraduates who attended…

  1. Constructing the tree-level Yang-Mills S-matrix using complex factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Philip C.; Toro, Natalia

    2009-06-01

    A remarkable connection between BCFW recursion relations and constraints on the S-matrix was made by Benincasa and Cachazo in 0705.4305, who noted that mutual consistency of different BCFW constructions of four-particle amplitudes generates non-trivial (but familiar) constraints on three-particle coupling constants — these include gauge invariance, the equivalence principle, and the lack of non-trivial couplings for spins > 2. These constraints can also be derived with weaker assumptions, by demanding the existence of four-point amplitudes that factorize properly in all unitarity limits with complex momenta. From this starting point, we show that the BCFW prescription can be interpreted as an algorithm for fully constructing a tree-level S-matrix, and that complex factorization of general BCFW amplitudes follows from the factorization of four-particle amplitudes. The allowed set of BCFW deformations is identified, formulated entirely as a statement on the three-particle sector, and using only complex factorization as a guide. Consequently, our analysis based on the physical consistency of the S-matrix is entirely independent of field theory. We analyze the case of pure Yang-Mills, and outline a proof for gravity. For Yang-Mills, we also show that the well-known scaling behavior of BCFW-deformed amplitudes at large z is a simple consequence of factorization. For gravity, factorization in certain channels requires asymptotic behavior ~ 1/z2.

  2. Constructing the tree-level Yang-Mills S-matrix using complex factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Philip C.; Toro, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable connection between BCFW recursion relations and constraints on the S-matrix was made by Benincasa and Cachazo in 0705.4305, who noted that mutual consistency of different BCFW constructions of four-particle amplitudes generates non-trivial (but familiar) constraints on three-particle coupling constants - these include gauge invariance, the equivalence principle, and the lack of non-trivial couplings for spins > 2. These constraints can also be derived with weaker assumptions, by demanding the existence of four-point amplitudes that factorize properly in all unitarity limits with complex momenta. From this starting point, we show that the BCFW prescription can be interpreted as an algorithm for fully constructing a tree-level S-matrix, and that complex factorization of general BCFW amplitudes follows from the factorization of four-particle amplitudes. The allowed set of BCFW deformations is identified, formulated entirely as a statement on the three-particle sector, and using only complex factorization as a guide. Consequently, our analysis based on the physical consistency of the S-matrix is entirely independent of field theory. We analyze the case of pure Yang-Mills, and outline a proof for gravity. For Yang-Mills, we also show that the well-known scaling behavior of BCFW-deformed amplitudes at large z is a simple consequence of factorization. For gravity, factorization in certain channels requires asymptotic behavior ∼ 1/z 2 .

  3. Review of metal-matrix encapsulation of solidified radioactive high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-05-01

    Literature describing previous and current work on the encapsulation of solidified high-level waste forms in a metal matrix was reviewed. Encapsulation of either stabilized calcine pellets or glass beads in alloys by casting techniques was concluded to be the most developed and direct approach to fabricating solid metal-matrix waste forms. Further characterizations of the physical and chemical properties of metal-matrix waste forms are still needed to assess the net attributes of metal-encapsulation alternatives. Steady-state heat transfer properties of waste canisters in air and water environments were calculated for four reference waste forms: (1) calcine, (2) glass monoliths, (3) metal-encapsulated calcine, and (4) metal-encapsulated glass beads. A set of criteria for the maximum allowable canister centerline and surface temperatures and heat generation rates per canister at the time of shipment to a Federal repository was assumed, and comparisons were made between canisters of these reference waste forms of the shortest time after reactor discharge that canisters could be filled and the subsequent ''interim'' storage times prior to shipment to a Federal repository for various canister diameters and waste ages. A reference conceptual flowsheet based on existing or developing technology for encapsulation of stabilized calcine pellets is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented

  4. Culture and mixed emotions: co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Uchida, Yukiko; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2010-06-01

    Previous cross-cultural comparisons of correlations between positive and negative emotions found that East Asians are more likely than Americans to feel dialectical emotions. However, not much is known about the co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in a given situation. When asked to describe situations in which they felt mixed emotions, Japanese and American respondents listed mostly similar situations. By presenting these situations to another group of respondents, we found that Japanese reported more mixed emotions than Americans in the predominantly pleasant situations, whereas there were no cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly unpleasant situations or the mixed situations. The appraisal of self-agency mediated cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly pleasant situations. Study 2 replicated the findings by asking participants to recall how they felt in their past pleasant, unpleasant, and mixed situations. The findings suggest that both Americans and Japanese feel mixed emotions, but the kinds of situation in which they typically do so depends on culture.

  5. Diffusion Patterns in Convergence among High-Technology Industries: A Co-Occurrence-Based Analysis of Newspaper Article Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeokseong Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.

  6. Co-occurrence of citrinin and ochratoxin A in rice in Asia and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad

    2018-04-01

    Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their co-occurrence in rice may cause health effects in humans. Rice is an important food crop worldwide and is a major staple food in Asia which may be invaded by CIT and OTA producing fungal spores in the field, during harvest and storage. Humans are exposed to these mycotoxins through ingestion of contaminated rice and other food commodities. Yet, data on the combined presence to these food contaminants are still insufficient to estimate human exposure in Asia. This review describes the prevalence of CIT and OTA in rice in Asia and its implications on human health, which may help in establishing and carrying out proper management strategies against mould development on rice. From the health point of view, combined exposition of CIT and OTA should be a public concern as both are nephrotoxic and long-term exposure can pose detrimental health effects. Thus, it is necessary for local farmers and food factories to implement strict measures and to improve methods for rice preservation during the distribution to consumers, particularly in the markets. Moreover, regular surveys for CIT and OTA occurrence in rice and human biomonitoring are recommended to reduce the health effects in Asian population. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Co-occurrence of severe Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and pentalogy of Cantrell - Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Robert; Jakubiak, Aleksandra; Lombardi, Maria Paola; Jaworski, Wojciech; Slezak, Ryszard; Patkowski, Dariusz; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2011-05-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is a highly variable disorder affecting many body parts of meso-ectodermal origin. Mutations in X-linked PORCN have been identified in almost all patients with a classical Goltz-Gorlin phenotype. The pentalogy of Cantrell is an infrequently described congenital disorder characterized by the combination of five anomalies: a midline supra-umbilical abdominal wall defect; absent or cleft lower part of the sternum; deficiency of the diaphragmatic pericardium; deficiency of the anterior diaphragm; and congenital heart anomalies. Etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. We report on an infant with findings fitting both Goltz-Gorlin syndrome (sparse hair; anophthalmia; clefting; bifid nose; irregular vermillion of both lips; asymmetrical limb malformations; caudal appendage; linear aplastic skin defects; unilateral hearing loss) and the pentalogy of Cantrell (absent lower sternum; anterior diaphragmatic hernia; ectopia cordis; omphalocele). The clinical diagnosis Goltz-Gorlin syndrome was confirmed molecularly by a point mutation in PORCN (c.727C>T). The presence of molecularly confirmed Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and pentalogy of Cantrell in a single patient has been reported twice before. The present patient confirms that the pentalogy of Cantrell can be caused in some patients by a PORCN mutation. It remains at present uncertain whether this can be explained by the type or localization of the mutation within PORCN, or whether the co-occurrence of the two entities is additionally determined by mutations or polymorphisms in other genes, environmental factors, and/or epigenetic influences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Structure, Variation, and Co-occurrence of Soil Microbial Communities in Abandoned Sites of a Rare Earth Elements Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Liu, Wenshen; Chen, Yanmei; Chen, Wenhui; Zhao, Lihua; Ding, Qiaobei; Wang, Shizhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhang, Tong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-11-01

    Mining activity for rare earth elements (REEs) has caused serious environmental pollution, particularly for soil ecosystems. However, the effects of REEs on soil microbiota are still poorly understood. In this study, soils were collected from abandoned sites of a REEs mine, and the structure, diversity, and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbiota were evaluated by Illumina high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes. Although microbiota developed significantly along with the natural restoration, the microbial structure on the site abandoned for 10 years still significantly differed from that on the unmined site. Potential plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were identified by comparing 16S sequences against a self-constructed PGPB database via BLAST, and it was found that siderophore-producing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were more abundant in the studied soils than in reference soils. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species richness of plant community was the prime factor affecting microbial structure, followed by limiting nutrients (total carbon and total nitrogen) and REEs content. Further co-occurring network analysis revealed nonrandom assembly patterns of microbiota in the studied soils. These results increase our understanding of microbial variation and assembly pattern during natural restoration in REE contaminated soils.

  9. Differential sharing and distinct co-occurrence networks among spatially close bacterial microbiota of bark, mosses and lichens‬‬.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Ines Aline; Cernava, Tomislav; Erlacher, Armin; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the intermicrobiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures. Corresponding co-occurrence analysis indicated that the lichen microbial network is less complex and less densely interconnected than the moss- and bark-associated networks. Several potential generalists and specialists were identified for the selected habitats. Generalists belonged mainly to Proteobacteria, with Sphingomonas as the most abundant genus. The generalists comprise microorganisms with generally beneficial features, such as nitrogen fixation or other supporting functions, according to a metagenomic analysis. We argue that beneficial strains shared among hosts contribute to ecological stability of the host biocoenoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Scoping review of research in Australia on the co-occurrence of physical and serious mental illness and integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert; Scott, David; McKenna, Brian; Millar, Freyja; Liu, Dennis; Browne, Matthew; Furness, Trentham

    2015-10-01

    The physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI) has become a focal area of research. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the attention and distribution of research from within Australia on physical illness and SMI co-occurrence, and to identify gaps. A scoping review of peer-reviewed research literature from Australia, published between January 2000 and March 2014, was undertaken through an electronic literature search and coding of papers to chart trends. Four trends are highlighted: (i) an almost threefold increase in publications per year from 2000-2006 to 2007-2013; (ii) a steady release of literature reviews, especially from 2010; (iii) health-related behaviours, smoking, integrated-care programmes, and antipsychotic side-effects as the most common topics presented; and (iv) paucity of randomized, controlled trials on integrated-care models. Despite a marked increase in research attention to poorer physical health, there remains a large gap between research and the scale of the problem previously identified. More papers were descriptive or reviews, rather than evaluations of interventions. To foster more research, 12 research gaps are outlined. Addressing these gaps will facilitate the reduction of inequalities in physical health for people with SMI. Mental health nurses are well placed to lead multidisciplinary, consumer-informed research in this area. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.

  12. Occupancy of yellow-billed and Pacific loons: evidence for interspecific competition and habitat mediated co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Wright, Kenneth G.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific competition is an important process structuring ecological communities, however, it is difficult to observe in nature. We used an occupancy modelling approach to evaluate evidence of competition between yellow-billed (Gavia adamsii) and Pacific (G. pacifica) loons for nesting lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. With multiple years of data and survey platforms, we estimated dynamic occupancy states (e.g. rates of colonization or extinction from individual lakes) and controlled for detection differences among aircraft platforms and ground survey crews. Results indicated that yellow-billed loons were strong competitors and negatively influenced the occupancy of Pacific loons by excluding them from potential breeding lakes. Pacific loon occupancy was conditional on the presence of yellow-billed loons, with Pacific loons having almost a tenfold decrease in occupancy probability when yellow-billed loons were present and a threefold decrease in colonization probability when yellow-billed loons were present in the current or previous year. Yellow-billed and Pacific loons co-occurred less than expected by chance except on very large lakes or lakes with convoluted shorelines; variables which may decrease the cost of maintaining a territory in the presence of the other species. These results imply the existence of interspecific competition between yellow-billed and Pacific loons for nesting lakes; however, habitat characteristics which facilitate visual and spatial separation of territories can reduce competitive interactions and promote species co-occurrence.

  13. Evaluation of Jefferies' level population ratios, and generalization of Seaton's cascade matrix, by a Markov-chain method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Closed expressions are obtained for the conditional probabilities qsub(i)sub(j)sub(,)sub(k) required in evaluating particular ratios of atomic level populations, using a Markov-chain representation of the system of levels. The total transition probability between two arbitrary levels is also evaluated and its relation to population ratios is clarified. It is shown that Seaton's cascade matrix is a subset of the total transition probability matrix. (orig.)

  14. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemik, Ozgur; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Sümer, Aziz; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Adas, Mine; Begenik, Huseyin; Hasirci, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ozkan; Purisa, Sevim; Kisli, Erol; Tuzun, Sefa; Kotan, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the levels of preoperative serum matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in gastric cancer. METHODS: One hundred gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. The serum concentrations of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in these patients and in fifty healthy controls were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Higher serum MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were observed in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Serum MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were positively associated with morphological appearance, tumor size, depth of wall invasion, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, perineural invasion, and pathological stage. They were not significantly associated with age, gender, tumor location, or histological type. CONCLUSION: Increased MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were associated with gastric cancer. Although these markers are not good markers for diagnosis, these markers show in advanced gastric cancer. PMID:21547130

  15. Evaluation of the thermodynamics of a four level system using canonical density matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoga Oladunjoye A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a four-level system with two subsystems coupled by weak interaction. The system is in thermal equilibrium. The thermodynamics of the system, namely internal energy, free energy, entropy and heat capacity, are evaluated using the canonical density matrix by two methods. First by Kronecker product method and later by treating the subsystems separately and then adding the evaluated thermodynamic properties of each subsystem. It is discovered that both methods yield the same result, the results obey the laws of thermodynamics and are the same as earlier obtained results. The results also show that each level of the subsystems introduces a new degree of freedom and increases the entropy of the entire system. We also found that the four-level system predicts a linear relationship between heat capacity and temperature at very low temperatures just as in metals. Our numerical results show the same trend.

  16. Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rhonda F; Thorsteinsson, Einar B; Smithson, Michael; Birmingham, C Laird; Aljarallah, Hessah; Nolan, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle are common co-occurring problems. There is a tendency for them to co-occur together more often than they occur alone. In some cases, there is clarity as to the time course and evolution of the phenomena. However, specific mechanism(s) that are proposed to explain a single co-occurrence cannot fully explain the more generalized tendency to develop concurrent symptoms and/or disorders after developing one of the phenomena. Nor is there a clinical theory with any utility in explaining the development of co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour and the mechanism(s) by which they occur. Thus, we propose a specific mechanism-dysregulation of core body temperature (CBT) that interferes with sleep onset-to explain the development of the concurrences. A detailed review of the literature related to CBT and the phenomena that can alter CBT or are altered by CBT is provided. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance and certain behaviour (e.g. late-night eating, sedentarism) were linked to elevated CBT, especially an elevated nocturnal CBT. A number of existing therapies including drugs (e.g. antidepressants), behavioural therapies (e.g. sleep restriction therapy) and bright light therapy can also reduce CBT. An elevation in nocturnal CBT that interferes with sleep onset can parsimoniously explain the development and perpetuation of common co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour including overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, late-night eating, and sedentarism. Nonetheless, a significant correlation between CBT and the above symptoms, disorders and behaviour does not necessarily imply causation. Thus, statistical and methodological issues of relevance to this enquiry are discussed including the likely presence of autocorrelation. Level V, narrative review.

  17. Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Secondary Metabolites in Finished Feed and Maize—An Extensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kovalsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global trade of agricultural commodities (e.g., animal feed requires monitoring for fungal toxins. Also, little is known about masked and emerging toxins and metabolites. 1926 samples from 52 countries were analysed for toxins and metabolites. Of 162 compounds detected, up to 68 metabolites were found in a single sample. A subset of 1113 finished feed, maize and maize silage samples containing 57 compounds from 2012 to 2015 from 44 countries was investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZEN and fumonisins showed large increases of annual medians in Europe. Within a region, distinct trends were observed, suggesting importance of local meteorology and cultivars. In 2015, median DON concentrations increased to 1400 μ g·kg − 1 in Austria, but were stable in Germany at 350 μ g·kg − 1 . In 2014, enniatins occurred at median concentrations of 250 μ g·kg − 1 in Europe, at levels similar to DON and ZEN. The latter were frequently correlated with DON-3-glucoside and ZEN-14-sulfate. Co-occurrence of regulated toxins was frequent with e.g., enniatins, and moniliformin. Correlation was observed between DON and DON-3-glucoside and with beauvericin. Results indicate that considerably more than 25% of agricultural commodities could be contaminated with mycotoxins as suggested by FAO, although this is at least partly due to the lower limits of detection in the current survey. Observed contamination percentages ranged from 7.1 to 79% for B trichothecenes and 88% for ZEN.

  18. Development of a glass matrix for vitrification of sulphate bearing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Thorat, Vidya; Ramchandran, M.; Amar Kumar; Ozarde, P.D.; Raj, Kanwar; Das, D.

    2004-07-01

    High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the earlier reprocessing flow sheet ferrous sulphamate has been used for valancy adjustment of Pu from IV to III for effective separation. This has resulted in generation of HLW containing significance amount of sulphate. Internationally borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted for vitrification of HLW. The first Indian vitrification facility at Waste Immobilislition Plant (WIP), Tarapur a five component borosilicate matrix (SiO 2 :B 2 O 3 :Na 2 O : MnO : TiO 2 ) has been used for vitrification of waste. However at Trombay HLW contain significant amount of sulphate which is not compatible with standard borosilicate formulation. Extensive R and D efforts were made to develop a glass formulation which can accommodate sulphate and other constituents of HLW e.g., U, Al, Ca, etc. This report deals with development work of a glass formulations for immobilization of sulphate bearing waste. Different glass formulations were studied to evaluate the compatibility with respect to sulphate and other constituents as mentioned above. This includes sodium, lead and barium borosilicate glass matrices. Problems encountered in different glass matrices for containment of sulphate have also been addressed. A glass formulation based on barium borosilicate was found to be effective and compatible for sulphate bearing high level waste. (author)

  19. A reduced-scaling density matrix-based method for the computation of the vibrational Hessian matrix at the self-consistent field level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmann, Jörg; Luenser, Arne; Beer, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method to calculate the molecular vibrational Hessian matrix at the self-consistent field level is presented. By analysis of the multipole expansions of the relevant derivatives of Coulomb-type two-electron integral contractions, we show that the effect of the perturbation on the electronic structure due to the displacement of nuclei decays at least as r −2 instead of r −1 . The perturbation is asymptotically local, and the computation of the Hessian matrix can, in principle, be performed with O(N) complexity. Our implementation exhibits linear scaling in all time-determining steps, with some rapid but quadratic-complexity steps remaining. Sample calculations illustrate linear or near-linear scaling in the construction of the complete nuclear Hessian matrix for sparse systems. For more demanding systems, scaling is still considerably sub-quadratic to quadratic, depending on the density of the underlying electronic structure

  20. Co-Occurrence and Predictors of Three Commonly Occurring Behavioral Symptoms in Dementia: Agitation, Aggression, and Rejection of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Scott Seung W; Budhathoki, Chakra; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-05-01

    To investigate co-occurrences of agitation, aggression, and rejection of care in community-dwelling families living with dementia. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial testing a nonpharmacological intervention to reduce behavioral symptoms. We examined frequency of occurrence of presenting behaviors at baseline and their combination. Omnibus tests compared those exhibiting combinations of behaviors on contributory factors. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined relationships of contributory factors to combinations of behaviors. Of 272 persons with dementia (PwDs), 41 (15%) had agitation alone (Agi), 3 (1%) had aggression alone, 5 (2%) had rejection of care alone. For behavioral combinations, 65 (24%) had agitation and aggression (Agi+Aggr), 35 (13%) had agitation and rejection (Agi+Rej), 1 (0%) had aggression and rejection, and 106 (39%) had all three behaviors (All). Four behavioral subgroups (Agi, Agi+Aggr, Agi+Rej, and All) were examined. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that there were significant group differences in PwD cognition, functional dependence, and caregiver frustration. PwDs in Agi+Rej and All were more cognitively impaired than those in Agi and Agi+Aggr. Also, caregivers in All were more frustrated than those in Agi. In logistic regression analyses, compared with Agi, greater cognitive impairment was a significant predictor of Agi+Rej and All, but not Agi+Aggr. In contrast, greater caregiver frustration was a significant predictor of Agi+Aggr and All, but not Agi+Rej. We found that agitation, aggression, and rejection are common but distinct behaviors. Combinations of these behaviors have different relationships with contributory factors, suggesting the need for targeting treatment approaches to clusters. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reading problems and major mental disorders - co-occurrences and familial overlaps in a Swedish nationwide cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Maughan, Barbara; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Plomin, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Reading problems often co-occur with ADHD and conduct disorder. However, the patterns of co-occurrence and familial overlap between reading problems and other psychiatric disorders have not been systematically explored. We conducted a register-based cohort study including 8719 individuals with reading problems and their siblings, along with matched comparison individuals. Conditional logistic regressions estimated risks for ADHD, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and violent/non-violent criminality in individuals with reading problems and their siblings. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were physician-assigned and ascertained from the Swedish National Patient Register, and crime convictions from the Swedish National Crime Register. We found that individuals with reading problems had excess risks for all psychiatric disorders (except anorexia nervosa) and criminality, with risk ratios between 1.34 and 4.91. Siblings of individuals with reading problems showed excess risks for ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and non-violent criminality, with risk ratios between 1.14 and 1.70. In summary, individuals with reading problems had increased risks of virtually all psychiatric disorders, and criminality. The origin of most of these overlaps was familial, in that siblings of individuals with reading problems also had elevated risks of ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and non-violent criminality. These findings have implications for gene-searching efforts, and suggest that health care practitioners should be alert for signs of psychiatric disorders in families where reading problems exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abundance and co-occurrence of extracellular capsules increase environmental breadth: Implications for the emergence of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendueles, Olaya; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Néron, Bertrand; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca. 50% of them-including Archaea-encode a capsule. The Wzx/Wzy-dependent capsular group was by far the most abundant. Surprisingly, a fifth of the genomes encode more than one capsule system-often from different groups-and their non-random co-occurrence suggests the existence of negative and positive epistatic interactions. To understand the role of multiple capsules, we queried more than 6700 metagenomes for the presence of species encoding capsules and showed that their distribution varied between environmental categories and, within the human microbiome, between body locations. Species encoding capsules, and especially those encoding multiple capsules, had larger environmental breadths than the other species. Accordingly, capsules were more frequent in environmental bacteria than in pathogens and, within the latter, they were more frequent among facultative pathogens. Nevertheless, capsules were frequent in clinical samples, and were usually associated with fast-growing bacteria with high infectious doses. Our results suggest that capsules increase the environmental range of bacteria and make them more resilient to environmental perturbations. Capsules might allow opportunistic pathogens to profit from empty ecological niches or environmental perturbations, such as those resulting from antibiotic therapy, to colonize the host. Capsule-associated virulence might thus be a by-product of environmental

  3. Abundance and co-occurrence of extracellular capsules increase environmental breadth: Implications for the emergence of pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaya Rendueles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca. 50% of them-including Archaea-encode a capsule. The Wzx/Wzy-dependent capsular group was by far the most abundant. Surprisingly, a fifth of the genomes encode more than one capsule system-often from different groups-and their non-random co-occurrence suggests the existence of negative and positive epistatic interactions. To understand the role of multiple capsules, we queried more than 6700 metagenomes for the presence of species encoding capsules and showed that their distribution varied between environmental categories and, within the human microbiome, between body locations. Species encoding capsules, and especially those encoding multiple capsules, had larger environmental breadths than the other species. Accordingly, capsules were more frequent in environmental bacteria than in pathogens and, within the latter, they were more frequent among facultative pathogens. Nevertheless, capsules were frequent in clinical samples, and were usually associated with fast-growing bacteria with high infectious doses. Our results suggest that capsules increase the environmental range of bacteria and make them more resilient to environmental perturbations. Capsules might allow opportunistic pathogens to profit from empty ecological niches or environmental perturbations, such as those resulting from antibiotic therapy, to colonize the host. Capsule-associated virulence might thus be a by

  4. Prokaryotes in subsoil – evidence for spatial separation of oligotrophs and copiotrophs by co-occurrence networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchloter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities provide a wide range of soil functions including nutrient cycling, soil formation, and plant growth promotion. On the small scale, nutrient rich soil hotspots developed from soil animal or plant activity are important drivers for microbial communities and their activity pattern. Nevertheless, in subsoil, the spatial heterogeneity of microbes with diverging lifestyles has been barely considered so far. In this study, the phylogenetic composition of the bacterial and archaeal microbiome based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was investigated in the soil compartments bulk soil, drilosphere, and rhizosphere in topsoil and in the subsoil of an agricultural field. With co-occurrence network analysis, the spatial separation of typically oligotrophs and heterotrophs in subsoil and hotspots was assessed. Four co-occurring bacterial communities were identified and attributed to bulk topsoil, bulk subsoil, drilosphere, and rhizosphere. The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, which represent many copiotrophic bacteria, are affiliated to the hotspot communities – the rhizosphere and drilosphere – both in topsoil and subsoil. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia with many oligotrophic bacteria, are the abundant groups of the bulk subsoil community. The bacterial core microbiome in this soil was estimated and only covers 7.6% of the bacterial sequencing reads but includes both oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria. Instead, the archaeal core microbiome includes 56% of the overall archaeal diversity and comprises only the ammonium oxidizing Nitrososphaera. Thus, the spatial variability of nutrient quality and quantity strongly shapes the bacterial community composition and their interaction in subsoil, whereas archaea are a stable backbone of the soil prokaryotes.

  5. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients.

  6. Correlation analysis of levels of adiponectin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 with stability of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the changes of adiponection (ANP) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) of different types, to investigate the correlation between these changes and stability of coronary artery plague. Inpatients of our hospital were divided into 56 cases with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 56 cases with unstable angina pectoris (UA), 54 cases with stable angina pectoris (SA), and 60 cases with CHD excluded by using coronary arteriongraphy as the control group. Changes of ANP and MMP-9 were determined, and the correlation was analyzed. 1. ANP and MMP-9 levels in CHD group were higher than those of control group (P < 0.01). 2. Serum ANP and MMP-9 levels in AMI and UA groups were significantly higher than those in control group and SA group (P < 0.05). 3. MMP-9 level in AMI group was significantly higher than that in UA group (P < 0.01). 1. Increased ANP and MMP-9 levels are the independent risk factors of CHD; 2. Increased levels of ANP and MMP-9 in patients with CHD suggest instability of atherosclerotic plaque.

  7. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in patients with incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sørensen, Lars T; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    Incisional hernia formation is a common complication to laparotomy and possibly associated with alterations in connective tissue metabolism. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closely involved in the metabolism of the extracellular matrix. Our...

  8. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two Level Versus Matrix Converters Performance in Wind Energy Conversion Systems Employing DFIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gongati Pandu Ranga; Kumar, M. Vijaya

    2017-10-01

    Wind power capacity has received enormous growth during past decades. With substantial development of wind power, it is expected to provide a fifth of world's electricity by the end of 2030. In wind energy conversion system, the power electronic converters play an important role. This paper presents the two level and matrix converters performance in wind energy conversion system employing Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The DFIG is a wound rotor induction generator. Because of the advantages of the DFIG over other generators it is being used for most of the wind applications. This paper also discusses control of converters using the space vector pulse width modulation technique. The MATLAB/SIMULINK ® software is used to study the performance of the converters.

  10. Transition Temperatures of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals from the Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreehari Sastry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method which combines the statistical analysis with texture structural analysis called Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (LBGLCM to investigate the phase transition temperatures of thermotropic p,n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nOBA, n=4,6,8,10 and 12 liquid crystals. Textures of the homeotropically aligned liquid crystal compounds are recorded as a function of temperature using polarizing optical microscope attached to the hot stage and high resolution camera. In this method, second-order statistical parameters (contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation are extracted from the LBGLCM of the textures. The changes associatedwiththe values of extracted parameters as a function of temperature are a helpful process to identify the phases and phase transition temperatures of the samples. Results obtained from this method have validity and are in good agreement with the literature.

  11. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Circumstances and the Co-Occurrence of Unhealthy Lifestyles: Evidence from 206,457 Australians in the 45 and Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles has tended to focus mainly upon the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. This study investigated the relevance of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance for multiple unhealthy lifestyles. Method An unhealthy lifestyle index was constructed for 206,457 participants in the 45 and Up Study (2006?2009) by summing binary responses on smoking, alcohol, physical activity and five diet-related variables. Higher...

  12. Eligibility for interventions, co-occurrence and risk factors for unhealthy behaviours in patients consulting for routine primary care: results from the Pre-Empt study

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Elizabeth; Pickles, Timothy; Simpson, Sharon A.; Spanou, Clio; McCambridge, Jim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background:\\ud Smoking, excessive drinking, lack of exercise and a poor diet remain key causes of premature morbidity and mortality globally, yet it is not clear what proportion of patients attending for routine primary care are eligible for interventions about these behaviours, the extent to which they co-occur within individuals, and which individuals are at greatest risk for multiple unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the trial was to examine ‘intervention eligibility’ and co-occurrence of t...

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression co-occurrence: Structural relations among disorder constructs and trait and symptom dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Loren M; Feeny, Norah C; Zoellner, Lori A; Connell, Arin M

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in response to trauma co-occur at high rates. A better understanding of the nature of this co-occurrence is critical to developing an accurate conceptualization of the disorders. This study examined structural relations among the PTSD and MDD constructs and trait and symptom dimensions within the framework of the integrative hierarchical model of anxiety and depression. Study participants completed clinician-rated and self-report measures during a pre-treatment assessment. The sample consisted of 200 treatment-seeking individuals with a primary DSM-IV PTSD diagnosis. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the relationship between the constructs. The trait negative affect/neuroticism construct had a direct effect on both PTSD and MDD. The trait positive affect/extraversion construct had a unique, negative direct effect on MDD, and PTSD had a unique, direct effect on the physical concerns symptoms construct. An alternative model with the PTSD and MDD constructs combined into an overall general traumatic stress construct produced a decrement in model fit. These findings provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between co-occurring PTSD and MDD as disorders with shared trait negative affect/neuroticism contributing to the overlap between them and unique trait positive affect/extraversion and physical concerns differentiating them. Therefore, PTSD and MDD in response to trauma may be best represented as two distinct, yet strongly related constructs. In assessing individuals who have been exposed to trauma, practitioners should recognize that co-occurring PTSD and MDD appears to be best represented as two distinct, yet strongly related constructs. Negative affect may be the shared vulnerability directly influencing both PTSD and MDD; however, in the presence of both PTSD and MDD, low positive affect appears to be more specifically related to MDD and fear of physical

  14. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  15. Phylogenetic relatedness limits co-occurrence at fine spatial scales: evidence from the schoenoid sedges (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae) of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony

    2006-07-01

    Species co-occurrence at fine spatial scales is expected to be nonrandom with respect to phylogeny because of the joint effects of evolutionary (trait convergence and conservatism) and ecological (competitive exclusion and habitat filtering) processes. We use data from 11 existing vegetation surveys to test whether co-occurrence in schoenoid sedge assemblages in the Cape Floristic Region shows significant phylogenetic structuring and to examine whether this changes with the phylogenetic scale of the analysis. We provide evidence for phylogenetic overdispersion in an alliance of closely related species (the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade) using both quantile regression analysis and a comparison between the mean observed and expected phylogenetic distances between co-occurring species. Similar patterns are not evident when the analyses are performed at a broader phylogenetic scale. Examination of six functional traits suggests a general pattern of trait conservatism within the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade, suggesting a potential role for interspecific competition in structuring co-occurrence within this group. We suggest that phylogenetic overdispersion of communities may be common throughout many of the Cape lineages, since interspecific interactions are likely intensified in lineages with large numbers of species restricted to a small geographic area, and we discuss the potential implications for patterns of diversity in the Cape.

  16. Antibiotic cross-resistance in the lab and resistance co-occurrence in the clinic: Discrepancies and implications in E.coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolski, Uri; Dellus-Gur, Eynat; Stein, Gideon Y; Hadany, Lilach

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an important public health issue, and vast resources are invested in researching new ways to fight it. Recent experimental works have shown that resistance to some antibiotics can result in increased susceptibility to others, namely induce cross-sensitivity. This phenomenon could be utilized to increase efficiency of antibiotic treatment strategies that minimize resistance. However, as conditions in experimental settings and in the clinic may differ substantially, the implications of cross-sensitivity for clinical settings are not guaranteed and should be examined. In this work we analyzed data of Escherichia coli isolates from patients' blood, sampled in Rabin Medical Center, Israel, to examine co-occurrence of resistance to antibiotics in the clinic. We compared the co-occurrence patterns with cross-sensitivity patterns observed in the lab. Our data showed only positively associated occurrence of resistance, even with antibiotics that were shown to induce cross-sensitivity in laboratory conditions. We used a mathematical model to examine the potential effects of cross-sensitivity versus co-occurrence on the spread of drug resistance. We conclude that resistance frequencies in the clinic can have a substantial effect on the success of treatment strategies, and should be considered alongside experimental evidence of cross-sensitivity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Survey of matrix materials for solidified radioactive high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating advanced waste forms, including matrix waste forms, that may provide a very high degree of stability under the most severe repository conditions. The purpose of this study was to recommend practical matrix materials for future development that most enhance the stability of the matrix waste forms. The functions of the matrix were reviewed. Desirable matrix material properties were discussed and listed relative to the matrix functions. Potential matrix materials were discussed and recommendations were made for future matrix development. The matrix mechanically contains waste cores, reduces waste form temperatures, and is capable of providing a high-quality barrier to leach waters. High-quality barrier matrices that separate and individually encapsulate the waste cores are fabricated by powder fabrication methods, such as sintering, hot pressing, and hot isostatic pressing. Viable barrier materials are impermeable, extremely corrosion resistant, and mechanically strong. Three material classes potentially satisfy the requirements for a barrier matrix and are recommended for development: titanium, glass, and graphite. Polymers appear to be marginally adequate, and a more thorough engineering assessment of their potential should be made

  18. Survey of matrix materials for solidified radioactive high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating advanced waste forms, including matrix waste forms, that may provide a very high degree of stability under the most severe repository conditions. The purpose of this study was to recommend practical matrix materials for future development that most enhance the stability of the matrix waste forms. The functions of the matrix were reviewed. Desirable matrix material properties were discussed and listed relative to the matrix functions. Potential matrix materials were discussed and recommendations were made for future matrix development. The matrix mechanically contains waste cores, reduces waste form temperatures, and is capable of providing a high-quality barrier to leach waters. High-quality barrier matrices that separate and individually encapsulate the waste cores are fabricated by powder fabrication methods, such as sintering, hot pressing, and hot isostatic pressing. Viable barrier materials are impermeable, extremely corrosion resistant, and mechanically strong. Three material classes potentially satisfy the requirements for a barrier matrix and are recommended for development: titanium, glass, and graphite. Polymers appear to be marginally adequate, and a more thorough engineering assessment of their potential should be made.

  19. Second level semi-degenerate fields in W{sub 3} Toda theory: matrix element and differential equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky Avenue 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudnyi, 141700 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Cao, Xiangyu [LPTMS, CNRS (UMR 8626), Université Paris-Saclay,15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France); Estienne, Benoit [LPTHE, CNRS and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Sorbonne Universités,4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Santachiara, Raoul [LPTMS, CNRS (UMR 8626), Université Paris-Saclay,15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-03-02

    In a recent study we considered W{sub 3} Toda 4-point functions that involve matrix elements of a primary field with the highest-weight in the adjoint representation of sl{sub 3}. We generalize this result by considering a semi-degenerate primary field, which has one null vector at level two. We obtain a sixth-order Fuchsian differential equation for the conformal blocks. We discuss the presence of multiplicities, the matrix elements and the fusion rules.

  20. Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Arthroplasty Patients and Their Correlation With Inflammatory and Thrombotic Activation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kyle; Banos, Andrew; Abro, Schuharazad; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Rees, Harold; Hopkinson, William

    2016-07-01

    An imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of joint diseases. The aim of this study is to provide additional insights into the relevance of MMP levels in arthroplasty patients in relation to inflammation and thrombosis. Deidentified plasma samples from 100 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty were collected preoperatively, on postoperative day 1, and on postoperative day 3. Tissue inhibitor of MMP 4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), pro-MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, and d-dimer were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. A biochip array was used to profile interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon gamma, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and endothelial growth factor (EGF) levels. The levels of MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, and TNF-α were elevated preoperatively in arthroplasty patients when compared to healthy individuals. The concentrations of MMP1 and MMP9 increased slightly in postsurgical samples. d-Dimer levels were elevated preoperatively, increased postoperatively, and started decreasing on postoperative day 3. Significant correlations between MMP9 with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and EGF were identified. Elevated preoperative MMP1, MMP9, and MMP13 concentrations suggest that they may play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. There is also evidence of increased coagulation activity and possible upregulation of several MMPs postsurgically. Correlation analysis indicates that MMP9 levels may potentially be related to inflammation and thrombosis in arthroplasty patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Local Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Level Determines Early Clinical Presentation of ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Taruya, Akira; Emori, Hiroki; Ozaki, Yuichi; Orii, Makoto; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Yamano, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ino, Yasushi; Kubo, Takashi; Hozumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasushi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Early clinical presentation of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction affects patient management. Although local inflammatory activities are involved in the onset of MI, little is known about their impact on early clinical presentation. This study aimed to investigate whether local inflammatory activities affect early clinical presentation. This study comprised 94 and 17 patients with MI (STEMI, 69; non-STEMI, 25) and stable angina pectoris, respectively. We simultaneously investigated the culprit lesion morphologies using optical coherence tomography and inflammatory activities assessed by shedding matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and myeloperoxidase into the coronary circulation before and after stenting. Prevalence of plaque rupture, thin-cap fibroatheroma, and lipid arc or macrophage count was higher in patients with STEMI and non-STEMI than in those with stable angina pectoris. Red thrombus was frequently observed in STEMI compared with others. Local MMP-9 levels were significantly higher than systemic levels (systemic, 42.0 [27.9-73.2] ng/mL versus prestent local, 69.1 [32.2-152.3] ng/mL versus poststent local, 68.0 [35.6-133.3] ng/mL; Pclinical presentation in patients with MI. Local inflammatory activity for atherosclerosis needs increased attention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Co-occurrence of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and anatoxin-a in Nebraska reservoirs, fish, and aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Hoagland, Kyle D; Cassada, David; Snow, Daniel D

    2014-01-28

    Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and animal health. Biomagnification, though not well understood in aquatic systems, is potentially relevant to both human and animal health effects. Because little is known regarding their presence in fresh water, we investigated the occurrence and potential for bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in several Nebraska reservoirs. Collection and analysis of 387 environmental and biological samples (water, fish, and aquatic plant) provided a snapshot of their occurrence. A sensitive detection method was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) with confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). HPLC/FD detection limits ranged from 5 to 7 µg/L and LC/MS/MS detection limits were <0.5 µg/L, while detection limits for biological samples were in the range of 0.8-3.2 ng/g depending on the matrix. Based on these methods, measurable levels of these neurotoxic compounds were detected in approximately 25% of the samples, with detections of BMAA in about 18.1%, DABA in 17.1%, and anatoxin-a in 11.9%.

  3. The co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation has the opposite effects on mood compared with either condition alone due to changes in the central norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuya, Hironori; Omata, Naoto; Kiyono, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Mita, Kayo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional and social environmental problems during the early stages of life are closely associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as depression. Disruption or dysfunction of the central norepinephrine (NE) system is also considered to play a role in mood disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of zinc deficiency and/or social isolation on mood and changes in the central NE system using rats. Compared with the controls, the rats subjected to zinc deficiency or social isolation alone exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and greater depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. However, the co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation resulted in decreased anxiety-related behavior and control levels of depression-like behavior. Social isolation alone decreased the rats' cerebral NE concentrations. The expression of the NE transporter was not affected by social isolation alone, but its expression in the locus coeruleus was markedly decreased by the co-occurrence of social isolation and zinc deficiency, and this change was accompanied by an increase in the blood concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, which is a marker of central NE system activity. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency or social isolation alone induce anxious or depressive symptoms, but the presence of both conditions has anxiolytic or antidepressive effects. Furthermore, these opposing effects of mood-related behaviors were found to be associated with changes in the central NE system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nrf2-peroxiredoxin I axis in polymorphous adenocarcinoma is associated with low matrix metalloproteinase 2 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, J M; Demasi, Ana Paula Dias; Montalli, V A; Teixeira, L N; Furuse, C; Aguiar, M C; Soares, A B; Sperandio, M; Araujo, V C

    2017-12-01

    Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a malignant epithelial neoplasm that affects almost exclusively the minor salivary glands, generally described as having a relatively good prognosis. Aberrant nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor (Nrf2) activation in tumor cells has been associated with induction of antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of Nrf2 and correlate it with Prx I and MMP-2 secretion in PAC. Thirty-one cases of PAC from oral biopsies were selected and immunohistochemically analyzed for Nrf2 and Prx I. MMP-2 quantification was performed on primary cell cultures derived from PAC. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell cultures were used as control. A high immunoexpression of Nrf2 was observed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of neoplastic cells from PAC. Nuclear staining for Nrf2 suggested its activation in the majority of the PAC cells, which was confirmed by the high expression of its target gene, Prx I. Quantification of MMP-2 secretion showed lower levels in PAC cell cultures when compared to OSCC cell cultures (p high-grade malignancies, such relationship is not infallible and, in fact, the opposite may occur in low-grade tumors, such as PAC of minor salivary glands.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in periodontal disease patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, E F; Pinheiro, J C; Leite, R B; Santos, P P A; Barboza, C A G; Freitas, R A

    2018-04-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized as a disorder of the oral microbiota resulting in an immune response which, in turn, leads to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been reported as the major metalloproteinase involved in periodontal disease, being present at high levels in gingival crevicular fluid and salivary fluid (SF). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the expression of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid and SF in patients with periodontal disease, analyzing its validity as a possible biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PubMed/Medline, CENTRAL and Science Direct databases. Studies concerning the use of MMP-8 in the diagnosis of periodontal disease that evaluated its effectiveness as a biomarker for periodontal disease were selected. The search strategy provided a total of 6483 studies. After selection, six articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the present systematic review. The studies demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of MMP-8 in patients with periodontal disease compared with controls, as well as in patients presenting more advanced stages of periodontal disease. The findings on higher MMP-8 concentrations in patients with periodontal disease compared with controls imply the potential adjunctive use of MMP-8 in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Random matrix theory of the energy-level statistics of disordered systems at the Anderson transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canali, C M

    1995-09-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density P(H) exp[-TrV(H)]. Dyson`s mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, V(is an element of) {approx} A/2 ln{sup 2}(is an element of). The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when A < 1. By performing systematic Monte Carlo simulations on the plasma model, we compute all the relevant statistical properties of the RME with weak confinement. For A{sub c} approx. 0.4 the distribution function of the level spacings (LSDF) coincides in a large energy window with the energy LSDF of the three dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. For the same A = A{sub c}, the RME eigenvalue-number variance is linear and its slope is equal to 0.32 {+-} 0.02, which is consistent with the value found for the Anderson model at the critical point. (author). 51 refs, 10 figs.

  7. Random matrix theory of the energy-level statistics of disordered systems at the Anderson transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canali, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density P(H) exp[-TrV(H)]. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, V(is an element of) ∼ A/2 ln 2 (is an element of). The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when A c approx. 0.4 the distribution function of the level spacings (LSDF) coincides in a large energy window with the energy LSDF of the three dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. For the same A = A c , the RME eigenvalue-number variance is linear and its slope is equal to 0.32 ± 0.02, which is consistent with the value found for the Anderson model at the critical point. (author). 51 refs, 10 figs

  8. Higher Dialysate Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Levels Are Associated with Peritoneal Membrane Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W.; Vesey, David A.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Pascoe, Elaine M.; Clarke, Margaret; Topley, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients develop progressive and cumulative peritoneal injury with longer time spent on PD. The present study aimed to a) describe the trend of peritoneal injury biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), in incident PD patients, b) to explore the capacity of dialysate MMP-2 to predict peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) and peritonitis, and c) to evaluate the influence of neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) PD solution on these outcomes. ♦ Methods: The study included 178 participants from the balANZ trial who had at least 1 stored dialysate sample. Changes in PSTR and peritonitis were primary outcome measures, and the utility of MMP-2 in predicting these outcomes was analyzed using multilevel linear regression and multilevel Poisson regression, respectively. ♦ Results: Significant linear increases in dialysate MMP-2 and TIMP-1 concentrations were observed (p < 0.001), but neither was affected by the type of PD solutions received (MMP-2: p = 0.07; TIMP-1: p = 0.63). An increase in PSTR from baseline was associated with higher levels of MMP-2 (p = 0.02), and the use of standard solutions over longer PD duration (p = 0.001). The risk of peritonitis was independently predicted by higher dialysate MMP-2 levels (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per ng/mL 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005 – 1.02, p = 0.002) and use of standard solutions (Biocompatible solution: IRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 – 0.85, p = 0.01). ♦ Conclusion: Dialysate MMP-2 and TIMP-1 concentrations increased with longer PD duration. Higher MMP-2 levels were associated with faster PSTR and future peritonitis risk. Administration of biocompatible solutions exerted no significant effect on dialysate levels of MMP-2 or TIMP-1, but did counteract the increase in PSTR and the risk of peritonitis associated with the use of standard PD solutions. This is the first longitudinal study to examine

  9. Geographic variation and socio-demographic determinants of the co-occurrence of risky health behaviours in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, F T; Agaku, I T; Vardavas, C I

    2016-06-01

    Risky health behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and poor diet may play an important role in disease development. The aim of the present study was to assess the geographical distribution and socio-demographic determinants of risky health-related behaviours in 27 member states (MSs) of the European Union (EU). Data from the 2009 Eurobarometer survey (wave 72.3; n = 26 788) were analysed. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and fruit consumption were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire provided to participants from 27 EU MSs. Within the analyses, participants with three or more lifestyle risk factors were classified as individuals with co-occurrence of risk factors. Among respondents aged 15 or older, 28.2% had none of the aforementioned behavioural risk factors, whereas 9.9% had three or more lifestyle risk factors. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.17-2.88] and respondents of middle (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.36-1.89) or lower income (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.12-3.26) were more likely to report co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors, as well as respondents in Northern (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), Western (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56) and Eastern Europe (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), when compared with Southern European respondents. The above analyses indicate significant geographical and social variation in the distribution of the co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors for disease development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Clinical report: a rare co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis complex and Rett syndrome in a girl with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Belousova, Elena; Sukhorukov, Vladimir; Dorofeeva, Marina; Shagam, Lev; Vlodavetz, Dmitrii V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. There are some genetic disorders with combination of mental retardation, epilepsy and autism in which the abnormal mammalian Target of Rapamycin (m-TOR) signaling is implicated. The most important of them is tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), but the disturbances of the m-TOR pathway can also be detected in Rett syndrome (RS), Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. We describe the rare case of co-occurrence of TSC and RS. Case study. The female child was born at term by normal de...

  11. Borosilicate glass as a matrix for immobilization of SRP high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 22 million gallons of high-level radioactive defense waste are currently being stored in large underground tanks located on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site in Aiken, South Carolina. One option now being considered for long-term management of this waste involves removing the waste from the tanks, chemically processing the waste, and immobilizing the potentially harmful radionuclides in the waste into a borosilicate glass matrix. The technology for producing waste glass forms is well developed and has been demonstrated on various scales using simulated as well as radioactive SRP waste. Recently, full-scale prototypical equipment has been made operational at SRP. This includes both a joule-heated ceramic melter and an in-can melter. These melters are a part of an integrated vitrification system which is under evaluation and includes a spray calciner, direct liquid feed apparatus, and various elements of an off-gas system. Two of the most important properties of the waste glass are mechanical integrity and leachability. Programs are in progress at SRL aimed at minimizing thermally induced cracking by carefully controlling cooling cycles and using ceramic liners or coatings. The leachability of SRP waste glass has been studied under many different conditions and consistently found to be low. For example, the leachability of actual SRP waste glass was found to be 10 -6 to 10 -5 g/(cm 2 )(day) initially and decreasing to 10 -9 to 10 -8 g/(cm 2 )(day) after 100 days. Waste glass is also being studied under anticipated storage conditions. In brine at 90 0 C, the leachability is about 5 x 10 -8 g/(cm 2 )(day) after 60 days. The effects of other geological media including granite, basalt, shale, and tuff are also being studied as part of the multibarrier isolation system

  12. Preparation and sensory perception of fat-free foams : Effect of matrix properties and level of aeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minor, M.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Zoet, F.D.; Wijk, de R.A.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensory perception of fat-free model foams with a consistency between pourable (liquid; xanthan thickened) and spoonable (semi-solid; gelled; carrageenan thickened) and varying level of aeration was studied. At low air contents (5, 10% v/v) perception is largely determined by the matrix

  13. On immobilization of high-level waste in an Y–Al garnet-based cermet matrix in SHS conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, E.E.; Lastov, A.I.; Nerozin, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    A method of high-level waste (HLW) radionuclide immobilization in a long-life matrix based on Y–Al garnet, a material highly chemically resistant to natural environments, has been developed for the ultimate HLW isolation from the environment. Model systems containing Ce, Nd, Sm, Zr, Mo, 238U, and 241Am were used in the study as simulators of HLW radionuclides. An energy-saving technology of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was employed to synthesize the matrix material with f...

  14. Laminin and Matrix metalloproteinase 11 regulate Fibronectin levels in the zebrafish myotendinous junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Molly H; Alrowaished, Sarah S; Goody, Michelle F; Crawford, Bryan D; Henry, Clarissa A

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix. One such shift involves the replacement of Fibronectin (Fn)-rich matrix, which is essential for both somite and early muscle development, with laminin-rich matrix essential for normal function of the myotome. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying this transition. We show that laminin polymerization indirectly promotes Fn downregulation at the MTJ, via a matrix metalloproteinase 11 (Mmp11)-dependent mechanism. Laminin deposition and organization is required for localization of Mmp11 to the MTJ, where Mmp11 is both necessary and sufficient for Fn downregulation in vivo. Furthermore, reduction of residual Mmp11 in laminin mutants promotes a Fn-rich MTJ that partially rescues skeletal muscle architecture. These results identify a mechanism for Fn downregulation at the MTJ, highlight crosstalk between laminin and Fn, and identify a new in vivo function for Mmp11. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel signaling pathway mediating Fn downregulation. Our data revealing new regulatory mechanisms that guide ECM remodeling during morphogenesis in vivo may inform pathological conditions in which Fn is dysregulated.

  15. Continuum-level modelling of cellular adhesion and matrix production in aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Liesbet; Ashbourn, Joanna M A; Clarke, Tim

    2011-05-01

    Key regulators in tissue-engineering processes such as cell culture and cellular organisation are the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. As mathematical models are increasingly applied to investigate biological phenomena in the biomedical field, it is important, for some applications, that these models incorporate an adequate description of cell adhesion. This study describes the development of a continuum model that represents a cell-in-gel culture system used in bone-tissue engineering, namely that of a cell aggregate embedded in a hydrogel. Cell adhesion is modelled through the use of non-local (integral) terms in the partial differential equations. The simulation results demonstrate that the effects of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are particularly important for the survival and growth of the cell population and the production of extracellular matrix by the cells, concurring with experimental observations in the literature.

  16. The co-occurrence of substance use and bullying behaviors among U.S. adolescents: understanding demographic characteristics and social influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Wang, Jing; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of subtypes of substance use and bullying behaviors using latent class analysis and evaluated latent class differences in demographic characteristics, peer and parental influences. Self-reported questionnaire data were collected from a nationally representative sample (N = 7508) of 6-10th grade adolescents in the United States. Four latent classes were identified: the non-involved (57.7%), substance users (19.4%), bullies (17.5%), and substance-using bullies (5.4%). Older and Hispanic adolescents were more likely to be substance users and substance-using bullies, whereas younger and African American adolescents were more likely to be bullies. Females were more likely to be substance users, whereas males were more likely to be bullies and substance-using bullies. Spending more evenings with peers posed greater risks for substance use, bullying, and the co-occurrence of both problem behaviors. Paternal knowledge exerted protective effects over-and-above the effects of maternal knowledge. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of semi-arid regions in Latin America: genesis, mobility and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Nicolli, Hugo B; Gutierrez, Melida; Reyes-Gomez, Victor M; Nuñez, Daniel; Martín-Dominguez, Ignacio R; Sracek, Ondra

    2013-11-15

    Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. What do we know about child abuse and neglect patterns of co-occurrence? A systematic review of profiling studies and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Willmott, Dominic; Boduszek, Daniel; Jones, Adele D

    2017-08-01

    Latent class (LCA) and latent profile (LPA) analysis represent methodological approaches to identify subgroups of maltreated individuals. Although research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles is still rare, the application of person-centered techniques to clarify CAN types co-occurrence has substantially increased in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a summary and critical evaluation of the findings of LCA/LPA child maltreatment research to: (a) systemize the current understanding of patterns of maltreatment across populations and (b) elucidate interactive effects of CAN types on psychosocial functioning. A search in PsychInfo, Eric, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Google Scholar was performed. Sixteen studies examining the co-occurrence between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and/or exposure to domestic violence were identified. A critical review of the studies revealed inconsistent findings as to the number of CAN classes, but most research uncovered a poly-victimized and a low abuse group. Further, multiple victimization was associated with most adverse internalizing and externalizing outcomes, especially when sexual abuse was present. Exposure to physical and emotional abuse was frequently reported to lead to behavioural problems. Based on the present study results, we provide a set of recommendations for surpassing the current methodological and conceptual limitations in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SD LMS L-Filters for Filtration of Gray Level Images in Timespatial Domain Based on GLCM Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hudec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the new kind of adaptive signal-dependent LMS L-filter for suppression of a mixed noise in greyscale images is developed. It is based on the texture parameter measurement as modification of spatial impulse detector structure. Moreover, the one of GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix features, namely, the contrast or inertia adjusted by threshold as switch between partial filters is utilised. Finally, at the positions of partial filters the adaptive LMS versions of L-filters are chosen.

  20. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth: A longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40-0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17-0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period.

  1. Development of immobilizing matrix for radioactive hearth ash of low activity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greben'kov, A.J.; Kopets, Z.V.; Rytvinskaya, E.V.; Vecher, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The incorporation of a certain quantity of the sorbing admixtures, i.e. the clay containing about 80 mas.% of montmorillonite, natural molding flask, into an ash-cement matrix allowed obtaining the hardened compounds with radioactive ash mass fraction of 40-60 mas.%, which physicochemical characteristics are significantly better that those required by regulations. This will facilitate the development of effective low active hearth ash utilization technologies. (authors)

  2. Random Matrix Theory of the Energy-Level Statistics of Disordered Systems at the Anderson Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density $P({\\bf H})= \\exp[-{\\rm Tr}V({\\bf H})]$. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, $V(\\epsilon)\\sim {A\\over 2}\\ln ^2(\\epsilon)$. The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when $A

  3. The co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in parents of children with ASD or ASD with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Richards, Jennifer S; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g., the tendency to choose a partner that is similar or dissimilar to oneself. Another issue is that of parent-of-origin effect which refers to the possibility of parents differing in the relative quantity of risk factors they transmit to the offspring. The current study sets out to examine (cross-)assortative mating and (cross-)parent-of-origin effects of ASD and ADHD in parents of children with either ASD or ASD with ADHD diagnosis. In total, 121 families were recruited in an ongoing autism-ADHD family genetics project. Participating families consisted of parents and at least one child aged between 2 and 20 years, with either autistic disorder, Asperger disorder or PDD-NOS, and one or more biological siblings. All children and parents were carefully screened for the presence of ASD and ADHD. No correlations were found between maternal and paternal ASD and ADHD symptoms. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were predictive for similar symptoms in the offspring, but with maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, but not paternal symptoms, predicting similar symptoms in daughters. ASD pathology in the parents was not predictive for ADHD pathology in the offspring, but mother's ADHD pathology was predictive for offspring ASD pathology even when corrected for maternal ASD pathology. Cross-assortative mating for ASD and ADHD does not form an explanation for the frequent co-occurrence of these disorders within families. Given that parental ADHD is predictive of offspring' ASD but not vice versa, risk factors underlying ASD may overlap to a larger degree with risk factors underlying ADHD than vice versa. However, future research is needed to clarify

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir—triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors and 396 mammal species (potential hosts were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc, did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with

  5. Possible Association between Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) Levels and Relapse in Depressed Patients following Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Chiyo; Itagaki, Kei; Abe, Hiromi; Kajitani, Naoto; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2018-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in neuroinflammatory processes, which could underlie depression. Serum levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in depressed patients are significantly altered following electroconvulsive therapy, but an association between altered matrix metalloproteinases after successful ECT and possible relapse has yet to be investigated. Serum was obtained twice, before and immediately after a course of electroconvulsive therapy, from 38 depressed patients. Serum was also collected, once, from two groups of age- and gender-matched healthy controls, 40 volunteers in each group. Possible associations between levels of matrix metalloproteinases and relapse during a 1-year follow-up period were analyzed. Excluding patients who did not respond to electroconvulsive therapy and patients lost to follow-up, data from 28 patients were evaluated. Eighteen of the patients (64.3%) relapsed within 1 year. In the group that did not relapse, serum levels of MMP-9 were significantly decreased after a course of electroconvulsive therapy, but not in the group that relapsed. No association between MMP-2 and relapse was observed. The degree of change in serum MMP-9 change could be associated with relapse following electroconvulsive therapy in depressed patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Carrier-based modulation schemes for various three-level matrix converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Rong, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    different performance merits. To avoid confusion and hence fasten the converter applications in the industry, it would surely be better for modulation schemes to be developed from a common set of modulation principles that unfortunately has not yet been thoroughly defined. Contributing to that area...... a limited set of switching vectors because of its lower semiconductor count. Through simulation and experimental testing, all the evaluated matrix converters are shown to produce satisfactory sinusoidal input and output quantities using the same set of generic modulation principles, which can conveniently...

  7. Propositional Versus Dual-Process Accounts of Evaluative Conditioning: I. The Effects of Co-Occurrence and Relational Information on Implicit and Explicit Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Gawronski, Bertram; Balas, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is defined as the change in the evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a valenced unconditioned stimulus (US). According to propositional accounts, EC effects should be qualified by the relation between the CS and the US. Dual-process accounts suggest that relational information should qualify EC effects on explicit evaluations, whereas implicit evaluations should reflect the frequency of CS-US co-occurrences. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that, when relational information was provided before the encoding of CS-US pairings, it moderated EC effects on explicit, but not implicit, evaluations. In Experiment 3, relational information moderated EC effects on both explicit and implicit evaluations when it was provided simultaneously with CS-US pairings. Frequency of CS-US pairings had no effect on implicit evaluations. Although the results can be reconciled with both propositional and dual-process accounts, they are more parsimoniously explained by propositional accounts.

  8. In vitro co-cultures of human gut bacterial species as predicted from co-occurrence network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Promi; Ji, Boyang; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia

    2018-01-01

    Network analysis of large metagenomic datasets generated by current sequencing technologies can reveal significant co-occurrence patterns between microbial species of a biological community. These patterns can be analyzed in terms of pairwise combinations between all species comprising a community...... thetaiotaomicron, as well as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia inulinivorans as model organisms for our study. We then delineate the outcome of the co-cultures when equal distributions of resources were provided. The growth behavior of the co-culture was found to be dependent on the types of microbial...... species present, their specific metabolic activities, and resulting changes in the culture environment. Through this reductionist approach and using novel in vitro combinations of microbial species under anaerobic conditions, the results of this work will aid in the understanding and design of synthetic...

  9. Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health - A Danish Population-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    ) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94...... all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate...

  10. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andover Margaret S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  11. Is screening for depression in the perinatal period enough? The co-occurrence of depression, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence in culturally diverse pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Cynthia D; Hazen, Andrea L; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-10-01

    The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues.

  12. Co-occurrence of point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti.

  13. Co-occurrence of Point Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Background Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Conclusions/Significance Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti. PMID:25077956

  14. Taxon abundance, diversity, co-occurrence and network analysis of the ruminal microbiota in response to dietary changes in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Tapio

    Full Text Available The ruminal microbiome, comprising large numbers of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, archaea and fungi, responds to diet and dietary additives in a complex way. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of increasing the depth of the community analysis in describing and explaining responses to dietary changes. Quantitative PCR, ssu rRNA amplicon based taxa composition, diversity and co-occurrence network analyses were applied to ruminal digesta samples obtained from four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae. The cows received diets with forage:concentrate ratio either 35:65 (diet H or 65:35 (L, supplemented or not with sunflower oil (SO (0 or 50 g/kg diet dry matter, supplied in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and four 35-day periods. Digesta samples were collected on days 22 and 24 and combined. QPCR provided a broad picture in which a large fall in the abundance of fungi was seen with SO in the H but not the L diet. Amplicon sequencing showed higher community diversity indices in L as compared to H diets and revealed diet specific taxa abundance changes, highlighting large differences in protozoal and fungal composition. Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Mbb. gottschalkii dominated archaeal communities, and their abundance correlated negatively with each other. Co-occurrence network analysis provided evidence that no microbial domain played a more central role in network formation, that some minor-abundance taxa were at nodes of highest centrality, and that microbial interactions were diet specific. Networks added new dimensions to our understanding of the diet effect on rumen microbial community interactions.

  15. Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K.; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Bedu-Addo, George

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4–15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38–52%), for malnutrition 50% (43–57%) and for CRFs 16% (11–21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21–34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2–9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3–11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted. PMID:28727775

  16. Improving matrix-vector product performance and multi-level preconditioning for the parallel PCG package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLay, R.T.; Carey, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    In this study we consider parallel solution of sparse linear systems arising from discretized PDE`s. As part of our continuing work on our parallel PCG Solver package, we have made improvements in two areas. The first is improving the performance of the matrix-vector product. Here on regular finite-difference grids, we are able to use the cache memory more efficiently for smaller domains or where there are multiple degrees of freedom. The second problem of interest in the present work is the construction of preconditioners in the context of the parallel PCG solver we are developing. Here the problem is partitioned over a set of processors subdomains and the matrix-vector product for PCG is carried out in parallel for overlapping grid subblocks. For problems of scaled speedup, the actual rate of convergence of the unpreconditioned system deteriorates as the mesh is refined. Multigrid and subdomain strategies provide a logical approach to resolving the problem. We consider the parallel trade-offs between communication and computation and provide a complexity analysis of a representative algorithm. Some preliminary calculations using the parallel package and comparisons with other preconditioners are provided together with parallel performance results.

  17. Physical exercise can influence local levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tendon-related connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, S O A; Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L

    2004-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon tissue during exercise or training can affect local synthesis and degradation of type I collagen. Degradation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins is controlled by an interplay between matrix metalloproteinases...... (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). However, it is unknown whether local levels of MMPs and TIMPs are affected by tendon loading in humans in vivo. In the present experiment, six healthy young men performed 1 h of uphill (3%) treadmill running. Dialysate was collected from microdialysis probes...... (placed in the peritendinous tissue immediately anterior to the Achilles tendon) before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after an exercise bout. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured in dialysate by gelatin zymography, and amounts were quantified by densitometry in relation to total protein...

  18. Pixel-level multisensor image fusion based on matrix completion and robust principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuozheng; Deller, J. R.; Fleet, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    Acquired digital images are often corrupted by a lack of camera focus, faulty illumination, or missing data. An algorithm is presented for fusion of multiple corrupted images of a scene using the lifting wavelet transform. The method employs adaptive fusion arithmetic based on matrix completion and self-adaptive regional variance estimation. Characteristics of the wavelet coefficients are used to adaptively select fusion rules. Robust principal component analysis is applied to low-frequency image components, and regional variance estimation is applied to high-frequency components. Experiments reveal that the method is effective for multifocus, visible-light, and infrared image fusion. Compared with traditional algorithms, the new algorithm not only increases the amount of preserved information and clarity but also improves robustness.

  19. Co-occurrences Between Adolescent Substance Use and Academic Performance: School Context Inuences a Multilevel-Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. PMID:25057764

  20. Expression Levels of Myostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 mRNAs in Uterine Leiomyoma are Correlated With Dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigkou, Anastasia; Reis, Fernando M; Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Lee, Meng H; Jiang, Bingjie; Tosti, Claudia; Shen, Fang-Rong; Shi, Zhendan; Chen, You-Guo; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign neoplasm of female reproductive system, found in about 50% of women in reproductive age. The mechanisms of leiomyoma growth include cell proliferation, which is modulated by growth factors, and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Activin A and myostatin are growth factors that play a role in proliferation of leiomyoma cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known for their ability to remodel the ECM in different biological systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of activin βA-subunit, myostatin, and MMP14 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in uterine leiomyomas and the possible correlation of these factors with clinical features of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 was highly expressed in uterine leiomyoma and correlated with myostatin and activin A mRNA expression. Moreover, MMP14 and myostatin mRNA expression correlated significantly and directly with the intensity of dysmenorrhea. Overall, the present findings showed that MMP14 mRNA is highly expressed in uterine leiomyoma, where it correlates with the molecular expression of growth factors and is further increased in cases of intense dysmenorrhea. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The co-occurrence of Hashimoto thyroiditis in primary Sjogren's syndrome defines a subset of patients with milder clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramaschi, Paola; Biasi, Domenico; Caimmi, Cristian; Scambi, Cinzia; Pieropan, Sara; Barausse, Giovanni; Adami, Silvano

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate in a cohort of 100 consecutive patients affected by primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) the incidence of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and to compare the clinical features and the laboratory parameters of patients affected by pSS with and without concomitant HT. In 100 consecutive patients affected by pSS, the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases was recorded and a full examination of thyroid function obtained. HT was associated with pSS in 27 cases. The comparison between pSS cases with and without HT showed that only patients with isolated pSS had low C4 level [p = 0.032, OR (IC 95 %) 230 (13.13-4,046)]. In addition, only patients affected by pSS without HT had evidence of cryoglobulins, cutaneous vasculitis with palpable purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and development of lymphoma, although all these manifestations were observed in a 4.1-8.2 % of the cases, without reaching statistical significance. The association of HT in patients suffering from pSS defines a subset of patients with milder disease and normal C4 levels.

  3. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

    OpenAIRE

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model – effort, rewards and ERI – are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Methods Based on data from the Finnish Pu...

  4. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail: jp1@tiscali.co.uk

    2016-01-15

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  5. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  6. High-silica glass matrix process for high-level waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.H.; Macedo, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    In the search for an optimum glass matrix composition, we have determined that chemical durability and thermal stability are maximized, and that stress development is minimized for glass compositions containing large concentrations of glass-forming oxides, of which silica is the major component (80 mol%). These properties and characteristics were recently demonstrated to belong to very old geological glasses known as tektites (ages of 750,000 to 34 million years.) The barrier to simulating tektite compositions for the waste glasses was the high melting temperature (1600 to 1800 0 C) needed for these glasses. Such temperatures greatly complicate furnace design and maintenance and lead to an intolerable vaporization of many of the radioisotopes into the off-gas system. Research conducted at our laboratory led to the development of a porous high-silica waste glass material with approximately 80% SiO 2 by mole and 30% waste loading by weight. The process can handle a wide variety of compositions, and yields long, elliptical, monolithic samples, which consist of a loaded high-silica core completely enveloped in a high-silica glass tube, which has collapsed upon the core and sealed it from the outside. The outer glass layer is totally free of waste isotopes and provides an integral multibarrier protection system

  7. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Dual factor model of mental health: Co-occurrence of positive mental health and suicide ideation in inpatients and outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Tobias; Brailovskaia, Julia; Siegmann, Paula; Nyhuis, Peter; Wolter, Marcus; Willutzki, Ulrike

    2017-12-06

    Positive and negative mental health are independent but correlated concepts. Yet, it is unknown whether positive mental health does co-occur with suicide ideation. The present study aimed to determine the proportion of patients who have positive mental health as well as suicide ideation. Inpatients (N=100) and outpatients (N=182) completed self-report measures of positive mental health, suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. Eleven outpatients (6%) and ten inpatients (10%) with suicide ideation reported moderate to high levels of positive mental health. Lifetime suicide attempts were less likely in inpatients who suffered from suicide ideation in the presence of positive mental health. Positive mental health does co-occur with suicide ideation and should be considered as a protective factor in suicide risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tears Falling on Goosebumps: Co-occurrence of Emotional Lacrimation and Emotional Piloerection Indicates a Psychophysiological Climax in Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Heinrich, Jan; Schneiderbauer, Manuel; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    This psychophysiological study is the first to examine the relationship between emotional tears and emotional piloerection (i.e., goosebumps). Although both phenomena have been related to peak states of being moved, details about their temporal occurrence and the associated levels of physiological arousal have remained unknown. In our study, we used emotionally powerful film scenes that were self-selected by participants. Our findings show that even within peak moments of emotional arousal, a gradation of intensity is possible. The overlap of tears and goosebumps signifies a maximal climax within peak moments. On the side of the stimulus, we found that displays of prosocial behavior play a crucial role in the elicitation of tears and goosebumps. Finally, based on the results of a formal film analysis of the tears-eliciting clips provided by our participants, as compared to randomly extracted, equally long control clips from the same films, we show how the technical and artistic making of the clips was optimized for the display of social interaction and emotional expressions. PMID:28223946

  10. Assessing the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence domains across the life-course: relating typologies to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Sleath, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The inter-generational transmission of violence (ITV) hypothesis and polyvictimisation have been studied extensively. The extant evidence suggests that individuals from violent families are at increased risk of subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) and that a proportion of individuals experience victimisation across multiple rather than single IPV domains. Both ITV and polyvictimisation are shown to increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity, alcohol use, and anger expression. The current study aimed to 1) ascertain if underlying typologies of victimisation across the life-course and over multiple victimisation domains were present and 2) ascertain if groupings differed on mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. University students (N=318) were queried in relation to victimisation experiences and psychological well-being. Responses across multiple domains of IPV spanning the life-course were used in a latent profile analysis. ANOVA was subsequently used to determine if profiles differed in their mean scores on PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Three distinct profiles were identified; one of which comprised individuals who experienced "life-course polyvictimisation," another showing individuals who experienced "witnessing parental victimisation," and one which experienced "psychological victimisation only." Life-course polyvictims scored the highest across most assessed measures. Witnessing severe physical aggression and injury in parental relationships as a child has an interesting impact on the ITV into adolescence and adulthood. Life-course polyvictims are shown to experience increased levels of psychiatric morbidity and issues with alcohol misuse and anger expression.

  11. Childhood adversities as specific contributors to the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mario; Vandeleur, Caroline; Rodgers, Stephanie; Rössler, Wulf; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-08-30

    There is much evidence that alcohol use disorders (AUD) often co-occur with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), and that the comorbid condition is associated with a more severe clinical profile than that of PTSD without AUD. However, little is known about the role of childhood adversities as specific risk factors for the development of AUD in individuals presenting with PTSD. The aim of the study was to explore whether specific stressors from the spectrum of trauma and childhood adversities contribute to the development of AUD among subjects with PTSD. From a large community sample, of N=140 individuals with PTSD, N=24 (17.14%) received an additional diagnosis of AUD with an onset after the onset of PTSD. Those with comorbid PTSD/AUD and those with PTSD only were compared regarding type and features of their trauma, childhood adversities and psychiatric comorbidity. Compared to PTSD alone, PTSD/AUD was associated with higher levels of stress in terms of childhood adversities; in particular, sexual abuse below the age of 16, but also with having been brought up in a foster home. PTSD/AUD was also associated with an earlier age of adverse events. Treatment of AUD should include standardized assessments of trauma, especially of trauma experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Chenghai; Liu, Zijuan; Dai, Zonghan; Tao, Yunxia

    2012-09-11

    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I) and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D) collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  13. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. Methods We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. Results We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  14. Assessing the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence domains across the life-course: relating typologies to mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Sleath, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-generational transmission of violence (ITV) hypothesis and polyvictimisation have been studied extensively. The extant evidence suggests that individuals from violent families are at increased risk of subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) and that a proportion of individuals experience victimisation across multiple rather than single IPV domains. Both ITV and polyvictimisation are shown to increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity, alcohol use, and anger expression. Objective The current study aimed to 1) ascertain if underlying typologies of victimisation across the life-course and over multiple victimisation domains were present and 2) ascertain if groupings differed on mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Method University students (N=318) were queried in relation to victimisation experiences and psychological well-being. Responses across multiple domains of IPV spanning the life-course were used in a latent profile analysis. ANOVA was subsequently used to determine if profiles differed in their mean scores on PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Results Three distinct profiles were identified; one of which comprised individuals who experienced “life-course polyvictimisation,” another showing individuals who experienced “witnessing parental victimisation,” and one which experienced “psychological victimisation only.” Life-course polyvictims scored the highest across most assessed measures. Conclusion Witnessing severe physical aggression and injury in parental relationships as a child has an interesting impact on the ITV into adolescence and adulthood. Life-course polyvictims are shown to experience increased levels of psychiatric morbidity and issues with alcohol misuse and anger expression. PMID:25279106

  15. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Punjab, Pakistan: source discrimination and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Xiao, Tangfu; Baig, Zenab Tariq; Masood, Sajid; Mostofa, Khan M G; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    The present study discusses elevated groundwater arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in Mailsi, Punjab, Pakistan, and links these elevated concentrations to health risks for the local residents. The results indicate that groundwater samples of two areas of Mailsi, Punjab were severely contaminated with As (5.9-507 ppb) and F(-) (5.5-29.6 ppm), as these values exceeded the permissible limits of World Health Organization (10 ppb for As and 1.5 ppm for F(-)). The groundwater samples were categorized by redox state. The major process controlling the As levels in groundwater was the adsorption of As onto PO4 (3-) at high pH. High alkalinity and low Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations promoted the higher F(-) and As concentrations in the groundwater. A positive correlation was observed between F(-) and As concentrations (r = 0.37; n = 52) and other major ions found in the groundwater of the studied area. The mineral saturation indices calculated by PHREEQC 2.1 suggested that a majority of samples were oversaturated with calcite and fluorite, leading to the dissolution of fluoride minerals at alkaline pH. Local inhabitants exhibited arsenicosis and fluorosis after exposure to environmental concentration doses of As and F(-). Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) highlighted the risk factors borne by local residents. Multivariate statistical analysis further revealed that both geologic origins and anthropogenic activities contributed to As and F(-) contamination in the groundwater. We propose that pollutants originate, in part, from coal combusted at brick factories, and agricultural activities. Once generated, these pollutants were mobilized by the alkaline nature of the groundwater.

  16. Assessing the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence domains across the life-course: relating typologies to mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Armour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inter-generational transmission of violence (ITV hypothesis and polyvictimisation have been studied extensively. The extant evidence suggests that individuals from violent families are at increased risk of subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV and that a proportion of individuals experience victimisation across multiple rather than single IPV domains. Both ITV and polyvictimisation are shown to increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity, alcohol use, and anger expression. Objective: The current study aimed to 1 ascertain if underlying typologies of victimisation across the life-course and over multiple victimisation domains were present and 2 ascertain if groupings differed on mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Method: University students (N=318 were queried in relation to victimisation experiences and psychological well-being. Responses across multiple domains of IPV spanning the life-course were used in a latent profile analysis. ANOVA was subsequently used to determine if profiles differed in their mean scores on PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Results: Three distinct profiles were identified; one of which comprised individuals who experienced “life-course polyvictimisation,” another showing individuals who experienced “witnessing parental victimisation,” and one which experienced “psychological victimisation only.” Life-course polyvictims scored the highest across most assessed measures. Conclusion: Witnessing severe physical aggression and injury in parental relationships as a child has an interesting impact on the ITV into adolescence and adulthood. Life-course polyvictims are shown to experience increased levels of psychiatric morbidity and issues with alcohol misuse and anger expression.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on cell-matrix interactions at the single molecule level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Florian

    2015-04-20

    Single molecule microscopy is a technology that allows for accurate assessment of the location and motion of single fluorescent molecules, even in the context of observations on living biological samples. In the present thesis, a flexible analysis tool for single molecule data as obtained in biological experiments was established. The development of a tool to faithfully detect and localize diffraction-limited images of individual fluorescent probes was necessary since data acquired under cell cultivation conditions that account for a three-dimensional microenvironment as experienced physiologically by cells in native tissue poses a challenge not faced ordinarily. After design, implementation, quantitative tests using simulations for comparisons and verification, and evaluation of the different steps of the analysis procedure including local background estimation, local noise estimation, de-noising approaches, detection, localization, and post-processing, analysis capabilities were utilized to evaluate the impact of x-ray irradiation on the plasma membrane architecture of U2OS human osteosarcoma cells as assessed by tracking individual fluorescent lipid-mimetic dye molecules diffusing in the outer membrane leaflet. It was shown that lateral diffusion in the plasma membrane is well described as two-phase anomalous subdiffusion and presence of 3D extracellular matrix leads to lower anomalous exponents of the fast fraction in comparison to monolayer cell culture. Interestingly, even high single-dose (25 Gy) treatments known to induce membrane-mediated apoptosis in tumor microvessel endothelium via membrane viscosity enhancing ceramide generation were not observed to alter membrane architecture in U2OS cells which can be related to amplifying, feedback-driven redox-signaling in the endothelium absent in U2OS. In summary, the sensitive and accurate framework developed in this thesis to assess minute changes of plasma membrane located dynamic processes did not uncover a

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on cell-matrix interactions at the single molecule level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule microscopy is a technology that allows for accurate assessment of the location and motion of single fluorescent molecules, even in the context of observations on living biological samples. In the present thesis, a flexible analysis tool for single molecule data as obtained in biological experiments was established. The development of a tool to faithfully detect and localize diffraction-limited images of individual fluorescent probes was necessary since data acquired under cell cultivation conditions that account for a three-dimensional microenvironment as experienced physiologically by cells in native tissue poses a challenge not faced ordinarily. After design, implementation, quantitative tests using simulations for comparisons and verification, and evaluation of the different steps of the analysis procedure including local background estimation, local noise estimation, de-noising approaches, detection, localization, and post-processing, analysis capabilities were utilized to evaluate the impact of x-ray irradiation on the plasma membrane architecture of U2OS human osteosarcoma cells as assessed by tracking individual fluorescent lipid-mimetic dye molecules diffusing in the outer membrane leaflet. It was shown that lateral diffusion in the plasma membrane is well described as two-phase anomalous subdiffusion and presence of 3D extracellular matrix leads to lower anomalous exponents of the fast fraction in comparison to monolayer cell culture. Interestingly, even high single-dose (25 Gy) treatments known to induce membrane-mediated apoptosis in tumor microvessel endothelium via membrane viscosity enhancing ceramide generation were not observed to alter membrane architecture in U2OS cells which can be related to amplifying, feedback-driven redox-signaling in the endothelium absent in U2OS. In summary, the sensitive and accurate framework developed in this thesis to assess minute changes of plasma membrane located dynamic processes did not uncover a

  19. Sulfur polymer cement encapsulation of oily matrix mixed low-level sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, C.L. Jr.; Nulf, L.E.; Fedorov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a variety of stabilization technologies for the treatment of mixed low-level debris and sludges. Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) is being considered as one possible alternative final waste form for that segment of these wastes that does not readily lend itself to vitrification and/or grout stabilization. Earlier work demonstrated that SPC effectively immobilizes some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) toxic metal and metal salt species. However, the use of SPC as an encapsulant is relatively new, and the scope of tested waste streams has been limited. Accordingly, the authors' intent was to identify and ascertain the effects of process variables on final waste form properties for encapsulated mixed low-level sludge. The authors conducted an optimal design factorial experiment to study the effects of eight variables in twelve trials with replication. Factors for consideration included waste spike level, waste loading, additive type, additive loading, mixing method, hold time, hold temperature, and cooling rate. Toxic metal leachability was assessed for samples and was the basis for factor comparison. Trials were typically conducted with 150-g of total material per batch. Experimental results demonstrated that a number of process variables -- process hold time, cooling rate, waste loading, spike level, process temperature, additive type, and additive loading -- can influence toxic metal leachability. Also, the effects of different factors may weigh more heavily on different individual species; accordingly, optimum process conditions may vary considerably based on waste composition

  20. Co-Occurrence of Microcystins and Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Drinking Water Source and Their Removal in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Muhua; Xu, Xiangen; Liu, Feifei; Ke, Fan; Li, Wenchao

    2018-01-01

    The co-occurrence of cyanotoxins and taste-and-odor compounds are a growing concern for drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) suffering cyanobacteria in water resources. The dissolved and cell-bound forms of three microcystin (MC) congeners (MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR) and four taste-and-odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methyl isoborneol, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone) were investigated monthly from August 2011 to July 2012 in the eastern drinking water source of Lake Chaohu. The total concentrations of microcystins and taste-and-odor compounds reached 8.86 μg/L and 250.7 ng/L, respectively. The seasonal trends of microcystins were not consistent with those of the taste-and-odor compounds, which were accompanied by dominant species Microcystis and Dolichospermum. The fate of the cyanobacteria and metabolites were determined simultaneously after the processes of coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination in the associated full-scale DWTP. The dissolved fractions with elevated concentrations were detected after some steps and the breakthrough of cyanobacteria and metabolites were even observed in finished water. Chlorophyll-a limits at intake were established for the drinking water source based on our investigation of multiple metabolites, seasonal variations and their elimination rates in the DWTP. Not only microcystins but also taste-and-odor compounds should be taken into account to guide the management in source water and in DWTPs. PMID:29301296

  1. Household food insecurity in Mexico is associated with the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age, but not female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A prospective study of the influence of the UPPS model of impulsivity on the co-occurrence of bulimic symptoms and non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Claire M; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) often report co-morbid symptoms of non suicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study examined the influence of (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, sensation seeking, and negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing negative affect) on these two behavior patterns. We hypothesized that negative urgency influences vulnerability to multiple maladaptive behavior patterns, thus influencing the co-occurrence of NSSI and BN symptoms. 489 young adult women completed baseline assessments, and 209 completed an eight month follow-up assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of four personality pathways to impulsive behavior simultaneously on both behaviors at baseline, and the incremental predictive utility of traits on both behaviors at eight month follow up. Additionally, we examined the influence of NSSI at baseline on symptoms of BN at follow up, and symptoms of BN at baseline on NSSI at follow up. Negative urgency accounted for significant variance in NSSI and eating pathology. Baseline (lack of) perseverance contributed significantly to binge eating frequency at follow-up, when accounting for baseline symptoms. NSSI at baseline was associated with increased purging at follow-up. Individual differences in impulsivity appear to influence both NSSI and eating pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. Keywords: Carnivores, Competition, Distribution, Foraging guild, Predation, Tree squirrels

  4. A Combination of Stable Isotope Probing, Illumina Sequencing, and Co-occurrence Network to Investigate Thermophilic Acetate- and Lactate-Utilizing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Gao, Pin; Ma, Chunyan; Hu, Min; Li, Baoqin; Xia, Bingqing; He, Zijun; Xiong, Shangling

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complicated microbiological process that involves a wide diversity of microorganisms. Acetate is one of the most important intermediates, and interactions between acetate-oxidizing bacteria and archaea could play an important role in the formation of methane in anoxic environments. Anaerobic digestion at thermophilic temperatures is known to increase methane production, but the effects on the microbial community are largely unknown. In the current study, stable isotope probing was used to characterize acetate- and lactate-oxidizing bacteria in thermophilic anaerobic digestion. In microcosms fed 13 C-acetate, bacteria related to members of Clostridium, Hydrogenophaga, Fervidobacterium, Spirochaeta, Limnohabitans, and Rhodococcus demonstrated elevated abundances of 13 C-DNA fractions, suggesting their activities in acetate oxidation. In the treatments fed 13 C-lactate, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfobulbus, Syntrophus, Cystobacterineae, and Azospira were found to be the potential thermophilic lactate utilizers. PICRUSt predicted that enzymes related to nitrate and nitrite reduction would be enriched in 13 C-DNA fractions, suggesting that the acetate and lactate oxidation may be coupled with nitrate and/or nitrite reduction. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated bacterial taxa not enriched in 13 C-DNA fractions that may also play a critical role in thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

  5. Core Sulphate-Reducing Microorganisms in Metal-Removing Semi-Passive Biochemical Reactors and the Co-Occurrence of Methanogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezadehbashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical reactors (BCRs based on the stimulation of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM are emerging semi-passive remediation technologies for treatment of mine-influenced water. Their successful removal of metals and sulphate has been proven at the pilot-scale, but little is known about the types of SRM that grow in these systems and whether they are diverse or restricted to particular phylogenetic or taxonomic groups. A phylogenetic study of four established pilot-scale BCRs on three different mine sites compared the diversity of SRM growing in them. The mine sites were geographically distant from each other, nevertheless the BCRs selected for similar SRM types. Clostridia SRM related to Desulfosporosinus spp. known to be tolerant to high concentrations of copper were members of the core microbial community. Members of the SRM family Desulfobacteraceae were dominant, particularly those related to Desulfatirhabdium butyrativorans. Methanogens were dominant archaea and possibly were present at higher relative abundances than SRM in some BCRs. Both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic types were present. There were no strong negative or positive co-occurrence correlations of methanogen and SRM taxa. Knowing which SRM inhabit successfully operating BCRs allows practitioners to target these phylogenetic groups when selecting inoculum for future operations.

  6. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; FitzGerald, O; Saxne, T; Bresnihan, B

    2002-11-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) of both knee joints was assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA). s-COMP levels were significantly raised in all patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with healthy control subjects (p=0.0001). s-BSP levels did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.41). BMD of the patella was significantly reduced in patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with the control subjects (p=0.016). In patients with bilateral chondromalacia patellae, BMD of the patella was lower in the more symptomatic knee joint (p=0.005). Changes in periarticular BMD were localised to the patella and were not present in femoral regions. Neither s-COMP (p=0.18) nor s-BSP (p=0.40) levels correlated with patellar BMD. Increased s-COMP levels, reflecting cartilage degradation, and reduced BMD localised to the patella may represent clinically useful markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chondromalacia patellae. Measures of cartilage degradation did not correlate with loss of patellar bone density, suggesting dissociated pathophysiological mechanisms.

  7. DECISION LEVEL FUSION OF ORTHOPHOTO AND LIDAR DATA USING CONFUSION MATRIX INFORMATION FOR LNAD COVER CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Daneshtalab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic urban objects extraction from airborne remote sensing data is essential to process and efficiently interpret the vast amount of airborne imagery and Lidar data available today. The aim of this study is to propose a new approach for the integration of high-resolution aerial imagery and Lidar data to improve the accuracy of classification in the city complications. In the proposed method, first, the classification of each data is separately performed using Support Vector Machine algorithm. In this case, extracted Normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM and pulse intensity are used in classification of LiDAR data, and three spectral visible bands (Red, Green, Blue are considered as feature vector for the orthoimage classification. Moreover, combining the extracted features of the image and Lidar data another classification is also performed using all the features. The outputs of these classifications are integrated in a decision level fusion system according to the their confusion matrices to find the final classification result. The proposed method was evaluated using an urban area of Zeebruges, Belgium. The obtained results represented several advantages of image fusion with respect to a single shot dataset. With the capabilities of the proposed decision level fusion method, most of the object extraction difficulties and uncertainty were decreased and, the overall accuracy and the kappa values were improved 7% and 10%, respectively.

  8. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring

  9. Statistical Analysis of the Figure of Merit of a Two-Level Thermoelectric System: A Random Matrix Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel

    2016-08-05

    Using the tools of random matrix theory we develop a statistical analysis of the transport properties of thermoelectric low-dimensional systems made of two electron reservoirs set at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and connected through a low-density-of-states two-level quantum dot that acts as a conducting chaotic cavity. Our exact treatment of the chaotic behavior in such devices lies on the scattering matrix formalism and yields analytical expressions for the joint probability distribution functions of the Seebeck coefficient and the transmission profile, as well as the marginal distributions, at arbitrary Fermi energy. The scattering matrices belong to circular ensembles which we sample to numerically compute the transmission function, the Seebeck coefficient, and their relationship. The exact transport coefficients probability distributions are found to be highly non-Gaussian for small numbers of conduction modes, and the analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement. The system performance is also studied, and we find that the optimum performance is obtained for half-transparent quantum dots; further, this optimum may be enhanced for systems with few conduction modes.

  10. Statistical Analysis of the Figure of Merit of a Two-Level Thermoelectric System: A Random Matrix Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel; Ouerdane, Henni; Goupil, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Using the tools of random matrix theory we develop a statistical analysis of the transport properties of thermoelectric low-dimensional systems made of two electron reservoirs set at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and connected through a low-density-of-states two-level quantum dot that acts as a conducting chaotic cavity. Our exact treatment of the chaotic behavior in such devices lies on the scattering matrix formalism and yields analytical expressions for the joint probability distribution functions of the Seebeck coefficient and the transmission profile, as well as the marginal distributions, at arbitrary Fermi energy. The scattering matrices belong to circular ensembles which we sample to numerically compute the transmission function, the Seebeck coefficient, and their relationship. The exact transport coefficients probability distributions are found to be highly non-Gaussian for small numbers of conduction modes, and the analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement. The system performance is also studied, and we find that the optimum performance is obtained for half-transparent quantum dots; further, this optimum may be enhanced for systems with few conduction modes.

  11. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  12. Barium borosilicate glass - a potential matrix for immobilization of sulfate bearing high-level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Sengupta, P.; Kumar, Amar; Das, D.; Kale, G.B.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Borosilicate glass formulations adopted worldwide for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is not suitable for sulphate bearing HLW, because of its low solubility in such glass. A suitable glass matrix based on barium borosilicate has been developed for immobilization of sulphate bearing HLW. Various compositions based on different glass formulations were made to examine compatibility with waste oxide with around 10 wt% sulfate content. The vitrified waste product obtained from barium borosilicate glass matrix was extensively evaluated for its characteristic properties like homogeneity, chemical durability, glass transition temperature, thermal conductivity, impact strength, etc. using appropriate techniques. Process parameters like melt viscosity and pour temperature were also determined. It is found that SB-44 glass composition (SiO 2 : 30.5 wt%, B 2 O 3 : 20.0 wt%, Na 2 O: 9.5 wt% and BaO: 19.0 wt%) can be safely loaded with 21 wt% waste oxide without any phase separation. The other product qualities of SB-44 waste glass are also found to be on a par with internationally adopted waste glass matrices. This formulation has been successfully implemented in plant scale

  13. Porous glass matrix method for encapsulating high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Tran, D.C.; Simmons, J.H.; Saleh, M.; Barkatt, A.; Simmons, C.J.; Lagakos, N.; DeWitt, E.

    1979-01-01

    A novel process which uses solidified porous high-silica glass powder to fixate radioactive high-level wastes is described. The process yields cylinders consisting of a core of high-silica glass containing the waste elements in its structure and a protective layer also of high-silica glass completely free of waste elements. The process can be applied to waste streams containing 0 to 100% solids. The core region exhibits a higher coefficient of thermal expansion and a lower glass transition temperature than the outer protective layer. This leads to mechanical strengthening of the glass and good resistance to stress corrosion by the development of a high residual compressive stress on the surface of the sample. Both the core and the protective layer exhibit extremely high chemical durability and offer an effective fixation of the radioactive waste elements, including 239 Pu and 99 Tc which have long half-lives, for calculated periods of more than 1 million years, when temperatures are not allowed to rise above 100 0 C

  14. Salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) levels and gelatinase (MMP-9) activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, H L; Sorsa, T; Meurman, J H; Niskanen, L; Salo, T; Rönkä, H; Konttinen, Y T; Koivisto, A M; Uusitupa, M

    2000-10-01

    We studied the salivary levels and activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -8 and -9 in 45 type 2 diabetic patients and 77 control subjects. The patients' mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 8.7%, indicating an unsatisfactory metabolic control of the disease. The MMP levels were further related to the clinical and microbiological periodontal findings as well as to salivary flow rate and other factors. The salivary flow rate, albumin and amylase concentrations were similar in type 2 diabetic patients to those in the control group. The mean gingival and periodontal pocket indexes were higher in the diabetes group. The number of potential periodontopathogenic bacteria was lower, however, in the diabetic than in the control group. Zymography and immunoblotting revealed that the major MMPs in the type 2 diabetic patients' saliva were MMP-8 and MMP-9. Salivary MMP levels and activities in type 2 diabetic patients were in general similar to those in the control group. However, the correlation coefficients using multiple regression analysis revealed that gingival bleeding, pocket depths and HbA1c were associated with increased MMP-8 levels which, in turn, were negatively predicted by elevated plasma lipid peroxide levels in the diabetic group. Our data on salivary MMP-8 and -9 do not support the concept of generalized neutrophil dysfunction in unbalanced diabetes. Moreover, plasma lipid peroxidation levels reflecting the increased oxidative burden, which is generated mainly by triggered neutrophils, do not indicate neutrophil dysfunction due to diabetes, but may rather be related to the increased tissue damage in an uncontrolled disease. However. advanced periodontitis in type 2 diabetes seems to be related to elevated salivary MMP-8 levels which might be useful in monitoring periodontal disease in diabetes.

  15. Effect of 3-aminobenzamide, PARP inhibitor, on matrix metalloproteinase-9 level in plasma and brain of ischemic stroke model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seong-Ho; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Suk; Bae, Inhee; Kim, Haekwon; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor on the levels of plasma and brain matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) during experimental focal cerebral ischemia. The 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a PARP inhibitor, and saline were administered to 80 Sprague-Dawley rats [3-AB group; 5 rats for plasma sampling, 35 for brain sampling, and 40 for TTC staining] and to 85 rats (10, 35, and 40, respectively), respectively, 10 min before the occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAo) for 2 h. Infarct volume was measured by TTC staining, the serial levels of plasma and brain MMP-9 were measured by zymography just before and 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after MCAo, brain NF-κB activity was determined by Western blotting, and neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by assessing myeloperoxidase activity. Compared with control group, the levels of plasma and brain MMP-9, brain NF-κB, and MPO activities were significantly reduced in 3-AB group at each time point (p < 0.05). Plasma MMP-9 increased maximally at 4 h and then decreased rapidly, brain MMP-9 increased maximally at 24 h and persisted until 72 h, and NF-κB increased maximally at 24 h and then decreased slowly in both groups. Therefore, the PARP inhibitor reduces the expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB and the infiltration of neutrophils in ischemic stroke

  16. Allele-specific transactivation of matrix metalloproteinase 7 by FOXA2 and correlation with plasma levels in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas J; Park, Chunghyun; Chen, Yiliang; Gibson, Kevin F; Peter Di, Y; Pardo, Annie; Watkins, Simon C; Choi, Augustine M K; Selman, Moises; Pilewski, Joseph; Kaminski, Naftali; Zhang, Yingze

    2012-04-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease with poorly understood etiology. Previously, we reported upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) in both lung and peripheral blood of IPF patients. Here we report evidence for genetic correlation of plasma levels and promoter polymorphisms (rs11568818 and rs11568819) of MMP7 in a well-characterized IPF cohort. Both the AA genotype of rs11568818 and the CT genotype of rs11568819 were found to be significantly associated with higher MMP7 plasma levels. These associations were observed only in IPF patients and not in healthy controls. The G-to-A transition of rs11568818 resulted in a novel binding site for the forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) transcription factor, a key regulator of embryonic lung development and proper function of the mature lung. In vitro, this transition led to increased sensitivity of the MMP7 promoter to FOXA2. In IPF lungs, FOXA2 was localized in the nucleus of epithelial cells that expressed MMP7 in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that increased sensitivity of the polymorphic MMP7 promoter to FOXA2 provides one of the genetic bases for the upregulation of MMP7 in IPF.

  17. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... hemodynamic and arterial stiffness indices. RESULTS: We observed a positive correlation of fibulin-1 levels with age (r=0.38; p=0.033), glycated hemoglobin (r=0.80; p=0.003), creatinine (r=0.35; p=0.045), and fibrinogen (r=0.39; p=0.027). Glomerular filtration rate and fibulin-1 were inversely correlated (r......=-0.57; p=0.022). There was a positive correlation between fibulin-1 and central pulse pressure (r=0.44; p=0.011) and central augmentation pressure (r=0.55; p=0.001). In a multivariable regression model, diabetes, creatinine, fibrinogen and central augmentation pressure were independent predictors...

  18. Increased Interleukin-32 Levels in Obesity Promote Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: Effect of Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Landecho, Manuel F; Silva, Camilo; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently described cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammation. We aimed to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory and angiogenic factor in human obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. Samples obtained from 90 subjects were used in the study. Obese patients exhibited higher expression levels of IL-32 in visceral adipose tissue (AT) as well as in subcutaneous AT and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL32 was mainly expressed by stromovascular fraction cells, and its expression was significantly enhanced by inflammatory stimuli and hypoxia, whereas no changes were found after the incubation with anti-inflammatory cytokines. The addition of exogenous IL-32 induced the expression of inflammation and extracellular matrix-related genes in human adipocyte cultures, and IL32-silenced adipocytes showed a downregulation of inflammatory genes. Furthermore, adipocyte-conditioned media obtained from obese patients increased IL32 gene expression in human monocyte cultures, whereas the adipocyte-conditioned media from lean volunteers had no effect on IL32 mRNA levels. These findings provide evidence, for the first time, about the inflammatory and remodeling properties of IL-32 in AT, implicating this cytokine in obesity-associated comorbidities. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Y Boxma

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60 with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range] ml/min, who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP. Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06 and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  20. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxma, Paul Y; van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P; Muskiet, Frits A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  1. Levels of Circulating MMCN-151, a Degradation Product of Mimecan, Reflect Pathological Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, N; Vassiliadis, E; Zheng, Qiuju

    2011-01-01

    Arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is one of the major hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Mimecan, also known as osteoglycin has been implicated in the integrity of the ECM. This study assessed the validity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  2. Childhood aggression and the co-occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems: results across ages 3-16 years from multiple raters in six cohorts in the EU-ACTION project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Meike; Hendriks, Anne; Mauri, Matteo; Krapohl, Eva; Whipp, Alyce; Bolhuis, Koen; Conde, Lucia Colodro; Luningham, Justin; Fung Ip, Hill; Hagenbeek, Fiona; Roetman, Peter; Gatej, Raluca; Lamers, Audri; Nivard, Michel; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Vermeiren, Robert; Hankemeijer, Thomas; Kluft, Cees; Medland, Sarah; Lundström, Sebastian; Rose, Richard; Pulkkinen, Lea; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Martin, Nicholas G; Lubke, Gitta; Finkenauer, Catrin; Fanos, Vassilios; Tiemeier, Henning; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2018-05-29

    Childhood aggression and its resulting consequences inflict a huge burden on affected children, their relatives, teachers, peers and society as a whole. Aggression during childhood rarely occurs in isolation and is correlated with other symptoms of childhood psychopathology. In this paper, we aim to describe and improve the understanding of the co-occurrence of aggression with other forms of childhood psychopathology. We focus on the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems, including other externalising problems, attention problems and anxiety-depression. The data were brought together within the EU-ACTION (Aggression in Children: unravelling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies) project. We analysed the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems as a function of the child's age (ages 3 through 16 years), gender, the person rating the behaviour (father, mother or self) and assessment instrument. The data came from six large population-based European cohort studies from the Netherlands (2x), the UK, Finland and Sweden (2x). Multiple assessment instruments, including the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory (MPNI), were used. There was a good representation of boys and girls in each age category, with data for 30,523 3- to 4-year-olds (49.5% boys), 20,958 5- to 6-year-olds (49.6% boys), 18,291 7- to 8-year-olds (49.0% boys), 27,218 9- to 10-year-olds (49.4% boys), 18,543 12- to 13-year-olds (48.9% boys) and 10,088 15- to 16-year-olds (46.6% boys). We replicated the well-established gender differences in average aggression scores at most ages for parental ratings. The gender differences decreased with age and were not present for self-reports. Aggression co-occurred with the majority of other behavioural and social problems, from both externalising and

  3. Level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myocardium remodeling in patients with acute postinfarction aneurism of left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 67 patients with diagnosis: Q-wave myocardial infarction – were examined. Level of matrix metalloproteinase-9, structural and functional indexes of myocardium remodeling were studied in patients with acute postinfarction aneurism of left ventricle. Early predictors of left ventricle aneurism formation were revealed in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. Abstract Background. Problem of acute myocardial infarction till nowadays remains relevant, because it’s one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity and disability in most developed countries. Severity of postinfarction remodeling is a factor that determines the degree of myocardial dysfunction and prognosis of survival. During the first few days after the onset of AMI disproportionately thinned and stretched infarcted area, which is no longer able to resist to intraventricular pressure, which subsequently leads to an expansion of a heart attack until the formation of an aneurysm or heart failure. In this case, the structural and functional changes in the heart muscle affects both the affected and intact areas of the myocardium , marked by the passage of the phase of adaptive and maladaptive processes. Mechanisms of postinfarction remodeling caused by the interaction of cell as well as extracellular factors, starting immediately after coronary artery occlusion with the normal degradation of the extracellular matrix , migration of inflammatory cells to the site of damage and induction of biologically active peptides. In recent studies there was a high expression of MMP -9 in patients with acute coronary syndrome, showing the value of its serum concentration as a marker of inflammation, a predictor of restenosis and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. This gives reason to explore the prognostic value of early detection of the level of MMP -9 in myocardial infarction as a marker of adverse postinfarction remodeling. Methods. Sixty seven patients

  4. Co-occurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the co-occurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design, Setting, and Patients This prospective cohort study enrolled 520 patients from 13 medical and surgical ICUs in 4 hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-ALI. Measurements and Main Results The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IESR, scores ≥1.6 indicating substantial PTSD symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186/196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one HADS and IESR assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of supra-threshold general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms ranged from 38–44%, 26–33%, and 22–24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had supra-threshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority (59%) of survivors with any supra-threshold symptoms were above threshold for 2 or more types of symptoms (i.e., of general anxiety, depression, and/or PTSD). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or PTSD symptoms during 2-year follow-up had supra-threshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher SF-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and PTSD symptoms during follow-up. Conclusions The majority of ALI survivors had clinically significant general anxiety, depressive, or PTSD symptoms, and these symptoms tended to co-occur across

  5. Eligibility for interventions, co-occurrence and risk factors for unhealthy behaviours in patients consulting for routine primary care: results from the Pre-Empt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Elizabeth; Pickles, Timothy; Simpson, Sharon A; Spanou, Clio; McCambridge, Jim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C

    2015-10-09

    Smoking, excessive drinking, lack of exercise and a poor diet remain key causes of premature morbidity and mortality globally, yet it is not clear what proportion of patients attending for routine primary care are eligible for interventions about these behaviours, the extent to which they co-occur within individuals, and which individuals are at greatest risk for multiple unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the trial was to examine 'intervention eligibility' and co-occurrence of the 'big four' risky health behaviours - lack of exercise, smoking, an unhealthy diet and excessive drinking - in a primary care population. Data were collected from adult patients consulting routinely in general practice across South Wales as part of the Pre-Empt study; a cluster randomised controlled trial. After giving consent, participants completed screening instruments, which included the following to assess eligibility for an intervention based on set thresholds: AUDIT-C (for alcohol), HSI (for smoking), IPAQ (for exercise) and a subset of DINE (for diet). The intervention following screening was based on which combination of risky behaviours the patient had. Descriptive statistics, χ2 tests for association and ordinal regressions were undertaken. Two thousand sixty seven patients were screened: mean age of 48.6 years, 61.9 % female and 42.8 % in a managerial or professional occupation. In terms of numbers of risky behaviours screened eligible for, two was the most common (43.6 %), with diet and exercise (27.2 %) being the most common combination. Insufficient exercise was the most common single risky behaviour (12.0 %). 21.8 % of patients would have been eligible for an intervention for three behaviours and 5.9 % for all four behaviours. Just 4.5 % of patients did not identify any risky behaviours. Women, older age groups and those in managerial or professional occupations were more likely to exhibit all four risky behaviours. Very few patients consulting for routine primary care

  6. Spinal pain and co-occurrence with stress and general well-being among young adolescents: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Hestbæk, Lise; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year follow-up of DNBC were used. As part of a web-based survey, a total of 45,371 young adolescents between 10 and 14 years old completed the Young Spine Questionnaire, the Stress in Children Questionnaire, and a one-item question on general well-being. Associations between spinal pain and, respectively, stress and general well-being were estimated by means of multiple logistic regression models. Almost one fifth of boys and one quarter of girls reported spinal pain. Compared with adolescents who reported no stress, adolescents reporting medium and high values of stress had odds ratios (OR) of 2.19 (95% CI 2.08-2.30) and 4.73 (95% CI 4.28-5.23), respectively, of reporting spinal pain (adjusted for age, gender, and maternal education). Adolescents who reported poor general well-being had an OR of 2.50 (95% CI 2.31-2.72) for reporting spinal pain compared to adolescents with good general well-being. Spinal pain is a common complaint among young adolescents and co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being. The mutual dependency between the factors remained to be explained. What is Known: • The prevalence of spinal pain increases rapidly during childhood and adolescence, but different measurement instruments result in great variation in the estimates of spinal pain in children and adolescents. • Some studies have shown that different psychosocial measures are associated with spinal pain in children and adolescents. What is New: • Spinal pain, as measured by the newly developed and validated Young Spine Questionnaire, is a common complaint in young adolescents aged 10-14 years. • Spinal pain in young adolescents co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being.

  7. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jie; Zhao Naiqin; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun; Nash, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application

  8. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Zhao Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials (China)], E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Nash, Philip [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-08-25

    This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application.

  9. Preparation and characterization of an improved borosilicate glass matrix for the incorporation of high level radioactive waste (HAW). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guber, W.; Hussain, M.; Kahl, L.; Ondracek, G.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.

    1979-08-01

    On the basis of laboratory and technical experience with the preparation and the characterization of borosilicate glasses as solidification matrix for high level radioactive waste solution (HAW), a borosilicate glass composition with optimum properties has been developed. Keeping in view the technical and final storage requirements, a number of glass compositions with varying proportions of influential components as Al, Mg, Na were prepared and thoroughly investigated for certain parameters as specific gravity, thermal conductivity, impact resistance, thermal expansion, viscosity, characteristic temperature points, specific heat, evaporation losses from the melt, electrical conductivity, leach resistance, tendency toward recrystallization and second phase formation. All the compositions (some with different amounts of Gd 2 O 3 , an expected neutron poision) contained 15 wt. % simulated HAW oxides. Samples for investigation were fabricated very close to the actual process conditions of vitrification. Two glass products GP12 and GP26 (3.7% Gd 2 O 3 ) have been selected out of 25 glasses as the optimised products for further thorough investigations. Leach resistance, viscosity at 1420 K, tendency towards recrystallization and second phase formation were the most important deciding factors. (orig.) [de

  10. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and gram-negative bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Geraldine M; El-Baz, Alaa A; Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Shalaan, Abeer K

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is significantly elevated in patients with symptomatic apical periodontitis and to correlate this with the detected amount of gram-negative bacteria. Twenty-six patients with periapical lesions involving at least 2 teeth were included in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the symptomatic (SYM) group included 13 patients expressing pain with periapical lesions, and the asymptomatic (ASYM) group included 13 patients expressing no pain. Root canal treatment was performed followed by endodontic surgery and periapical lesion collection. Periapical lesions were serially cut into 4-μ sections. Some sections were processed for histologic examination using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Other sections were processed for immunohistochemical examination. For MMP-9, the area fraction of the positive cells was measured, and the percentage of the MMP-9-immunopositive area to the total area of the microscopic field was calculated. For gram-negative stain cells, the number of cells showing the pink-red color was counted per microscopic field. The Student's t test was used to compare the SYM and ASYM groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine a significant correlation between the number of cells and the MMP-9 level. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The SYM group showed a statistically significantly higher mean number of gram-negative cells (P = .001) and MMP-9 area percent (P < .001) than the ASYM group. There was a statistically significant positive (r = .927) correlation between the number of gram-negative cells and the MMP-9 area percent (P< .001). There is good evidence to suspect a significant role of gram-negative bacteria and MMP-9 in symptomatic periapical lesions. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are related to the overall survival of patients with gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, C.F.M.; Kubben, F.J.G.M.; Ganesh, S.; Heerding, M.M.; Griffioen, G.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Lamers, C.B.H.W.; Verspaget, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in tumour invasion and metastasis. Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to be increased in various human carcinomas. We assessed the levels of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) in 50 gastric carcinomas and corresponding mucosa using

  12. Leflunomide and methotrexate reduce levels of activated matrix metalloproteinases in complexes with α2 macroglobulin in serum of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchetverikov, I.; Kraan, M.C.; El, B. van; Hanemaaijer, R.; Groot, J. de; Huizinga, T.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the effects of leflunomide and methotrexate treatment on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity levels in a2 macroglobulin/MMP (α2M/MMP) complexes in the systemic circulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: A total of 102 RA patients from a prospective,

  13. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging microspectroscopy and tissue-level mechanical testing reveal intraspecies variation in mouse bone mineral and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Nasser, Philip; Goldstone, Andrew B; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Jepsen, Karl J

    2008-11-01

    Fracture susceptibility is heritable and dependent upon bone morphology and quality. However, studies of bone quality are typically overshadowed by emphasis on bone geometry and bone mineral density. Given that differences in mineral and matrix composition exist in a variety of species, we hypothesized that genetic variation in bone quality and tissue-level mechanical properties would also exist within species. Sixteen-week-old female A/J, C57BL/6J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H) inbred mouse femora were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared imaging and tissue-level mechanical testing for variation in mineral composition, mineral maturity, collagen cross-link ratio, and tissue-level mechanical properties. A/J femora had an increased mineral-to-matrix ratio compared to B6. The C3H mineral-to-matrix ratio was intermediate of A/J and B6. C3H femora had reduced acid phosphate and carbonate levels and an increased collagen cross-link ratio compared to A/J and B6. Modulus values paralleled mineral-to-matrix values, with A/J femora being the most stiff, B6 being the least stiff, and C3H having intermediate stiffness. In addition, work-to-failure varied among the strains, with the highly mineralized and brittle A/J femora performing the least amount of work-to-failure. Inbred mice are therefore able to differentially modulate the composition of their bone mineral and the maturity of their bone matrix in conjunction with tissue-level mechanical properties. These results suggest that specific combinations of bone quality and morphological traits are genetically regulated such that mechanically functional bones can be constructed in different ways.

  15. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels in patients with tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Žampachová, E.; Elsterová, Jana; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2014), s. 165-169 ISSN 0163-4453 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * matrix metalloproteinase-9 * tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 * bloodebrain barrier Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.441, year: 2014

  16. Vitamin K Intake and Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, P.Y.; Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Laverman, G.D.; Schurgers, L.J.; Vermeer, C.; Kema, I.P.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Borst, de M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of ¿-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In

  17. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to o...... and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  18. Fibroin/dodecanol floating solidification microextraction for the preconcentration of trace levels of flavonoids in complex matrix samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Li, Jie; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong; Zhao, Haodong; Zhang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    A new fibroin/dodecanol floating solidification microextraction, coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, was developed and applied for enrichment and quantification of the trace flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine and biological samples. Also, fibroin sensibilization mechanism was described, and influence of sample matrix to enrichment factor was investigated. In this method, a homogeneous fibroin/dodecanol of dispersed solution was employed as microextraction phase to flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, chrysin, kaempferide), the several critical parameters affecting the performance, such as organic extractant, amount of fibroin in organic extractant, volume of extraction phase, dispersant, salt concentration, pH of sample phase, stirring rate, extraction time, and volume of sample phase were tested and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factor of flavonoids ranged from 42.4 to 238.1 in different samples, excellent linearities with r 2 ≥ 0.9968 for all analytes were achieved, limits of detection were less than or equal to 5.0ng/mL, average recoveries were 92.5% to 115.0% in different samples. The new procedure is simple, fast, low cost, environmentally friendly and high EF, it can also be applied to the concentration and enrichment of the trace flavonoids in other complex matrixes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-10-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt

  20. A Solid Binding Matrix/Mimic Receptor-Based Sensor System for Trace Level Determination of Iron Using Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II-(1,10-phenanthroline complex imprinted membrane was prepared by ionic imprinting technology. In the first step, Fe(II established a coordination linkage with 1,10-phenanthroline and functional monomer 2-vinylpyridine (2-VP. Next, the complex was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as a crosslinker in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO as an initiator. Potentiometric chemical sensors were designed by dispersing the iron(II-imprinted polymer particles in 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE plasticizer and then embedded in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix. The sensors showed a Nernstian response for [Fe(phen3]2+ with limit of detection 3.15 ng mL−1 and a Nernstian slope of 35.7 mV per decade.

  1. Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in co-occurrence: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Herlin, Morten; Qvist, Niels; Petersen, Michael B

    2016-12-21

    The vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are rare conditions. We aimed to present two cases with the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser co-occurrence from our local surgical center and through a systematic literature search detect published cases. Furthermore, we aimed to collect existing knowledge in the embryopathogenesis and genetics in order to discuss a possible link between the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Our first case was a white girl delivered by caesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation; our second case was a white girl born at a gestational age of 40 weeks. A co-occurrence of vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome was diagnosed in both cases. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed ((VACTERL) OR (VATER)) AND ((MRKH) OR (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser) OR (mullerian agenesis) OR (mullerian aplasia) OR (MURCS)) without limitations. A similar search was performed in Embase and the Cochrane library. We added two cases from our local center. All cases (n = 9) presented with anal atresia and renal defect. Vertebral defects were present in eight patients. Rectovestibular fistula was confirmed in seven patients. Along with the uterovaginal agenesis, fallopian tube aplasia appeared in five of nine cases and in two cases ovarian involvement also existed. The co-occurrence of the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal

  2. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  3. Plasma levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Hidenaga; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ishima, Tamaki; Kishi, Fukuko; Yasuda, Yuka; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Ito, Akira; Hashimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-11-27

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the survival and growth of neurons, and influences synaptic efficiency and plasticity. Peripheral BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia have been widely reported in the literature. However, it is still controversial whether peripheral levels of BDNF are altered in patients with schizophrenia. The peripheral BDNF levels previously reported in patients with schizophrenia were total BDNF (proBDNF and mature BDNF) as it was unable to specifically measure mature BDNF due to limited BDNF antibody specificity. In this study, we examined whether peripheral levels of mature BDNF were altered in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were also measured, as MMP-9 plays a role in the conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF. Twenty-two patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma levels of mature BDNF and MMP-9 were measured using ELISA kits. No significant difference was observed for mature BDNF however, MMP-9 was significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia. The significant correlation was observed between mature BDNF and MMP-9 plasma levels. Neither mature BDNF nor MMP-9 plasma levels were associated clinical variables. Our results do not support the view that peripheral BDNF levels are associated with schizophrenia. MMP-9 may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and serve as a biomarker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in co-occurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Herlin, Morten; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background: The vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are rare conditions. We aimed to present two cases with the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac...... defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser co-occurrence from our local surgical center and through a systematic literature search detect published cases. Furthermore, we aimed to collect existing knowledge...... in the embryopathogenesis and genetics in order to discuss a possible link between the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Case presentation: Our first case was a white girl...

  5. Increased levels of the calcification marker matrix Gla Protein and the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Stine B; Rathcke, Camilla N; Zerahn, Bo

    2010-01-01

    . In the present study levels of markers of calcification (MGP) and inflammation (YKL-40, hsCRP) were evaluated in patients with T2 D and/or ischemic heart disease (IHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 1) patients with T2D (n = 45); 2) patients with IHD (n = 37); patients with both T2D......OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Low grade inflammation is of pathogenic importance in atherosclerosis and in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Matrix GLA protein (MGP), an inhibitor of medial calcification of arteries, is increased in patients with atherosclerosis...... and IHD (n = 20) and 4) healthy controls (n = 20). Biochemical parameters were measured in venous blood samples. RESULTS: Levels of MGP, YKL-40 and hsCRP were increased in patients with IHD and/or T2D (p T2D and IHD had higher MGP levels (p

  6. Particles geometry influence in the thermal stress level in an SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite considering the material non-linear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Boari, Zoroastro de M.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed to predict the thermal stress level that occurs in a metallic matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles, when the temperature decreases from 600 deg C to 20 deg C during the fabrication process. This analytical development is based on the Eshelby method, dislocation mechanisms, and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution model. The material was assumed to have a linear elastic behavior. The analytical results from this formulation were verified against numerical linear analyses that were performed over a set of random non-uniform distribution of particles that covers a wide range of volumetric ratios. To stick with the analytical hypothesis, particles with round geometry were used. Each stress distribution, represented by the isostress curves at ΔT=-580 deg C, was analyzed with an image analyzer. A statistical procedure was applied to obtain the most probable thermal stress level. Analytical and numerical results compared very well. Plastic deformation as well as particle geometry can alter significantly the stress field in the material. To account for these effects, in this work, several numerical analyses were performed considering the non-linear behavior for the aluminum matrix and distinct particle geometries. Two distinct sets of data with were used. To allow a direct comparison, the first set has the same models (particle form, size and distribution) as used previously. The second set analyze quadrilateral particles and present very tight range of volumetric ratio, closer to what is found in actual SiC composites. A simple and fast algorithm was developed to analyze the new results. The comparison of these results with the previous ones shows, as expected, the strong influence of the elastic-plastic behavior of the aluminum matrix on the composite thermal stress distribution due to its manufacturing process and shows, also, a small influence of the particles geometry and volumetric ratio. (author)

  7. Co-occurrence of non-toxic (cyanopeptolin) and toxic (microcystin) peptides in a bloom of Microcystis sp. from a Chilean lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U; Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Weckesser, J; Erhard, M

    2000-06-01

    A cyanobacterial bloom occurring in 1998 in lake Tres Pascualas (Concepción/Chile) was found to be dominated by Microcystis sp. The bloom contained both non-toxic (cyanopeptolin-type) and hepatotoxic (microcystin-type) peptides. Cyanopeptolin structure of the non-toxic peptides (called cyanopeptolin VW-1 and VW-2, respectively) was revealed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of whole cells, showing dominant molecular ions at m/z = 975 and m/z 995, respectively. On post source decay (PSD), both cyanopeptolins showed fragments deriving from Ahp-Phe-MTyr (3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone), the characteristic partial structure of cyanopeptolins. The amounts of each of the two cyanopeptolins could only roughly be estimated to be >0.1% of bloom material dry weight. In addition the blooms contained microcystins (20 microg/g bloom dry weight as determined by RP-HPLC, 13 microg/g according to ELISA determination). MALDI-TOF-MS revealed several structural variants of microcystin: MCYST-RR (microcystin with Arg and Arg, indicated by m/z 1,038 and confirmed by PSD revealing a m/z = 135 fragment deriving from the Adda side chain, MCYST-FR (microcystin with Phe and Arg, indicated by m/z = 1,015). The presence of [Asp(3)]-MCYST-LR (microcystin with Leu and Arg, Asp non-methylated, indicated by m/z 981), and [Asp(3)]-MCYST-YR (microcystin with Tyr and Arg, Asp non-methylated, indicated by m/z 1,031) were likely. The relative amounts of the peptides varied between February, April, and May. Whole cell extracts from the bloom material revealed specific enzyme inhibitory activities. The serin-proteases trypsin, plasmin, elastase were inhibited, assumable due to the cyanopeptolins found. Elastase and the cysteine-protease papain were not inhibited, inhibitions of protein kinase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were low. Strong inhibition was observed with protein-phosphatase-1, likely due to the microcystins present in the samples.

  8. Model of Local Sustainable Development in the Areas of Co-Occurrence Natura 2000 Sites and Non Energy Mining Industry (NEEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wrana

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The model presented is an original proposal. This is the first attempt, in Poland, to indicate a scenario approach to solving problems concerning the impact mining has on nature. The approach should be applied both at a national and local level.

  9. CO-OCCURRENCE OF CHRONIC HEAD, FACE AND NECK PAIN, AND DEPRESSION IN WAR VETERANS WITH POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Vukšić, Željka; Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Braut, Vedrana; Braut, Alen; Uhač, Ivone

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between chronic head, face and neck pain, and the level of depression in Croatian war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The presence of self-reported pain, pain on digital palpation, and pain severity in masticatory and neck muscles, temporomandibular joints and sinuses, as well as the level of depression were assessed in a group of war veterans with PTSD (n=52). Control groups consisted of war veterans without PTSD (n=50) and healthy men that were not engaged in war actions and were free from PTSD (n=50). The number of self-reported pain and number of painful sites were correlated with the level of depression. More self-reported pain and painful sites were recorded in the group of war veterans with PTSD as compared with either war veterans without PTSD or healthy men. Furthermore, PTSD patients mostly suffered from severe depression. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between all investigated pain parameters and level of depression. As the most important finding, the present study demonstrated chronic head, face and neck pain to be related to depression in PTSD patients.

  10. Positive associations between upregulated levels of stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in endometriosis/adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Shih; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chang, Pi-Yueh; Chao, Angel; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Chin-Jung; Yen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yun-Shien; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2018-01-01

    Stress-induced phosphoprotein-1 (STIP1), an adaptor protein that coordinates the functions of HSP70 and HSP90 in protein folding, has been implicated in the development of human gynecologic malignancies. This case-control study investigates STIP1 serum levels and tissue expression in relation to endometriosis/adenomyosis in Taiwanese population. Female patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis/adenomyosis were compared with women free of endometriosis/adenomyosis. Serum STIP1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surgical tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Both epithelial and stromal cells in surgical tissues of endometriosis and adenomyosis expressed STIP1 and MMP-9. Notably, MMP-9 expression was significantly decreased when STIP1 expression was knocked-down. In vitro experiments revealed that STIP1 was capable of binding to the MMP-9 promoter and enhanced its transcriptional expression. The preoperative serum STIP1 levels of patients with endometriosis/adenomyosis were significantly higher than those of the controls. In brief, our data suggest an association between STIP1 levels and endometriosis/adenomyosis.

  11. Study the level of sputum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor metaloprotienase-1 in patients with interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif A. Esa

    2016-01-01

    Results: In this study, we have demonstrated that levels of sputum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were significantly increased in patients with interstitial lung diseases than normal persons with highly significant statistical differences (p = 0.001. MMP-9 was positively correlated with number of neutrophils in the airway with highly significant statistical difference (p = 0.001.

  12. Matrix carboxy glutamic acid protein serum level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The significant increase of MGP level in the ischemic and mixed groups than the control group reflects a compensatory mechanism to overcome the calcification process. In addition , its significant increase in patients with elevated HBA1c denotes that poor glycemic control is a very strong, independent predictor of vascular calcification.

  13. Portuguese family with the co-occurrence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis phenotypes due to progranulin gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria R; Macário, Maria C; Ramos, Lina; Baldeiras, Inês; Ribeiro, Maria H; Santana, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    We and others have reported heterozygous progranulin mutations as an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It has been identified a complete progranulin deficiency because of a homozygous mutation in a sibling pair with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Here, we describe the first case of NCL caused by a homozygous progranulin mutation segregating in a family with neuropathological confirmed FTLD. In this FTLD-NCL family, we detail the clinical phenotype, neuropsychological evaluation and imaging data of our proband harboring a homozygous mutation, c.900_901dupGT, with serum progranulin level (progranulin levels in suspected recessive adult-onset NCL cases. Overall, a more holistic neurologic intervention is needed to guarantee a proper genetic counseling in cases like the present family where two distinct phenotypes are generated according to the individuals' mutation state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental studies on the possibility of using a ceramic matrix for fixing the high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, S.R.; Rudolph, G.; Hild, W.

    1975-06-01

    A ceramic product has been developed to fix high level radioactive wastes for storage and final disposal. In the present experiments some of the properties, e.g. visual change, change in size or shape, change in weight, change in structure, density and leachability, are studied for the long term stability of the product under heat and radiation treatment. The properties are not severely affected by radiation or by heat treatment. The leaching property is slightly affected due to heating. From the results it appears that the heating has a dominant effect over the radiation on the properties of the ceramic product. (orig.) [de

  15. Gene expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases in human atherosclerotic plaques and evaluation of radiolabeled inhibitors as imaging agents for plaque vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Adrienne; Krämer, Stefanie D.; Meletta, Romana; Beck, Katharina; Selivanova, Svetlana V.; Rancic, Zoran; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Vos, Bernhard; Meding, Jörg; Stellfeld, Timo; Heinrich, Tobias K.; Bauser, Marcus; Hütter, Joachim; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary cause for myocardial infarction and stroke. During plaque progression macrophages and mast cells secrete matrix-degrading proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We studied levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in relation to the characteristics of carotid plaques. We evaluated in vitro two radiolabeled probes targeting active MMPs towards non-invasive imaging of rupture-prone plaques. Methods: Human carotid plaques obtained from endarterectomy were classified into stable and vulnerable by visual and histological analysis. MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-14, TIMP-3, and CD68 levels were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 with respect to CD68-expressing macrophages. Western blotting was applied to detect their active forms. A fluorine-18-labeled MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor and a tritiated selective MMP-9 inhibitor were evaluated by in vitro autoradiography as potential lead structures for non-invasive imaging. Results: Gene expression levels of all MMPs and CD68 were elevated in plaques. MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were significantly higher in vulnerable than stable plaques. TIMP-3 expression was highest in stable and low in vulnerable plaques. Immunohistochemistry revealed intensive staining of MMP-9 in vulnerable plaques. Western blotting confirmed presence of the active form in plaque lysates. In vitro autoradiography showed binding of both inhibitors to stable and vulnerable plaques. Conclusions: MMPs differed in their expression patterns among plaque phenotypes, providing possible imaging targets. The two tested MMP-2/MMP-9 and MMP-9 inhibitors may be useful to detect atherosclerotic plaques, but not the vulnerable lesions selectively

  16. Increased Obesity-Associated Circulating Levels of the Extracellular Matrix Proteins Osteopontin, Chitinase-3 Like-1 and Tenascin C Are Associated with Colon Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Catalán

    Full Text Available Excess adipose tissue represents a major risk factor for the development of colon cancer with inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling being proposed as plausible mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity can influence circulating levels of inflammation-related extracellular matrix proteins in patients with colon cancer (CC, promoting a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth.Serum samples obtained from 79 subjects [26 lean (LN and 53 obese (OB] were used in the study. Enrolled subjects were further subclassified according to the established diagnostic protocol for CC (44 without CC and 35 with CC. Anthropometric measurements as well as circulating metabolites and hormones were determined. Circulating concentrations of the ECM proteins osteopontin (OPN, chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40, tenascin C (TNC and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2 were determined by ELISA.Significant differences in circulating OPN, YKL-40 and TNC concentrations between the experimental groups were observed, being significantly increased due to obesity (P<0.01 and colon cancer (P<0.05. LCN-2 levels were affected by obesity (P<0.05, but no differences were detected regarding the presence or not of CC. A positive association (P<0.05 with different inflammatory markers was also detected.To our knowledge, we herein show for the first time that obese patients with CC exhibit increased circulating levels of OPN, YKL-40 and TNC providing further evidence for the influence of obesity on CC development via ECM proteins, representing promising diagnostic biomarkers or target molecules for therapeutics.

  17. Applying the World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan to evaluate policy on addressing co-occurrence of physical and mental illnesses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Webster, Stephanie; McKenna, Brian; Millar, Freyja; Stanton, Robert; Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Furness, Trentham; Liu, Dennis; Scott, David

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to document Australian policies on the physical health of people with mental illness and evaluate the capacity of policy to support health needs. A search of state and federal policies on mental and physical illness was conducted, as well as detailed analysis of policy content and the relationships between policies, by applying the World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 as an evaluative framework. National policy attention to the physical health of people with mental illness has grown, but there is little interconnection at the national and state levels. State policies across the country are inconsistent, and there is little evidence of consistent policy implementation. A coherent national health policy framework on addressing co-occurring physical and mental illnesses that includes healthcare system reforms and ensuring the interconnectedness of other relevant services should be prioritised.

  18. Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: parenting style as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which parenting styles can influence secondary psychiatric symptoms among young adults with ADHD symptoms is unknown. This issue was investigated in a sample of 2284 incoming college students (male, 50.6%), who completed standardized questionnaires about adult ADHD symptoms, other DSM-IV symptoms, and their parents' parenting styles before their ages of 16. Among them, 2.8% and 22.8% were classified as having ADHD symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD symptoms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the comorbid rates of psychiatric symptoms among the ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and non-ADHD groups while multiple linear regressions were used to examine the moderating role of gender and parenting styles over the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms. Both ADHD groups were significantly more likely than other incoming students to have other DSM-IV symptoms. Parental care was negatively associated and parental overprotection/control positively associated with these psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, significant interactions were found of parenting style with both threshold and sub-threshold ADHD in predicting wide-ranging comorbid symptoms. Specifically, the associations of ADHD with some externalizing symptoms were inversely related to level of paternal care, while associations of ADHD and sub-threshold ADHD with wide-ranging comorbid symptoms were positively related to level of maternal and paternal overprotection/control. These results suggest that parenting styles may modify the effects of ADHD on the risk of a wide range of temporally secondary DSM-IV symptoms among incoming college students, although other causal dynamics might be at work that need to be investigated in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  20. Correlation of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and interleukin-16 (IL-16) levels with disease severity in primary knee osteoarthritis: A pilot study in a Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Esha; Ng, Wei Ren; Wong, Shew Fung; Bhurhanudeen, Abdul Kareem; Yeap, Swan Sim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), interleukin-16 (IL-16) and different grades of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in Malaysian subjects. Ninety subjects were recruited comprising 30 with Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 KOA, 27 with K-L grade 3 KOA, 7 with grade 4 KOA, and 30 healthy controls. All subjects completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Serum COMP and IL-16 levels were measured using ELISA and their values log transformed to ensure a normal distribution. There was no significant differences in levels of log serum COMP and IL-16 between healthy controls and KOA patients. There were no significant differences in the log serum COMP and IL-16 levels within the different K-L grades in the KOA patients. In KOA patients, log serum IL-16 levels significantly correlated with the WOMAC score (p = 0.001) and its subscales, pain (p = 0.005), stiffness (p = 0.019) and physical function (p<0.0001). Serum IL-16 levels were significantly higher in Malaysian Indians compared to Malays and Chinese (p = 0.024). In this multi-ethnic Malaysian population, there was no difference in serum COMP and IL-16 levels between healthy controls and patients with KOA, nor was there any difference in serum COMP or IL-16 levels across the various K-L grades of KOA. However, there were significant inter-racial differences in serum IL-16 levels.

  1. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  2. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mother, father and child traumatic stress reactions after paediatric burn: Within-family co-occurrence and parent-child discrepancies in appraisals of child stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; van de Schoot, Rens; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents' own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. One-hundred children (8-18 years old), and their mothers (n=90) and fathers (n=74) were assessed within the first month (T1) and three months (T2) after burn. Parents and children rated child traumatic stress reactions on the Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory (CRTI) and parents rated their own reactions on the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Cross-sectional associations at the two occasions were examined using a structural equation model. Occurrence of traumatic stress symptoms in the clinical range was higher in parents (T1: 24-50%; T2: 14-31%) than children (T1: 0-11%; T2: 3-5%, depending on whether children, mothers or fathers reported on symptoms). Traumatic stress symptoms of mothers at T1 and of both parents at T2 were significantly related to child self-reported symptoms. Moreover, mothers who experienced higher stress symptoms themselves gave higher ratings of their child's symptoms at both time points, while for fathers, this was only found at T2. The current study demonstrates the impact of pediatric burn injury on the family level, and shows simultaneous existence of within-family interrelatedness of traumatic stress and an influence of parents' own symptoms on their perception of child symptoms. Findings highlight the need for trauma symptom screening in all family members and for considering informants' symptoms to understand the child's functioning in particular. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-3: GTCC LLW assumptions matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study identifies four categories of GTCC LLW: nuclear utility; sealed sources; DOE-held; and other generators. Within each category, inventory and projection data are modeled in three scenarios: (1) Unpackaged volume--this is the unpackaged volume of waste that would exceed Class C limits if the waste calculation methods in 10 CFR 61.55 were applied to the discrete items before concentration averaging methods were applied to the volume; (2) Not-concentration-averaged (NCA) packaged volume--this is the packaged volume of GTCC LLW assuming that no concentration averaging is allowed; and (3) After-concentration-averaging (ACA) packaged volume--this is the packaged volume of GTCC LLW, which, for regulatory or practical reasons, cannot be disposed of in a LLW disposal facility using allowable concentration averaging practices. Three cases are calculated for each of the volumes described above. These values are defined as the low, base, and high cases. The following tables explain the assumptions used to determine low, base, and high case estimates for each scenario, within each generator category. The appendices referred to in these tables are appendices to Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114, Revision 1)

  5. Weighting with the Lansbury articular index improves the correlation of ultrasound score with serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 level in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Misa; Ogasawara, Michihiro; Matsuki, Yuko; Yamada, Yusuke; Murayama, Go; Sugisaki, Nagachika; Nemoto, Takuya; Ando, Seiichiro; Minowa, Kentaro; Kon, Takayuki; Tada, Kurisu; Matsushita, Masakazu; Yamaji, Ken; Tamura, Naoto; Takasaki, Yoshinari

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether weighting improves the correlation of ultrasound (US) score with serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) level in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As ultrasound examination was performed on 100 RA patients, and the severity of synovial effusion and synovial hypertrophy and the blood flow were semi-quantitatively graded from 0 to 3 by using the gray-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) modes. We then calculated the sums of the scores of the 28 joints of each patient in the 2 modes, that is, the GS28 and PD28 scores, as well as the respective scores weighted using the Lansbury articular index (LAI, shoulder and elbow, × 12; wrist, × 8; and knee, × 24)-Lans GS28 and Lans PD28 scores. The Lans PD28 score showed a higher correlation with MMP-3 (r = 0.591; 95% confidence interval, 0.446-0.705, p correlated well with the serum MMP-3 level. Weighting with the LAI can improve the correlation of US findings with serum MMP-3 level. Bidirectional approach based on both serum MMP-3 level and US scores can further improve the assessment of disease activity in RA patients.

  6. Corneal Cross-Linking Has No Effect on Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and 13 Levels During Fungal Keratitis on the Early Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkanci, Ayse; Bilgihan, Kamil; Ozdemir, Huseyin Baran; Yar Saglam, Atiye Seda; Karakurt, Funda; Erdogan, Merve

    2018-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-9 and MMP-13 levels, in the rabbit model of Fusarium and Candida keratitis treated by corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL). Rabbit corneas were inoculated with fungal inoculum for keratitis. Each group divided into four subgroups, including un-treated group, PACK-CXL group, voriconazole group and PACK-CXL plus voriconazole group. PACK-CXL was applied with 0.25% riboflavin in accelerated Dresden protocol, and 0.1% voriconazole drops were administered. All corneal buttons excised at tenth day after ophthalmological examination. Fungal cell counts and Scheiber scores were determined in all groups. Corneal tissue MMP mRNA levels were evaluated quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The difference in MMP-9 and MMP-13 levels at all groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). PACK-CXL with 0.25% riboflavin either alone or combined with antifungal drops was unable to provide decline in inflammatory findings in both macroscopic and microscopic levels similar to medical antifungal treatment.

  7. Phosphodiesterase inhibition mediates matrix metalloproteinase activity and the level of collagen degradation fragments in a liver fibrosis ex vivo rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veidal Sanne Skovgård

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity are hallmarks of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to develop a model of liver fibrosis combining ex vivo tissue culture of livers from CCl4 treated animals with an ELISA detecting a fragment of type III collagen generated in vitro by MMP-9 (C3M, known to be associated with liver fibrosis and to investigate cAMP modulation of MMP activity and liver tissue turnover in this model. Findings In vivo: Rats were treated for 8 weeks with CCl4/Intralipid. Liver slices were cultured for 48 hours. Levels of C3M were determined in the supernatants of slices cultured without treatment, treated with GM6001 (positive control or treated with IBMX (phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were studied by gelatin zymography. Ex vivo: The levels of serum C3M increased 77% in the CCl4-treated rats at week 8 (p 4-treated animals had highly increased MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity, compared to slices derived from control animals. Conclusions We have combined an ex vivo model of liver fibrosis with measurement of a biochemical marker of collagen degradation in the condition medium. This technology may be used to evaluate the molecular process leading to structural fibrotic changes, as collagen species are the predominant structural part of fibrosis. These data suggest that modulation of cAMP may play a role in regulation of collagen degradation associated with liver fibrosis.

  8. Are there co-occurrence patterns that structure snake communities in Central Brazil? Existem padrões de coocorrência que estruturam comunidades de serpentes no Brasil Central?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FGR. França

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The main factors that structure Neotropical animal communities have been the subject of discussion in ecology communities. We used a set of null models to investigate the existence of structure in snake communities from the Cerrado in Central Brazil in relation to the co-occurrence of species and guilds concerning specific resources. We used fragments (conservation units inside the Distrito Federal and neighbor municipalities. In spite of recent human colonization in the region from the end of the 1950’s, intense habitat modification and fragmentation has taken place. Sixty three snake species are present in the Distrito Federal. Co-occurrence analysis of species and guilds associated to snake diets and habitats suggested a lack of organization. The homogeneity of habitats in Central Brazil and the minor importance of ecological effects can lead to random arrangement.Os processos que levam à estruturação de comunidades animais neotropicais têm sido sujeito de ampla discussão em ecologia de comunidades. Usou-se um conjunto de modelos nulos para investigar a existência de estrutura em comunidades de serpentes presentes no Cerrado do Brasil Central, em relação à coocorrência de espécies e de guildas relacionadas a recursos específicos. As localidades utilizadas para as análises representam fragmentos de habitats dentro do Distrito Federal e em municípios vizinhos. Apesar da recente colonização humana da região, datada para o final da década de 50, a intensidade da modificação e fragmentação dos habitats no Brasil Central têm sido enorme. Sessenta e três espécies de serpentes estão presentes no Distrito Federal. As análises dos padrões de coocorrência tanto para as espécies quanto para guildas relativas à dieta e ao uso do ambiente sugeriram ausência de organização. A homogeneidade dos ambientes no Brasil Central e a baixa importância de efeitos ecológicos podem levar ao arranjo randômico.

  9. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, -7 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 levels as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kostova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Matrix metalloproteinases are produced by tumour cells, hence, they may be associated with tumour progression including invasion, migration, angiogenesis and metastasis. Finding prognostic markers to better identify patients with higher risk for poor survival would be valuable in order to customize pre- and postoperative treatment as well as to enable closer follow-up of these patients. Aim of our study was to examineMMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 serum levels and correlated them with pathological data such as stage of the colorectal cancer (CRC and outcome.Methods: The investigation included 82 patients with operable CRC without distant metastases, who had underwent blood tests in order to determine the MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 serum levels in the following time periods: preoperatively, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively.Results: The values of the investigated MMPs decrease postoperatively and start to increase 6 month later in patients of all stages of the disease, reaching the highest value 12 month postoperatively with statistically important differences of MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-7 serum levels in terms of disease staging and defined points of time. Analysis of the results showed that the MMP-2 serum levels obtained 3 and 12 months postoperatively,than MMP-7 serum levels 12 months postoperatively and the MMP-9 serum levels in all analyzed points in time were in significant association with the CRC patients’outcome.Conclusion: The MMP-2, MMP-7 and especially MMP-9 serum values could be important indicators for diagnosis of the patients with CRC and for monitoring of disease progression.

  10. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and conventional tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in patients with colorectal and gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Cheung, Po-Yin; Grabowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Grzegorz; Wozniak, Mietek

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, 130- and 225-kDa gelatinolytic bands and conventional tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9, in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The relationship between these parameters and clinicopathological factors was also studied. Sera from controls (n=19), and patients with colorectal (n=47) and gastric (n=34) cancer were collected prospectively. The gelatinolytic activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, 130- and 225-kDa bands were determined using gelatin zymography. CEA and CA 19-9 were determined using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Serum levels of MMP-9, 130- and 225-kDa gelatinolytic bands, CEA, and CA 19-9, but not MMP-2, in colorectal and gastric cancer were significantly higher than that of controls. No significant correlation was found between histological grade or clinical stage and levels of MMP-9, 130- and 225-kDa gelatinolytic bands, which were correlated (r=0.61-0.89, ptumor markers.

  11. Increased tenascin C and Toll-like receptor 4 levels in visceral adipose tissue as a link between inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is associated with an altered inflammatory and extracellular matrix (ECM) profile. Tenascin C (TNC) is an ECM glycoprotein with proinflammatory effects. We aimed to explore the expression levels of TNC in adipose tissue analyzing the contribution of adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFC) as well as its impact on inflammation and ECM regulation. We also analyzed the effect of the stimulation with TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both SVFC and adipocytes. Samples obtained from 75 subjects were used in the study. Expression levels of TNC, TLR4, MMP2, and MMP9 were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as well as in both adipocytes and SVFC. In addition, Tnc expression was measured in two mice models of obesity. We show, for the first time, that VAT expression levels of TNC are increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (Pobese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (Pobesity were significantly increased (Pexogenous TNC induced (Pobesity via visceral adipose tissue inflammation representing a link with ECM remodeling.

  12. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  13. The Evolution of Topics and Leading Trends over the Past 15 Years of Research on the Quality of Higher Education in China: Based on Keyword Co-Occurrence Knowledge Map Analysis of the Research Papers Published from 2000 to 2014 in the CSSCI Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xia; Yang, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    Using CiteSpace to draw a keyword co-occurrence knowledge map for 1,048 research papers on the quality of higher education from 2000 to 2014 in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index database, we found that over the past 15 years, research on the quality of Chinese higher education was clearly oriented toward policies, and a good interactive…

  14. Assumed non-persistent environmental chemicals in human adipose tissue; matrix stability and correlation with levels measured in urine and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho-Cordón, F; Arrebola, J P; Nielsen, O; Hernández, P; Skakkebaek, N E; Fernández, M F; Andersson, A M; Olea, N; Frederiksen, H

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from adults undergoing trauma surgery. Nine phenols and seven parabens were determined by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. The analytical method showed good accuracy and precision. Limits of detection (LOD) for parabens and phenols ranged from 0.05 to 1.83ng/g tissue. Good recovery rates were found, even when biological samples remained defrosted up to 24h. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3; range of values: 70% of adipose tissue samples, while bisphenol-A (BPA; 40% of adipose tissue samples. In general, levels were similar between adipose tissue and serum, while a correlation between adipose tissue and urine was only found for BP-3. In conclusion, adipose tissue samples in this study were found to contain environmental chemicals considered to be non-persistent, whose levels were weakly or not at all correlated with the urine burden. Therefore, adipose tissue may potentially provide additional information to that obtained from other biological matrices. Further investigations are warranted to explore whether adipose tissue might be a suitable matrix for assessment of the consequences for human health of mid/long-term exposure to these chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and their complex MMP-9/NGAL in breast cancer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonni Afroditi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression is induced in many types of human cancer, while detection of its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is correlated with cancer disease status. We aim to evaluate the serum expression of MMP-9, NGAL and their complex (MMP-9/NGAL during the diagnostic work-up of women with breast abnormalities and investigate their correlation with disease severity. Methods The study included 113 women with non-palpable breast lesions undergoing vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for histological diagnosis, and 30 healthy women, which served as controls. Expression levels of MMP-9, NGAL and their complex MMP-9/NGAL were determined in peripheral blood samples with immunoenzymatic assays. Results Women with invasive ductal carcinoma exhibited significantly increased levels of MMP-9, NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL compared to healthy controls (MMP-9: p Conclusion These findings suggest that the serum measurement of MMP-9 and NGAL may be useful in non-invasively monitoring breast cancer progression, while supporting their potential role as early biomarkers of breast disease status.

  16. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) improves osteomalacia phenotype in dentin matrix protein 1(Dmp1) knockout mice with little impact on serum levels of phosphorus and FGF23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yinshi; Han, Xianglong; Jing, Yan; Yuan, Baozhi; Ke, Huazhu; Liu, Min; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-01-01

    Unlike treatments for most rickets, the treatment using 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 has little efficacy on patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, a set of rare genetic diseases. Thus, understanding the local cause for osteomalacia in hypophosphatemic rickets and developing an effective treatment to restore mineralization in this rare disease has been a longstanding goal in medicine. Here, we used Dmp1 knockout (KO) mice (whose mutations led to the same type of autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets in humans) as the model in which the monoclonal antibody of sclerostin (Scl-Ab) was tested in two age groups for 8weeks: the prevention group (starting at age 4weeks) and the treatment group (starting at age 12weeks). Applications of Scl-Ab greatly improved the osteomalacia phenotype (>15%) and the biomechanical properties (3-point bending, ~60%) in the treated long-bone group. Our studies not only showed improvement of the osteomalacia in the alveolar bone, which has the highest bone metabolism rate, as well as the long bone phenotypes in treated mice. All these improvements attributed to the use of Scl-Ab are independent of the change in serum levels of phosphorus and FGF23, since Scl-Ab had little efficacy on those parameters. Finally, we propose a model to explain how Scl-Ab can improve the Dmp1 KO osteomalacia phenotype, in which the sclerostin level is already low. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of cardiovascular complications with circulating levels of tribbles 3 human homolog and matrix metalloproteinases in Indian type 2 diabetic patients, with or without hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Shirish Ratnaparkhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and Tribbles 3 (Trb3 human homologue have been reported to induce atherosclerosis. We wanted to evaluate the association of circulating levels of Trb3 human homologue and MMPs (MMP2 and MMP9, with possible cardiovascular complications in Indian type 2 diabetic patients (type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM], with or without hypertension (HT. Materials and Methods: Serum from 144 individuals, classified as follows: Group A1= (DM + HT; T2DM> 5 years + HT (n = 55; Group A2 = DM; T2DM <2 years, (n = 28; Group B1 = HT; (n = 31 and Group B2 = HC; (n = 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles of sugar and lipids were established using auto analyser. MMP2, MMP9, Trb3, oxidised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proinsulin were measured in the serum using ELISA. Results: Using Bonferroni correction, we found that MMP2 levels were increased in (DM + HT, when compared to individuals with DM and HT (P = 0.006 and 0.000. HT group had reduced levels of MMP2, as compared to HC, (P = 0.000. The Mann–Whitney U-test for MMP9 revealed that DM group had elevated levels of MMP9 compared to (DM + HT, HT and HC group, (P = 0.011, 0.000, and 0.001. (DM + HT had elevated levels of MMP9 when compared to HT group, (P = 0.012.. Levels of MMP9 in HT were lower than the HC group, although not significant. Levels of Trb3 were found to be elevated in (DM + HT when compared to DM, (P = 0.032. The levels of Trb3 were higher in the HT, when compared to HC group, although not statistically significant. Multiple linear regression model for Framingham Risk Score, weighted with post prandial blood sugar yielded R2 = 0.338; F = 7.602 (df = 9, P = 0.000. Trb3 (β = −0.179, P = 0.019; MMP2 (β =0.021, P = 0.787 and MMP9 (β = −0.03, P = 0.684. Conclusion: Trb3 is a useful marker for evaluating the association of cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

  18. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garvin

    Full Text Available The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma.To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up.428 men and 438 women, aged 45-69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein.53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033. Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low.Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events.

  19. Pentraxin 3, long expression in mononuclear cells of patients with acute coronary syndrome: Correlation with C-reactive protein and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruilian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Tiansong; He, Ximin; Huang, Zichong; Zhu, Jinguo; Yao, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    To investigate expression of pentraxin 3, long (PTX3) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its correlation with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Patients with ACS were randomly assigned to the ACS group (subdivided into unstable angina pectoris [UAP] and acute myocardial infarction [AMI]). Healthy participants and patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) were enrolled as controls. Mononuclear cell PTX3 expression, and serum MMP-9 and CRP levels, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ACS group comprised 200 patients (80 in the UAP subgroup; 120 in the AMI subgroup). The control group comprised 130 participants (80 healthy volunteers and 50 patients with SAP). PTX3 expression was significantly higher in the ACS group compared with controls (3.64 ± 0.49 versus 1.85 ± 0.65 ng/ml), and significantly higher in the AMI compared with the UAP subgroup (5.44 ± 0.47 versus 3.39 ± 0.59 ng/ml). Serum MMP-9 and CRP levels were significantly higher in the ACS group compared with controls (48.55 ± 14.22 versus 23.14 ± 0.62 ng/ml; 4.88 ± 1.76 versus 1.26 ± 0.19 ng/ml, respectively), and significantly higher in the AMI compared with the UAP subgroup (58.13 ± 7.24 versus 31.77 ± 3.61 ng/ml; 5.80 ± 1.46 versus 3.27 ± 0.83 ng/ml, respectively). PTX3 expression, and MMP-9 and CRP levels in the SAP subgroup, were not significantly different from the healthy participants. PTX3 expression positively correlated with MMP-9 and CRP levels. In patients with ACS, peripheral blood mononuclear cell PTX3 expression, and serum MMP-9 and CRP levels, were significantly enhanced compared with controls; in addition, PTX3 expression positively correlated with MMP-9 and CRP levels. PTX3 may be involved in ACS pathogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. A Novel 2D Image Compression Algorithm Based on Two Levels DWT and DCT Transforms with Enhanced Minimize-Matrix-Size Algorithm for High Resolution Structured Light 3D Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Image compression techniques are widely used on 2D image 2D video 3D images and 3D video. There are many types of compression techniques and among the most popular are JPEG and JPEG2000. In this research, we introduce a new compression method based on applying a two level discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a two level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in connection with novel compression steps for high-resolution images. The proposed image compression algorithm consists of four steps. (1) Transform an image by a two level DWT followed by a DCT to produce two matrices: DC- and AC-Matrix, or low and high frequency matrix, respectively, (2) apply a second level DCT on the DC-Matrix to generate two arrays, namely nonzero-array and zero-array, (3) apply the Minimize-Matrix-Size algorithm to the AC-Matrix and to the other high-frequencies generated by the second level DWT, (4) apply arithmetic coding to the output of previous steps. A novel decompression algorithm, Fast-Match-Search algorithm (FMS), is used to reconstruct all high-frequency matrices. The FMS-algorithm computes all compressed data probabilities by using a table of data, and then using a binary search algorithm for finding decompressed data inside the table. Thereafter, all decoded DC-values with the decoded AC-coefficients are combined in one matrix followed by inverse two levels DCT with two levels DWT. The technique is tested by compression and reconstruction of 3D surface patches. Additionally, this technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 algorithm through 2D and 3D root-mean-square-error following reconstruction. The results demonstrate that the proposed compression method has better visual properties than JPEG and JPEG2000 and is able to more accurately reconstruct surface patches in 3D.

  1. Matrix-Gla Protein rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism and serum and GCF levels of MGP in patients with subgingival dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Demir, Turgut; Aksoy, Hülya; Sağlam, Ebru; Laloğlu, Esra; Yildirim, Abdulkadir

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-Gla Protein (MGP) is one of the major Gla-containing protein associated with calcification process. It also has a high affinity for Ca 2+ and hydroxyapatite. In this study we aimed to evaluate the MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism in association with subgingival dental calculus. Also a possible relationship between MGP gene polymorphism and serum and GCF levels of MGP were examined. MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism was investigated in 110 patients with or without subgingival dental calculus, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. Additionally, serum and GCF levels of MGP of the patients were compared according to subgingival dental calculus. Comparison of patients with and without subgingival dental calculus showed no statistically significant difference in MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism (p=0.368). MGP concentrations in GCF of patients with subgingival dental calculus were statistically higher than those without subgingival dental calculus (p=0.032). However, a significant association was not observed between the genotypes of AA, AG and GG of the MGP rs4236 gene and the serum and GCF concentrations of MGP in subjects. In this study, it was found that MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism was not to be associated with subgingival dental calculus. Also, that GCF MGP levels were detected higher in patients with subgingival dental calculus than those without subgingival dental calculus independently of polymorphism, may be the effect of adaptive mechanism to inhibit calculus formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Analysis of correlation between pulmonary function and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 among toluene diisocyanate exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, P P; Meng, T; Jia, Q; Niu, Y; Ye, M; Ji, Y Q; Ju, R; Chen, X L; Shao, H; Zheng, Y X; Dai, Y F

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of occupational toluene diisocyanate(TDI) exposure on matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1(TIMP-1), and analysis of the correlation of MMP-9,TIMP-1,MMP-9/TIMP-1 and lung function. In October 2014, based on cluster sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a TDI production factory located in China's western region. 61 exposed workers were recruited from workers engaged in packing, operating and checking. Based on different levels of the external exposure, the packers were classified as high exposed group, while operators and checkers as low exposed group. 58 factory managers, matching age and agent, were selected as controls, having same work intense and not contacting the TDI or other allergens. The questionnaire surveys were used to obtain the agent, age, work age, smoking and drinking, personal and family allergic history, occupational history, and the recent health conditions. The levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in serum of subjects were determind by ELISA. The time weighted average concentrations (8h-TWA) were used to describe the levels of TDI air exposure in working environment. Spearman correlation assay was used to investigate the correlation of MMP-9, TIMP-1, MMP-9/TIMP-1 and lung function, exposure time. 8-hour TWA means of TDI air levels in exposed group, packers, operators and checkers were 0.39, 0.76, 0.25 mg/m(3), respectively . According to the external exposure concentration, the packers were classified as high exposed group, and the operators and checkers were classified as low exposed group. In controls, low exposed group and high exposed group, the levels of MMP-9, respectively, were (807.21±347.70),(586.91±317.50),(388.94±312.01) ng/ml (χ(2)=16.69, Pcorrelation analysis showed that levels of MMP-9 were positively associated with FEV1.0, and FEV1.0/FVC (r values were 0.27, 0.25, respectively, all Pcorrelated with exposure time(r=-0.26, P=0.040). The positive correlations

  3. Phenomenology of the CKM matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The way in which an exact determination of the CKM matrix elements tests the standard Model is demonstrated by a two-generation example. The determination of matrix elements from meson semileptonic decays is explained, with an emphasis on the respective reliability of quark level and meson level calculations. The assumptions involved in the use of loop processes are described. Finally, the state of the art of the knowledge of the CKM matrix is presented. 19 refs., 2 figs

  4. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  5. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  6. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  7. Discrimination of Aspergillus isolates at the species and strain level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Justin M; Green, Brett J; Buskirk, Amanda D; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2008-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to generate highly reproducible mass spectral fingerprints for 12 species of fungi of the genus Aspergillus and 5 different strains of Aspergillus flavus. Prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the fungi were subjected to three 1-min bead beating cycles in an acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid solvent. The mass spectra contain abundant peaks in the range of 5 to 20kDa and may be used to discriminate between species unambiguously. A discriminant analysis using all peaks from the MALDI-TOF MS data yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 18.75% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. If a subset of 28 significant peaks is chosen, resubstitution and cross-validation error rates are 0%. Discriminant analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS data for 5 strains of A. flavus using all peaks yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 5% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS data may be used for unambiguous identification of members of the genus Aspergillus at both the species and strain levels.

  8. Analysis of Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram Based on the Hessian Matrix of Directional Curvelet Sub-bands and Distance Regularized Level Set Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanipour, Asieh; Sadri, Saeed; Rabbani, Hossein; Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for automatic extraction of the blood vessels and optic disk (OD) in fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA). In order to extract blood vessel centerlines, the algorithm of vessel extraction starts with the analysis of directional images resulting from sub-bands of fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT) in the similar directions and different scales. For this purpose, each directional image is processed by using information of the first order derivative and eigenvalues obtained from the Hessian matrix. The final vessel segmentation is obtained using a simple region growing algorithm iteratively, which merges centerline images with the contents of images resulting from modified top-hat transform followed by bit plane slicing. After extracting blood vessels from FFA image, candidates regions for OD are enhanced by removing blood vessels from the FFA image, using multi-structure elements morphology, and modification of FDCT coefficients. Then, canny edge detector and Hough transform are applied to the reconstructed image to extract the boundary of candidate regions. At the next step, the information of the main arc of the retinal vessels surrounding the OD region is used to extract the actual location of the OD. Finally, the OD boundary is detected by applying distance regularized level set evolution. The proposed method was tested on the FFA images from angiography unit of Isfahan Feiz Hospital, containing 70 FFA images from different diabetic retinopathy stages. The experimental results show the accuracy more than 93% for vessel segmentation and more than 87% for OD boundary extraction.

  9. Improvement of reduced serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients treated with the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shoko; Naruto, Takuya; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Yokota, Shumpei

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) patients during both the active and the remission phases to investigate how the growth cartilage turnover changed under tocilizumab treatment. Specimens were collected from 201 healthy children under 16 years of age with no growth impairment, and paired sera were collected from 11 sJIA patients treated with tocilizumab. Disease activity was assessed from white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and ferritin, and the COMP concentration was determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum COMP concentrations were found independent of age, and the mean value in healthy children was 17.74+/-5.6 U/L. The mean serum COMP in sJIA patients during the active phase was 10.75+/-3.9 U/L, lower than that of healthy children. The mean serum COMP in the remission phase (14.89+/-3.9 U/L) was significantly higher than that in the active period (P<0.05). These results suggested that in sJIA patients, a reduced serum COMP concentration is a useful marker of active disease and growth impairment, and that the growth cartilage turnover suppressed during the active phase is improved in the remission phase under tocilizumab treatment.

  10. Co-occurrence of tobacco product use, substance use, and mental health problems among adults: Findings from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Green, Victoria R; Kasza, Karin A; Silveira, Marushka L; Borek, Nicolette; Kimmel, Heather L; Sargent, James D; Stanton, Cassandra; Lambert, Elizabeth; Hilmi, Nahla; Reissig, Chad J; Jackson, Kia J; Tanski, Susanne E; Maklan, David; Hyland, Andrew J; Compton, Wilson M

    2017-08-01

    Although non-cigarette tobacco product use is increasing among U.S. adults, their associations with substance use and mental health problems are unclear. This study examined co-occurrence of tobacco use, substance use, and mental health problems, and its moderation by gender, among 32,202U.S. adults from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative longitudinal Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Participants self-reported current cigarette, e-cigarette, traditional cigar, cigarillo, filtered cigar, hookah, smokeless tobacco and other tobacco product use; past year alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use; and past year substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems. Compared to non-current tobacco users, current users were more likely to report alcohol or drug use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3, 2.9), with the strongest associations observed for cigarillo and hookah users. Across all tobacco product groups, users were more likely to report internalizing (AOR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.7, 2.1), externalizing (AOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.5, 1.8), and substance use (AOR=3.4; 95% CI: 2.9, 4.1) problems than non-users. Gender moderated many of these associations and, of these, all non-cigarette tobacco product associations were stronger among females. This nationally representative study of U.S. adults is the first to comprehensively document tobacco use, substance use, and mental health comorbidities across the range of currently available tobacco products, while also demonstrating that female tobacco users are at increased risk for substance use and mental health problems. These findings may point to gender differences in vulnerability and suggest that interventions incorporate gender-specific approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and co-occurrence of types of complementary and alternative medicine use by age, gender, ethnicity, and education among adults in the United States: the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiberg, Rebecca H; Aickin, Mikel; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-04-01

    There are widespread assumptions that a large proportion of American adults use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. The goal of this study is to explore the clustering or linkages among CAM categories in the general population. Linkset analysis and data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to address two specific aims. First, the dominant linkages of CAM categories used by the same individual were delineated, and population estimates were generated of the percentage of American adults using different linksets of CAM categories. Second, it was determined whether dominant linkages of CAM modalities differ by age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Linkset analysis, a method of estimating co-occurrence beyond chance, was used on data from the 2002 NHIS (N = 29,862) to identify possible sets of CAM use. Most adults use CAM therapies from a single category. Approximately 20% of adults combined two CAM categories, with the combination of mind-body therapies and biologically based therapies estimated to be most common. Only 5% of adults use therapies representing three or more CAM categories. Combining therapies across multiple CAM categories was more common among those 46-64, women, whites, and those with a college education. The results of this study allow researchers to refine descriptions of CAM use in the adult population. Most adults do not use a wide assortment of CAM; most use therapies within a single CAM category. Sets of CAM use were found to differ by age, gender, ethnicity, and education in ways consistent with previous research.

  12. “What are my chances of developing COPD if one of my parents has the disease?” A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD diagnosis in parents and offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lok Sze Katrina; Paquet, Catherine; Johnston, Kylie; Williams, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intergenerational associations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been well recognized and may result from genetic, gene environment, or exposure to life course factors. Consequently, adult offspring of parents with COPD may be at a greater risk of developing COPD. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD in adult offspring with one or both parents having COPD independent of specific genetic variations. Methods In total, five databases were searched for original studies in which prevalence of COPD was reported in both offspring (children) and one or both parents. Studies were excluded if COPD was not clearly defined, COPD was linked to specific genetic variations, COPD was combined with other chronic respiratory conditions, or estimates included other first-degree relatives. Data extraction (ie, sample characteristics, prevalence of COPD, and odds ratio [OR] if reported) was completed by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis of prevalence and OR was conducted, where possible. Results Of the 3,382 citations, 129 full texts were reviewed to include eight studies (six case–control, one cross-sectional, and one cohort) reflecting either prevalence of COPD in offspring of parents with COPD (descendent approach, n=3), which ranged from 0% to 17.3%, or prevalence of people with COPD reporting positive parental history of COPD (antecedent approach, n=5), for which the pooled prevalence was 28.6%. Offspring of people with COPD had 1.57 times greater odds (95% confidence interval =1.29–1.93; PCOPD compared with people not having a parental history of COPD. Conclusion The prevalence of COPD in adult offspring of people with COPD is greater than population-based estimates, and the ORs indicate a higher risk in this group. This offers clinicians a potential strategy for opportunistic screening, early identification, and intervention in this at-risk group. PMID:28182144

  13. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavolina, J. M.; Evans, G. L.; Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Westerlind, K. C.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    A 14-day orbital spaceflight was performed using ovariectomized Fisher 344 rats to determine the combined effects of estrogen deficiency and near weightlessness on tibia radial bone growth and cancellous bone turnover. Twelve ovariectomized rats with established cancellous osteopenia were flown aboard the space shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Thirty ovariectomized rats were housed on earth as ground controls: 12 in animal enclosure modules, 12 in vivarium cages, and 6 killed the day of launch for baseline measurements. An additional 18 ovary-intact rats were housed in vivarium cages as ground controls: 8 rats were killed as baseline controls and the remaining 10 rats were killed 14 days later. Ovariectomy increased periosteal bone formation at the tibia-fibula synostosis; cancellous bone resorption and formation in the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis; and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the prepro-alpha2(1) subunit of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-beta, and insulin-like growth factor I in the contralateral proximal tibial metaphysis and for the collagen subunit in periosteum pooled from tibiae and femora and decreased cancellous bone area. Compared to ovariectomized weight-bearing rats, the flight group experienced decreases in periosteal bone formation, collagen subunit mRNA levels, and cancellous bone area. The flight rats had a small decrease in the cancellous mineral apposition rate, but no change in the calculated bone formation rate. Also, spaceflight had no effect on cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast perimeters or on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and signaling peptides. On the other hand, spaceflight resulted in an increase in bone resorption, as ascertained from the diminished retention of a preflight fluorochrome label. This latter finding suggests that osteoclast activity was increased. In a follow-up ground-based experiment, unilateral sciatic neurotomy of ovariectomized rats resulted in cancellous

  14. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  15. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. An Extended-Tag-Induced Matrix Factorization Technique for Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirui Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Social tag information has been used by recommender systems to handle the problem of data sparsity. Recently, the relationships between users/items and tags are considered by most tag-induced recommendation methods. However, sparse tag information is challenging to most existing methods. In this paper, we propose an Extended-Tag-Induced Matrix Factorization technique for recommender systems, which exploits correlations among tags derived by co-occurrence of tags to improve the performance of recommender systems, even in the case of sparse tag information. The proposed method integrates coupled similarity between tags, which is calculated by the co-occurrences of tags in the same items, to extend each item’s tags. Finally, item similarity based on extended tags is utilized as an item relationship regularization term to constrain the process of matrix factorization. MovieLens dataset and Book-Crossing dataset are adopted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results of experiments show that the proposed method can alleviate the impact of tag sparsity and improve the performance of recommender systems.

  18. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  19. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  20. Application of Box-Behnken design to optimize multi-sorbent solid phase extraction for trace neonicotinoids in water containing high level of matrix substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised great concerns about their ecological risk. A reliable method to measure trace neonicotinoids in complicated aquatic environment is a premise for assessing their aquatic risk. To effectively remove matrix interfering substances from field water samples before instrumental analysis with HPLC/MS/MS, a multi-sorbent solid phase extraction method was developed using Box-Behnken design. The optimized method employed 200mg HLB/GCB (w/w, 8/2) as the sorbents and 6mL of 20% acetone in acetonitrile as the elution solution. The method was applied for measuring neonicotinoids in water at a wide range of concentrations (0.03-100μg/L) containing various amounts of matrix components. The recoveries of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked samples ranged from 76.3% to 107% while clothianidin and dinotefuran had relatively lower recoveries. The recoveries of neonicotinoids in water with various amounts of matrix interfering substances were comparable and the matrix removal rates were approximately 50%. The method was sensitive with method detection limits in the range of 1.8-6.8ng/L for all target neonicotinoids. Finally, the developed method was validated by measurement of trace neonicotinoids in natural water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination of nitrogen fertilizer levels of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) based on hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xin; Hou, Zhiwei; Ning, Jingming; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer plays an important role in tea plantation management, with significant impacts on the photosynthetic capacity, productivity and nutrition status of tea plants. The present study aimed to establish a method for the discrimination of N fertilizer levels using hyperspectral imaging technique. Spectral data were extracted from the region of interest, followed by the first derivative to reduce background noise. Five optimal wavelengths were selected by principal component analysis. Texture features were extracted from the images at optimal wavelengths by gray-level gradient co-occurrence matrix. Support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine were used to build classification models based on spectral data, optimal wavelengths, texture features and data fusion, respectively. The SVM model using fused data gave the best performance with highest correct classification rate of 100% for prediction set. The overall results indicated that visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with SVM were effective in discriminating N fertilizer levels of tea plants. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Histogram-based adaptive gray level scaling for texture feature classification of colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Marc; Lu, Hongbing; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2018-02-01

    Texture features have played an ever increasing role in computer aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CADx) methods since their inception. Texture features are often used as a method of false positive reduction for CADe packages, especially for detecting colorectal polyps and distinguishing them from falsely tagged residual stool and healthy colon wall folds. While texture features have shown great success there, the performance of texture features for CADx have lagged behind primarily because of the more similar features among different polyps types. In this paper, we present an adaptive gray level scaling and compare it to the conventional equal-spacing of gray level bins. We use a dataset taken from computed tomography colonography patients, with 392 polyp regions of interest (ROIs) identified and have a confirmed diagnosis through pathology. Using the histogram information from the entire ROI dataset, we generate the gray level bins such that each bin contains roughly the same number of voxels Each image ROI is the scaled down to two different numbers of gray levels, using both an equal spacing of Hounsfield units for each bin, and our adaptive method. We compute a set of texture features from the scaled images including 30 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and 11 gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) features. Using a random forest classifier to distinguish between hyperplastic polyps and all others (adenomas and adenocarcinomas), we find that the adaptive gray level scaling can improve performance based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by up to 4.6%.

  3. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali; Ltaief, Hatem; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels

  4. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  5. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  6. Deteksi Batik Parang Menggunakan Fitur Co-Occurence Matrix Dan Geometric Moment Invariant Dengan Klasifikasi KNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Wiwik Sri Rahayu Ginantra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Motif batik merupakan suatu dasar atau pokok suatu pola gambar yang merupakan pusat suatu rancangan gambar sehingga makna dari tanda, simbol atau lambang dibalik motif batik tersebut dapat diungkapkan. Identifikasi secara visual memerlukan skill penglihatan dan pengetahuan dalam mengklasifikasikan pola yang terbentuk dari citra batik.  Kurangnya media informasi yang dibuat  tentang motif batik menjadikan masyarakat luas kurang mendapatkan informasi tentang motif batik. Berdasarkan hal tersebut penelitian ini dilakukan guna mengimplementasikan identifikasi secara visual kedalam komputer yang dapat membantu dan memudahkan dalam mengidentifikasi jenis batik.  Pengenalan citra batik dengan menggunakan metode Co-occurrence Matrix sebagai ekstraksi ciri tekstur dan Geometric Moment Invariant dan pengklasifikasian citra batik dengan menggunakan K Nearest Neighbor.menghasilkan nilai akurasi yang diperoleh dengan metode Geometric Moment Invariant lebih baik dalam mengenali pola batik Parang yang termasuk jenis batik geometric yaitu 80% dibandingkan dengan hasil pada metode Co-occurence Matrix yaitu 70%.

  7. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages.

  8. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  9. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (∼50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3 ) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm -3 ). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and

  10. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in {alpha} low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Loche, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-08-15

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low {alpha}-activity fissile masses (mainly {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating {alpha} low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[{alpha}] per gram of crude waste ({approx}50 {mu}g Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm{sup -3}) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm{sup -3}). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction

  11. Inside the NIKE matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Barbara; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    This case describes how Nike, a consumer goods company with an ever expanding portfolio and a tremendous brand value, manages the tradeoff between local responsiveness and global integration. In particular, the case highlights Nike's organizational structure that consists of a global matrix organization that is replicated at a regional level for the European market. While this organizational structure allows Nike to respond to local consumer tastes it also ensures that the company benefits f...

  12. Spectrochemical carriers and the matrix effect: contribution to the spectrographic analysis study of general impurities at trace level in nuclearly pure thorium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lordello, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of twenty spectrochemical carriers related to the volatilization behavior of twenty seven general impurities from thorium oxide matrices was studied by means of the moving plate technique. Each carrier was employed in three different concentrations, 2%, 4% and 6%. The relative areas of the volatilization curves have been used for comparing the results. Many experiments were also done to demonstrate the 'matrix effect' in samples having the same chemical composition. The importance of chemical and physical treatments, prior and during the preparation of the thorium oxide, was investigated through a large number of samples by submitting them to spectrochemical analysis. Thorium nitrate and two different thorium oxalate samples, one of which dried in a medium of pH 10, were ignited to ThO 2 according to a temperature versus time program. The presence of nitric acid in thorium nitrate solutions was also studied in connection with the matrix effect. A carrier-distillation method for the determination of twenty five trace elements in thorium compounds was also suggested. Several types of standards had been investigated but the best results were achieved with those prepared from thorium nitrate solutions. Some elements can be determined only by standards synthesized by the dry-mixing technique. The suggested carriers are: 2% NaF (for Ba, Cr, Mg, Sn, V, Cu, Ti, Sr, Mn, Al, Pb, Bi, Ca, Ag, Be, Sb, As, Si, and B), 4% NaCl (for Cd, Co, Fe, Zn and Ni) and 4% KCi (for Na). The method fulfils the requirements of sensitivity for the analysis of trace elements in nuclear grade thorium compounds. (Author) [pt

  13. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  14. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Hetland, Merete Lund; Sørensen, Inge Juul

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated...... with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFα inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8...

  15. Study of the effect of anti-IgE (omalizumab on serum level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 as a marker of remodeling in severe asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Affara

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Omalizumab can reduce asthma exacerbations and improve asthma control and pulmonary function. The reducing effect of omalizumab on metalloproteinase-9 serum level may contribute to decreased airway remodeling in patients with severe asthma.

  16. Induction of increased cAMP levels in articular chondrocytes blocks matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage degradation, but not aggrecanase-mediated cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Sumer, Eren Ufuk; Wulf, Helle

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Calcitonin has been suggested to have chondroprotective effects. One signaling pathway of calcitonin is via the second messenger cAMP. We undertook this study to investigate whether increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes would be chondroprotective. METHODS: Cartilage degradation......-dependently inhibited by forskolin and IBMX. The highest concentration of IBMX lowered cytokine-induced release of sGAG by 72%. CONCLUSION: Levels of cAMP in chondrocytes play a key role in controlling catabolic activity. Increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes inhibited MMP expression and activity and consequently...... strongly inhibited cartilage degradation. Specific cAMP modulators in chondrocytes may be potential treatments for cartilage degenerative diseases....

  17. Inferring Aggregated Functional Traits from Metagenomic Data Using Constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization: Application to Fiber Degradation in the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguideau, Sébastien; Plancade, Sandra; Pons, Nicolas; Leclerc, Marion; Laroche, Béatrice

    2016-12-01

    Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) metagenomics is increasingly used to study the structure and functions of complex microbial ecosystems, both from the taxonomic and functional point of view. Gene inventories of otherwise uncultured microbial communities make the direct functional profiling of microbial communities possible. The concept of community aggregated trait has been adapted from environmental and plant functional ecology to the framework of microbial ecology. Community aggregated traits are quantified from WGS data by computing the abundance of relevant marker genes. They can be used to study key processes at the ecosystem level and correlate environmental factors and ecosystem functions. In this paper we propose a novel model based approach to infer combinations of aggregated traits characterizing specific ecosystemic metabolic processes. We formulate a model of these Combined Aggregated Functional Traits (CAFTs) accounting for a hierarchical structure of genes, which are associated on microbial genomes, further linked at the ecosystem level by complex co-occurrences or interactions. The model is completed with constraints specifically designed to exploit available genomic information, in order to favor biologically relevant CAFTs. The CAFTs structure, as well as their intensity in the ecosystem, is obtained by solving a constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) problem. We developed a multicriteria selection procedure for the number of CAFTs. We illustrated our method on the modelling of ecosystemic functional traits of fiber degradation by the human gut microbiota. We used 1408 samples of gene abundances from several high-throughput sequencing projects and found that four CAFTs only were needed to represent the fiber degradation potential. This data reduction highlighted biologically consistent functional patterns while providing a high quality preservation of the original data. Our method is generic and can be applied to other metabolic processes in

  18. Inferring Aggregated Functional Traits from Metagenomic Data Using Constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization: Application to Fiber Degradation in the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Raguideau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS metagenomics is increasingly used to study the structure and functions of complex microbial ecosystems, both from the taxonomic and functional point of view. Gene inventories of otherwise uncultured microbial communities make the direct functional profiling of microbial communities possible. The concept of community aggregated trait has been adapted from environmental and plant functional ecology to the framework of microbial ecology. Community aggregated traits are quantified from WGS data by computing the abundance of relevant marker genes. They can be used to study key processes at the ecosystem level and correlate environmental factors and ecosystem functions. In this paper we propose a novel model based approach to infer combinations of aggregated traits characterizing specific ecosystemic metabolic processes. We formulate a model of these Combined Aggregated Functional Traits (CAFTs accounting for a hierarchical structure of genes, which are associated on microbial genomes, further linked at the ecosystem level by complex co-occurrences or interactions. The model is completed with constraints specifically designed to exploit available genomic information, in order to favor biologically relevant CAFTs. The CAFTs structure, as well as their intensity in the ecosystem, is obtained by solving a constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF problem. We developed a multicriteria selection procedure for the number of CAFTs. We illustrated our method on the modelling of ecosystemic functional traits of fiber degradation by the human gut microbiota. We used 1408 samples of gene abundances from several high-throughput sequencing projects and found that four CAFTs only were needed to represent the fiber degradation potential. This data reduction highlighted biologically consistent functional patterns while providing a high quality preservation of the original data. Our method is generic and can be applied to other

  19. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  20. Clinical evaluation of an allogeneic bone matrix containing viable osteogenic cells in patients undergoing one- and two-level posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis with decompressive laminectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, David B; Firtha, Michael E; Atkinson, Brent L; Hahn, Rebekah; Ryaby, James T; Linovitz, Raymond J

    2016-05-27

    Trinity Evolution® cellular bone allograft (TE) possesses the osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive elements essential for bone healing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes when TE is used as a graft extender in combination with locally derived bone in one- and two-level instrumented lumbar posterolateral arthrodeses. In this retrospective evaluation, a consecutive series of subject charts that had posterolateral arthrodesis with TE and a 12-month radiographic follow-up were evaluated. All subjects were diagnosed with degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, stenosis, and decreased disc height. At 2 weeks and at 3 and 12 months, plain radiographs were performed and the subject's back and leg pain (VAS) was recorded. An evaluation of fusion status was performed at 12 months. The population consisted of 43 subjects and 47 arthrodeses. At 12 months, a fusion rate of 90.7 % of subjects and 89.4 % of surgical levels was observed. High-risk subjects (e.g., diabetes, tobacco use, etc.) had fusion rates comparable to normal patients. Compared with the preoperative leg or back pain level, the postoperative pain levels were significantly (p < 0.0001) improved at every time point. There were no adverse events attributable to TE. Fusion rates using TE were higher than or comparable to fusion rates with autologous iliac crest bone graft that have been reported in the recent literature for posterolateral fusion procedures, and TE fusion rates were not adversely affected by several high-risk patient factors. The positive results provide confidence that TE can safely replace autologous iliac crest bone graft when used as a bone graft extender in combination with locally derived bone in the setting of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis in patients with or without risk factors for compromised bone healing. Because of the retrospective nature of this study, the trial was not registered.

  1. Thymol treatment of bacteria prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis aids in identifying certain bacteria at the subspecies level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Ricky D; Wilkes, Jon G; Cooper, Willie M; Alusta, Pierre; Williams, Anna; Pearce, Bruce; Beaudoin, Michael; Buzatu, Dan

    2014-12-15

    The identification of bacteria based on mass spectra produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) has become routine since its introduction in 1996. The major drawback is that bacterial patterns produced by MALDI are dependent on sample preparation prior to analysis. This results in poor reproducibility in identifying bacterial types and between laboratories. The need for a more broadly applicable and useful sample handling procedure is warranted. Thymol was added to the suspension solvent of bacteria prior to MALDI analysis. The suspension solvent consisted of ethanol, water and TFA. The bacterium was added to the thymol suspension solvent and heated. An aliquot of the bacterial suspension was mixed directly with the matrix solution at a 9:1 ratio, matrix/bacteria solution, respectively. The mixture was then placed on the MALDI plate and allowed to air dry before MALDI analysis. The thymol method improved the quality of spectra and number of peaks when compared to other sample preparation procedures studied. The bacterium-identifying biomarkers assigned to four strains of E. coli were statistically 95% reproducible analyzed on three separate days. The thymol method successfully differentiated between the four E. coli strains. In addition, the thymol procedure could identify nine out of ten S. enterica serovars over a 3-day period and nine S. Typhimurium strains from the other ten serovars 90% of the time over the same period. The thymol method can identify certain bacteria at the sub-species level and yield reproducible results over time. It improves the quality of spectra by increasing the number of peaks when compared to the other sample preparation methods assessed in this study. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  3. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sump, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties

  5. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  6. Inductive matrix completion for predicting gene-disease associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Nagarajan; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2014-06-15

    Most existing methods for predicting causal disease genes rely on specific type of evidence, and are therefore limited in terms of applicability. More often than not, the type of evidence available for diseases varies-for example, we may know linked genes, keywords associated with the disease obtained by mining text, or co-occurrence of disease symptoms in patients. Similarly, the type of evidence available for genes varies-for example, specific microarray probes convey information only for certain sets of genes. In this article, we apply a novel matrix-completion method called Inductive Matrix Completion to the problem of predicting gene-disease associations; it combines multiple types of evidence (features) for diseases and genes to learn latent factors that explain the observed gene-disease associations. We construct features from different biological sources such as microarray expression data and disease-related textual data. A crucial advantage of the method is that it is inductive; it can be applied to diseases not seen at training time, unlike traditional matrix-completion approaches and network-based inference methods that are transductive. Comparison with state-of-the-art methods on diseases from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database shows that the proposed approach is substantially better-it has close to one-in-four chance of recovering a true association in the top 100 predictions, compared to the recently proposed Catapult method (second best) that has bigdata.ices.utexas.edu/project/gene-disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Coocorrência de violência física e psicológica entre adolescentes namorados do recife, Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents in Recife, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Kelly Barreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos foram estimar a prevalência de perpetração de violência física e psicológica entre adolescentes namorados de Recife, identificar fatores associados e a coocorrência de ambos os tipos de violência. Participaram do estudo 302 adolescentes de escolas públicas e particulares, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos, que tiveram algum relacionamento amoroso no último ano e esses preencheram o questionário. Foram realizadas análise univariada e regressão logística e todas as análises estatísticas incorporaram o peso amostral e o desenho da amostra complexa. A prevalência de violência física foi de 19,9%, de 82,8% para violência psicológica e de 18,9% para a coocorrência de violência física e psicológica. Os adolescentes que vivenciaram violência na comunidade e em relacionamentos de mais de um ano de duração apresentaram maiores chances de perpetrar violência psicológica. Enquanto, sofrer violência física do pai, entre irmãos e em namoros anteriores, além de ter perpetrado violência verbal em relacionamentos anteriores, foram variáveis que aumentaram a chance de perpetração de violência física e psicológica no namoro. Conclui-se que a violência psicológica e a coocorrência de violência física e psicológica possuem uma dinâmica distinta da violência física no namoro.The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents from Recife, Brazil, to identify associated factors and the co-occurrence of both types of violence. 302 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in public and private schools who were in a relationship in the last year filled out the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis were performed and the sample weight and the complex sample design were entered. The prevalence was 19.9% of physical violence 82.8% of psychological violence and 18.9% for the co-occurrence of both. Adolescents

  8. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  9. Cement mortar-degraded spinney waste composite as a matrix for immobilizing some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Consistency under frost attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spinney fiber is one of the wastes generated from spinning of cotton raw materials. ► Cement mortar composite was hydrated by using the degraded slurry of spinney wastes. ► Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar-degraded spinney waste composite specimens. ► SEM image, FT-IR and XRD patterns were performed for samples subjected to frost attack. - Abstract: The increasing amounts of spinning waste fibers generated from cotton fabrication are problematic subject. Simultaneous shortage in the landfill disposal space is also the most problem associated with dumping of these wastes. Cement mortar composite was developed by hydrating mortar components using the waste slurry obtained from wet oxidative degradation of these spinney wastes. The consistency of obtained composite was determined under freeze–thaw events. Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar composite specimens by evaluating its compressive strength, apparent porosity and mass loss at the end of each period of freeze–thaw up to 45 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed for samples subjected to frost attack aiming at evaluating the cement mortar in the presence of degraded spinney waste. The cement mortar composite exhibits acceptable resistance and durability against the freeze–thaw treatment that could be chosen in radioactive waste management as immobilizing agent for some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  10. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  11. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  12. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of linear algebra is devoted to reducing a matrix (via similarity or unitary similarity) to another that has lots of zeros. The simplest such theorem is the Schur triangularization theorem. This says that every matrix is unitarily similar to an upper triangular matrix. Our aim here is to show that though it is very easy to prove it ...

  13. Polychoric/Tetrachoric Matrix or Pearson Matrix? A methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez Lara, Sergio Alexis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of product-moment correlation of Pearson is common in most studies in factor analysis in psychology, but it is known that this statistic is only applicable when the variables related are in interval scale and normally distributed, and when are used in ordinal data may to produce a distorted correlation matrix . Thus is a suitable option using polychoric/tetrachoric matrices in item-level factor analysis when the items are in level measurement nominal or ordinal. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the KMO, Bartlett`s Test and Determinant of the Matrix, percentage of variance explained and factor loadings in depression trait scale of Depression Inventory Trait - State and the Neuroticism dimension of the short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Revised, regarding the use of matrices polychoric/tetrachoric matrices and Pearson. These instruments was analyzed with different extraction methods (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis, Unweighted Least Squares and Principal Components, keeping constant the rotation method Promin were analyzed. Were observed differences regarding sample adequacy measures, as well as with respect to the explained variance and the factor loadings, for solutions having as polychoric/tetrachoric matrix. So it can be concluded that the polychoric / tetrachoric matrix give better results than Pearson matrices when it comes to item-level factor analysis using different methods.

  14. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available the Fisher linear discriminant and the iris region of interest is extracted. Four texture description methods are compared for segmenting iris texture using a region based pattern classification approach: Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Discrete...

  15. Numerical methods in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Björck, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Matrix algorithms are at the core of scientific computing and are indispensable tools in most applications in engineering. This book offers a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of modern methods in matrix computation. It uses a unified approach to direct and iterative methods for linear systems, least squares and eigenvalue problems. A thorough analysis of the stability, accuracy, and complexity of the treated methods is given. Numerical Methods in Matrix Computations is suitable for use in courses on scientific computing and applied technical areas at advanced undergraduate and graduate level. A large bibliography is provided, which includes both historical and review papers as well as recent research papers. This makes the book useful also as a reference and guide to further study and research work. Åke Björck is a professor emeritus at the Department of Mathematics, Linköping University. He is a Fellow of the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Matrix Management: An Organizational Alternative for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peggy

    1990-01-01

    Describes various organizational structures and models, presents matrix management as an alternative to traditional hierarchical structures, and suggests matrix management as an appropriate organizational alternative for academic libraries. Benefits that are discussed include increased flexibility, a higher level of professional independence, and…

  17. Risk matrix model for rotating equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassan Rano Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different industries have various residual risk levels for their rotating equipment. Accordingly the occurrence rate of the failures and associated failure consequences categories are different. Thus, a generalized risk matrix model is developed in this study which can fit various available risk matrix standards. This generalized risk matrix will be helpful to develop new risk matrix, to fit the required risk assessment scenario for rotating equipment. Power generation system was taken as case study. It was observed that eight subsystems were under risk. Only vibration monitor system was under high risk category, while remaining seven subsystems were under serious and medium risk categories.

  18. A Generalization of the Alias Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, S.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of aliases or biases is important for the interpretation of the results from factorial experiments. For two-level fractional factorials this can be facilitated through their group structure. For more general arrays the alias matrix can be used. This tool is traditionally based...... on the assumption that the error structure is that associated with ordinary least squares. For situations where that is not the case, we provide in this article a generalization of the alias matrix applicable under the generalized least squares assumptions. We also show that for the special case of split plot error...... structure, the generalized alias matrix simplifies to the ordinary alias matrix....

  19. Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromantzos, Panagiotis A; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Dereka, Xanthippi; Offenbacher, Steven; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Vrotsos, Ioannis A; Madianos, Phoebus N

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is affected by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. The effect of periodontal therapy on these systemic factors may be related to improvement on glycemic status. The aim of the present study is to assess over a period of 6 months the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), d-8-iso prostaglandin F2a (d-8-iso) as a marker of oxidative stress, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 on patients with type 2 DM. Sixty participants with type 2 DM and moderate to severe periodontal disease were randomized into intervention (IG) and control (CG) groups. IG received scaling and root planing, whereas CG received supragingival cleaning at baseline and scaling and root planing at 6 months. Participants of both groups were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months. Periodontal data recorded at each visit included probing depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, and gingival index. Blood was collected at each visit for the assay of serum glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c), hsCRP, d-8-iso, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Although there was a trend to a reduction in hsCRP, d-8-iso and MMP-9 it did not reach statistical significance. MMP-2 levels remained unchanged after periodontal treatment. Effective non-surgical periodontal treatment of participants with type 2 DM and moderate to severe periodontal disease improved significantly A1c levels but did not result in a statistically significant improvement in hsCRP, d-8-iso, MMP-2, and MMP-9 levels.

  20. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  1. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  2. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  3. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  4. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  5. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  6. Concept for Energy Security Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Einari; Hamburg, Arvi; Härm, Mihkel; Leppiman, Ando; Ots, Märt

    2016-01-01

    The following paper presents a discussion of short- and long-term energy security assessment methods and indicators. The aim of the current paper is to describe diversity of approaches to energy security, to structure energy security indicators used by different institutions and papers, and to discuss several indicators that also play important role in the design of energy policy of a state. Based on this analysis the paper presents a novel Energy Security Matrix that structures relevant energy security indicators from the aspects of Technical Resilience and Vulnerability, Economic Dependence and Political Affectability for electricity, heat and transport fuel sectors. Earlier publications by different authors have presented energy security assessment methodologies that use publicly available indicators from different databases. Current paper challenges viability of some of these indicators and introduces new indicators that would deliver stronger energy security policy assessments. Energy Security Matrix and its indicators are based on experiences that the authors have gathered as high-level energy policymakers in Estonia, where all different aspects of energy security can be observed. - Highlights: •Energy security should be analysed in technical, economic and political terms; •Energy Security Matrix provides a framework for energy security analyses; •Applicability of Matrix is limited due to the lack of statistical data and sensitivity of output.

  7. Fuzzy risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Adam S.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2008-01-01

    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated

  8. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  9. Species level identification of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. from buffalo using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and cydB real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizauro, Lucas J L; de Almeida, Camila C; Soltes, Glenn A; Slavic, Durda; Rossi-Junior, Oswaldo D; de Ávila, Fernando A; Zafalon, Luiz F; MacInnes, Janet I

    2017-05-01

    Incorrect identification of Staphylococcus spp. can have serious clinical and zoonotic repercussions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and/or cydB real- time quantitative PCR (qPCR) could be used to accurately identify coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) obtained from buffalo milk and milking environment samples. Seventy-five of 84 CoNS isolates could be identified to the species level (score value >1.99) using MALDI-TOF MS. However, as determined by cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit II (cydB) qPCR and by 16S RNA and cydB gene sequencing, 10S. agnetis strains were wrongly identified as S. hyicus by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, 9 isolates identified by MALDI-TOF only to the genus level (score values between 1.70 and 1.99) could be identified to species by cydB qPCR. Our findings suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable method for rapid identification of S. chromogenes and S. epidermidis (species of interest both in human and veterinary medicine) and may be able to correctly identify other Staphylococcus spp. However, at present not all Staphylococcus spp. found in buffalo milk can be accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS and for these organisms, the cydB qPCR developed in the current study may provide a reliable alternative method for rapid identification of CoNS species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-occurrence of Xp21 microduplication encompassing the DMD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defects in the DMD gene (deletion, duplication, or mutation) are associated with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD). Combined microduplications of Xp21/DMD with 17p12/PMP22 are extremely rare with only one published report of a male patient with changes in both the DMD and PMP22 genes.

  11. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea

    where palms abound in all major habitats. Using a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects, we analysed species richness, compositional turnover, and phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages in this region. We found a strong relationship of alpha-diversity and species turnover...... to habitat, indicating niche assembly. Habitat associations were phylogenetically non- random, leading to, e.g., co-existence of close relatives on flood plains. Dispersal and biogeographic history had a clear effect on alpha diversity, gamma diversity, and species turnover, and to a lesser degree...

  12. Co-occurrence of Xp21 microduplication encompassing the DMD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpa Sidhu

    2014-12-27

    Dec 27, 2014 ... fine motor tasks with her hands, pain in the upper extremities ... Xp21.1–Xp21.2 microduplication was confirmed by FISH ... Additional FISH or CMA testing on at risk family members was recommended to determine whether the microduplications were inherited or de novo, but was not performed due to lack ...

  13. co-occurrence of candida albicans and staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... catchments area; and as such, the different states of the nation are represented in the student population. The campus, in addition to other facilities, has a. Health Center and Student Hostels, but a number of students reside in off-campus hostels and rented apartments in and around Ekpoma town -a semi-.

  14. Data and code files for co-occurrence modeling project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Files included are original data inputs on stream fishes (fish_data_OEPA_2012.csv), water chemistry (OEPA_WATER_2012.csv), geographic data (NHD_Plus_StreamCat);...

  15. co-occurrence of schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McGlashan' found that 21 (12.9%) of 163 DSM-III-diagnosed .... Abbruzzese M, Ferri 5, Scarone S. The selecti~ebreakdown of frontal functions in patients ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder: its conceptual history in France during the 19th.

  16. Empirical co-occurrence rate networks for sequence labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Structured prediction has wide applications in many areas. Powerful and popular models for structured prediction have been developed. Despite the successes, they suffer from some known problems: (i) Hidden Markov models are generative models which suffer from the mismatch problem. Also it is

  17. Using Dynamic Multi-Task Non-Negative Matrix Factorization to Detect the Evolution of User Preferences in Collaborative Filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ju

    Full Text Available Predicting what items will be selected by a target user in the future is an important function for recommendation systems. Matrix factorization techniques have been shown to achieve good performance on temporal rating-type data, but little is known about temporal item selection data. In this paper, we developed a unified model that combines Multi-task Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Linear Dynamical Systems to capture the evolution of user preferences. Specifically, user and item features are projected into latent factor space by factoring co-occurrence matrices into a common basis item-factor matrix and multiple factor-user matrices. Moreover, we represented both within and between relationships of multiple factor-user matrices using a state transition matrix to capture the changes in user preferences over time. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms on two real datasets, which were extracted from Netflix movies and Last.fm music. Furthermore, our model provides a novel dynamic topic model for tracking the evolution of the behavior of a user over time.

  18. Using Dynamic Multi-Task Non-Negative Matrix Factorization to Detect the Evolution of User Preferences in Collaborative Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bin; Qian, Yuntao; Ye, Minchao; Ni, Rong; Zhu, Chenxi

    2015-01-01

    Predicting what items will be selected by a target user in the future is an important function for recommendation systems. Matrix factorization techniques have been shown to achieve good performance on temporal rating-type data, but little is known about temporal item selection data. In this paper, we developed a unified model that combines Multi-task Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Linear Dynamical Systems to capture the evolution of user preferences. Specifically, user and item features are projected into latent factor space by factoring co-occurrence matrices into a common basis item-factor matrix and multiple factor-user matrices. Moreover, we represented both within and between relationships of multiple factor-user matrices using a state transition matrix to capture the changes in user preferences over time. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms on two real datasets, which were extracted from Netflix movies and Last.fm music. Furthermore, our model provides a novel dynamic topic model for tracking the evolution of the behavior of a user over time.

  19. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  20. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003(microm). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in many biological processes such as embriogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in some pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. Currently, 24 genes have been identified in humans that encode different groups of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. This review discuss the members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and their substrate specificity, structure, function and the regulation of their enzyme activity by tissue inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 209-220

  2. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, and maximal tori.

  3. The requirement of matrix ATP for the import of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, Rosemary A.; Gruhler, Albrecht; Klei, Ida van der; Guiard, Bernard; Koll, Hans; Neupert, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The role of ATP in the matrix for the import of precursor proteins into the various mitochondrial subcompartments was investigated by studying protein translocation at experimentally defined ATP levels. Proteins targeted to the matrix were neither imported or processed when matrix ATP was depleted.

  4. High-level inducible Smad4-reexpression in the cervical cancer cell line C4-II is associated with a gene expression profile that predicts a preferential role of Smad4 in extracellular matrix composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein-Scory, Susanne; Zapatka, Marc; Eilert-Micus, Christina; Hoppe, Sabine; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan A; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard

    2007-01-01

    Smad4 is a tumour suppressor frequently inactivated in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. We have recently reported loss of Smad4 in every fourth carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Smad4 transmits signals from the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines and functions as a versatile transcriptional co-modulator. The prevailing view suggests that the tumour suppressor function of Smad4 primarily resides in its capability to mediate TGF-β growth inhibitory responses. However, accumulating evidence indicates, that the acquisition of TGF-β resistance and loss of Smad4 may be independent events in the carcinogenic process. Through inducible reexpression of Smad4 in cervical cancer cells we wished to shed more light on this issue and to identify target genes implicated in Smad4 dependent tumor suppression. Smad4-deficient human C4-II cervical carcinoma cells were used to establish inducible Smad4 reexpression using the commercial Tet-on™ system (Clontech). The impact of Smad4 reexpression on cell growth was analysed in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional responses were assessed through profiling on cDNA macroarrays (Clontech) and validated through Northern blotting. Clones were obtained that express Smad4 at widely varying levels from approximately physiological to 50-fold overexpression. Smad4-mediated tumour suppression in vivo was apparent at physiological expression levels as well as in Smad4 overexpressing clones. Smad4 reexpression in a dose-dependent manner was associated with transcriptional induction of the extracellular matrix-associated genes, BigH3, fibronectin and PAI-1, in response to TGF-β. Smad4-dependent regulation of these secreted Smad4 targets is not restricted to cervical carcinoma cells and was confirmed in pancreatic carcinoma cells reexpressing Smad4 after retroviral transduction and in a stable Smad4 knockdown model. On the other hand, the classical cell cycle-associated TGF-β target genes, c-myc, p21 and p15, remained unaltered. Our results show that

  5. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  7. A matrix model from string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syoji Zeze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large $N$ matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.

  8. The Exopolysaccharide Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, H.; Falsetta, M.L.; Klein, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24045647

  9. Omentin-1 prevents cartilage matrix destruction by regulating matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Baoyi; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, BenJie; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Li, Borui; Tian, Fengde

    2017-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and pathological progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Omentin-1 is a newly identified anti-inflammatory adipokine. Little information regarding the protective effects of omentin-1 in OA has been reported before. In the current study, our results indicated that omentin-1 suppressed expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at both the mRNA and protein levels in human chondrocytes. Importantly, administration of omentin-1 abolished IL-1β-induced degradation of type II collagen (Col II) and aggrecan, the two major extracellular matrix components in articular cartilage, in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, omentin-1 ameliorated the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) by blocking the JAK-2/STAT3 pathway. Our results indicate that omentin-1 may have a potential chondroprotective therapeutic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  11. 2016 MATRIX annals

    CERN Document Server

    Praeger, Cheryl; Tao, Terence

    2018-01-01

    MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The artic...

  12. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  13. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  14. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  15. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-01

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  16. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  17. The finite element response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Martin, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    A new technique is developed with an alternative formulation of the response matrix method implemented with the finite element scheme. Two types of response matrices are generated from the Galerkin solution to the weak form of the diffusion equation subject to an arbitrary current and source. The piecewise polynomials are defined in two levels, the first for the local (assembly) calculations and the second for the global (core) response matrix calculations. This finite element response matrix technique was tested in two 2-dimensional test problems, 2D-IAEA benchmark problem and Biblis benchmark problem, with satisfatory results. The computational time, whereas the current code is not extensively optimized, is of the same order of the well estabilished coarse mesh codes. Furthermore, the application of the finite element technique in an alternative formulation of response matrix method permits the method to easily incorporate additional capabilities such as treatment of spatially dependent cross-sections, arbitrary geometrical configurations, and high heterogeneous assemblies. (Author) [pt

  18. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2016-08-09

    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels fail to achieve the percentage of the theoretical peak performance on GPUs that one would expect when running kernels with similar surface-to-volume ratio on hardware accelerators, i.e., the standard matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM). The authors propose adopting a recursive formulation, which enriches the TRMM and TRSM inner structures with GEMM calls and, therefore, reduces memory traffic while increasing the level of concurrency. The new implementation enables efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and mitigates the latency overhead, to run at the speed of the higher cache levels. Performance comparisons show up to eightfold and twofold speedups for large dense matrix sizes, against the existing state-of-the-art TRMM and TRSM implementations from NVIDIA cuBLAS, respectively, across various GPU generations. Once integrated into high-level Cholesky-based dense linear algebra algorithms, the performance impact on the overall applications demonstrates up to fourfold and twofold speedups, against the equivalent native implementations, linked with cuBLAS TRMM and TRSM kernels, respectively. The new TRMM/TRSM kernel implementations are part of the open-source KBLAS software library (http://ecrc.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Res-kblas.aspx) and are lined up for integration into the NVIDIA cuBLAS library in the upcoming v8.0 release.

  19. Ethical Matrix Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.; Thorstensen, E.; Tomkins, S.; Millar, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ethical matrix is a conceptual tool designed to help decision-makers (as individuals or working in groups) reach sound judgements or decisions about the ethical acceptability and/or optimal regulatory controls for existing or prospective technologies in the field of food and agriculture.

  20. Combinatorial matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitjana, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the notes of the lectures delivered at an Advanced Course on Combinatorial Matrix Theory held at Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. These notes correspond to five series of lectures. The first series is dedicated to the study of several matrix classes defined combinatorially, and was delivered by Richard A. Brualdi. The second one, given by Pauline van den Driessche, is concerned with the study of spectral properties of matrices with a given sign pattern. Dragan Stevanović delivered the third one, devoted to describing the spectral radius of a graph as a tool to provide bounds of parameters related with properties of a graph. The fourth lecture was delivered by Stephen Kirkland and is dedicated to the applications of the Group Inverse of the Laplacian matrix. The last one, given by Ángeles Carmona, focuses on boundary value problems on finite networks with special in-depth on the M-matrix inverse problem.