WorldWideScience

Sample records for level chronic irradiation

  1. Low level chronic irradiation of salmon. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, W.K.; Donaldson, L.R.; Bonham, K.; Brannon, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    A question of primary importance in the use of nuclear energy is what effect the effluent from a reactor will have on the aquatic life in the water used for cooling. Of particular concern in the Pacific Northwest are the effects of chronic irradiation on salmon that use the rivers for spawning and nursery area. The present program was designed in the early days of the atomic era to address this concern, and to provide some insight into the long-term consequences of exposure of fish to chronic, low levels of irradiation. The experimental techniques are described and data are summarized on irradiation effects on the entire life cycle of the chinook salmon. Also, long-term effects transmitted to future generations were assessed in F 1 offspring of irradiated parents

  2. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  3. Studies on chronic effects of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, Y.S.; Yun, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment is being carried out to elucidate the chronic effects of Co 60 (γ-ray) - low doses irradiation on JCR mice at 3rd week, 6th week, and 5th month after their birth. Experimental mice at 3rd week of age have been irradiated with Co 60 - 60mR weekly, Co 60 - 500mR weekly and Co 60 - 61R biweekly at the dose rate of 60mR per second for 23 weeks until now. Co 60 - 61R irradiated mice were subdivided into Co 60 - alone group and Co 60 combined with red ginseng extracts group. In their survivor's rate and their body weight etc., no significant differences between control groups and test groups in these experimental mice. Experimented mice at 6 weeks and 5 months of age are also being irradiated with Co 60 in the same doses as the above for 14 weeks and 8 weeks until present. In these experimental groups, there are also no significant differences between control groups and experimental groups in their survivor's rate and their body weight

  4. Studies on the chronic effect of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, E.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Yun, M.S.; Chae, H.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic hazard of Co-60 low dose radiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages such as below were exposed to 60m rads/week, 500m rads/week and 60 rads/biweek whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period, from 1st week to 3rd week, from 3rd week to 52nd week, from 6th week to 52nd week, and from 22nd week to 52nd week after the birth. All experimental mice were autopsied immediately after being sacrificed at 52nd week. All major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  5. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on Gambusia affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1944, White Oak Lake (WOL), located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, has served as a final settling basin for low-level radioactive effluents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Organisms inhabiting the lake have been exposed for many generations to chronic low-level radiation significantly higher than background. During the past decade, studies on Gambusia affinis from WOL have been carried out to relate estimated radiation doses to effects on the fitness of the Gambusia population. Results of studies on fecundity, temperature tolerance, and embryonic mortality have led to the conclusion that the Gambusia population in White Oak Lake has an increased frequency of deleterious and recessive lethal genes which may be attributed to the radiation exposure history. The frequency of nonviable embryos from WOL Gambusia did not change significantly from 1966 to 1978; however, it was still significantly greater than that of a control population. In July 1977, Gambusia from a control population were stocked into a 0.45-ha pond which had served as a low-level waste settling basin. The beta and gamma dose rate in this pond averaged from 37 rad/yr at the water surface, 394 rad/yr at mid-depth, and 1150 rad/yr at the surface of the sediments. Preliminary results from samples taken in August 1978 showed that although the frequency of nonviable embryos increased, the frequency was not significantly greater than that of the control parent population. Additional sampling of future generations of Gambusia in this pond will determine whether the frequency of nonviable embryos increases as succeeding generations are exposed to dose rates that are higher than the dose rates in WOL

  6. Paramecium tetraurelia growth stimulation under low-level chronic irradiation: investigations on a possible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effects of low-level chronic irradiation on Paramecium tetraurelia proliferation. Biological effects were strongly dependent on the bacterial density of culture medium and more exactly on the catalase content of the medium. Significant growth stimulation was found under 60 Co chronic irradiation at a dose rate of 2 rad/year when paramecia were grown in a medium containing a high bacterial concentration (2.5 x 10 2 cells/m) or supplemented with catalase (300 U/ml). In a medium with a low bacterial density (1 x 10 6 cell/ml) or supplemented with a catalase activity inhibitor, growth simulation was preceded by a transitory inhibiting effect which could be correlated with extracellularly radioproduced H 2 O 2 . H 2 O 2 addition appeared to be able to simulate the biological effects of chronic irradiation. A possible mechanism is discussed.We proposed that the stimulating effects were the result of intracellular enzymatic scavenging of radioproduced H 2 O 2

  7. Researchin chronic low-level gamma -irradiation on laboratory populations of Lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasskazova, M.M.; Berestina, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Researching carried out on the laboratory population of Lemna minor showed that the chronically γ-irradiated plants significantly reduced specific rate of population growth, accelerating the process of withering away of the fronds. Chronic irradiation with dose of 5,0 mGy/h stimulates the growth of the roots, and irradiation with a capacity of 50 mGy/h significantly increases the percentage of damage fronds. Found out independent of dose effect on the criterion of the number of deaths of individuals in the range of absorbed dose between 0,01 - 1 Gy. (authors)

  8. Modelling population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Emilie [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Alonzo, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent [Laboratoire de biogeochimie, biodisponibilite et transferts des radionucleides (L2BT) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France)

    2012-07-01

    We modelled population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions. We used Leslie matrices to combine life-history characteristics (duration of life stages, survival and fecundity rates) and dose rate-response curves for hatching, survival and reproduction fitted on effect data from the FREDERICA database. Changes in net reproductive rate R{sub 0} (offspring per individual) and asymptotic population growth rate {lambda} (dimensionless) were calculated over a range of dose rates in two marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Ophryotrocha diadema) and a freshwater gastropod (Physa heterostropha). Sensitivities in R{sub 0} and {lambda} to changes in life-history traits were analysed in each species. Results showed that fecundity has the strongest influence on R{sub 0}. A delay in age at first reproduction is most critical for {lambda} independent of the species. Fast growing species were proportionally more sensitive to changes in individual endpoints than slow growing species. Reduction of 10% in population {lambda} were predicted at dose rates of 6918, 5012 and 74,131 {mu}Gy{center_dot}h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, O. diadema and P. heterostropha respectively, resulting from a combination of strong effects on several individual endpoints in each species. These observations made 10%-reduction in {lambda} a poor criterion for population protection. The lowest significant changes in R{sub 0} and {lambda} were respectively predicted at a same dose rate of 1412 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, at 760 and 716 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in O. diadema and at 12,767 and 13,759 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in P. heterostropha. These values resulted from a combination of slight but significant changes in several measured endpoints and were lower than effective dose rates calculated for the individual level in O. diadema and P. heterostropha. The relevance of the experimental dataset (external irradiation rather

  9. Lifespan studies on different strains of mice exposed chronically to low levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, L.A.; Klein, A.K.; Cain, G.R.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Several strains of mice, chosen for their predisposition to immunohematological disorders, were exposed to low levels of 60 irradiation continuously for four weeks. All individuals were subsequently followed throughout their lifetimes. W/W/sup v/ mice, which are tyically subject to a stem cell deficiency, had a lower cumulative survival rate for the irradiated group than for the unirradiated controls. Irradiated RF/sub j/ mice had a dramatically lower cumulative survival rate than their unirradiated controls. Conversely, BXSB mice, which have a lumphoproliferative autoimmune disorder, had a higher cumulative survival rate after chronic irradiation than did unirradiated BXSBs. Irradiation had no effect upon the survival rate curves of the NZB strain, the murine model for Lupus Erythematosus

  10. Chronic blood irradiation: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.; Gillis, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation of blood is beneficial in suppressing early rejection of renal allografts and in treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Previously, nearly all blood irradiation has involved brief intermittent exposures with high dose rates. The small amount of data available involving chronic irradiation suggests that doses given chronically at lower rates are more effective in suppressing graft rejection. However, no suitably portable device has been available to permit chronic irradiation. This work has been directed toward developing a fully portable irradiator. After preliminary testing of a variety of source materials, 170 Tm was selected for its favorable beta energy, low cost, and compatibility with the fabrication requirements. The body of the irradiator is cast from polyfurfuryl alcohol with subsequent high-temperature conversion to vitreous carbon. By sequential layering of the alcohol and suspending of 169 Tm 2 O 3 in the midlayer, a unit is produced without any radiation exposure and with the source material contained on both a macro and a micro scale. Exposure of the unit to reactor neutrons produces 170 Tm without activation of the vitreous carbon. A 170 Tm irradiator giving a transit dose of 16 rads (100 ml/min flow) was connected in a carotid--jugular shunt on a 20-kg goat. Lymphocyte levels decreased to about 15 percent of the preexposure level during the first week and thereafter slowly rose to about 50 percent of preexposure levels 2 months after exposure. Reciprocal skin grafts made at the end of irradiation (12 days) were rejected at 12 days on the nonirradiated control and at 24 days on the irradiated goat. These results are consistent with data reported on chronically irradiated baboons even though the dose rate for the present test was only about one-fourth that for the baboons

  11. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  12. Level of coenzyme A and the activity of certain dehydrogenases under chronic low dose X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkasova, L A; Novik, V A; Tsychun, G F [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziologii

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of long-term x ray irradiation (cumulative dose 50 R) on: the content of co-enzyme A (KoA) in the brain and liver, the activity of a number of oxydizing reducing enzymes in the brain mitochondria and heart muscle, and the blood glucocorticoid content. It was established that the metabolism of brain and liver KoA is quite stable, the enzymes of the brain tricarbonic acids and pyruvate-dehydrogenase cycle are labile.

  13. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  14. Splenic irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukku, S.; Baboo, H.A.; Venkataratnam, S.; Vidyasagar, M.S.; Patel, N.L. (Department of Radiation Therapy, Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad, India)

    1983-01-01

    Results of splenic irradiation as the initial and only method of treatment are reported in 25 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Peripheral remission was induced in all the patients. Induction was achieved after a short period of 11 to 30 days in the majority of the patients, the longest period being 40 days. Several patients were in remission 9 months after treatment. The results are compared with those obtained by chemotherapy. Some advantages of splenic irradiation over chemotherapy are emphasized.

  15. Functional activity of symphathetic-adrenal system under chronic and fractionated irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musagalieva, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of rats at 5 R twice a week (total dose 400 R) significantly increased adrenaline concentration in the brain, liver and kidney and dophamine and DOPA concentration in liver tissue, adrenal glands and thymus. Fractionated irradiation (chronic irradiation at 400 R plus acute single irradiation at 400 R) increased the adrenaline level in the brain and heart muscle and led to a higher concentration of dophamine and DOPA in the liver, thymus and heart muscle [ru

  16. Thymic irradiation and chronic myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimaoka, K.; Sokal, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of Ph positive chronic myelogenous leukemia with a history of thymic irradiation are presented. Both patients received radiation therapy from low voltage x-ray equipment at two to three months of age. Leukemia developed 18 and 22 years later. Presentation, response to antileukemic therapy, and clinical course did not differ from that of other patients with this disease treated in our department

  17. A change in radioresistance of barley under chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Fedotov, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Mutation process and radioresistance of barley growing in an area with increased radiation background (beta radiation doss -0.6 R/day) have been analyzed. Experimental material is given with 250 kindred families where aberration level of chromosomes was analyzed in mitosis and meiosis during 4 years. It is shown that the first generations (M 1 -M 2 ) in experimental material demonstrate an increased level of structural mutations of chromosomes, while the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) demonstrate the level reduced to control. A higher radioresistance is observed in M 5 plants of chronically irradiated version as compared to nonirradiated version. It is suggested that increase in radioresistance results from the stimulation of repair systems with low doses of chronic irradiation as well as from the selection of a more radioresistant forms out of the population [ru

  18. Chronic irradiation of gonad tissue of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, G.; Maas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of chronically irradiating rats' testes with daily gamma radiation doses of (1.4 - 8.6) x 10 -2 Gy for 71-140 days were studied. After about 30 days irradiation, the testes weights decrease and level off at about 75 days. Irradiation also caused the germ cells in the seminiferous tubules to disappear progressively, completely when the dose exceeded 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day and partially with the lower doses. At doses below 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day, there was also a delay in the spermatogenesis cycle with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes appearing to reach a new equilibrium, the level of which depended on the dose. (U.K.)

  19. Influence of chronic internal and acute external irradiations on the critical tissues of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.P.; Ryasnenko, N.A.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Peculiarities of chronic internal and acute external irradiations of the critical (as for irradiation influence) plants part, meristem, are studied. In particular, the investigation has aimed to evaluate the level of doses, accumulated by plant tissues, of the chronic internal irradiation from radiocaesium incorporated by them, and to compare its possible effect to one caused by the acute external irradiation. It is shown that the effects of both chronic and acute irradiations have similar features, and it is assumed that they have the very same mechanisms. We think that such a parameter of the plant ability to accumulate radiocaesium as the ratio of its content in a root tip and in the whole root system is a very sensible and useful criterion to estimate the irradiation influence on plants

  20. Adaptation dynamics of laboratory populations of Drosophila Melanogaster to low dose chronic ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnullin, V.G.; Yushkova, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In genetically non-uniform populations D. melanogaster in conditions of a chronic irradiation in a doze 10-11 about sGy/generation dynamics parameters of populations was investigated. It is established, that number of individuals in irradiated populations is lower, than in control. It is revealed, that viability of populations undergone to a chronic irradiation depends on their genotype. The gradual increase in fruitfulness, viability of individuals and decrease in a level of lethal mutations in a number of generations after of an irradiation in low doses is caused by adaptable opportunities of populations. (authors)

  1. Study of the biochemical indicators of chronic irradiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, L D; Benko, A B; Gyenge, L; Predmerszky, T

    1976-01-01

    Daily urinary excretion of pseudouridine, creatinine and creatine of chronically irradiated Wistar rats was estimated. The irradiation conditions were: 60Co gamma source, dose-rate 10 rad/day, total dose 200, 400 and 600 rad. Control groups were kept under similar conditions. Urine samples were taken three times after the end of the irradiation period. It was found that: (1) pseudouridine excretion seems more suitable for indicating radiation injury than the creatine/creatinine ratio in chronic irradiation in rats; (ii) there are significant changes in dose dependence of pseudouridine excretion in the post-irradiation period; (iii) a new method for pseudouridine estimation gives closely similar data to those of earlier investigations.

  2. Lipid metabolism in rat tissues exposed to the chronic effects of γ-irradiation and ubiquinone Q9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic γ-irradiation of rats with the daily dose of 0.129 Gy activates the synthesis of various classes of lipids in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells and induces lipid accumulation in these tissues. Feeding of rats with the antioxidant, ubiquinone Q-9, under conditions of chronic irradiation causes a considerable normalization of lipogenesis and levels of the lipid concentration in the tissues of animals irradiated with the dose of 20 Gy

  3. Paramecium aurelia as a cellular model used for studies of the biological effects of natural ionizing radiation or chronic low-level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Tixador, R.; Croute, F.; Richoilley, G.

    1979-01-01

    Paramecium aurelia appears to be a very suitable object for investigating the biological effects of natural ionizing radiation or the influence of low doses of radiation. The biological effects of ionizing radiation on cell proliferation kinetics were tested. It is shown that radio-protection or chronic exposure to very low doses of 60 Co gamma rays induce different changes in cell growth rate. Special experimental techniques can help to obtain more obvious results using cells more sensitive to the stimulating effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  5. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M.

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of 14 C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy)

  6. Splenic irradiation before bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratwohl, A.; Hermans, J.; Biezen, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 229 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase were randomized between 1986 and 1990 to receive or not receive additional splenic irradiation as part of their conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both groups, 115 patients with and 114 patients without splenic irradiation, were very similar regarding distribution of age, sex, donor/recipient sex combination, conditioning, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prevention method and blood counts at diagnosis or prior to transplant. 135 patients (59%) are alive as of October 1995 with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. 52 patients have relapsed (23%), 26 patients in the irradiated, 26 patients in the non-irradiated group (n.s.) with a relapse incident at 6 years of 28%. The main risk factor for relapse was T-cell depletion as the method for GvHD prevention, and an elevated basophil count in the peripheral blood prior to transplant. Relapse incidence between patients with or without splenic irradiation was no different in patients at high risk for relapse, e.g. patients transplanted with T-cell-depleted marrows (P = n.s.) and in patients with low risk for relapse, e.g. patients transplanted with non-T-cell-depleted transplants and basophil counts 3% basophils in peripheral blood). In this patient group, relapse incidence was 11% at 6 years with splenic irradiation but 32% in the non-irradiated group (P = 0.05). Transplant-related mortality was similar whether patients received splenic irradiation or not. This study suggests an advantage in splenic irradiation prior to transplantation for CML in this subgroup of patients and illustrates the need for tailored therapy. (Author)

  7. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d -1 ). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 ampersand 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity

  8. Clinical effects of chronic irradiation in conditions of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Kostyuchenko, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    Threshold doses for des adaptation syndrome development during chronic external and internal irradiation were found. Effects of small dose accumulation were established. Chronic irradiation is resulted in different dystrophic processes, psychosomatic violations and in increase of stochastic effects

  9. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems, effects of low-level chronic irradiation on embryonic development, effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems, and teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Roesijadi, G.; Emery, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is conceivable, and possible, that with increasing applications of nuclear energy, greater quantities of potentially harmful radionuclides will be released to the environment. This may be particularly true for advanced reactor designs such as the fusion reactor where radionuclides, principally tritium, may be expected to escape from the plant both in gaseous and liquid effluents in quantities significantly greater than for present PWR or BWR designs. Foreseeing such contingencies, the research programs described herein are in response to the need to measure the potential radiation effects of tritium releases on individuals, and ultimately populations and biotic communities. As a first approach, our efforts are directed to determine effects of low-level chronic exposures on developing embryo and larval stages, clearly the most radiosensitive. The anticipated increase in the release of beryllium and lithium from mining, refining, and fabrication of materials used during construction of fusion reactors has also caused concern as to potential adverse effects on the environment. Accordingly, FY-78 fusion related research will include efforts to study the metabolism of each metal in the living organism, and to determine at what levels toxicity may be expected. Fusion related research will also include preliminary experiments on the effects of low-level magnetic fields. It is conceivable that magnetic fields of 70 to 450 gauss will be encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. Also, those personnel assigned to the areas immediately surrounding the reactor may be exposed

  10. Modeling analysis of the lymphocytopoiesis dynamics in chronically irradiated residents of Techa riverside villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, Olga A. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and Hygiene, Moscow (Russian Federation); Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Dimov, Georgy P. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    A biologically motivated dynamical model of the lymphocytopoietic system in irradiated humans is applied here to analyze the data obtained under hematological examinations of residents of Techa riverside villages. Those people were exposed to chronic irradiation with varying dose rates, due to the radioactive contamination of the river basin by the Mayak Production Association. Modeling studies revealed the relationship between the dynamics of the lymphocytopoietic system in the examined individuals and the variation of dose rate over the considered period of time. It is found that the developed model is capable of reproducing the decreased level of blood lymphocyte concentration observed during the period of maximum radiation exposure, the recovery processes in the system observed during the period of decreasing dose rate, as well as the enhanced mitotic activity of bone marrow precursor cells in this hematopoietic lineage observed during the entire period under consideration. Mechanisms of these effects of chronic irradiation on the human lymphocytopoietic system are elucidated based on the applied model. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency of the developed model in the analysis, investigation, and prediction of effects of chronic irradiation with varying dose rate on the human lymphocytopoietic system. In particular, the developed model can be used for predicting any radiation injury of this vital system in people exposed to chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events, such as anthropogenic radiation accidents or radiological terroristic attacks. (orig.)

  11. Medium-Level Laser in Chronic Tinnitus Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dejakum, K.; Piegger, J.; Plewka, C.; Gunkel, A.; Thumfart, W.; Kudaibergenova, S.; Goebel, G.; Kral, F.; Freysinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser) or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue sc...

  12. Use of chronic irradiation in formation of new rape genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Zukalova, H.; Cerny, J.; Folk, A.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of hybrid plants of F 1 generation obtained by crossing the Canadian rape without erucic acid with European winter varieties containg this acid, doubled the frequency of winter genotypes and increased significantly the frequency of required recombinations of winter character and absence of erucic acid in F 2 -M 2 . Genotypes with a more favourable ratio between linoleic and linolenic acids were obtained in the irradiated F 2 -M 2 population. The obtained radio-induced mutants are used for the production of new varieties of winter rape without erucic acid at the Slapy Breeding Station. (author)

  13. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  14. Rat behaviour reactions and brain synaptic membrane lipids under the chronical gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, T.P.; Medvinskaya, N.I.; Potekhina, N.I.; Kolomijtseva, I.K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of low level chronical ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensor, visual, odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15 and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatdylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased

  15. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of /sup 14/C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy).

  16. Life span of animals under acute and chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The study has been designed to see to what extent a single and long-term external and internal irradiations shorten the life span of animals. LDsub(50/30) for certain radionuclides whose absorbed doses show different spatiotemporal distributions are considered. It has been found that as far as the average life span is concerned, 137 Cs and 90 Sr have approximately the same effect whether they enter the body on a single occasion or repeatedly. With chronic total-body external gamma-irradiation, the decrease in life span is 5 times smaller than than with single-occasion irradiation. The main reason for the observed differences are found to be differences in the rates with which the absorbed doses are formed

  17. The effects of chronic low dose irradiation on drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnullin, V.G.; Moskalev, A.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Yuraneva, I.N.; Taskaev, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of the chronic gamma-irradiation in the dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h on the rate of genetic variability and on the life-span in the laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster with genotypic distinguishes in mobile genetic elements and defects in the DNA repair processes. It is shown that the radiation-induced alteration of the traits under study depends from genotype of investigated strains. In the different strains we have observed an increase as well as a decrease of the mutation rate and life-span. Also it was established that irradiation leads to the frequencies of the GD-sterility and mutability of the snw and h(w+) in the P-M and H-E dysgenic crosses. The obtained results suggest that mobile genetic elements play an important role in the forming of genetic effects in response to low dose irradiation. (author)

  18. Genetic efficiency of low-dose chronic irradiation in mammals and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, R.; Ryabokon, N.; Smolich, I.; Slukvin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of biological effects of low-dose chronic irradiation is central radiobiological problem and seems to be very important for human monitoring and risk assessment Since 1986 we are engaged in studying genetic effects of low-dose chronic irradiation in natural populations of small mammals (bank vole - Clethrioiiomys glareolus) inhabiting radiocontaminated monitoring sites, in laboratory hybrid mice CBA*C57BI/6 j exposed to chronic irradiation at radiocontaminated sites, as well as in pond carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in fish farms in areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The mean ground depositions in monitoring sites were 8-2330 kBq/m 2 and the mean bottom depositions in ponds were 52-3235 Bq/kg for Cs 137. We used conventional cytogenetics and genetics tests [1-3] and the following approaches in studying on genetic effects of low-dose chronic irradiation: Radiation exposures from external γ- and internal α, β, γ-irradiation from incorporated radionuclides were estimated for each specimen tested. Regression analysis of dose-effect relationships based on comparison of individual genetic end-points with individual absorbed doses was carried out We observed statistically significant changes in the frequencies of genetic end-points, which have been studied in somatic and germ cells, as well as in embryos of irradiated mammals and fish. So, the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in bank vole populations had up to 7-fold increase in comparison with background and pre-accident levels. It is of great importance to emphasize high radio-sensitivity of fertilized eggs (zygotes) and pond carp, embryos produced by chronically irradiated parents. Regression analysis allowed to reveal dependence of the studied parameters' frequencies on radiation exposure namely on the concentrations of basic dose forming radionuclides, absorbed dose rate and whole body absorbed dose. In most cases, dose-effect relationships were better approximated by non

  19. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Harada, Takashi; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-12-27

    Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm(2) per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (pknee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee.

  20. Gamma greenhouse for chronic irradiation in plant mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Rusli Ibrahim; Sobri Hussein

    2009-01-01

    The gamma greenhouse makes use of chronic irradiation from a 137 Cs source (double encapsulated 800 Ci caesium-137 pencil) producing a low dose rate, which is considered to be more effective in recovering and producing useful mutants in comparison to acute irradiation. The irradiation facility comprises an open topped irradiation area 30 m in diameter, protected by a partial concrete wall with entry maze and site topography. For safety, the facility is protected by a sophisticated interlock system, which only allows the source to be exposed when all the prerequisite safety conditions are met, and automatically returns the source to the safe storage position if any safety device is compromised. The main irradiation area is further protected by a 300 m diameter exclusion zone that is also protected by the safety interlock circuit. The facility can accommodate a wide range of plant materials such as seeds, seedlings in pots, cuttings, callus, somatic embryos and suspension cell cultures. Plant samples will be exposed to low dose gamma radiation over long periods of time (hours, weeks, months), depending on their nature and sensitivity. There was evidence whereby exposure of tissue culture materials to continuous low dose gamma irradiation resulting in considerably elevated somaclonal variation frequency without negative effects on culture response. It is not surprising that in vitro culture generating somaclonal variation together with in vitro mutagenesis inducing mutation lead to a higher variation frequency due to possible addition of mutagenic effect by in vitro mutagenesis to somaclonal variability arising from in vitro culture as well as the interaction between them. (Author)

  1. Comparative radioresistance of chronically irradiated populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineva, S.B.; Abramov, V.I.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The radioresistance of seeds of populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. growing for 5 years in the regions with different levels of radioactive contamination within 30 km zone of Chernobyl NPP was studied. The analysis of comparative radiosensitivity by root test was performed. It has been shown that plants from arabidopsis population growing under chronic irradiation did not gain an increased radioresistance. The data obtained shown that they are more radiosensitive

  2. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  3. Genetic variability in chronic irradiated plant populations - Polymorphism and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chronic irradiated plant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Polina Y.; Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The gene pool of natural population is constantly changing in order to provide the greatest fitness at this time. Ability of population to adapt to changing environmental conditions depends on genetic polymorphism of traits which are operates by selection. Chronic stress exposure can change amount or structure intra-population variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the relationships between genetic polymorphism and stress factors, such as radiation exposure. This studies my assist in the development of new bio-indication methods. Materials and methods: Studying sites: Bryansk region is the most contaminated region of Russia as a result of Chernobyl accident. The initial activity by {sup 137}Cs on this territory reached 1 MBq/m{sup 2} above surface. Our study conducted in several districts of Bryansk region, which are characterized the most dose rate. Experimental sites similar to climate characteristics, stand of trees is homogeneous, pine trees take up a significant part of phytocenosis. Heavy metals content in soils and cones be within background. Dose rates vary from 0.14 to 130 mGy/year. Object: Pinus sylvestris L.,the dominant tree species in North European and Asian boreal forests. Scots pine has a long maturation period (18-20 month), which means that significant DNA damage may accumulate in the undifferentiated stem cells, even at low doses (or dose rates) during exposure to low concentrations of contaminants Isozyme analysis: We evaluated isozyme polymorphism of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutatione reductase and glutatione peroxidase. Analysis of enzymes activities: We chose key enzymes of antioxidant system for this experiment: superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Results and conclusions: We estimated frequency of each allele in reference and experimental populations. based It was showed that frequency of rare alleles increase in chronic irradiated populations, i.e. increase the sampling variance

  4. Melanin is Effective Radioprotector against Chronic Irradiation and Low Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, I.; Plotnikova, S.; Kostrova, L.; Molophei, V.; Dubovic, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Earlier we found pigment melanin ability to reduce significantly genetic consequences of acute irradiation in animals (drosophila, mice) and cultured human cells and to decrease strongly 'genetic load' accumulated in irradiated populations. The influence of melanin isolated from human hair on genetic effects of chronic irradiation in mice has been investigated. Melanin suspension or distilled water were injected every day into stomach of animals during 1-3 Gy g-irradiation with dose rate 0.007Gy/h. Levels of reciprocal translocations in germ cells were analysed cytologically. Melanin influence on genetic effect of chronic irradiation was shown to be even more effective than that of acute one. Radioadaptive response was used in order to study melanin influence on low radiation dose effect. We have demonstrated adaptive response in mice germ cells and bone marrow cells frequency of chromosomal aberrations in these cells after 0.2+1.5 Gy was about half as much as 1.7 Gy effect. Melanin injection 2 hours before the conditioning dose of 0.2 Gy resulted in the same mutation level as before 1.7 Gy adaptive response was not found. If melanin was applied between the first and second doses, both adaptive reaction and protection led to 4-fold decrease in aberration level. Thus melanin is able to remove completely low radiation dose effect. Complete toxicological tests have been conducted. The pigment melanin is not toxic and does not possess a mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic activity. Melanin could be used in medicine for people protection against genetic consequences of long-term irradiation at low doses. (author)

  5. Chronic irradiation as an ecological factor affecting genetic population structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Kalabushkin, B.A.; Rubanovich, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic structure of two Centaurea scabiosa L. populations was studied by frequency distribution of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) locus genotypes. The experimental population has been growing under conditions of chronic irradiation, with the dose per generation amounting to 1.2 to 25.5 Gy. In it, mutational variants are observed with a frequency of 5.4.10(-3)-4.5.10(-2) per generation (as compared to control population frequency at 5.4.10(-4)). Indexes for heterozygosity, mean number of genotypes, and effective number of alleles were higher in the experimental population. Segregation analysis revealed no differences in viability in the control population, and all genotypic combinations were found to be nearly neutral. In the experimental population, however, significant differences in relative viability of the genotypes were disclosed. The relative viability of heterozygotes for mutant allele C' was nearly maximum, while heterozygotes for other mutant alleles showed minimum viability. We reach the conclusion that the differences in genetic structure of the populations under investigation can be explained by the chronic irradiation factor that brought out differences in adaptability of both normal and mutant genotypes. The suggestion is that intra-locus interactions of the C' allele with normal alleles determine plant resistance to a wide range of unfavorable environmental conditions

  6. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  7. Chronic irradiation effects on variability of maize and teosinte hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Ledecky, J.; Holas, J.

    1981-01-01

    The plants of the F 1 generation of the back-crosses of maize and teosinte, radiomutant RTZM no. 1 (B1 and B2), were exposed to chronic irradiation with doses from 1000 to 2000 R in a gamma field during their growing season. In the M 4 to F 4 progenies of the B1 hybrid, the correlation between lateness and a higher number of cobs, typical of teosinte, line RTZM no. 1, was significantly distorted. M 4 to F 4 generation lines, characterized by the required higher number of cobs and earliness and by a medium to good combining ability in silage mass yield, were selected from both back-cross hybrids. (author)

  8. Medium-level laser in chronic tinnitus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejakum, K; Piegger, J; Plewka, C; Gunkel, A; Thumfart, W; Kudaibergenova, S; Goebel, G; Kral, F; Freysinger, W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser) or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue scales measuring the perceived loudness of tinnitus, the annoyance associated with tinnitus, and the degree of attention paid to tinnitus as well as psycho-acoustical matches of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The results did show only very moderate temporary improvement of tinnitus. Moreover, no statistically relevant differences between laser and placebo group could be found. We conclude that medium-level laser therapy cannot be regarded as an effective treatment of chronic tinnitus in our therapy regime considering the limited number of patients included in our study.

  9. Medium-Level Laser in Chronic Tinnitus Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dejakum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue scales measuring the perceived loudness of tinnitus, the annoyance associated with tinnitus, and the degree of attention paid to tinnitus as well as psycho-acoustical matches of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The results did show only very moderate temporary improvement of tinnitus. Moreover, no statistically relevant differences between laser and placebo group could be found. We conclude that medium-level laser therapy cannot be regarded as an effective treatment of chronic tinnitus in our therapy regime considering the limited number of patients included in our study.

  10. Plasma TGF beta level in rats after hemithoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    Changes in TGF-beta plasma levels were observed 18 weeks after hemithoracic irradiation in rats. This coincides with an increase in the breathing frequency, being most pronounced between 22 and 28 weeks after irradiation. The correlation suggests a potential role of the circulating TGF-beta in the

  11. Genetic effects of low-level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent estimates of the genetic effects of radiation by two widely recognized committees (BEIR III and UNSCEAR 1977) are based to a large extent on data collected in mice using either the specific-locus method or the approach of empirically determining the nature and extent of radiation-induced genetic damage to the skeleton. Both committees made use of doubling-dose and direct methods of estimating genetic hazard. Their estimates can be applied to assessments of risk resulting from medical irradiation in terms both of risk to the population at large and to the individual

  12. Hormonal levels after ovarian X-irradiation of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driancourt, M.A.; Blanc, M.R.; Mariana, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on ovulation rate, cyclicity and progesterone and FSH levels in Ile-de-France ewes (4 control and 16 irradiated) after they were treated during the breeding season were reported. The doses used (800 and 2400 R) destroyed 50% of all size classes of the follicular population. Ovulation occurred in 87% of the treated ewes (ovulation rate = 1) when they were irradiated 24 h after luteolysis; 78% of the corpora lutea resulting from these ovulations were normal as to length and progesterone production. FSH in treated ewes started to increase 20 h after treatment and remained higher than in the controls until ovulation time. Later, while these levels were similar between groups on the day of ovulation, high ovulatory levels persisted in irradiated ewes. In the next cycles, the length of the follicular phases, ovulation rate and progesterone and FSH levels were similar between groups

  13. Twenty years research of chronic gamma-ray irradiation on seed crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years of the works on the chronic gamma-ray irradiation of seed crops are summarized. Radiosensitivity and the mutation rate per unit exposure varies not only with the genetic factor but also depend on whether treatment is given to seeds or growing plants. The relation between the radiosensitivity of seeds and growing plants also varies with plant species. In Hordeum, Avena and Nicotiana, the highest mutation rate obtained by the chronic irradiation of growing plants is similar to that in seed irradiation, but in Oryza and Setalia, chronic irradiation was two to three times more effective for attaining a higher mutation rate. The mutation spectrum also varies with the mutagen, the factors modifying the effects of mutagen, and the dose of mutagen. The suitability of a particular mutagenic treatment to a species should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of mutagenic treatment. For instance, NaN 3 is highly mutagenic to barley, but less mutagenic to rice. The gene ea7 controlling the maturing earliness of barley seems to be mutable in chronic irradiation, and the mutants obtained by chronic irradiation are healthy. The author emphasized that the chronic irradiation at the gamma-field is a useful mutagenic treatment, even though some negative results have been reported in European countries. (Kaihara, S.)

  14. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  15. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, D.F.; EL-Shafie, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.; Alkady, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  16. Studies of deep levels in He+-irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.C.; Barbot, J.F.; Blanchard, C.

    1997-01-01

    Deep levels created in n-epitaxial silicon by alpha particle irradiation in the dose range from 10 9 to 10 13 particles/cm 2 have been investigated by the deep level transient spectroscopy technique and capacitance-voltage profiling. Under low fluence irradiation at least four main electron traps have been observed. With further increase in irradiation fluence, two new levels located at E c -0.56 eV and E c -0.64 eV appear on the high-temperature side of the DLTS signal. The slope change observed in the amplitude variations of the singly negative charge state of the divacancy versus the dose takes place when these two new levels appear. This suggests that both are multivacancy-related defects. After annealing at 350 C for 15 min, all electron traps have disappeared. Moreover, no shallow levels are created during the annealing. (orig.)

  17. Cytogenetic investigations of persons exposed to professional chronic low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, V.; Mitev, L.; Petrunov, P.; Vesselinova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of long term influence of low-doses occupational irradiation is connected with the real assessment of their consequences. The current cytogenetic investigations were done on persons working under occupational chronic external partial irradiation. Accumulated doses of external irradiation are surveyed. Data give ground for suggestion about the relationship between accumulated dose and chromosomal aberrations. The additional damage factors (diagnostic investigations, chemical substances, tobacco addict) have done the more significant influence upon aberrations appearance increasing

  18. The development and characterization of two types of chronic responses in irradiated mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis to be tested is that there are two distinct types of chronic responses in irradiated normal tissues, each resulting from damage to different cell populations in the tissue. The first is a sequela of chronic epithelial depletion in which the tissue's integrity cannot be maintained. The other response is due to cell loss in the connective tissue and/or vascular stroma, i.e. a 'primary' chronic response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis in the murine colon by first, establishing a model of each chronic response and then, by determining whether the responses differed in timing of expression, histology, and expression of specific collagen types. The model of late damage used was colonic obstructions/strictures induced by a single dose of 27 Gy ('consequential' response) and two equal doses of 14.75 Gy (t = 10 days) ('primary' response). 'Consequential' lesions appeared as early as 5 weeks after 27 Gy and were characterized by a deep mucosal ulceration and a thickened fibrotic serosa containing excessive accumulations of collagen types I and III. Both types were commingled in the scar at the base of the ulcer. Fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen types I and III mRNA 10 weeks prior to measurable increases in collagen. A significant decrease in the ratio of collagen types I:III was associated with the 'consequential' response at 4-5 months post-irradiation. The 'primary' response, on the other hand, did not appear until 40 weeks after the split dose even though the total dose delivered was approximately the same as that for the 'consequential' response. The 'primary' response was characterized with an intact mucosa and a thickened fibrotic submucosa which contained excessive amounts of only collagen type I. An increased number of fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen type I mRNA nearly 25 weeks before collage type I levels were increased

  19. Effectiveness of gamma-ray chronic irradiation on in vitro mutagenesis in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeki Nagatomi

    2002-01-01

    Effects of chronic or acute irradiations were compared using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation in model crops. In chrysanthemum, combined method with irradiation and in vitro culture can solve the problem of chimera formation in induced mutants, and provided 10 times greater mutation frequency than usual plant irradiation. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum, whereas, the acute culture indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum in chrysanthemum. Flower color mutation of the regenerators could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts are supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation on using explants with specific gene loci activated. In sugarcane, the chronic culture method extended quantitative characteristics of regenerated clonal lines toward not only the negative but positive direction. On the other hand, the acute culture method showed lower quantitative mutation as the irradiation dose rose. In chronic irradiation, regenerated mutant lines in sugarcane indicate generally little decrease in chromosome number and wider variations with relatively less damage. In acute irradiation, regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers in sugarcane mutant lines as the irradiation dose rose. There is close positive correlation between chromosome number and biomass of each mutant line. The chromosome number estimation is a proper indicator to monitor damage of adopted irradiation methods. Possible reason why the chronic culture methods indicate higher frequency and wider spectrum on mutation is demonstrated. . Problems solved and prospect of chronic irradiation and in vitro techniques are discussed. (Author)

  20. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  1. Changes in oil composition after chronic irradiation of winter and spring zero-erucic rape hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    Hybrid plants of the F1 generation of erucic-free spring Canadian rape and some winter rape cultivars containing erucic acid were irradiated in a gamma field with doses ranging between 5973 and 329 R during vegetation. Chronic irradiation increased significantly the frequency of zero- or low-erucic genotypes in the segregating F2 generation. Chronic irradiation disturbed the correlations between the contents of the studied fatty acids in the hybrid F1, F2 and F3 progenies. Lines of zero- and low-erucic winter rapes with a reduced content of linolenic acid and increased content of linoleic acid were obtained by selection. (author)

  2. Kinetics of lymphohematopoiesis and leukemia induction in chronically whole-body irradiated RF/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, G.R.; Stitzel, K.A.; Fox, L.A.; Klein, A.K.; Dyck, J.A.; Shimizu, J.A.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Lymphohematopoietic progenitor cell populations (bone marrow CFU-GM, splenic CFU-BL) were quantitated in unirradiated and in chronically irradiated (17.5 R/day for 4 weeks) RF/J mice and control CAF 1 mice. RF/J mice were found capable of making substantial numbers of bone marrow CFU-GM but less so than the control strain CAF 1 . Significant strain differences were also seen in ability to form splinic B lymphocyte progenitor cells (CFU-BL). Unirradiated and irradiated RF mice produced over three times as many CFU-BL as CAF 1 mice. Throughout the period of protracted irradiation, followed by a twelve week recovery period, CFU-BL and CFU-GM were depressed less in the RF strain than the CAF 1 strain. This was due to an overcompensatory regenerative response which surpassed homostatic baseline levels. Despite strain and strain x dose differences in CFU-BL and CFU-GM, no significant strain x dose relationships were seen in circulati leukocyte counts. The increased susceptibility of RF mice to radiation-induced leukemia may be related to either inherent depressed regulatory control or the persistence of progenitor cell compartments. An apparent increased cell turnover rate in both CFU-BL and CFU-GM in RF mice following radiation damage may likewise play a contributory role

  3. Prostaglandin levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats results in the release of hydrolases from lysosomes, an increase in lysosomal enzyme activities, and changes in the prostaglandin levels in spleen and liver tissues. A transient increase in the concentration of prostaglandins E and F and leakage of lysosomal hydrolases occurred in both spleen and liver tissues 3-6 hours after the animals were irradiated. Maximal values for hydrolase activities, prostaglandin E and F content, and release of lysosomal enzymes were found 4 days postirradiation in rat spleens whereas in the liver only slight increases were observed at this time period for prostaglandin F levels. On day 7 there was a final rise in the spleen's prostaglandin E and F concentrations and leakage of hydrolases from the lysosomes before returning to near normal values on day 11. The prostaglandin F concentration in liver was also slightly elevated on the 7th day after irradiation and then decreased to control levels. (author)

  4. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Murata, M; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative effect on skin photoaging induced by short term UV irradiation, however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of probiotics on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in hairless mice. Mice were irradiated with UVB three times weekly and orally administered B. breve B-3 (2×10(9) cfu/mouse /day) for 7 weeks. Nonirradiated mice and UVB-irradiated mice without probiotic treatment were used as controls. B. breve B-3 significantly suppressed the changes of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, epidermal thickening and attenuated the damage to the tight junction structure and basement membrane induced by chronic UVB irradiation. Administration of B. breve B-3 tended to suppress the UV-induced interleukin-1β production in skin (P=0.09). These results suggest that B. breve B-3 could potentially be used to prevent photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation.

  5. Effects of chronic whole-body gamma irradiation on cell mediated immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Taylor, N.J.; Wilson, F.D.; DeRock, E.W.; Wiger, N.

    1979-01-01

    The whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test has been used to estimate the effects of chronic, whole-body, gamma irradiation in the dog. At lower dose levels, 0.07 and 0.33 R/day to cumulative dose of about 50 and 250 R, there was no change in cell mediated immunity. Dogs at high dose levels were affected. Dogs which succumbed to aplastic anemia at high doses had reduced immunological responses. Dogs which survived these high doses showed a temporary depression. When aplastic anemia was initially noted, there was a differential response to PHA and Con-A stimulation. The response to the former mitogen was profoundly reduced, but Con-A stimulated cells were unaffected, indicative of the development of radioresistant cell lines. As the dogs progressed toward aplastic anemia, all T lympocytes were negatively affected

  6. Response of Boreal forest tree canopy cover to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    A section of the Canadian Boreal forest was irradiated chronically by a point source of 137 Cs from 1973 to 1986. Tree canopy cover was measured at permanently marked locations during the pre-irradiation, irradiation and post-irradiation phases, spanning a period of two decades. The tree canopy was severely affected at dose rates greater than 10 mGy/h delivered chronically. The canopy of sensitive coniferous tree species, such as Abies balsamea and Picea Mariana, decreased at dose rates greater than 2 mGy/h, but in some cases the tree canopy was replaced by more resistant species, such as Populus tremuloides and Salix bebbiana. Effects on canopy cover could not be detected at dose rates less than 0.1 mGy/h. Even at dose rates of 5 mGy/h, the forest canopy is recovering six years after irradiation stopped. (author)

  7. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  8. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, N.S.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Andreeva, A.V.; Zvereva, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  9. Clinical effects of chronic low doses irradiation (11 years after Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.Y.; Bebeshko, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of clinical effects of influence low doses of irradiation as the result of the Chernobyl accident on the human organism is presented in this report. The results of the investigations are concerning to changings in different organs and systems of inhabitants of the contamination territories and among clean-up workers. Increasing of morbidity of digestive and nervous systems is notified. Increase of thyroid cancer, chronic thyroidities and hypothyreouses is resisted in clean-up workers in dynamic observation. Highly morbidity of bronchopulmonal system and blood circulation system is revealed. High level of compensative and adaptive reactions of immune and hemopoietic systems is notified. Excesses of leukemias and lymphomas in inhabitants of the contamination territories is not demonstrated but tendency for increasing quantity cases of oncohematological diseases (leukemias, lymphomas, MDS) among clean-up workers IV-VII 1986 are absent. A dynamic of health state of children injured as a result of Chernobyl accident is characterized with continues negative tendencies. (author)

  10. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K. [UMR CNRS 6553 ' Ecobio' , Equipe Radiations Environnement Adaptation. Universite de RENNES 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat 14, RENNES Cedex F 35042 (France)

    2006-10-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population. (author)

  11. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K.

    2006-01-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population

  12. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetskaya, N.B.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10 -7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants at gamma greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Activities on chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants have started since April 2010. Among plants which have been irradiated were landscaping plants such as hibiscus, canna, turnera, plumeria, amaryllis, and ornamental plants such as orchid, heliconia, cucurma and sanseviera, as well as vanilla. The main objectives at the initial stage were to develop database for optimum chronic irradiation dose and suitable experimental design for each species. The ultimate aim is to obtain new varieties of ornamental plants with flower and horticultural traits of commercial values and landscaping plants suitable for Malaysian landscape such as large and colourful flower, longer bloom period and frequent flowering. This paper discusses irradiation activities for ornamental plants in Gamma Greenhouse including preparation of samples, growing medium and screening plots, selection/determination of optimum dose and dose rate, collection of data and selection of mutants. (author)

  14. Dynamics of genetic processes in chronically irradiated populations of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabokon', N.I.; Goncharova, R.I.; Smolich, I.I.; Kapitanova, N.P.; Nikitchenko, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive features of dynamics of mutagenesis in mammalian populations under chronic low-intensive irradiation were first revealed. The main of them is gradual increase in mutability in somatic cells and embryonal lethality during series of irradiated generations of animals (bank vole - Clethrionomys glareolus). The data obtained strongly suggest that there are oppositely directed processes in natural populations after irradiation of more than 20 generations of animals: on the one hand, accumulation of mutations (genetic load of populations) and pre-mutation events which increase genome instability of germ and somatic cells in consecutive generations of animals, and on the other, formation of genetic radio adaptation through better functioning protection systems. In this period of micro evolution in chronically irradiated populations, the frequencies of genetic damages could be higher if the radiation adaptation doesn't form. (authors)

  15. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Carnes, B.A.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    Male beagles chronically exposed to low daily doses of 60 Co γ rays show one of three hematopoietic patterns, which reflect three different distinctly responding subgroups: (1) low radioresistance with progressing aplastic anemia and shortened survival ( -S -AA subgroup); (2) high radioresistance with a complex of progressing myeloproliferative disorders ( + R-MPD group); or (3) high radioresistance with other nonMPD syndromes ( + R-nonMPD group). Blood cell levels (granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets) were assessed and fitted to a flexible polynomial spline model. Results showed that relative to the overall magnitude of blood cell loss as well as to the maximum rate of suppression during the initial phase, the subgroups were generally ranked - S-AA >> + R-MPD > + R-nonMPD. Relative to the overall strength of the recovery response, the subgroups were generally ranked + R-MPD > + R-nonMPD >>> - S-AA. In terms of overall maintenance levels of circulating blood cells during the recovery phase, however, the + R-nonMPD subgroup consistently exhibited stronger responses than the + R-MPD subgroup. These results support our contention that selected subgroups of dogs have strong propensities to specific hematopathologies (i.e. aplastic anemia and myeloid leukemia) under chronic irradiation and that these pathology-prone animals exhibit a series of marked differential hematopoietic responses during early preclinical phases, which serve effectively to prognosticate subsequent pathological progression. (author)

  16. Specific features of the hemorrhagic syndrome manifestation under chronic, prolonged and acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlashchenko, N.I.; Gorlov, V.G.; Maksimova, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    To make the hemorrhagic syndrome manifest itself, two phenomena are necessary to coincide in time, they are: a fall in the elasticity of the vascular wall and reduction in the amount of thrombocytes in blood. Depending upon the radiation dose, the vascular wall and the thrombocytic function may be either simultaneously impaired after acute exposure) or dissociated (following prolonged irradiation). Chronic irradiation at small (subliminal) dose rates fails to induce hemorrhagic disorders and death of rats caused by pathologic hemophilia

  17. Response change in winter-wheat types to the pathogen complex under chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, V.E.; Lysenkov, V.I.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Disease reactions in plants that have been gamma-irradiated are discussed. Damage to different types of soft winter wheat, due to pathogenic fungi, is evaluated. The Mironovski Jubilee variety showed high resistance to the leaf form of powdery mildew, along with the opposite phenomenon of a high susceptibility to the stem form of this disease. Chronic gamma irradiation of plants of this variety increased the susceptibility to this disease

  18. Enlargement of induced variations by combined method of chronic irradiations with callus culture in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of gamma ray irradiation and callus culture upon induced variation of the regeneratives. The populations regenerated from young leaf tissue of chronic irradiated plnats grown under a gamma field receiving a total dose of 300 and 100 Gy, showed rather wider variation on quantitative characters than plants from populations of the non-irradiated. This variation extended in both negative and positive directions. Analysis of variance also revealed that variation and heritability in broad sense of most agronomic characters increased significantly among the subclones as the irradiation done rose. Principal component analysis also indicated that the subclones from the irradiated population were more variable than the non-irradiated. Such variation with higher heritability could be transmitted to the following generations by clonal propagation and utilized as genetic sources in mutation breeding. The combined method with chronic irradiation followed by tissue culture is evaluated as an effective method of widening mutation spectrum and increasing mutation frequency in regenerated plants. In addition, this method is valid to improve any crop species which can regenerate plants through callus culture. (author)

  19. Changing patterns of radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitors from chronically irradiated dogs prone either to aplastic anemia or to myeloproliferative disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.

    1990-01-01

    Hematopoietic patterns have been assessed in chronic 60 Co gamma irradiated dogs during preclinical phases of evolving aplastic anemia (AA) or myeloproliferative disease (MPD), principally myeloid leukemia. The results support the concept that acquired radioresistance of vital granulocyte/monocyte lineage-committed hematopoietic progenitors is temporally, perhaps causally, linked to the processes mediating hematopoietic recovery and accommodation under chronic irradiation, and in turn to preclinical events of evolving MPD. In addition, the marked differential responses of progenitors to gamma and neutron irradiation in vitro might suggest differences in the nature of cellular lesions elicited by chronic gamma irradiation, in vivo. (author)

  20. Changing patterns of radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitors from chronically irradiated dogs prone either to aplastic anemia or to myeloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Hematopoietic patterns have been assessed in chronic {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated dogs during preclinical phases of evolving aplastic anemia (AA) or myeloproliferative disease (MPD), principally myeloid leukemia. The results support the concept that acquired radioresistance of vital granulocyte/monocyte lineage-committed hematopoietic progenitors is temporally, perhaps causally, linked to the processes mediating hematopoietic recovery and accommodation under chronic irradiation, and in turn to preclinical events of evolving MPD. In addition, the marked differential responses of progenitors to gamma and neutron irradiation in vitro might suggest differences in the nature of cellular lesions elicited by chronic gamma irradiation, in vivo. (author).

  1. Chronic gamma irradiation and hypothalamo-pituitary system in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendarcik, J.; Praslicka, M.; Molnarova, M.

    1982-01-01

    After seven days of irradiation with gamma radiation to a total dose of 6.7 Gy the biochemical, morphological and hematological changes were observed in the bodies of sheep. A chromosomal analysis found a very low number of mitoses. A decrease was found in the total trypsin inhibition activity of the plasma. In the hypothalamus were found significant changes in the representation of catecholamines and a decrease was observed in the weight of ovaries and their follicular system was found to be damaged. This damage is more significant from the functional point of view than the damage caused by an acute local irradiation of the ovaries with doses of 4.7 and 9.5 Gy. (M.D.)

  2. Clinical significance of changes of serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Jiang Xiaoling; Chen Wei; Wang Jinglin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of gastrin in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria. Methods: Serum gastrin levels were, 37 patients with chromic urticaria and 43 controls. Results: Serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic exzema (102.95 ± 27.33 ng/L) and patients with chronic urticaria (109.87 ± 33.64 ng/L) were both significantly higher than those in controls (61.72 ± 20.38 ng/L, both P<0.01). Difference between the levels in the two patients groups was not significant. Conclusion: The high gastrin levels in those patients might reflect the presence of helicobacter pylori infections; eradication of which might be helpful for treatment of these chronic dermatologic disorders. (authors)

  3. Experimental investigations on chronic irradiation damage of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauk, S.

    1984-02-01

    Irradiation of rat hearts induced the following clinical phenomena: increasingly severe dyspnea, associated flank respiration and deterioration of the general condition bordering on a prefinal syndrome. Dissection of the sick animals and thoracal x-rays taken regularly revealed extensive pesicardial and pleural effusions. The tissue of the pericardium was thickened and edematous. The most striking histological finding consisted in a focal degeneration and destruction of the myocardium without an increase in collagenous fibres. This damage to the heart muscle was quite severe and seen in all dose groups from 15 to 40 Gy. At the same time there was a reduction of the capillary density as a function of the radiation dose. Clinical symptoms were also observed in animals irradiated with 10 Gy only. All animals irradiated with at least 20 Gy, attained a state where death was imminent. Consequently, the LD-50 must be lower than 20 Gy. The latency period was over a year at 15 Gy but decreased considerably as the dose increased. (orig.) [de

  4. Late effects of chronic low dose-rate γ-rays irradiation on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Sasagawa, Sumiko; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate late biological effects of chronic low dose-rate radiation, we are conducting two experiments. Experiment 1 - Late effects of chronic low dose-rate g-rays irradiation on SPF mice, using life-span and pathological changes as parameters. Continuous irradiation with g-rays for 400 days was performed using 137 Cs γ-rays at dose-rates of 20 mGy/day, 1 mGy/day and 0.05 mGy/day with accumulated doses equivalent to 8,000 mGy, 400 mGy and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until they died a natural death. As of 2002 March 31, 3,999 of the total 4,000 mice have died. Preliminary analyses of data show that 20 mGy/day suggested a shortened life span in both sexes. Partial results show that the most common lethal neoplasms in the pooled data of non-irradiated control and irradiated male mice, in order of frequency, were neoplasms of the lymphohematopoietic system, liver, and lung. In female mice, neoplasms of the lymphohematopoietic system, soft tissue, and endocrine system were common. Experiment 2 - Effects on the progeny of chronic low dose-rate g-ray irradiated SPF mice: pilot study, was started in 1999 and is currently in progress. (author)

  5. Effect of chronic irradiation combined with other damaging factors on some morphological systems of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomareva, T.V.; Merkushev, G.N.; Pil'shchuk, E.M.; Bikkulov, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    A model experiment on mice is carried out to study morphofunctional changes that occur in mammals chronically exposed to radiation in doses close to those in occupational exposures of a man. Mice have been exposed to gamma-radiation at dose rates of 6, 16, 40, 120, and 300 mr/day from the time of birth onward throughout lifetime. It is concluded that, where a chronic purulent infection is present, chronic irradiation at the above dose rates, with the exception of 6 mr/day, accelerates the onset of irreversible pathologic changes, in particular of amyloidosis, in immunocompetent organs

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of the effect of chronic irradiation on natural Vicia Cracca L. populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', L.M.; Popova, O.N.; AN SSSR, Syktyvkar

    1989-01-01

    The study of microsporogenesis in Vicia cracca L. from chronically irradiated natural populations has demonstrated an increased number of wholly or partially sterile buds and reduced and damaged anthers. Both the number and the spectrum of chromosome and cell pathology increasing radiation dose, the exposed plants exhibiting meiosis disturbances that are not found in the controls

  7. Evolution of microbial activity in a mediterranean ecosystem submitted to chronic gamma irradiation. Investigation of nitrogen transfer with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, R.

    1987-07-01

    A mediterranean ecosystem located on the site of Cadarache (France) has been experimentally by irradiated over the past fifteen years. The potential effects of ionizing radiations for different doses of its ecological system has been studied. The objective of the work was to demonstrate the level of soil microbial population and its activity. Chronic exposures reduced the biomass and the dehydrogenase activity by a factor of 50% and increased the amount of nitrate in the soil. To measure the direct impact of irradiations on soil microorganisms, we have irradiated soil sample in laboratory at 0.1; 0.5; 1 kGy, and observed its evolution during a period of six weeks thereafter. We have a reduction of the dehydrogenase activity and an increase of nitrate being proportionaly to the dose delivered. Using nitrogen labelled, we state that this high rate of nitrate production is due to an inhibition of the organization of this form of nitrogen. Conversely, the ammonification and the nitrification are not affected. Also, for anaerobic conditions created by glucose, the nitrate labelled (15N) permitted us to show that in untreated soil, 45% of nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas by denitrification and 24% of nitrate was reduced to ammonium by dissimilation in the irradiated soil. These experiments show that gamma irradiations are of great interest for studying soil microorganisms. As of now, very little is known on the effects of this kind of stress for attention and need to be pursued on such ecosystems. Further investigations call [fr

  8. Alteration of polymorphic systems of Centaurea scabiosa L. under chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, E.A.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Lysenko, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Isoenzyme and morphological polymorphism alteration in populations of perennial grass Centaurea scabiosa L. (scaly cornflower) has been studied. These populations exist on the territory of East Urals Radioactive Trace more than 40 years and are chronically exposed to β-radiation. Directional shift of allele frequencies on the loci Per 1 , Pgi 2 , Sod 1 , Lap has been detected. Fact of accumulating genetic load by chronically irradiated populations has been demonstrated. Possible reasons of discovered alterations are discussed. Analysis of the obtained data shows that the irradiation populations have greater similarity with one another than with a control, but relation between genetic distances and accumulated doses has not been revealed. Hypothesis is that an extra factor - gene flow from a clean territory influences the genetic structure of irradiated populations [ru

  9. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  10. [Study of genome instability using DNA fingerprinting of the offspring of male mice subjected to chronic low dose gamma irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezlepkin, V G; Vasil'eva, G V; Lomaeva, M G; Sirota, N P; Gaziev, A I

    2000-01-01

    By a polymerase chain reaction with an arbitrary primer (AP-PCR), the possibility of transmission of genome instability to somatic cells of the offspring (F1 generation) from male parents of mice exposed to chronic low-level gamma-radiation was studied. Male BALB/c mice 15 days after exposure to 10-50 cGy were mated with unirradiated females. Biopsies were taken from tale tips of two month-old offspring mice and DNA was isolated. The primer in the AP-PCR was a 20-mer oligonucleotide flanking the microsatellite locus Atp1b2 on chromosome 11 of the mouse. A comparative analysis of individual fingerprints of AP-PCR products on DNA-templates from the offspring of irradiated and unirradiated male mice revealed an increased variability of microsatellite-associated sequences in the genome of the offspring of the males exposed to 25 and 50 cGy. The DNA-fingerprints of the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic irradiation with the doses 10 and 25 cGy 15 days before fertilization (at the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis) showed an increased frequency of "non-parent bands". The results of the study point to the possibility of transmission to the offspring somatic cells of changes increasing genome instability from male parents exposed to chronic low-level radiation prior to fertilization.

  11. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Pastorova, B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  12. Service factor calculated from an experimental simulation of chronic occupational irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berikashvili, V.Sh.

    1975-01-01

    A correlation has been studied between the body weight, basal metabolism, lifespan, the period of water exchange, average life of erythrocytes and average rate of pulse-beat, and values LDsub(50/30-60), half-recovery period after irradiation and time of leucopenia occurrence in different species of laboratory animals and man. An authentic degree-interrelation of these indices has been revealed, and the dependency of radiobiological effects on the body weight of animals has been estimated. Similarity conditions of dose accumulation upon chronic irradiation of animals and man have been obtained on the basis of Blair's and Davidson's equations for an effective dose of a single exposure. Service factor and coefficients of intensity and duration of irradiation of various animals have been calculated, simulating professional irradiation with 5 rad/a within 20 years

  13. Total body irradiation (TBI) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, U; Johnson, R E

    1975-01-01

    80 patients with previously untreated CLL have been admitted to the Radiation Oncology Branch of the NCI. Fourteen of these patients have remained classified as 'indolent' until the present time and have not received any treatment. 48 patients with 'active' CLL were treated with TBI and were compared with 18 patients treated with chemotherapy and/or local irradiation. Our series of patients primarily treated with TBI have twice the median survival (57 months) measured from first therapy of the concurrent chemotherapy series (27 months). One third of the TBI group have experienced a complete or nearly complete remission and these patients showed a definite longer survival, with a median survival well in excess of five years until now. However, patients with a less complete remission failed to demonstrate a prolonged survival time with TBI in comparison to other modes of treatment. These results indicate that TBI can induce complete remissions which improve the prognosis in patients with active CLL.

  14. Effect of Acute and Chronic Gamma Irradiation on in vitro Growth of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim; Nur Hidayah Mohd Sajahan; Salmah Moosa; Sobri Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial herb that belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It is a natural sweetener plant known as sweet leaf, which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. In this study, micropropagation and in vitro mutagenesis of this natural herb was successfully conducted. It was found that shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l Kinetin showed the highest shoot induction and multiplication after 3 weeks of culture. Radiosensitivity test was conducted to identify the LD50 for in vitro stevia shoots and to select effective doses to be used for the in vitro mutagenesis. Shoot tips were irradiated with acute and chronic gamma radiation at 0, 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 40.00, 60.00, and 80.00 Gy. At 60 Gy and 80 Gy, the shoot tips demonstrated 0 % survival, all were killed. LD 50 for stevia (the dose that killed 50 % of the irradiated explants) was at 29 Gy. In this study, LD 50 for the stevia (the dose that killed 50 % of the irradiated explants) was at 29 Gy for acute irradiation and was at 45 Gy for chronic irradiation. The effective doses were selected at 10, 20 and 30 Gy. These three selected doses were applied for the in vitro mutagenesis of the stevia shoots. (author)

  15. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  16. Relative genetic radiosensitivity of mammalian species to acute and chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyglenov, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic radiosensitivity were carried out in a group of mammals - mouse, rat, Syrian hamster, and rabbit - in an effort to improve the predictive value of estimates derived from the experimental model in extrapolating from animals to man. Investigations concerned the ratio between principal quadrivalent (ring-tochain) configurations translating reciprocal translocation induction in premeiotic spermatogenic cells from the above mammals. Frequencies of univalents and of fragments recorded in diakinesis-metaphase 1 spermatocytes showed neither dose nor dose-rate dependence but had species-specific characteristics. Yields of reciprocal translocations from spermatogonial irradiation were examined under acute and chronic exposure conditions. From the linear regression coefficients, genetic susceptibility was found to increase in the following sequences. With acute irradiation: hamster -4 reciprocal translocations per cell per cGy. For chronic gamma-radiation exposure conditions, a correction coefficient of 0.5 is recommended

  17. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  18. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of long-term chronic irradiation on gluconeogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The incorporation of 14 C-acetate in glucose in the blood and in glycogen in the liver of rats chronically irradiated with gamma radiation was observed in vivo. During the period of observation the concentration of glycogen in the liver was increased. Increased acetate incorporation in glycogen was, however, observed only on day 30 of exposure. No changes in glucose concentration and acetate incorporation in glucose in the blood were observed. (M.D.)

  20. UARS Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS data product consists of daily, 1 nm resolution, solar spectral irradiances and selected...

  1. The two strategies of plants to cope with chronic low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The adaptive responses of plants to an increase in radioactivity of environment were established in radiobiological researches carried out in the Zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. It has been shown that there are two types of adaptive strategies to the environment contaminated with radionuclides, namely ontogenetic and phylogenetic strategies. The ontogenetic adaptive strategy is attained by induction of DNA reparation. Increasing of the genetic variability in irradiated population performs the phylogenetic adaptive strategy. The mechanism of this strategy is associated with induction of genetic instability. Rise in the frequency of genetic recombination as well as heterozygosity is at the time essential components of phylogenetic adaptation. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic adaptation strategies are an important feature in coping of plants to the elevated chronic irradiation. Most likely plant cells as a stress signal into adaptive responses perceive the low doses of irradiation. (author)

  2. Repair of changes in peripheral blood count of rats after chronic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovsky, O; Praslicka, M; Chlebovska, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1980-01-01

    Changes are described in the peripheral blood count of rats irradiated during 120 days with doses of 95.7, 191.4, 258.4, 344.5 and 507.2 mGy/day; during 15 days with a dose of 1004.8 mGy and examined till the 180th day after termination of irradiation. The course of repair can be divided into two phases, namely: phase 1 till the 40th day after termination of irradiation when leukocyte and platelet counts reach approximately 50% of control values; this phase lasts until the 100th day after cessation of irradiation; phase 2 from the 100th till the 180th day when these peripheral blood element counts attain the level of control values. Thus in the stated conditions of irradiation, 150 to 180 days are required for radiation damage to the hemopoietic system to repair.

  3. Role of NO in adrenergic regulation of the heart after chronic gamma irradiation in 1 Gy dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, T.A.; Lobanok, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic irradiation in 1 Gy dose significantly decreased adrenoreactivity of the heart. Modification of NO-mediated mechanisms plays an important role in radiation-induced changes of adrenergic control of heart functional activity and coronary flow. (authors)

  4. Biological effect of 60Co chronic irradiation on different development stage in common wheat (T. aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youliang; Yang Pinghua; Xie Yukang

    1991-01-01

    Common wheats were irradiated in 60 Co garden at the stages of plant mature sporophyte, gametophyte and zygote-young embryo during the growing cycle. The biological effects of M 1 and M 2 was significantly related to the development stage of irradiation. When irradiated in the phase of zygote-young embryo, the emergence rate of M 2 was greatly influenced, but the irradiation had a little effect on the fertility of M 1 . The rate of seedling emergence in M 2 can be used for determining optimal dose of irradiation. The rate of micro-nuclei cells were low in the root tip cells of M 1 and seedling cells of M 2 . The M 1 is the major generation of irradiation injury. The irradiation injury of M 2 is minor. M 2 is the first generation for mutant selection. The generation gradation of chronic irradiation was discussed

  5. Suprachiasmic and infundibular parts of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep following chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajtova, V.; Stanikova, A.; Arendarcik, J.; Lustik, J.; Briancin, J.

    1983-01-01

    The suprachiasmic and infundibular regions of the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle were studied in Merino sheep in the anoestral phase of their sexual cycle. Test ewes were irradiated in the gamma field with 60 Co for seven days with a total exposure to 6.7 Gy (700 R). After sacrificing the brains of the test and control ewes were perfused with 2% to 4% paraformaldehyde and the samples were placed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M cacodyl buffer (the pH of.all solutions was 7.4 and temperature 4 degC). The samples were further treated by the methods after Murakami et al. and Kelly et al., which require no subsequent metallization. After dehydration in alcohol the samples were dried in a desiccator and under vacuum. For viewing and imaging the TESLA BS 300 scanning electron microscope at 14 kV was used. The microscopic study after chronic irradiation showed a reduction in cilia deposits and an increase in the nubers of characteristic specific formations which were not present in the control ewes, or were only present in small numbers. ''Open spaces'' of different size were left from the released nuclei and the cell contents of ependymal cells in the infundibulum region over the hypophysis. A weakening or total disappearance of ''blebbing phenomenon'' in the typical infundibular region of tanycytes can be observed after chronic irradiation. On the other hand, in the regions with less damaged tanycytes chronic irradiation caused local hypersecretion, as indicated by the multiplication of ''miniblebs''. (author)

  6. Polyelectrolytes processing at pilot scale level by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.; Ighigeanu, D.; Marin, Gheorghe G.

    2002-01-01

    Three years of research, combined with engineering activities, have culminated in the development of a new method of electron beam processing applicable up to the pilot scale level, namely, the polyelectrolytes (acrylamide - acrylic acid copolymers) electron beam processing. This new radiation processing method has been achieved by bilateral co-operation between the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP) and the Electrical Design and Research Institute, EDRI - Bucharest. The polyelectrolytes electron beam (EB) processing was put in operation at EDRI, where, recently, an industrial electron accelerator of 2 MeV and 20 kW, manufactured by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility. Automatic start-up via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. According to the first conclusions, which resulted from our experimental research with regard to acrylamide - acrylic acid copolymers production by EB irradiation, the proper physical and chemical characteristics can be well controlled by chemical composition to be treated and by suitable adjustment of absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate. So, it was possible to obtain a very large area of characteristics and therefore a large area of applications. The conversion coefficient is very high (> 98%) and concentration of the residual monomer is under 0.05%. The tests applied to some wastewaters from the vegetable oil plants demonstrated that the fatty substances, matters in suspension, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand over 5 days were much reduced, in comparison with classical treatment. Also, sedimentation time was around four times smaller and sediment volume was 60% smaller than the values obtained in case of classical treatment. The necessary EB absorbed dose for the acrylamide - acrylic acid aqueous solution polymerization, established by optimization of chemical composition and irradiation

  7. Levels of physical activity in people with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Parker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who suffer from chronic pain are thought to have lower levels of physical activity compared to healthy individuals. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning levels of physical activity in South Africans with chronic pain. Objectives: To compare levels of physical activity in a South African sample of people with chronic pain compared to matched controls. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 24 participants (12 with chronic pain and 12 in the control group matched for age, gender and residential area. Convenience sampling was used. The participants with chronic pain (12 were identified from the Groote Schuur Hospital, Chronic Pain Management Clinic (CPMC waiting list and had not yet received any chronic pain management intervention. Healthy matched controls were selected from volunteers in the community. With the desired alpha level set at 0.05 and the power at 0.9, 45 participants were required to detect a minimum of a 50 per cent difference between groups in levels of physical activity as measured in steps per day using pedometers. The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ and the brief pain inventory (BPI were used as measures of physical activity and pain. Objective indicators of physical activity that were used included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, repeated sit-to-stand test (RSST, 7 days of pedometry and body mass index (BMI. Results: The chronic pain group performed significantly worse on the 6MWT (335 m [30–430] vs 680 m [430–795]; U = 0.5; p < 0.01 and on the RSST (17.9 s [11.83–105] vs 7.85 s [5.5–11.5]; U = 0; p < 0.01. The chronic pain group also had significantly lower scores on pedometry (mean daily: 2985.1 [32.8–13785.4] vs 6409.4 [4207.1–15313.6]; U = 35; p < 0.03. The BMI for the chronic pain group was significantly higher than matched controls (29.36 kg/m2 [18.94–34.63] vs 22.16 kg/m2 [17.1–30.86]; U = 34; p < 0.03. Conclusion: Participants with chronic pain

  8. Effect of chronic kidney disease on serum resistin level | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study is probably the first study in India comparing serum resistin levels of CKD patients vis-à-vis control subjects. Further cellular research may be needed to explore this relation. Key words: Chronic kidney disease, HOMA-IR, insulin resistance, resistin ...

  9. Lamivudine plasma levels in chronic hepatitis B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.M. Wolters (Leonieke); C.J. Geerlings; L.J. van Dijk (Laurens); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); R.A. de Man (Robert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractLamivudine has recently been registered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. The main therapeutic outcome in the studies on which the registration was based was a drop of HBV DNA below 10(7) genome equivalents/ml, the level of detection of the insensitive

  10. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    different chemical composition, but equal radioactivity, exhibited different levels of HR, dependent upon the absorbed dose of radiation. Remarkably, we observed a much higher frequency of HR in plants exposed to chronic irradiation when compared to acutely irradiated plants. Although acute application of 0.1-0.5 Gy did not lead to an increase of frequency of HR, the chronic exposure of the plants to several orders of magnitude lower dose of 200 {mu}Gy led to a 5-6-fold induction of the frequency of HR as compared to the control.

  11. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt. 1; Differential preclinical responses of irradiated male dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or myeloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Carnes, B.A.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Male beagles chronically exposed to low daily doses of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays show one of three hematopoietic patterns, which reflect three different distinctly responding subgroups: (1) low radioresistance with progressing aplastic anemia and shortened survival ({sup -S}-AA subgroup); (2) high radioresistance with a complex of progressing myeloproliferative disorders ({sup +}R-MPD group); or (3) high radioresistance with other nonMPD syndromes ({sup +}R-nonMPD group). Blood cell levels (granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets) were assessed and fitted to a flexible polynomial spline model. Results showed that relative to the overall magnitude of blood cell loss as well as to the maximum rate of suppression during the initial phase, the subgroups were generally ranked {sup -}S-AA >> {sup +}R-MPD > {sup +}R-nonMPD. Relative to the overall strength of the recovery response, the subgroups were generally ranked {sup +}R-MPD > {sup +}R-nonMPD >>> {sup -}S-AA. In terms of overall maintenance levels of circulating blood cells during the recovery phase, however, the {sup +}R-nonMPD subgroup consistently exhibited stronger responses than the {sup +}R-MPD subgroup. These results support our contention that selected subgroups of dogs have strong propensities to specific hematopathologies (i.e. aplastic anemia and myeloid leukemia) under chronic irradiation and that these pathology-prone animals exhibit a series of marked differential hematopoietic responses during early preclinical phases, which serve effectively to prognosticate subsequent pathological progression. (author).

  12. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip

    1994-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase

  13. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase.

  14. In vitro radiation response studies on bone marrow fibroblasts (CFU-F) obtained from normal and chronically irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.K.; Stitzel, K.A.; Greenberg, B.; Woo, L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation resistance of bone marrow fibroblasts as measured by their proliferative potential was evaluated in chronically irradiated dogs. Bone marrows were obtained from eight dogs that had been chronically irradiated beginning at 21 days of gestation or after birth and eight age-matched controls. Of these irradiated dogs, four were either preleukemic or exhibited frank acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The other four were clinically normal but demonstrated abnormalities in their marrow that could be attributed to radiation effects and/or other pathologic changes. Fibroblasts from six of the irradiated dogs were significantly more radioresistant than those of their controls. Five of these six dogs subsequently succumbed to hematopathologic disease, while the two irradiated dogs with normal fibroblasts remained clinically normal, suggesting that this observed radioresistance may be linked to the disease process. (author)

  15. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation on adventitious plantlet formation of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) detached leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunee Wongpiyasatid; Peeranuch Jompuk; Katarat Chusreeaeom; Thanya Taychasinpitak

    2007-01-01

    Formation of adventitious plantlets on unrootedly detached leaves of two African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) cultivars, pink and violet flowers, chronically gamma-irradiated in gamma room at The Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Research Center, Kasetsart University was compared. Detached leaves were immediately planted after detachment in plastic trays containing peat moss, 18 leaves per treatment with 3 replications. Three dose rates (rad/h) with 3 doses (rad)/dose rate, were applied to the irradiated samples while the controls were placed outside the gamma room. Three months after irradiation, the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf were recorded. After that, the young plantlets were transferred to the new pots for further observation on plant growth and mutation characters. The results revealed that the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf varied slightly with radiation doses but were not significantly different at different dose rates. Radiosensitivity was noticed to be higher in pink flower cultivar than the violet one. M 1 V 1 plantlets will be followed up for growth and mutation character observations

  16. Vitamin D Status in Chronic Kidney Disease - UVB Irradiation Is Superior to Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rolfdieter; Roth, Heinz Jürgen; Kaase, Heinrich; Stange, Rainer; Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is common. The aim of this review was to compare vitamin D status after oral supplementation of vitamin D3 to that of serial suberythemal irradiation in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 62 (range=35-82) years, were treated with a mean dose of 35,000 (20,000-60,000) IU vitamin D3 per week for a period of 18 months. Fourteen patients, with a mean age of 51 (range=41-57) years, were whole-body UVB irradiated for over 6 months. From 3 hemodialysis patients skin biopsies were performed. With oral supplementation 25(OH)D3 increased by 60%. With UV irradiation 25(OH)D3 increased by 400%. Gene expression analysis demonstrated an improvement in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by 0.65 fold, in 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) by 1.0 fold, and in 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R) by 1.2 fold. Serial suberythemal UVB irradiation of patients with CKD on dialysis is capable to improve serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 by enhancing the skin's ability to activate vitamin D. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  18. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt. 2; Differential preclinical responses of irradiated female dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or myeloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.; Carnes, B.; Tolle, D.; Fritz, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.)

    1993-05-01

    Female beagle dogs were chronically exposed to low daily doses of [sup 60]Co gamma rays and responded in one of three distinct hemopathological patterns. These patterns, reflective of distinct subgroups, were characterized by (a) low radioresistance resulting in progressive hematopoietic suppression, terminal aplastic anemia (AA), and relatively short (<400 days) survival ([sup -]S-AA subgroups); (b) high radioresistance, initially coupled with strong but aberrant regenerative hematopoiesis, and later with the development of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) ([sup +]-R-MPD subgroup); and (c) high radioresistance, coupled with an early phase of strong regenerative hematopoiesis, but later with no myeloproliferative disease ([sup +]R-nonMPD subgroup). In this study, the changes in circulating blood cells levels (granulocytes, monotcytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes and platelets) were sequentially assessed in time and fitted to a flexible, quadratic-linear-type response model previously developed. The results are consistent with our earlier observations of blood responses of chronically irradiated male dogs, in the subgroups of female dogs prone to specific radiogenic hematopathologies (i.e. AA and MPD) can be readily identified and staged in specific preclinical periods by a series of marked differential blood responses. (Author).

  19. Assessment of testicular function after acute and chronic irradiation: Further evidence for an influence of late spermatids on Sertoli cell function in the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, C.; Velez de la Calle, J.F.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Jegou, B.

    1989-01-01

    To study cell to cell communications within the testis of adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we used acute whole body neutron plus gamma-irradiation over 7-121 days postirradiation and chronic whole body gamma-irradiation over 14-84 days of irradiation and 7-86 days postirradiation. Neither irradiation protocol had an effect on the body weight of the animals. Neutron plus gamma-rays induced dramatic damages to spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and, to a lesser extent, pachytene spermatocytes. In contrast, gamma-rays induced a selective destruction of spermatogonia. Subsequently, in both experiments a maturation-depletion process led to a marked decrease in all germ cell types. A complete or near complete recovery of the different germ cell types and spermatozoa took place during the two postirradiation periods. Under both irradiation protocols Sertoli cells number was unchanged. Androgen-binding protein and FSH levels were normal in spite of the disappearance of most germ cells from spermatogonia to early spermatids. However, the decline of androgen-binding protein as well as the rise of FSH and their subsequent recovery were highly correlated to the number of late spermatids and spermatozoa. Moreover, it appeared that spermatocytes may also interfere with the production of inhibin (Exp B). With neither irradiation was Leydig cell function altered, except in Exp B in which elevated LH levels were temporarily observed. Correlation analysis suggested a relationship between preleptotene spermatocytes and Leydig cell function. In conclusion, this study establishes that chronic gamma-irradiation is particularly useful in the study of intratesticular paracrine regulation in vivo and provides further support to the concept that late spermatids play a major role in controlling some aspects of Sertoli cell function in the adult rat

  20. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection following double lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Trulock, Elbert M.; Lynch, John P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in a series of patients experiencing chronic rejection following bilateral lung transplantation. Patients and Materials: Eleven patients (10 males, 1 female) received total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Treatment was delivered between March, 1995, and September, 1996. Mean patient age was 33 years (range 15-51). Indications for transplantation included cystic fibrosis (7 patients), alpha 1 anti-trypsin deficiency (2 patients), primary pulmonary hypertension (1 patient), and emphysema (1 patient). Radiation therapy was prescribed as 800 cGy delivered in ten 80 cGy fractions, 2 fractions per week, via AP/PA mantle and inverted-Y fields. Radiation was withheld for total wbc count 3 , absolute neutrophil count 3 , or platelets 3 . Serial pre- and post-radiation therapy pulmonary function values, complete blood counts, and immunosuppressive augmentation requirements (use of methylprednisolone, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, OKT3, and FK506) were monitored. Results: In the 3 months preceding total lymphoid irradiation, the average decrease in FEV 1 was 34% (range 0-75%) and the median number of immunosuppression augmentations was 3 (range 0-5). At initiation of radiation therapy, the average FEV 1 was 1.4 liters (range 0.77-2.28). Only (4(11)) patients completed all 10 treatment fractions. Reasons for discontinuation included unabated rejection (4 patients), worsening pulmonary infection (2 patients), and persistent thrombocytopenia (1 patient). No treatment course was discontinued because of persistent neutropenia or leukopenia. Seven of the 11 patients failed within 8 weeks of treatment cessation. One patient had unabated rejection and received bilateral living related donor transplants. He is alive and well. Six patients died. Two of these deaths were due

  1. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  2. Effect of Chronic Gamma Irradiation on Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus. L) Variety V36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zulmadi Sani; Faiz Ahmad; Mustapha Akil; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2016-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is originated from Africa and used in making various products such as animal food pallet, clothes, particle board, bio-plastics, paper and many other fibre related products. Due to its commercial value in various industries, research has been carried out to obtain kenaf with improved traits. Mutation breeding using ionizing radiation has been used widely and proven to be effective as an alternative method in plant improvement. In this study, chronic gamma irradiation on kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus. L) Variety V36 was carried out at Gamma Greenhouse (GGH) facility at Malaysia Nuclear Agency. Kenaf seeds were planted in pots at the shade house and transferred to GGH after 7 days. These seedlings were subjected to various dose rates of 0.3 Gy/ hour, 0.17 Gy/ hour, 0.11 Gy /hour, 0.05 Gy/ hour, 0.03 Gy/ hour, 0.02 Gy/ hour, and 0 Gy/ hour (control). Plant survival and morphological data such as plant height and stem girth, were observed. From the result obtain, at accumulated dose of 230 Gy (Ring 4), plant showed the highest average plant height, stem girth and highest morphological changes. The finding of this study is useful in determining the most suitable dose rate for chronic gamma irradiation in the future. (author)

  3. A Biomathematical Model of Lymphopoiesis and Its Application to Acute and Chronic Irradiation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001, there is an increasing concern of the occurrence of radiological terrorism that may result in significant casualties in densely populated areas. Much effort has been made to establish various biomarkers to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios, which are demanded for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed victims. Among these the count of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and their depletion kinetics are the most important early indicators of the severity of the radiation injury. In this study, we examine a biomathematical model of lymphopoiesis which has been successfully utilized to simulate and interpret experimental data of acute and chronic irradiations on rodents [1]. With revised parameters for humans, we find this model can reproduce several sets of clinical lymphocyte data of accident victims over a wide range of absorbed doses. In addition, the absolute lymphocyte counts and the depletion rate constants calculated by this model also show good correlation with the Guskova formula and the Goans model, the two empirical tools which have been widely recognized for early estimation of the exposed dose after radiation accidents [2]. We also use the model to analyze the hematological data of the Techa River residents which were exposed to chronic low-dose irradiation during 1950-1956 [3]. This model can serve as a computational tool in radiation accident management, military operations involving nuclear warfare, radiation therapy, and space radiation risk assessment.

  4. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (Pchanges in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (Poxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  5. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  6. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-01-01

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation

  7. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation for chronic allograft rejection following bilateral lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Lynch, John P.; Trulock, Elbert P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in patients experiencing chronic rejection following bilateral lung transplantation (BLT). Patients and Materials: Eleven patients received TLI for chronic allograft rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) refractory to conventional treatment modalities. Radiation therapy (RT) was prescribed as 8 Gy delivered in 10 0.8-Gy fractions, 2 fractions/week, via mantle, paraaortic, and inverted-Y fields. Serial pre- and post-RT pulmonary function values, complete blood counts, and immunosuppressive augmentation requirements [use of methylprednisolone, murine anti-human mature T-cell monoclonal antibody (OKT3), polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and tacrolimus] were monitored. Results: In the 3 months preceding TLI, the average decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) was 34% (range 0-75%) and the median number of immunosuppression augmentations was 3 (range 0-5). Only 4 of 11 patients completed all 10 TLI treatment fractions. Reasons for discontinuation included progressive pulmonary decline (four patients), worsening pulmonary infection (two patients), and persistent thrombocytopenia (one patient). Seven of the 11 patients failed within 8 weeks of treatment cessation. One patient had unabated rejection and received bilateral living related-donor transplants; he is alive and well. Six patients died. Two of these deaths were due to pulmonary infection from organisms isolated prior to the start of RT; the other four deaths were from progressive pulmonary decline. The four remaining patients had durable positive responses to TLI (mean follow-up of 47 weeks; range 24-72). Comparing the 3 months preceding RT to the 3 months following treatment, these four patients had improvements in average FEV 1 (40% decline vs. 1% improvement) and fewer median number of immunosuppressive augmentations (3.5 vs. 0). None of these patients has developed lymphoproliferative disease or has died

  8. The disturbances of lipid metabolism regulation after the prenatal low-level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogov, Yu.I.; Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Rubchenya, I.N.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of low-level irradiation on lipid metabolism in rats after prenatal exposure. Pregnant rats were irradiated during the period of gestation with the whole final dose 0,5 Gy/rat. The blood lipid fractions were investigated in newborn rats and in 6-month age rats. In irradiated offspring the lipo synthesis processes exceeded lipolysis in comparison with that of the control. The negative consequences of embryo low-level irradiation in the lipid metabolism regulation are discussed in this report. (authors)

  9. Nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide level in dimethylsulfate-treated or UV-irradiated mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balard, B.; Giacomoni, P.U.

    1989-01-01

    The level of nicotinamide (NAD) has been determined in the epidermis of 30 mice. Its value is 0.63+-0.15 μg/mg protein. Upon treatment with dimethylsulfate (DMS), the level of NAD drops in a dosedependent fashion. This diminution is reversible when low doses of DMS are used. Upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, the level of NAD drops in the irradiated epidermis, the treshold of saturation being below 1200 J/m 2 . There is also a drop in the level of NAD in the epidermis protected against irradiation with a black rubber sheet. (author). 17 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Elevated gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongür, Dost; Prescot, Andrew P; McCarthy, Julie; Cohen, Bruce M; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-10-01

    Despite widely replicated abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in schizophrenia postmortem, few studies have measured tissue GABA levels in vivo. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure tissue GABA levels in participants with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex. Twenty-one schizophrenia participants effectively treated on a stable medication regimen (mean age 39.0, 14 male) and 19 healthy control subjects (mean age 36.3, 12 male) underwent a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan using GABA-selective editing at 4 Tesla after providing informed consent. Data were collected from two 16.7-mL voxels and analyzed using LCModel. We found elevations in GABA/creatine in the schizophrenia group compared with control subjects [F(1,65) = 4.149, p = .046] in both brain areas (15.5% elevation in anterior cingulate cortex, 11.9% in parieto-occipital cortex). We also found a positive correlation between GABA/creatine and glutamate/creatine, which was not accounted for by % GM or brain region. We found elevated GABA/creatinine in participants with chronically treated schizophrenia. Postmortem studies report evidence for dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Elevated GABA levels, whether primary to illness or compensatory to another process, may be associated with dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission in chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  12. Detection of irradiated meat, fish and their products by measuring 2-alkylcyclobutanones levels after frozen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, H.; Furuta, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2007-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones, such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone, were analyzed to assess the irradiation history of irradiated meats or fish, and cooked foods with irradiated ingredients, which had been stored frozen for up to one year. The purpose of the study was to show that irradiated meats could be detected even after having been stored in the distribution system. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones showed a small decrease in irradiated raw meats that had been stored frozen for one year. Cooked foods, such as pancake and fried chicken made with irradiated eggs and chicken, respectively, contained detectable levels of 2-alkylcyclobutanones after storage frozen for one year. The 2-alkylcyclobutanones became undetectable in highly dried samples, such as feed for lab animals, during the same period

  13. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doney, K; Buckner, C D; Sale, G E; Ramberg, R; Boyd, C; Thomas, E D [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute; Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). School of Medicine)

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration.

  14. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doney, K.; Buckner, C.D.; Sale, G.E.; Ramberg, R.; Boyd, C.; Thomas, E.D.; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration. (Author)

  15. Hemopoiesis in monkeys in the course of and after total chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhikikidze, Eh.E.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Kuksova, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic changes in blood-formation system of 2 types of monkeys were studied following chronic prolonged irradiation with low daily doses and considerable integral radiation load. Peak decrease of total leukocyte number of 1 mkl in both groups of monkeys at the expense of neutrophils was observed at integral dose of 10.78 Gy and was caused by decrease of index of neutrophil maturation. Violations of hereditary structures of bone marrow cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes were stable. Structural chromosomal aberrations remained in monkeys of both groups up to natural animal death. Quantitative and qualitative violations were less pronounced in macaca rhesus than in hamadryas baboons. This fact revealed high radiosensitivity of the baboons

  16. Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta H

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation preceding bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, N D; Apperley, J F; Kam, K C; Mackinnon, S; Goldman, J M; Goolden, A W.G.; Sikora, K [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1989-03-01

    Between August 1985 and October 1987 35 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) were treated by high dose chemotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI) (1000 or 1200 cGy, n=31) and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) (800 or 600 cGy, n=35) preceding allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both TBI and TLI were given at 200 cGy/fraction. Twenty-three patients had HLA-identical sibling donors, nine patients had HLA-matched but unrelated donors, and three partially HLA-mismatched donors. Twenty-two patients received T-cell depleted marrow. TLI did not add greatly to the toxicity. Four patients had recurrent leukaemia before engraftment was evaluable. The other 31 patients engrafted and no graft failed. Twenty-two patients survive at a median time from transplant of 305 days (range 81-586 days). Fourteen have no evidence of disease; eight have or had only cytogenetic evidence of leukaemia. It is concluded that addition of TLI to pretransplant immunosuppression increases the probability of reliable engraftment in patients receiving T-cell depleted marrow. This is not associated with significantly increased toxicity. (author).

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation preceding bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, N.D.; Apperley, J.F.; Kam, K.C.; Mackinnon, S.; Goldman, J.M.; Goolden, A.W.G.; Sikora, K.

    1989-01-01

    Between August 1985 and October 1987 35 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) were treated by high dose chemotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI) (1000 or 1200 cGy, n=31) and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) (800 or 600 cGy, n=35) preceding allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both TBI and TLI were given at 200 cGy/fraction. Twenty-three patients had HLA-identical sibling donors, nine patients had HLA-matched but unrelated donors, and three partially HLA-mismatched donors. Twenty-two patients received T-cell depleted marrow. TLI did not add greatly to the toxicity. Four patients had recurrent leukaemia before engraftment was evaluable. The other 31 patients engrafted and no graft failed. Twenty-two patients survive at a median time from transplant of 305 days (range 81-586 days). Fourteen have no evidence of disease; eight have or had only cytogenetic evidence of leukaemia. It is concluded that addition of TLI to pretransplant immunosuppression increases the probability of reliable engraftment in patients receiving T-cell depleted marrow. This is not associated with significantly increased toxicity. (author)

  19. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  20. Effects of Linear-Polarized Near-Infrared Light Irradiation on Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the efficacy of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation (LPNIR on relieving chronic pain in conjunction with nerve block (NB or local block (LB, a 3-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and post-therapy pain intensity. Visual analogue scales (VASs were measured in all patients before and 6 months after therapy visiting the pain clinic during the period of August 2007 to January 2008. A total of 52 patients with either shoulder periarthritis or myofascial pain syndrome or lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned into two groups by drawing lots. Patients in Group I were treated with NB or LB plus LPNIR; Group II patients, for their part, were treated with the same procedures as in Group I, but not using LPNIR. In both groups, the pain intensity (VAS score decreased significantly immediately after therapy as compared to therapy. There was a significant difference between the test and control groups immediately after therapy (P<0.05, while no effect 6 months later. No side effects were observed. It is concluded that LPNIR is an effective and safe modality to treat various chronic pains, which has synergic effects with NB or LB.

  1. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic inflammation modulates ghrelin levels in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, M; Nogueiras, R; Lago, F; Dieguez, C; Gomez-Reino, J J; Gualillo, O

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether changes in plasma ghrelin, the recently discovered 28-amino acid gastric hormone that regulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and energy homeostasis, occur during inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats. For completeness, ghrelin plasma levels were measured in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. AA was induced in male Lewis rats using Freund's complete adjuvant. Animals were monitored for weight and food intake, every 2 or 3 days, along all time-course experiments. Plasma ghrelin concentrations in 31 RA patients and 18 healthy controls, as well as in rats, were determined by a specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay. Gastric ghrelin mRNA expression was evaluated by northern blot analysis. Human GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were determined by quantitative chemiluminescence assay. Compared with controls, arthritic rats gained significantly (P Ghrelin plasma levels were significantly lower at day 7 after arthritis induction than in controls (AA 7 = 91.2 +/- 5.6 pg/ml vs controls = 124.75 +/- 5.9 pg/ml), but they recovered to control levels by day 15. RA patients had ghrelin plasma levels significantly lower than healthy controls (RA = 24.54 +/- 2.57 pg/ml vs 39.01 +/- 4.47 pg/ml of healthy controls; P = 0.0041). In AA, there is a compensatory variation of ghrelin levels that relates to body weight adjustments. Recovery of ghrelin levels in the latter stage suggests an adaptive response and may represent a compensatory mechanism under catabolic conditions. In RA patients, chronic imbalance in ghrelin levels suggests that this gastric hormone may participate, together with other factors, in alterations of metabolic status during inflammatory stress.

  3. Platelet Levels and Implications For Pre-Dialysis Chronic Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Platelet count is assumed to be normal in chronic renal insufficiency. However, the possible effect of loss of platelet function in chronic renal failure (CFR) in relation to occult chronic blood loss, haematuria and overall health of the patient has not been given the desired attention. The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  4. Retention of radiolytic CO gas in irradiated pepper grains and irradiation detection of spices and dry grains with the level of stocked CO gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, M.; Dohmaru, T.; Katayama, T.; Toratani, H.; Takeda, A.

    1995-01-01

    The release of radiolytic CO gas from 60Co gamma-irradiated pepper seeds was unexpectedly slower than that of radiolytic H2 gas during a storage period after irradiation. These gases were retained in the grains and could be recovered by pulverization under gaslight condition. Using this procedure, 10-kGy-irradiated pepper grains could be distinguished from nonirradiated samples for more than 2 months by the level of CO and H2 gases. The patterns of CO change at 10, 20, and 30 kGy were similar, and the CO amounts were proportional to irradiation doses at any point of the storage period after irradiation. 60Co gamma-irradiated grains of allspice, cinnamon, cumin, polished rice, and wheat could be distinguished from nonirradiated ones by the level of retained CO gas even after 2 months of storage at room temperature. Thus, radiolytic CO gas could be an effective probe for rapid screening of irradiated pepper and dry grains

  5. Deep level centers in electron-irradiated silicon crystals doped with copper at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarykin, Nikolai [Institute of Microelectronics Technology, RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The effect of bombardment with energetic particles on the deep-level spectrum of copper-contaminated silicon wafers is studied by space charge spectroscopy methods. The p-type FZ-Si wafers were doped with copper in the temperature range of 645-750 C and then irradiated with the 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} fluence of 5 MeV electrons at room temperature. Only the mobile Cu{sub i} species and the Cu{sub PL} centers are detected in significant concentrations in the non-irradiated Cu-doped wafers. The properties of the irradiated samples are found to qualitatively depend on the copper in-diffusion temperature T{sub diff}. For T{sub diff} > 700 C, the irradiation partially reduces the Cu{sub i} concentration and introduces additional Cu{sub PL} centers while no standard radiation defects are detected. If T{sub diff} was below ∝700 C, the irradiation totally removes the mobile Cu{sub i} species. Instead, the standard radiation defects and their complexes with copper appear in the deep-level spectrum. A model for the defects reaction scheme during the irradiation is derived and discussed. DLTS spectrum of the Cu-contaminated and then irradiated silicon qualitatively depends on the copper in-diffusion temperature. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Experiences in selling irradiated produce at the retail level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    A background discussion of how marketing groups, in particular, the produce industry, presents their product to the consumer and how they deal with the controversial issues. This will contain information about the current '5 A Day' program in the United States contrasted with the issues that are facing the industry. I will begin with the way we approached the introduction of the irradiation process to our customers. We started with an informal survey in our company's newsletter. The findings indicated a high degree of interest and lack of information. In succeeding newsletters we provided as much information as possible; always careful to present both sides of the issue. During this time the questions and comments we received in the store indicated a growing interest. With the news that Vindicator opened in Florida we arranged for and announced the arrival of product, again through our newsletter. I will then discuss the various merchandising efforts we undertook. (Ie., Taste-samplings, Buy one get one free, a wide variety of product, etc.) (author)

  7. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  8. Pathomorphologic aftereffects of chronic irradiation with γ-neutron source incorporated in the abdominal cavity (communication 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.E.; Vasilenko, V.T.; Kiselev, Yu.M.; Mosidze, T.G.; Krylova, A.I.; Suskova, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    The results were presented of radiometric and morphological studies of the viscera of dogs and sheep who lived 5 to 7 years with the Hertz-IR type γ-neutron standard radiation sources, implanted in the abdominal cavity. The most coarse dystrophic and sclerotic changes were found in the visceral sites adjacent to the radiation source or near it. It was suggested that spermatogenesis disorders resulting from chronic low-dose irradiation were due to not only the immediate action of ionizing radiation, but to total disorders of the trophicity of irradiated body as well

  9. lowered serum triglyceride levels among chronic hepatitis b-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    about the effect of the two pathological stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection – chronic- symptomatic and ... 2 hepatitis B disease and plasma metabolite dys- regulation has become the subject of interest by most biomedical researchers over the past dec- ade. The liver as a ..... leukin – 1, and interferon – α stimulate.

  10. On the development of neoplasma in dogs after chronic gamma-irradiation at a low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    In order to estimate end effects of chronic prolonged gamma irradiation of dogs, an exposure of 80 animals to irradiation was terminated and they were followed up closely. Out of 80 animals 30 dogs (Ist series) were irradiated for 3 years and 50 dogs (2 series) for 6 years. The dogs were exposed to irradiation at doses of 21 to 190 rad per year. Out of the total number of animals 22 dogs died. Post-mortem examinations showed neoplasms in 13 animals (7 malignant and 12 benign neoplasms). The highest number of tumors developed in dogs of the 2 series (10 out of 11) one-two years after irradiation (6 malignant tumors-malignant pheochro--mocytoma of adrenals; malignant adenoma of the hypophysis: polymorphocellular sarcoma of the liver; leucomyosarcoma of the uterus; blader cancer; breast cancer; and 10 benign tumors-pancreatic adenoma; liver angioma; 2 papillary adenomas of the prostate; 3 renal adenomas; lipoma; polyps of the gall-bladder). Animals of the 1-st series displayed 3 neoplasms (1 malignant tumor-bladder tumor and 2 benign tumors-liver hepatoma and spleen angioma) 4-5 years after irradiation

  11. Effect of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five pregnant Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 Gy X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation to determined if prenatal X-irradiation would result in alterations in postnatal growth or growth rate. The mothers delivered their offspring, and the litters were reduced to a maximum of eight per litter on the second postnatal day. The 336 offspring were weighed weekly from day 3 until day 86, at which time they were killed, an autopsy was performed, and selected organs were removed and weighed. Postnatal growth rates did not differ significantly in irradiated offspring compared to sham irradiated animals. Irradiation on the 9th day, at any of the 3 dosage levels, did not result in significant differences in weekly weight. Weekly weight remained significantly lower due to irradiation on the 17th day of gestation. The gonadal weight ratio was significantly reduced in males irradiated on the 9th day. There were not other statistically significant changes in organ weight or organ/body weight ratios due to these levels of prenatal X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of pregnancy. These results indicate that low level prenatal X-irradiation, on the 17th day of rat gestation, causes prenatal growth retardation, evident at birth, which is not recuperable postnatally. Exposure to x-radiation at this time, however, does not affect the rate at which offspring grow during postnatal life. Offspring are smaller because they never fully recover from the original radiation-induced prenatal growth retardation

  12. Effect of post-Chernobyl chronic irradiation on some important plant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of photosynthetic plant apparatus characterized by photochemical activity of chloroplasts (the Hill reaction), cyclic photophosphorylation and activity of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase (RuBC) is investigated. These characteristics are used to show the state of plant growing under increased background radiation. There is a trend towards increase of chlorophyll content per unit wet weight of a leaf and reduction in the concentration of soluble protein in irradiated plants. However, the photochemical reactions, as indicated by RuBC activity, are similar. The low hydrolytic activity of chlorophyllase, an enzyme of chlorophyll degradation, indicates a high activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants growing under increased background radiation conditions. Thus, the observed resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to ionizing radiation and stimulation of pigment metabolism and activity of photochemical and enzyme reactions reveals a high adaptive ability of plants. Under conditions of elevated radiation background, the processes of photosynthesis in plants may become more active. This in turn may favour the accumulation of green mass and the crop raising. The prolonged chronic action of radionuclides on plants in contaminated zones will be determined by their specific accumulation in individual plant species, their radiosensitivity and factors connected with their growth - type of soil, kind of radionuclide fallout, chemical and physical effects. (author)

  13. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  14. Chronic exposure to environmental levels of tribromophenol impairs zebrafish reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jun; Liu Chunsheng; Yu Liqin; Zhou Bingsheng

    2010-01-01

    Tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) is ubiquitously found in aquatic environments and biota. In this study, we exposed zebrafish embryos (F 0 ; 2'''' days post-fertilization, dpf) to environmental concentration (0.3 μg/L) and a higher concentration (3.0 μg/L) of TBP and assessed the impact of chronic exposure (120 dpf) on reproduction. TBP exposure did not cause a significant increase in the malformation and reduction in the survival in the F 0 -generation fish. After TBP exposure, the plasma testosterone and estradiol levels significantly increased in males and decreased in females. The transcription of steroidogenic genes (3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, CYP17, CYP19A, CYP19B) was significantly upregulated in the brain and testes in males and downregulated in the brain and ovary in females. TBP exposure significantly downregulated and upregulated the expression of VTG in the liver of female and male fish, respectively. Meanwhile, TBP exposure altered the sex ratio toward a male-dominant state. The F 1 -generation larvae exhibited increased malformation, reduced survival, and retarded growth, suggesting that TBP in the aquatic environment has significant adverse effects on fish population.

  15. Assumed genetic effects of low level irradiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of human genetic pathology is stated and a study is made of the assumed effect of low level ionizing radiations. The theoretical notions thus derived are compared to experimental data which are poor. A quick survey of the literature shows that is has not yet been possible to establish a direct relationship between an increase of exposure and any genetic effect on man. However, this must not lead to conclude on the innoxiousness of radiation but rather shows how such analyses are difficult in as much as the effect investigated is necessarily low [fr

  16. Dose-response relations for dicentric yields in G0 lymphocytes of man and crab-eating monkey following acute and chronic γ-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E.; Hirai, M.; Tobari, I.; Nakai, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison has been made of dicentric yields in G 0 lymphocytes between man and crab-eating monkey, Macaca fascicularis, after acute and chronic γ-irradiations. With acute irradiation (49.6 rad/min) there was no significant difference between them, but for the chronic irradiation (17.1 rad/h) a significant difference was observed between the species. When the dose-response relations were fitted to the linear-quadratic model (Y = αD + βD 2 ), the species-difference observed for chronic irradiation was almost entirely due to change in the value of β. In addition, after chronic irradiation the β-value for monkey was almost negligible, but that for man was significant. Post-irradiation incubation experiment showed that cells with dicentrics were partly eliminated during the course of chronic irradiation, because there were appreciable reductions of dicentric yields (ca. 25% for both man and monkey at 400 rad) together with mitotic indices (ca. 30% and 60% for man and monkey, respectively, at 400 rad). Accordingly, it would be reasonable to postulate that G 0 repair for dicentrics other than selection mechanism must play a major role in the effects of low dose rate. It can be further suggested that G 0 -repair capacity for chromosal damages leading to dicentrics may be different among different primate species. (Auth.)

  17. Compensative-rehabilitative responses of blood-forming tissue cells after chronic irradiation.; Kompensatorno-vosstanovitel`nye reaktsii kletok krovetvornoj tkani pri khronicheskom obluchenii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosova, L I; Ryasenko, V I [Yinstitut Zoologyiyi, Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Kyiv (Ukraine); [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    The bone marrow eosinophils of minks and wild rats subjected to chronical irradiation are able of secreting a peroxidase system obtained by neutrophils. As a result heterophilic granulocytes appear in the peripheral blood. Intercellular transgranulation, emperiopolesis into megakaryocytes and eosinophils as peroxidase donors for neutrophils are regarded as cellular and subcellular adaptations in the mammalian bone marrow after irradiation.

  18. Mutants obtained by chronic gamma irradiation of soybean [Glycine Max (l.) Merrill]varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos Novak, M; Korosi, F.; Sipos, T.; Hodosne Kotvics, G.

    2001-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a wonder crop, containing about 20% oil and 40% high quality protein, having multiple uses such as food, fodder and industrial products. In Hungary in he last few years there has been a renewed interest in improving protein and oil content of the soybean crop. Selection for oil and/or protein content from segregating populations, derived from induced mutagenesis or hybridization, is known to be effective. Orf and Helms (1994) emphasized, that to fulfill demands of both sellers and purchasers, combined selection for yield components, yield, oil and/or protein content has to be carried out. For this purpose mutant soybean germplasm s were developed by pedigree method from a Carpathian-Ukrainian (KA) further more a Vietnamese (VL40) local variety adapted to Hungarian environmental conditions by 100-300 Gy chronic gamma irradiation. A function index was introduced to evaluate the genetic variability for the quality parameters and the most important agronomic traits. Chronic gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability of the oil content in the KA and of the protein content in the VL40 germplasm. Function index predicted up to 28% oil content in the KA mutant germplasm. Plants with 24.1 and 23.6% oil content were selected from the 150 Gy and the 100 Gy populations in the M4 generation. In the M5, progenies of a superior plant with 23.6% oil content were homozygous for this characteristics, while progenies of a superior plant with 24.1% oil content were segregating. Year can cause +-2.0-2.5% differences in the oil content of the seeds. Oil content had a moderate negative correlation with 1000-seed weight in both of the above mentioned generations .Seed samples with the highest oil content were analysed for fatty acid composition using gas-liquid chromatography. Their linoleic acid content ranged from 51.8 to 55.0%. Unfortunately, in M5 the linolenic acid content was higher than in M4, varying between 7.9% and 9.3%. The 200 Gy

  19. Effects of chronic γ-irradiation on growth and survival of the Tohoku hynobiid salamander, Hynobius lichenatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi [Project for Environmental Dynamics and Radiation Effects, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Une, Yumi [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan); Ihara, Sadao [Hokkaido University of Education Kushiro Campus, 1-15-55 Shiroyama, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8580 Japan (Japan); Matsui, Kumi [Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology 1, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan); Kudo, Tomoo; Tokiwa, Toshihiro [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihisa; Soeda, Haruhi [Project for Environmental Dynamics and Radiation Effects, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Ishikawa, Takahiro [Department of Technical Support and Development, Research, Development and Support Centre, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka [Project for Human Health, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshito; Yoshida, Satoshi [Project for Environmental Dynamics and Radiation Effects, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 Japan (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The Tohoku hynobiid salamanders, Hynobius lichenatus, were chronically irradiated with γ-rays from embryonic to juvenile stages for 450 days. At 490 μGy h{sup −1} or lower dose rates, growth and survival were not significantly affected by irradiation, and any morphological aberrations and histological damages were not observed. At 4600 μGy h{sup −1}, growth was severely inhibited, and all the individuals died mostly at the juvenile stage. Chronic LD{sub 50} was 42 Gy as a total dose. In the liver, the number of hematopoietic cells was significantly reduced in the living juveniles, and these cells disappeared in the dead juveniles. In the spleen, mature lymphocytes were depleted in the living larvae, and almost all the heamtopoietic cells disappeared in the dead juveniles. These results suggest that this salamander died due to acute radiation syndrome, i.e., hematopoietic damage and subsequent sepsis caused by immune depression. The death would be also attributed to skin damage inducing infection. At 18,000 μGy h{sup −1}, morphological aberrations and severe growth inhibition were observed. All the individuals died at the larval stage due to a multiple organ failure. Chronic LD{sub 50} was 28 Gy as a total dose. Assuming that chronic LD{sub 50} was 42 Gy at lower dose rates than 4600 μGy h{sup −1}, a chronic median lethal dose rate could be estimated to be <340 μGy h{sup −1} for the whole life (>14 years). These results suggest that, among guidance dose rates, i.e., 4–400 μGy h{sup −1}, proposed by various organisations and research programmes for protection of amphibians and taxonomic groups or ecosystems including amphibians, most of them would protect this salamander but the highest value may not on the whole life scale. - Highlights: • The salamanders, Hynobius lichenatus, were chronically γ-irradiated for 450 days. • At 490 μGy h{sup −1} or lower, irradiation did not significantly affect growth and survival. • All the individuals

  20. Effect of irradiation and cooking methods on ascorbic acid levels of four potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid (AA) contents in control and in tubers irradiated to 100 Gy gamma rays for sprout inhibition were studied by HPLC and iodophenol titrimetry methods in four potato cultivars as a function of storage at 15 degC and after cooking by different methods. Both reduced and total ascorbic acid levels decreased in control tubers during the first 3 months in storage recording respectively 22 to 35% and 26 to 45% losses depending on the cultivar. Irradiated tubers recorded additional losses of 5 to 10% and 6.5 to 13%, respectively in reduced and total ascorbic acid levels during the same period but remained in good marketable conditions. Cooking of tubers in boiling water showed maximum loss in vitamin C content, whereas pressure and microwave cooking recorded least losses. The magnitude of losses in reduced and total vitamin C during cooking was comparable in control and in irradiated tubers. (author)

  1. Effect of irradiation temperature and initial crystal doping level on defect creation efficiency in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, F.P.; Markevich, V.P.; Medvedeva, I.F.; Murin, L.I.

    1990-01-01

    The defect creation processes in n-type silicon irradiated by 60 Co gamma-rays or fast electrons (E = 4 MeV) have been investigated. Using electrical measurements the dependences of introduction efficiencies of the main radiation defects (A-, E-centres, carbon-related complexes) on the irradiation temperature (T irr = 77-470 K) and material doping level (N h = 2 x 10 12 - 2 x 10 15 cm -3 ) are obtained. It is shown that the efficiency of these defects formation is conditioned by the probability of the Frenkel pairs separation and depends strongly on the Fermi level position in crystals being irradiated. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Gene expression in skin tumors induced in hairless mice by chronic exposure to ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiromi; Tanaka, Misao; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Suzuki, Junko S.; Ogiso, Manabu; Tohyama, Chiharu

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the expressions of c-Ha-ras, c-jun, c-fos, c-myc genes and p53 protein in the development of skin tumours induced by chronic exposure to UVB without a photosensitizer using hairless mice. When mice were exposed to UVB at a dose of 2 kJ/m 2 three times a week, increased c-Ha-ras and c-myc transcripts were detected after only 5 weeks of exposure, while no tumour appeared on the exposed skin. The increase in gene expression continued until 25 weeks, when tumours, identified pathologically as mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), developed in the dorsal skin. In these SCC, overexpression of c-fos mRNA was also observed along with the increases in c-Ha-ras and c-myc. A single dose of UVB (2 kJ/m 2 ) applied to the backs of hairless mice transiently induced overexpression of the early event genes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc, but not c-Ha-ras, in the exposed area of skin. Accumulation of p53 protein was determined by Western blotting analysis of immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies PAb 240 or 246, which recognize mutant or wide type, respectively. In the SCC, a mutant p53 protein accumulated in the cytoplasm and nucleus. After single-dose irradiation, the increased wild-type p53 protein was observed in the nuclei of epidermal cells. The present results suggest that overexpression of the c-fos, c-myc and c-Ha-ras genes, and the mutational changes in p53 protein might be associated with skin photocarcinogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of the c-Ha-ras and c-myc genes might be an early event in the development of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice. (author)

  3. Effects of in vivo irradiation on plasma levels of carotenoids and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.S.; Roe, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to determine whether ultraviolet irradiation induces alterations in plasma carotenoid and vitamin A levels in human subjects. Twelve Caucasian women participated in an 8-week crossover trial. UV exposures were given to the anterior and posterior sides of the body on 11 days of a 2-week period. Mean cumulative UVA (320-400 nm) doses of 17.9 +/- 2.6 J/cm 2 and 24.1 +/- 1.5 J/cm 2 were delivered to the anterior and posterior sides, respectively. UVB (280-320 nm) doses were equivalent to 10% of the UVA doses given. Intake of carotenoids and preformed vitamin A was held constant. Plasma samples were collected weekly for spectrophotometric analysis of total carotenoids and vitamin A. A significant reduction (p < 0.003) in plasma carotenoid levels was observed following repeated irradiation. Although a significant treatment response could not be demonstrated for plasma vitamin A (p=0.11), a significant test for carryover (p < 0.02) suggested a delayed or continuing increase in plasma levels following irradiation. It is concluded that UV irradiation can reduce plasma carotenoid levels in vivo and may also affect plasma vitamin A levels in an adaptive response

  4. Monitoring PAI-1 and VEGF Levels in 6 Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts During Fractionated Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Christine; Kielow, Achim; Schilling, Daniela; Maftei, Constantin-Alin; Zips, Daniel; Yaromina, Ala; Baumann, Michael; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulated by hypoxia and irradiation and are involved in neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo whether changes in PAI-1 and VEGF during fractionated irradiation could predict for radiation resistance. Methods and Materials: Six xenografted tumor lines from human squamous cell carcinomas (HSCC) of the head and neck were irradiated with 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 daily fractions of 2 Gy. The PAI-1 and VEGF antigen levels in tumor lysates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The amounts of PAI-1 and VEGF were compared with the dose to cure 50% of tumors (TCD 50 ). Colocalization of PAI-1, pimonidazole (hypoxia), CD31 (endothelium), and Hoechst 33342 (perfusion) was examined by immunofluorescence. Results: Human PAI-1 and VEGF (hVEGF) expression levels were induced by fractionated irradiation in UT-SCC-15, UT-SCC-14, and UT-SCC-5 tumors, and mouse VEGF (msVEGF) was induced only in UT-SCC-5 tumors. High hVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation sensitivity after 5 fractions (P=.021), and high msVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation resistance after 10 fractions (P=.007). PAI-1 staining was observed in the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm of fibroblast-like stroma cells, and individual tumor cells at all doses of irradiation. Colocalization studies showed PAI-1 staining close to microvessels. Conclusions: These results indicate that the concentration of tumor-specific and host-specific VEGF during fractionated irradiation could provide considerably divergent information for the outcome of radiation therapy.

  5. Changes in plasma (hydrocortisone) levels after whole-body irradiation with ultraviolet rays of defined wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    One hour after whole-body irradiation with a radiation source having its maximum of emission in the UVB range, at a radiation dose of 0.44 J/cm 2 , a significant fall in the mean values of the blood plasma hydrocortisone level (p [de

  6. Evidence from mammalian studies on genetic effects of low level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The major components of genetic damage and associated human risks are discussed, together with the experimental evidence on induction rates of chromosome anomalies in mice, and monkeys male and female germ cells, using low and high LET low level irradiation. (UK)

  7. Void swelling of proton-irradiated stainless steel at large displacement levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Garner, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether saturation of void swelling in AISI 316 stainless steel can be made to occur at any level relevant to engineering design and to decide whether saturation is sensitive to irradiation variables such as helium/dpa ratio or simulation artifacts such as injected interstitials

  8. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yani; Leu, David; Chui, Jennifer; Fike, John R.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted

  9. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complex network of chemokines and pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is involved in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main enzymes responsible for matrix degradation, are important for periodontal tissue destruction, but their activity can be inhibited by tissue ...

  10. Cytogenetic damage at low doses and the problem of bioindication of chronic low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Nesterov, E.B.; Vasiliev, D.V.; Dikareva, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis undertaken by us of the experimentally observed cellular responses to low dose irradiation has shown that the relationship between the yield of induced cytogenetic damage and radiation dose within low dose range is non-linear and universal in character. Because of the relationship between the yield of cytogenetic damage and dose within low dose range is non-linear, the aberration frequency cannot be used in biological dosimetry in the most important in terms of practical application case. The cytogenetic damage frequency cannot be used in biological dosimetry also because of the probability of synergistic and antagonistic interaction effects of the different nature factors simultaneously acting on test-object in real conditions is high within low dose (concentration) range. In our experimental study of the regularities in the yield of structural mutations in conditions of combined influence of ionizing radiation, heavy metals and pesticides it was found that synergistic and antagonistic effects are mainly induced in conditions of combined action of low exposure injuring agents. Experiments on agricultural plants were carried out in 1986-1989 at the 30-km zone around Chernobyl NPP. It was shown that chronic low dose exposure could cause an inheritable destabilization of genetic structures expressing in increase of cytogenetic damage and yield karyotypic variability in offspring's of irradiated organisms. Obviously exactly this circumstance is the reason of the phenomenon found in our researches of significant time delay of cytogenetic damage reduction rate from radioactive pollution reduction rate from time past from the accident moment. Research of cytogenetic damage of reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) plant organs of the Pinus sylvestris tree micropopulations growing in contrast by radioactive pollution level sites of the 30-km ChNPP zone and also in the vicinity of the industrial plant > for processing and temporary storage of

  11. Prostate specific antigen levels after definitive irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhammer, P.F.; Schlossberg, S.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.; Wright, G.L.; Brassil, D.N.

    1991-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined in 78 patients judged clinically to be free of disease at intervals of 36 or more months (range 38 to 186 months, median 87 months) after completion of irradiation therapy by 125-iodine implantation or external beam radiation. Of this select group of patients 38% had undetectable serum PSA levels (0.5 ng./ml. or less) and 38% had PSA levels that were within normal limits (4.0 ng./ml. or less). All stages and grades were represented. Undetectable PSA levels were only rarely found (3%) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate before treatment. In 24 of these 78 patients a negative biopsy of the irradiated prostate had been obtained 18 to 42 months after treatment. When the PSA level was drawn, which ranged from 7 to 16 years after treatment, an equal percentage of these biopsied patients had either an undetectable, normal or elevated level. Irradiation is able to decrease PSA to undetectable levels in some patients with prostatic carcinoma. Whether this reflects suppression of marker production alone or, more importantly, ablation of prostate cancer producing that marker remains to be determined

  12. Features of thyroid regulation at children and teenagers living in conditions of chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.D.; Naumova, G.I.; Zabrodina, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Research of the hormones and their transport systems as markers of a functional condition of children and teenagers exposed to chronic low doze radiation are carried out. 229 children and teenagers 1976-1986 years of birth were surveyed. The concentration of common and free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropic hormone, globulin, thypoglobulin, thypoglobulin antibodies were investigated by a method of the radioimmune analysis. Definition of thyroid transport of blood serum was carried out by the electrophoresis method. Is shown that the normal level of thyroids of blood serum is not always sufficient criterion of the physiological norm because their further action in many respects is determined by transport system of blood and varies at radiation action

  13. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestak, Rosa; Halliday, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  14. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  15. Setup for in situ deep level transient spectroscopy of semiconductors during swift heavy ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Sugam; Katharria, Y S; Safvan, C P; Kanjilal, D

    2008-05-01

    A computerized system for in situ deep level characterization during irradiation in semiconductors has been set up and tested in the beam line for materials science studies of the 15 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. This is a new facility for in situ irradiation-induced deep level studies, available in the beam line of an accelerator laboratory. It is based on the well-known deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. High versatility for data manipulation is achieved through multifunction data acquisition card and LABVIEW. In situ DLTS studies of deep levels produced by impact of 100 MeV Si ions on Aun-Si(100) Schottky barrier diode are presented to illustrate performance of the automated DLTS facility in the beam line.

  16. Chronic low-level tritium contamination effects on humoral immune response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Bejan, A.; Stinga, A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the radioimmunoassay technique, the present study reports on immunochemical parameters of the antibodies synthesized in vivo against bovine serum albumin by rats previously exposed to long-term internal contamination with tritiated water. The corresponding dose range of the irradiation was between 0.6 and 6.2 mGy. A slight increase of a affinity constant of the antibodies produced by the irradiated organisms was found. This experimental fact might sustain the hypothesis of a humoral immune response associated to adaptation increase in cell renewal mechanisms, rather than to selective cell deletion. We also observed a total dissimilarity between the modifications induced by chronic low-dose irradiation and those induced by physiological aging. For old rats the concentration of antibodies is higher by almost an order of magnitude, but they are much less efficient as the decreased value of the affinity constant indicates. (Author)

  17. The model of self-compensation and pinning of the Fermi level in irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudnyi, V. N.; Kolin, N. G.; Smirnov, L. S.

    2007-01-01

    A model is developed to analyze numerically the electrical properties and the steady-state (limiting) position of the Fermi level (F lim ) in tetrahedral semiconductors irradiated with high-energy particles. It is shown that an irradiated semiconductor represents a highly compensated material, in which F lim is identical to G >/2, where G > is the average energy gap between the conduction band and valence band within the entire Brillouin zone of the crystal. The experimental values of F lim , the calculated values of G >/2, and the data on the electrical properties of irradiated semiconductors are presented. The chemical trends controlling the variation in the quantity F lim in groups of semiconductors with the similar types of chemical bonding are analyzed

  18. Pre-1989 epidemiological surveys of low-level dose pre-conception irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Information from 59 pre-1989 epidemiological surveys concerning pre-conception irradiation at doses less than 0.1 Gy has been collated to determine whether any consistent patterns of health effects emerge. The surveys are considered in three groups: childhood malignancies, Down's syndrome and indicators of reproductive damage. Although a pattern is observed for Down's syndrome, no reliable associations are apparent for childhood malignancies (where all surveys pre-date the Gardner survey at Sellafield) or indications of reproductive damage. The twelve surveys of Down's syndrome in relation to maternal pre-conception irradiation received for medical reasons show a pattern consistent with a doubling dose of about 20 mGy. This doubling dose value is, however, not based on individual measurements of ovarian dose and is inconsistent with results from high-level dose surveys. There is no association between paternal irradiation and Down's syndrome. (author)

  19. Low-level laser irradiation induces in vitro proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; Ginani, Fernanda; Soares, Diego Moura; Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the proliferation and possible nuclear morphological changes of mouse mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue were submitted to two applications (T0 and T48 hours) of low-level laser irradiation (660nm; doses of 0.5 and 1.0J/cm"2). The trypan blue assay was used to evaluate cell viability, and growth curves were used to analyze proliferation at zero, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Nuclear alterations were evaluated by staining with DAPI (4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) at 72 hours. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells responded to laser therapy in a dose-dependent manner. Higher cell growth was observed when the cells were irradiated with a dose of 1.0J/cm"2, especially after 24 hours (p<0.01). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells responded better to a dose of 1.0J/cm"2, but higher cell proliferation was observed after 48 hours (p<0.05) and 72 hours (p<0.01). Neither nuclear alterations nor a significant change in cell viability was detected in the studied groups. Low-level laser irradiation stimulated the proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells without causing nuclear alterations. The biostimulation of mesenchymal stem cells using laser therapy might be an important tool for regenerative therapy and tissue engineering

  20. Low-level laser irradiation induces in vitro proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; Ginani, Fernanda [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Soares, Diego Moura [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the proliferation and possible nuclear morphological changes of mouse mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue were submitted to two applications (T0 and T48 hours) of low-level laser irradiation (660nm; doses of 0.5 and 1.0J/cm{sup 2}). The trypan blue assay was used to evaluate cell viability, and growth curves were used to analyze proliferation at zero, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Nuclear alterations were evaluated by staining with DAPI (4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) at 72 hours. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells responded to laser therapy in a dose-dependent manner. Higher cell growth was observed when the cells were irradiated with a dose of 1.0J/cm{sup 2}, especially after 24 hours (p<0.01). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells responded better to a dose of 1.0J/cm{sup 2}, but higher cell proliferation was observed after 48 hours (p<0.05) and 72 hours (p<0.01). Neither nuclear alterations nor a significant change in cell viability was detected in the studied groups. Low-level laser irradiation stimulated the proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells without causing nuclear alterations. The biostimulation of mesenchymal stem cells using laser therapy might be an important tool for regenerative therapy and tissue engineering.

  1. Action of sulfured radioprotectors on spontaneous cerebral electric activity of implanted chronic non irradiated adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.

    In a previous study, the radioprotective action of serotonin on central nervous system of lethal dose irradiated rabbit had been determined. In the present study, the possibilities of sulfured radioprotectors were considered in order to see if these products have by themselves an action on central nervous system of non irradiated animals [fr

  2. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanara, P P; Shereef, Mohammed; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, K S; Arun Kumar, M S; Mohamed, Shabeer

    2015-08-01

    Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry. βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity.

  3. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janat, M; Khalifa, K [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damasucs, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    A two years field experiment 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0,5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0,60, 100, 140 and kg P{sub 2} O{sub 5}/ha. Irradiation doses and P. Fertilizer levels arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the subplots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting. Soil test for P revealed that enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. 8 tabs.

  4. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, K.

    1995-07-01

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  5. Large lattice relaxation deep levels in neutron-irradiated GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Zhang, J.D.; Beling, C.D.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.X.; Gong, M.; Sarkar, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) measurements have been carried out in neutron-irradiated n-type hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown GaN. A defect center characterized by a DLTS line, labeled as N1, is observed at E C -E T =0.17 eV. Another line, labeled as N2, at E C -E T =0.23 eV, seems to be induced at the same rate as N1 under irradiation and may be identified with E1. Other defects native to wurtzite GaN such as the C and E2 lines appear to enhance under neutron irradiation. The DLOS results show that the defects N1 and N2 have large Frank-Condon shifts of 0.64 and 0.67 eV, respectively, and hence large lattice relaxations. The as-grown and neutron-irradiated samples all exhibit the persistent photoconductivity effect commonly seen in GaN that may be attributed to DX centers. The concentration of the DX centers increases significantly with neutron dosage and is helpful in sustaining sample conductivity at low temperatures, thus making possible DLTS measurements on N1 an N2 in the radiation-induced deep-donor defect compensated material which otherwise are prevented by carrier freeze-out

  6. Developing experimental protocols for chronic irradiation studies: the application of a good practice guide framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.D.; Knowles, J.D.; Whittaker, J.H.; Copplestone, D.; Malcolm, H.M.; Bielby, S.; Zinger, I.

    2004-01-01

    The EC-funded FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) project collated information on the transfer, dosimetry, and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. A major output from the project is the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED). A review of the information contained within FRED highlighted that information on the effects of low-dose, chronic exposure was, at best, fragmentary. However, these data are required to define the dose effect relationships needed to underpin the assessment tools that are being developed. To address this requirement, a series of four Good Practice Guides (GPGs) has been produced as part of a protocol development framework. This framework aims to harmonise experimental approaches, with a view to ensuring that all necessary data on appropriate endpoints are collected, so that dose effect relationships can be determined. The GPGs cover test species selection, endpoint selection, radiation exposure and experimental design considerations. A key is used to guide researchers through the GPGs and the decisions made are recorded on an output pro-forma. The completed pro-forma forms the basis of the experimental protocol. The pro-forma also indicates the information that should be included when presenting the results of the experiment. Standardising approaches ensures that results are comparable between experiments and that they are suitable for determining dose effect relationships. This protocol development framework has been adopted by the UK Environment Agency as a document upon which future Agency-funded experimental work on the effects of chronic, low-level exposure to ionising radiation will be based. It is hoped that the framework will gain acceptance in the wider scientific community and facilitate addressing the knowledge gaps that have been identified in order that successful protection of non-human biota can be demonstrated. (author)

  7. Effects of increased low-level diode laser irradiation time on extraction socket healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Bong; Ahn, Su-Jin; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Heo, Jung Sun; Kang, Kyung Lhi

    2015-02-01

    In our previous studies, we confirmed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 980-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser was beneficial for the healing of the alveolar bone in rats with systemic disease. However, many factors can affect the biostimulatory effects of LLLT. Thus, we attempted to investigate the effects of irradiation time on the healing of extraction sockets by evaluating the expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. The left and right first maxillary molars of 24 rats were extracted. Rats were randomly divided into four groups in which extraction sockets were irradiated for 0, 1, 2, or 5 min each day for 3 or 7 days. Specimens containing the sockets were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. LLLT increased the expressions of all tested genes, Runx2, collagen type 1, osteocalcin, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in a time-dependent manner. The highest levels of gene expressions were in the 5-min group after 7 days. Five minutes of irradiation caused prominent increases of the expression of all tested proteins after both 3 and 7 days. The expression level of each protein in group 4 was higher by almost twofold compared with group 1 after 7 days. Laser irradiation for 5 min caused the highest expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. In conclusion, LLLT had positive effects on the early stages of bone healing of extraction sockets in rats, which were irradiation time-dependent.

  8. Liver enzymes serum levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Bezerra Cavalcanti Sette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature regarding the serum levels of the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis with and without viral hepatitis. Original articles published up to January 2013 on adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were selected. These articles contained the words “transaminases” “aspartate aminotransferase” “alanine aminotransferase” “gamma glutamyl transferase,” “liver enzymes”, AND “dialysis” OR “hemodialysis”. A total of 823 articles were retrieved. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 49 articles were selected. The patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis had reduced serum levels of aminotransferases due to hemodilution, lower pyridoxine levels, or elevated homocysteine levels. The chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis infected with the hepatitis C virus also had lower aminotransferase levels compared with the infected patients without chronic kidney disease. This reduction is in part due to decreased viremia caused by the dialysis method, the production of a hepatocyte growth factor and endogenous interferon-α, and lymphocyte activation, which decreases viral action on hepatocytes. Few studies were retrieved on gamma-glutamyl transferase serum levels; those found reported that there were no differences between the patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The serum aminotransferase levels were lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (with or without viral hepatitis than in the patients with normal renal function; this reduction has a multifactorial origin.

  9. Combined Effect of food deprivation and serotonin injection on plasma prolactin and glucose levels in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Khamis, F.I.; Abu Zaid, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) on the homeostasis of plasma prolactin and glucose in rats induced by gamma irradiation and food deprivation. Animals were divided into seven groups; control, irradiated at a dose level of 6 Gy, injected with 500 mg/kg b.wt. 5-HT intra-peritoneally, injected with 5-HT before irradiation food deprived for 48 hrs then irradiated, food deprived then injected with 5-HT, and food deprived then injected with 5-HT before whole body irradiation. Samples were collected at 1,3, 7 and 14 days post irradiation. The results showed that gamma irradiation firstly elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in plasma (1 and 3 days) then the levels decreased after 7 and 14 days as compared to control values. Rats received serotonin before irradiation exhibited an increased level of PRL after 14 days post irradiation compared to control value, while the level decreased after 1, 3, 7 days post irradiation. Food deprivation for 48 hrs altered the effect of serotonin and /or irradiation on PRL levels in plasma. Rats injected with serotonin showed a decreased level of plasma prolactin in food deprived rats, 3 days post injection. The obtained results showed that serotonin causes variable effects on plasma prolactin compared to control values. Glucose plasma levels were increased in both irradiated and serotonin injected rats before irradiation, and also in serotonin injected rats as compared to control values. Irradiation of rats after 48 hrs food deprivation induced an increase in plasma glucose levels measured throughout the different experimental periods. Injection of serotonin to rats after 48 hrs food deprivation before irradiation increased plasma glucose levels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days compared to control value. Also, injection of serotonin to 48 hrs food deprived rats increased glucose levels during all examined days of experiment.It could be concluded that serotonin may have a variable mechanism controlling prolactin

  10. Impact of proton irradiation on deep level states in n-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Cinkilic, E.; Ringel, S. A.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; McSkimming, B.; Speck, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Deep levels in 1.8 MeV proton irradiated n-type GaN were systematically characterized using deep level transient spectroscopies and deep level optical spectroscopies. The impacts of proton irradiation on the introduction and evolution of those deep states were revealed as a function of proton fluences up to 1.1 × 10 13 cm −2 . The proton irradiation introduced two traps with activation energies of E C - 0.13 eV and 0.16 eV, and a monotonic increase in the concentration for most of the pre-existing traps, though the increase rates were different for each trap, suggesting different physical sources and/or configurations for these states. Through lighted capacitance voltage measurements, the deep levels at E C - 1.25 eV, 2.50 eV, and 3.25 eV were identified as being the source of systematic carrier removal in proton-damaged n-GaN as a function of proton fluence

  11. Treatment of blastic transformation of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and infusion of cryopreserved autologous marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, C D; Stewart, P; Clift, R A; Fefer, A; Neiman, P E; Singer, J; Storb, R; Thomas, E D [Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). School of Medicine; The United States Public Health Service Hospital; Providence Medical Center, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA)

    1978-01-01

    We have previously reported attempts to reestablish the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), in two patients with blastic transrormation, utilizing intensive therapy followed by the infusion of cryopreserved autologous marrow. This approach has now been attempted in a total of seven patients. Marrow was harvested on single or multiple occasions during the chronic phase of CGL and cryopreserved in 10% dimethylsulfoxide. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, 120 mg/kg, plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation followed by infusion of stored marrow. Two patients failed to achieve marrow repopulation and died of infection after 29 and 48 days. Three patients had partial marrow recovery. Two of these achieved repopulation of myeloid, erythroid, and lymphoid elements but did not recover platelet function; one died of hemorrhage on day 55, and one died of cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonitis on day 58. A third patient had delayed engraftment of all cell elements, most prominently lymphocytes, and died after 84 days of an iodopathic interstitial pneumonitis. Two patients achieved prompt and complete reestablishment of the chronic phase of CGL. One died on day 72 with a fungal pheumonitis and one developed blastic transformation within 4 months. These preliminary results indicate that this approach to the treatment of blastic transformation of CGL is feasible but difficult. Improvements in results may be achieved by more frequent storage of marrow and pheripheral blood stem cells and lymphocytes and further advances in pretransplant therapy.

  12. Low-level laser irradiation protects the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane from UV cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Amira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy or photobiomodulation is the medical use of a very low intensity light in the red to near infrared (wavelengths in the range of 630-940 nm. The present work was conducted to explore the effects of both UV and low-level laser irradiation (LLLI on microcirculation using the in vivo model of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The effects were assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. Cell cytotoxicity, survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS of the CAM were also evaluated. We found that UV irradiation induced alterations of the vessels, leading to bleeding and extravasation. This effect was intensified after 60 min of exposure to UV irradiation, leading to marked edema. UVA irradiation increased cell cytotoxicity as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release (56.23% of control and reduced cell viability as assessed by decreased fluorescein diacetate (FDA fluorescence (56.23% of control. Pretreatment with LLLI prior to UV exposure protected the CAM tissue from UV-mediated cell death. This protective effect was supported by the observation of significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation (from 0.3±0.004 for UV, to 0.177±0.012 after LLLI pretreatment, ROS and O2 -production, as indicated by respective dihydrorhodamine (DHR and dihydroethidium (DHE intensities (from 132.78% of control for UVA, to 95.90% of control for L-UV (DHR, and from 127.34% of control for UVA, to 82.03% of control for L-UV (DHE, and by preventing the increase in oxidative activities. LLLI efficiently protected CAM cells from UV-induced oxidative stress and appeared as a safe protective pretreatment against UV irradiation.

  13. Alternatives to dose, quality factor and dose equivalent for low level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondhaus, C.A.; Bond, V.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Randomly occurring energy deposition events produced by low levels of ionizing radiation interacting with tissue deliver variable amounts of energy to the sensitive target volumes within a small fraction of the cell population. A model is described in which an experimentally derived function relating event size to cell response probability operates mathematically on the microdosimetric event size distribution characterizing a given irradiation and thus determines the total fractional number of responding cells; this fraction measures the effectiveness of the given radiation. Normalizing to equal numbers of events produced by different radiations and applying this cell response or hit size effectiveness function (HSEF) should define radiation quality, or relative effectiveness, on a more nearly absolute basis than do the absorbed dose and dose evaluation, which are confounded when applied to low level irradiations. Examples using both calculation and experimental data are presented. 15 refs., 18 figs

  14. Electroencephalogram in relation to brain glycogen level in irradiated rats treated with vitamin E as a radioprotective compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation of untreated rats at the dose of 7 Gy induced severe abnormalities in the brain electrical activity, electroencephalogram (EEG), patterns of both frontal and occipital cortical areas. The visual analysis of the frontal EEG records showed a significant shift of frequencies towards faster and higher voltage activity along the experiment period (first , third, seventh and tenth days post irradiation). However, an opposite picture was prominent on the occipital EEG records after irradiation. On the other hand,the level of brain glycogen, which is considered as an important energy source for brain functions, significantly increased at all intervals of post irradiation. The treatment of rats with intraperitoneal injection of vitamin E pre-irradiation succeeded in diminishing the deleterious abnormalities in the EEG records in both frontal and occipital areas as well as the changes induced in the level of brain glycogen after whole body gamma irradiation.4 fig

  15. Irradiation induced defects containing oxygen atoms in germanium crystal as studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Kambe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Matsuda, Koji.

    1984-05-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was applied to the electron trapping levels which are associated with the irradiation induced lattice defects in germanium crystals. The germanium crystals used in the study were doped with oxygen, antimony or arsenic and the defects were formed by electron irradiation of 1.5MeV or 10MeV. The nature of so called ''thermal defect'' formed by heat treatment at about 670K was also studied. The trapping levels at Esub(c)-0.13eV, Esub(c)-0.25eV and Esub(c)-0.29eV were found to be associated with defects containing oxygen atoms. From the experimental results the Esub(c)-0.25eV level was attributed to the germanium A-center (interstitial oxygen atom-vacancy pair). Another defect associated with the 715cm -1 infrared absorption band was found to have a trapping level at the same position at Esub(c)-0.25eV. The Esub(c)-0.23eV and Esub(c)-0.1eV levels were revealed to be associated with thermal donors formed by heat treatment at about 670K. Additional two peaks (levels) were observed in the DLTS spectrum. The annealing behavior of the levels suggests that the thermal donors originate from not a single type but several types of defects. (author)

  16. In vitro analysis of low-level laser irradiation on human osteoblast-like cells proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Nora; Saino, Enrica; Bragheri, Francesca; Minzioni, Paolo; Cristiani, Ilaria; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of a single or a multiple doses of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on proliferation of the human osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS-2. SAOS-2 cells were divided in five groups and exposed to LLLI (659 nm diode laser; 11 mW power output): group I as a control (dark), group II exposed to a single laser dose of 1 J/cm2, group III irradiated with a single dose of 3 J/cm2, and group IV and V exposed for three consecutive days to 1 or 3 J/cm², respectively. Cellular proliferation was assessed daily up to 7 days of culturing. The obtained results showed an increase in proliferative capacity of SAOS-2 cells during the first 96 h of culturing time in once-irradiated cells, as compared to control cells. Furthermore, a significantly higher proliferation in the group IV and V was detected if compared to a single dose or to control group after 96 h and 7 days. In conclusion, the effect of the single dose on cell proliferation was transitory and repeated irradiations were necessary to observe a strong enhancement of SAOS-2 growth. As a future perspective, we would like to determine the potential of LLLI as a new approach for promoting bone regeneration onto biomaterials.

  17. Technological tests at the preindustrial level on irradiated potatoes. Prospects for the practical introduction of irradiated foods in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1978-01-01

    To confirm the technological feasibility of potato irradiation in large pallet boxes for a period up to 150 days' plant operation, a pilot-scale technological study was carried out in Italy during 1975-76. Potatoes (14t, cultivar Tonda di Berlino) were received from the Avezzano area on a commercial truck, irradiated at the Casaccia gamma plant and transported back for storage. The irradiation was carried out in pallet boxes (500kg) using a rotating platform at an average dose of 11.7krad. The radiation treatment was carried out at 3-week intervals for a total of 9 treatments. During 1976 15t of irradiated potatoes were put on the Italian market. Irradiation was carried out again at the gamma irradiation plant of the Applied Radiation Division, Casaccia Nuclear Center. After irradiation, the product was transported back to the Fucino area and stored in warehouses of the Fucino Agency at environmental conditions. Two months later the material was taken to Bologna, Milan, Rome and Pescara and put on the market there. At the end of the marketing test and upon receipt of the consumers' opinions by means of distributed postcards, it was concluded that the majority of the consumers expressed a preference for irradiated potatoes with respect to both quality and storage. (author)

  18. Influence of immunization on serum γ-globulin levels of calves following whole-body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Mehlhorn, G.; Neumeister, K.; Johannsen, U.; Panndorf, H.

    1980-01-01

    Calves aged 2.5 to 4 months were whole-body X irradiated with mean lethal doses between 1.2 and 1.7 Gy. The effect of different immunization procedures on the irradiation-induced reaction of the serum gamma globulin levels was studied. Immunization 14 and 21 days before irradiation resulted in obvious stimulation gamma globulin production. After parenteral antigen administration the nearly 2 weeks lasting increase of the gamma globulin level rose in the irradiated animals but declined in the sham-irradiated calves. After a lethal dosis of 1.7 Gy there was a decrease of the gamma globulins 3 weeks post irradiation, at the climax of the radiation syndrome. When 1.5 Gy were used the increase of the gamma globulin concentration was observed also after oral administration of the antigen. The response of the irradiated animals in the secondary reaction of the antibody production was most lear after boosting with homologous bacteria. The stimulating effect of the irradiation on the serum globulin levels after immunization prior to irradiation has been attributed to the reaction of the immunoglobulin-producing system to the release of tissue proteins and antigens, respectively

  19. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  20. Serum creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels are associated with severe chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caúla, A L; Lira-Junior, R; Tinoco, E M B; Fischer, R G

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis may alter systemic homeostasis and influence creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between severe chronic periodontitis and serum creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels. One hundred patients were evaluated, 66 with severe chronic periodontitis (test group) and 34 periodontally healthy controls (control group). Medical, demographic and periodontal parameters were registered. Blood sample was collected after an overnight fast and serum creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels were determined. There were significant differences between test and control groups in ethnicity, gender and educational level (p creatinine level (p creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels. Severe chronic periodontitis was associated to lower creatinine and higher alkaline phosphatase levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reparation in unicellular green algae during chronic exposure to the action of mutagenic factors. II. Restoration of single-stranded DNA breaks following exposure of Chlamydomonas reinchardii to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, S.A.; Ptitsina, S.N.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The restoration of single-stranded breaks in the DNA in different strains of unicellular green algae (chlamydomonads) during chronic exposure to the action of mutagenic factors following γ-irradiation was investigated. It was shown that the restoration of DNA breaks was most effective in the case of strain M γ/sup mt + /, which is resistant to radiation. Strains, that were sensitive to UV irradiation showed a similar order of DNA break restoration as the wild-type strain. Strain UVS-1 showed a higher level of restoration than the wild-type strain. The data indicated that chlamydomonads have different pathways of reparation, which lead to the restoration of breaks induced by γ-irradiation and UV-rays

  2. Chronic low-dose γ-irradiation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae induces gene expression changes and enhances locomotive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cha Soon; Lee, Byung Sub; Lee, In Kyung; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Nam, Seon Young; Seong, Ki Moon

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation effects have been extensively studied, the biological effects of low-dose radiation (LDR) are controversial. This study investigates LDR-induced alterations in locomotive behavior and gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster. We measured locomotive behavior using larval pupation height and the rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay after exposure to 0.1 Gy γ-radiation (dose rate of 16.7 mGy/h). We also observed chronic LDR effects on development (pupation and eclosion rates) and longevity (life span). To identify chronic LDR effects on gene expression, we performed whole-genome expression analysis using gene-expression microarrays, and confirmed the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The pupation height of the LDR-treated group at the first larval instar was significantly higher (∼2-fold increase in PHI value, P < 0.05). The locomotive behavior of LDR-treated male flies (∼3 − 5 weeks of age) was significantly increased by 7.7%, 29% and 138%, respectively (P < 0.01), but pupation and eclosion rates and life spans were not significantly altered. Genome-wide expression analysis identified 344 genes that were differentially expressed in irradiated larvae compared with in control larvae. We identified several genes belonging to larval behavior functional groups such as locomotion (1.1%), oxidation reduction (8.0%), and genes involved in conventional functional groups modulated by irradiation such as defense response (4.9%), and sensory and perception (2.5%). Four candidate genes were confirmed as differentially expressed genes in irradiated larvae using qRT-PCR (>2-fold change). These data suggest that LDR stimulates locomotion-related genes, and these genes can be used as potential markers for LDR. (author)

  3. assessment Of the effect Of low Level Laser Therapy on Parotid glands of gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction has a major deleterious effect on oral health. Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiation induced oxidative stress in rats’ salivary glands. Material and Methods: Sixty four male Albino rats were divided into two groups. One group where the left parotid gland was exposed to 3 sessions of LLL, then rats were subjected to 3 sessions of whole body gamma-radiation. In the other group, rats were subjected to 3 sessions of gamma-radiation; each was followed by a session of LLL to the left parotid gland. The right gland of both groups was used as irradiated control. Parotid glands were collected 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks after the end of treatment and were subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The parotid gland of both laser groups showed less intra cytoplasmic vacuolisation, slight alteration of acinar architecture and almost even size nuclei as compared to the irradiated gland. LLL either before or parallel to gamma-irradiation was effective in increasing cell proliferation on the third and seventh day, respectively as compared to the gamma irradiated group (P<0.05). Statistically, results revealed significant decrease in optical density of caspase 3 activity in the lased groups on the first week as compared to the control. Conclusion: LLLT attenuates the harmful effect of gamma irradiation on the parotid glands of the rats. Also, it improves gland regeneration through modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inflammation

  4. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous cell-mediated cytolysis by peripheral blood cells obtained from whole-body chronically irradiated beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, J.A.; Shifrine, M.; Klein, A.K.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Kawakami, T.

    1986-01-01

    The level of natural killer (NK) activity of continuously gamma-irradiated (whole body) beagle dogs and their nonirradiated controls was studied. For analytical purposes, irradiated dogs were segregated into groups according to their clinical status: clinically normal, hypocellular, or with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. Since unirradiated control animals exhibited a wide range of NK responses, the data from each irradiated animal were compared to its own age-matched or litter-matched unirradiated control. Of the eight clinically normal irradiated dogs (median = 146% activity of control) only one animal had a NK activity lower than that of its control. The hypocellular group (n = 5, median = 21.8% of control) and the leukemic group (n = 4, median = 52.5% of control) each contained one responder with higher activity than its control. The difference between the percentage of control of the clinically normal and clinically abnormal dogs was found to be significant (P less than 0.05). There is a negative correlation between the NK results obtained and the total accumulated dose of radiation at the time of sampling (correlation coefficient = -0.739, P less than 0.01), suggesting a radiation effect upon natural killer activity, which is evidence by enhancement at lower doses and depression at higher doses of irradiation

  6. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on deep levels in Au /n-Si (100) Schottky diode studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Katharria, Y. S.; Kumar, Sugam; Kanjilal, D.

    2007-12-01

    In situ deep level transient spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the influence of 100MeV Si7+ ion irradiation on the deep levels present in Au/n-Si (100) Schottky structure in a wide fluence range from 5×109to1×1012ions cm-2. The swift heavy ion irradiation introduces a deep level at Ec-0.32eV. It is found that initially, trap level concentration of the energy level at Ec-0.40eV increases with irradiation up to a fluence value of 1×1010cm-2 while the deep level concentration decreases as irradiation fluence increases beyond the fluence value of 5×1010cm-2. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of energy transfer mechanism of high energy ions in material.

  7. Analysis of relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Fengjian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The levels of plasma blood lipid (with biochemistry) and serum hs-CRP(with high-sensitive immuno turbidimetry) were determined in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as 68 normal controls. Results: The plasma blood lipid levels in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly lower than those in 68 controls, plasma TC and LDL-C levels were not much difference (P>0.05), plasma HDL-C level was significantly difference (P<0.05), but TG and Lp (a) levels were very prominently difference (P<0.01). And the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly increased also (P<0.01). The close relationship was between blood lipid and hs-CRP levels. Conclusion: The study of relationship between blood lipid levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with COPD was helpful for understand the disease process as well as possible mechanisms. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda

    2004-01-01

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  9. Selective brain responses to acute and chronic low-dose X-ray irradiation in males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silasi, Greg; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Besplug, Jill; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Titov, Viktor; Kolb, Bryan; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2004-01-01

    Radiation exposure is known to have profound effects on the brain, leading to precursor cell dysfunction and debilitating cognitive declines [Nat. Med. 8 (2002) 955]. Although a plethora of data exist on the effects of high radiation doses, the effects of low-dose irradiation, such as ones received during repetitive diagnostic and therapeutic exposures, are still under-investigated [Am. J. Otolaryngol. 23 (2002) 215; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 889; Curr. Opin. Neurol. 16 (2003) 129]. Furthermore, most studies of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have been performed using a single acute dose, while clinically and environmentally relevant exposures occur predominantly under chronic/repetitive conditions. Here, we have used a mouse model to compare the effects of chronic/repetitive and acute low-dose radiation (LDR) exposure (0.5 Gy) to ionizing radiation on the brain in vivo. We examined the LDR effects on p42/44 MAPK (ERK1/ERK2), CaMKII, and AKT signaling-the interconnected pathways that have been previously shown to be crucial for neuronal survival upon irradiation. We report perturbations in ERK1/2, AKT, and CREB upon acute and chronic/repetitive low-dose exposure in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice. These studies were paralleled by the analysis of radiation effects on neurogenesis and cellular proliferation. Repetitive exposure had a much more pronounced effect on cellular signaling and neurogenesis than acute exposure. These results suggest that studies of single acute exposures might be limited in terms of their predictive value. We also present the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced signaling in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We show the role of estrogens in brain radiation responses and discuss the implications of the observed changes

  10. The reversion phenomenon in irradiated fern prothalli: Effects of acute or chronic anoxia and let

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Cowie, F.G.; Wangenheim, K.H. von

    1985-01-01

    In several systems a paradoxical reduction of radiation damage with increasing dose, termed reversion, has been observed. In the fern Osmunda regalis the percentage of cells which does not die but stays alive, although reproductively sterile, increases with dose. The assumed mechanism of this effect is a continuation of cytoplasmic growth during radiation-induced mitotic delay which induces terminal differentiation (early differentiation) thus preventing mitosis and the expression of chromosomal injury. Suppression of cytoplasmic growth after irradiation should abrogate reversion. This was tested using anoxia. Reversion was suppressed by storage of the sporelings in nitrogen for 8 h or more after X-rays, but was not suppressed by storage in 0.27 μM oxygen nor by a 60-min exposure to air after irradiation and before storage in nitrogen. Anoxia before irradiation in air had no effect.

  11. Response of the desert shrub Krameria parvifolia after ten years of chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, A.T.; Bamberg, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    A northern Mojave Desert shrub community was irradiated by a 137 Cs source for a ten-year period. Leaf and fruit production, cover, and percent live stem of Krameria parvifolia shrubs were found to respond significantly to a radiation gradient with exposure rates ranging from 0.1 to 10 R/day. Fruit and leaf production were greatly reduced at exposures over 6 R/day. Above 7 R/day 16% of the shrubs were dead compared to 1.2% in a non-irradiated area. Reduced cover, density and live stem values indicate a trend toward a lower status of Krameria in the community at cumulative exposures above 25 kR. Observations indicate that an equilibrium in response to irradiation has not yet occurred. Radiosensitivity of K. parvifolia is attributed in part to its phenology. (author)

  12. Response of the desert shrub Krameria parvifolia after ten years of chronic gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, A T; Bamberg, S A [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Lab. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology

    1975-12-01

    A northern Mojave Desert shrub community was irradiated by a /sup 137/Cs source for a ten-year period. Leaf and fruit production, cover, and percent live stem of Krameria parvifolia shrubs were found to respond significantly to a radiation gradient with exposure rates ranging from 0.1 to 10 R/day. Fruit and leaf production were greatly reduced at exposures over 6 R/day. Above 7 R/day 16% of the shrubs were dead compared to 1.2% in a non-irradiated area. Reduced cover, density and live stem values indicate a trend toward a lower status of Krameria in the community at cumulative exposures above 25 kR. Observations indicate that an equilibrium in response to irradiation has not yet occurred. Radiosensitivity of K. parvifolia is attributed in part to its phenology.

  13. Pyrimethanil degradation by photo-Fenton process: Influence of iron and irradiance level on treatment cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Reina, A; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Casas López, J L; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-12-15

    This study evaluates the combined effect of photo-catalyst concentration and irradiance level on photo-Fenton efficiency when this treatment is applied to industrial wastewater decontamination. Three levels of irradiance (18, 32 and 46W/m 2 ) and three iron concentrations (8, 20 and 32mg/L) were selected and their influence over the process studied using a raceway pond reactor placed inside a solar box. For 8mg/L, it was found that there was a lack of catalyst to make use of all the available photons. For 20mg/L, the treatment always improved with irradiance indicating that the process was photo-limited. For 32mg/L, the excess of iron caused an excess of radicals production which proved to be counter-productive for the overall process efficiency. The economic assessment showed that acquisition and maintenance costs represent the lowest relative values. The highest cost was found to be the cost of the reagents consumed. Both sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide are negligible in terms of costs. Iron cost percentages were also very low and never higher than 10.5% while the highest cost was always that of hydrogen peroxide, representing at least 85% of the reagent costs. Thus, the total costs were between 0.76 and 1.39€/m 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic cardiac arrhythmias produced by focused cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of the canine atria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, H.L.H.; Saylor, C.B.; Reeves, M.M.; Davies, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias following exposure of the human heart to ionizing radiation have been reported. Earlier experiments involving irradiation of the hearts of various animals failed to consistently produce similar arrhythmias. In the present work, cobalt-60 irradiation was focused on the interatrial septum of the hearts of 12 dogs. Ten animals developed arrhythmias: These were repetive junctional and atrial tachycardias, repetitive atrial fibrillation, and type one, second-degree atrial ventricular block. The duration varied from 1 to 52 days, with onsets varying from 48 to 146 days postirradiation

  15. Catecholamine levels in sheep hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenals following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the control system of the reproduction cycle (hypothalamus, hypophysis) and in the adrenal glands of sheep after whole-body irradiation with 60 Co at a total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The output of the radiation source was 0.039 Gy/h. The catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline) and L-DOPA were determined after separation from the tissues by the method of spectral fluorometry. After whole-body exposure to gamma radiation, noradrenaline dropped in the hypothalamus in comparison with the control group, most significantly in the rostral (by 74.2%) and caudal (by 40%) parts. A similar drop was also observed in dopamine, the concentrations of which decreased in the rostral hypothalamus by 60%. Adrenaline showed a drop in the hypothalamus, most significant in the caudal region (by 62%). Consequently, the level of the precursor of the synthesis of catecholamines and L-DOPA changed and showed in the studied regions of the hypothalamus significantly lower levels than in the control group. As regards the hypophysis, after irradiation no significant changes in the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline were recorded, however, dopamine and L-DOPA dropped significantly (P<0.01). The exposure to gamma radiation also causes a decrease in the concentrations of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the adrenal glands of sheep, most significantly in noradrenaline (by 61%). It was thus found that whole-body irradiation of sheep with a dose of 6.7 Gy results in a significant decrease in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands, which is probably in relation to the failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and to the total organism injury

  16. Salivary TNFα levels in groups of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel, Ehsan B; Hashim, Nada T; Satti, Asim; Gismalla, Bakri G

    2017-01-07

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with significant pathological and clinical similarities. Numerous studies have indicated a relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the TNF-α levels in saliva among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis as well as healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven patients diagnosed of RA, 57 patients with chronic periodontitis and 57 healthy subjects. These patients have been examined with regard to TNF-α level from salivary samples. Their teeth were examined with regard to Plaque Index , Gingival Index, probing depth and clinical attachment level.All patients were non-smokers. The results revealed a significant difference in all periodontal parameters among the three groups. The chronic periodontitis group showed a significantly higher value in all clinical periodontal parameters in comparison to both the RA and healthy groups. No significant difference was found between salivary TNF-α level among the three study groups. Patients with chronic periodontitis had the highest periodontal indices. However there was no significant difference regarding the level of salivary TNF-α. Hence, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines might prove beneficial in suppressing periodontal diseases among RA patients.

  17. Pathomorphology of the consequences of chronic irradiation from γ-neutron source implanted in abdominal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.E.; Vasilenko, V.T.; Kiselev, Yu.M.; Mosidze, T.G.; Krylova, A.I.; Suskova, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of the results of morphological investigations of the internal organs of dogs and sheep with γ-neutron radiation sources, implanted in the abdominal cavity, has shown that the correlation between a degree of severity and type of morphological changes in this case is similar to that of identical irradiation from an external source

  18. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the ability to distinguish AIH patients from patients with other liver disease, especially patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, is important since most AIH patients will a have favorable treatment response if diagnosed properly. Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate the significance of elevated IgG levels in ...

  19. Effect of chronic kidney disease on serum resistin level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-21

    Mar 21, 2014 ... level between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Our ... in virtually all countries in last two decades. In India, the ... A study has lent credence to this view.[12‑14] ... gel containing yellow color capped BD Vacutainer tubes. .... patients may be explored in large scale multi centered studies.

  20. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  1. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  2. The effect of ionizing irradiation on the catecholamine levels in pituitary gland of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Stanikova, A.; Maracek, I.; Danko, J.

    2004-01-01

    The changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the pituitary gland of sheep after all-body irradiation with 60 Co at the total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The power input per hour of irradiation source was 0.039 Gy. The catecholamines were determined after having been isolated from the tissues and determined by the method of spectral fluorimetry. After all-body exposition to gamma-radiation L-DOPA dropped in pituitary gland in comparison with the control group of sheep most significantly by 66.7% (P < 0,001). A similar drop like in the case of adrenaline was also observed in epinephrine (P < 0,05). On basis of the results we presume that the all-body irradiation of sheep by results a significant decrease in the content of catecholamines in pituitary gland, which is probably in relation with failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and with total organism injury. (authors)

  3. Association between chronic periodontitis and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontal tissues triggered by bacterial insult. However, this disease is also characterized by systemic inflammatory host responses that may contrbute, in part, to the recently reported increased risk for systemic diseases, including an altered lipid metabolism. On the other hand, many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk faktor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Methods. A total of 50 patients with periodontitis included in this study had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. The healthy, non-periodontal subjects (comparison group comprised 25 subjects. All the patients were periodontology examined and completed a medical history. Dental plaque index, probing depth, gingival index bleeding on probing and clinical attechment levels were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hight density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Results. The obtained results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (6.09 ± 1.61 mmol/L, triglycerdes (2.19+1.67mmol/l and LDL cholesterol (4.09 ± 1.40 mmol/L in individuals with periodontitis were higer, and levels od HDL (1.43 ± 0.51 mmol/L was lower than those of individuals without periodontitis (4.86 ± 1.37; 1.14 ± 0.71; 3.18 ± 0.64; 1.53 ± 0.32 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. This study confirms a significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. The results imply that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, future prospective randomized studies have to determine whether

  4. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the circ...... the circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP).......Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  5. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  6. Levels of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in ground beef patties irradiated by low-energy X-ray and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj M; Smith, J Scott

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation improves food safety and maintains food quality by controlling microorganisms and extending shelf life. However, acceptance and commercial adoption of food irradiation is still low. Consumer groups such as Public Citizen and the Food and Water Watch have opposed irradiation because of the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) in irradiated, lipid-containing foods. The objectives of this study were to measure and to compare the level of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in ground beef irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays. Beef patties were irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays (Cs-137) at 3 targeted absorbed doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The samples were extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus, and the 2-DCB concentration was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration increased linearly (P irradiation dose for gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties. There was no significant difference in 2-DCB concentration between gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties (P > 0.05) at all targeted doses. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  8. Effect of thermal treatment on the body temperature, respiration and pulse rate in dogs chronically irradiated with γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, N.A.; Petrovnin, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    Male dogs were chronically gamma-irradiated at different dose rates (0.06, 0.17, 0.34 rad/day) and subjected to heat treatment (raising of temperature from 22 0 C to 40 0 C) during winter and summer. Internal (rectal) temperature, respiration rate and heart rate were recorded. The respiration rate changed appreciably in all groups during all periods of temperature rise and fall in the chamber, but the variations were more pronounced in all groups during the winter experiment than during the summer experiment; no significant differences were found between the groups of animals while the respiration rate was changing, either in the winter or in the summer experiment. In both experiments, there were considerable heart rate variations only in the control group and in the group exposed to a dose rate of 0.06 rad/day. (V.A.P.)

  9. The zymographic evaluation of gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9) levels in acute and chronic periapical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoglu, Hatice Dogan; Unal, Hasan; Ulger, Celal; Mert, Safak; Kücükyildirim, Sibel; Er, Nuray

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the presence and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 in periapical abscesses. Eighteen samples of intracanal exudates containing pus were collected from teeth with clinically and radiographically verified primary or secondary acute and chronic apical abscesses. Pro- and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were analyzed by using substrate gel zymography followed by an image analysis system. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni adjustment. Both forms of MMP-9 were detected in all pus samples and demonstrated marked differences among the experimental groups (P apical abscess samples demonstrated significantly higher MMP-9 levels compared with MMP-2 levels (P chronic apical abscesses. According to the results of this study, gelatinases might affect the pathogenesis of acute and chronic periapical abscesses.

  10. Influence of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation on the trehalose levels in Saccharomyces boulardii leaven cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Vianna, Cristina Roscoe; Minas Gerais Univ, Belo Horizonte, MG; Neves, Maria Jose

    2002-01-01

    Lyophilized cells of yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were submit to the gamma irradiation ( 60 Cobalt). It was noted that the yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation had more trehalose than control cells. The incubation of cells with H 2 0 2 induces the synthesis of trehalose but the exposition to CdCl 2 induces the accumulation of trehalose only in low concentrations. Apparently there is a positive correlation between of trehalose level and gamma irradiation resistance of S. boulardii cells. It was not observed any correlation with the level of trehalose determined and the oxidative stress tested. (author)

  11. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin; Liu, Weichao; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm"2 and 12 J/cm"2, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  12. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin; Liu, Weichao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhuying

    2016-04-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm2 and 12 J/cm2, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  13. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin, E-mail: yingxinli2005@126.com; Liu, Weichao; Chen, Zhuying [Key Laboratory of Laser Medicine of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China); Wang, Chao [Biomedical Engineering and Technology College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm{sup 2} and 12 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  14. Levels of lipocalin-2 in crevicular fluid and tear fluid in chronic periodontitis and obesity subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Avani Raju; Nagpal, Kanika; Karvekar, Shruti; Patnaik, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Lipocalin-2, a 25 kDa secretory glycoprotein, was first found in the neutrophilic granules of humans and in mouse kidney cells. It has been shown to have an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lipocalin-2 in gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid in patients with obesity and chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 subjects in the age group 25-40 years were divided into four groups based on probing depth, gingival index, clinical attachment level, body mass index, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. The groups were: nonobese healthy group; obese healthy group; nonobese chronic periodontitis group; obese chronic periodontitis group Gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid samples were collected on the subsequent day. There was an increase in lipocalin-2 levels from group 1 to group 4 (with the nonobese healthy group showing the least levels and obese chronic periodontitis group showing the highest levels) in both gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid. Lipocalin-2 may be an important inflammatory marker that may help link obesity and chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Chronic exposure to low frequency noise at moderate levels causes impaired balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Tamura

    Full Text Available We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz at moderate levels of 60-70 dB sound pressure level (SPL generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10-20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance.

  16. Increased Levels of YKL-40 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis and Secondary Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate YKL-40 levels in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) with and without secondary diabetes mellitus (DM) to investigate whether elevated plasma YKL-40 could play a primary...

  17. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin in normal subjects and subjects with chronic lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.E.; Garcia, J.F.; Cohen, R.A.; Cronkite, E.P.; Moccia, G.; Acevedo, J.

    1981-10-01

    Serum levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin (Ep) were measured in 48 normal male and female volunteers, ages 20-60 years, to establish a control value for Ep of 18.5 +/- 5.0 (mean +/- SD) mU/ml. Levels of the hormone were also measured sequentially over a 24 h period of time in an additional 17 normal volunteers with no diurnal variation. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive Ep were also measured in 30 subjects, with chronic lung disease. These patients, in contrast to normal subjects exhibited a diurnal variation in the level of immunoreactive Ep with peak levels occurring at midnight. The only variable measured which correlated with the serum immunoreactive Ep level in subjects with chronic lung disease was the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (P less than 0.02).

  19. Studies on the sugars development of irradiated potatoes receiving different nitrogen levels during growth and stored at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, N.; Iritani, W.M.; Rom, C.R.; Patterson, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tubers of Russet Burbank potatoes from 0, 181.8 and 363.6 kg/ha nitrogen were irradiated with 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 kGy of gamma rays (Co 60 source) and stored for three months at temperatures of 10 and 15.5°C. Changes in reducing sugars and sucrose contents were significantly influenced by nitrogen and irradiation levels while storage temperatures had no significant effect. Nitrogen and irradiation significantly decreased reducing and non-reducing sugars while temperature had no significant effect. Reducing sugars decreased with increasing levels of nitrogen and irradiation. Tubers from zero fertilizer regime developed 1.5% reducing sugars. Irradiation at 0.2 kGy dosage decreased reducing sugars from 1.7 to 0.9%. The breakdown of non-reducing sugars increased with increasing nitrogen levels but decreased with irradiation. Tubers from the maximum nitrogen plot had a 36% decrease of non-reducing sugars. Irradiation at 0.1 kGy dosage had the least change (4.9% decrease) of non-reducing sugars. (author)

  20. Dose-response relationship for translocation induction in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobari, Izuo; Matsuda, Yoichi; Xiaohung, Gu; Yamagiwa, Junju; Utsugi, Toyoko; Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-irradiation was examined. The frequencies of translocation per cell were 0.15% at 0.3 Gy, 0.27% at 1.0 Gy and 0.33% at 1.5 Gy. The dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one with a regression coefficient (b) of 0.16 · 10 -2 . When the slope (b) of the regression line was compared with that at a high dose rate (0.25 Gy/min, b = 1.79 · 10 -2 , it was clear that the induction rate of translocations after chronic γ-irradiation was only about one-tenth of that after high-dose-rate irradiation. Thus, there was evidence for a pronounced dose-rate effect in the crab-eating monkey. (author). 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Production and standing crop of litter and humus in a forest exposed to chronic gamma irradiation for twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous exposure since 1961 of an oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory to chronic gamma irradiation has shown: (1) progressive reduction in litter production from the first year through 1965; (2) greater litter production in 1973 compared to 1965 at exposure rates below 9 R/day primarily because of the prolific sprouting of the oaks, especially Quercus alba; (3) further reduction in litter production in intermediate zones (14-49 R/day) from 1965 to 1973 as a result of replacement of the forest by a Carex pensylvanica mat; (4) increased litter production in the high exposure zone (125 R/day) in 1973 as a result of colonization by adventive species; (5) reduction in the standing crop of litter by 1973 at the lowest exposure rate studied (3.5 R/day) although in 1965 there was no reduction at exposure rates up to 15 R/day; (6) decline in humus content at 4.6 R/day and above with the standing crop in the Carex zone exceeding that of the shrub and damaged forest zones of lower exposures. Both further losses and partial recovery in the production and storage of organic matter have occurred since 1965. These changes constitute a portion of the long-term response of the forest to chronic disturbance. The pattern of response is the result of ecosystem processes that are still not in equilibrium with the chronic disturbance and which were not predictable from short-term studies, even those spanning as much as 4 yr

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels under chronic natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Văcăraş, Vitalie; Major, Zoltán Zsigmond; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    Our main purpose was to investigate if the chronic treatment with the disease-modifying drug natalizumab shows quantifiable effect on BDNF levels in multiple sclerosis patients. BDNF plasma concentration was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in healthy individuals, not treated multiple sclerosis patients and patients treated with natalizumab. Multiple sclerosis patients have a significantly lower amount of peripheral BDNF than healthy individuals. Patients treated with natalizumab have significantly higher BDNF levels than not treated patients. Chronic natalizumab treatment is associated with significantly increased plasma BDNF concentration in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Nucleic acids levels in X-irradiated 5th instar nymphs of Dysdercus koenigii F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwalkar, M.R.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation of early 5th instar nymphs of Dysdercus koenigii F. with X-ray doses ranging from 10 to 70 Gy affected their metamorphosis in a dose dependent manner. At 70 Gy dose, metamorphosis of nymphs was completely inhibited although these nymphs survived for more than 10 days. In unirradiated 5th instar nymphs, DNA content doubled between 2nd and 3rd day and it remained at this level till these nymphs completed metamorphosis. However, DNA content of nymphs exposed to metamorphosis inhibition dose of 70 Gy X-rays showed only slight increase from 4th day and its profile remained at lower level throughout 5th instar nymphal period. Though the increase in RNA content in both the groups was found to be gradual upto 3rd day, the increase was more pronounced in case of unexposed insects. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Administration on the Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Testosterone in the γ-Irradiated Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seifi, S.A.; Abou-Safi, H.M.; Abdel-Hamid, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal hormone and is the most abundant circulatory steroid hormone in the body. This study intended to determine the role of exogenous DHEAS administration (20 mg/100 g b.wt.) and its possible protective and/or mitigating effect (s) against γ- irradiation (6 Gy) induced disorders in the irradiated rats. Five groups of male Albino rats were used. Samples were collected after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation and/or DHEAS treatment. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T) and acid phosphatase (ACP) enzyme activity were measured in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were estimated in testicular tissue. Obtained results showed that DHEAS administration pre-irradiation improved the disturbances induced by irradiation on the tested parameters: TSH, T3, T4, T and ACP. It also elevated reduced GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. DHEAS treatment pre-irradiation, rather than post-irradiation, exerts a prophylactic effect, by protecting the cellular vital components from ROS, generated by gamma radiation

  5. Biochemical and physiological changes in Egyptian Nile fish subjected to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Kashef, H.S.; Imam, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation is nowadays to be considered as a new parameter in the ecology of water masses. Aquatic organisms, perhaps more than any other group of organisms, are directly exposed to radiation hazard and may be subjected to continuous low-level exposure from bottom material and from internal sources accumulated within their own bodies, originating partly from radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the aquatic environment. In recent years, a large number of papers have been published on the uptake, concentration and release of radioactive material by aquatic organisms. However, radiation experiments on fish, a major source of food for human consumption, are still very rare and mostly restricted to studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs and larvae. Since the study of the radiation effect on living aquatic organisms, particularly fish, is important in connection with the problems of preserving water resources for the benefit of mankind, the work presented here has been done to ascertain the effect of varying dose-levels of gamma irradiation on two common Egyptian Nile fish species, the catfish Clarias lazera and the Tilapia nilotica. Investigations carried out on Clarias lazera involved blood and muscle analyses as well as growth rate measurements. The results obtained showed impaired haematological levels, changes in weight of muscle proteins and, chiefly, retardation in growth rate. Investigations carried out on Tilapia nilotica revealed changes in the activity of certain digestive enzyme systems, glucose level in blood and concentration of the glycogen store in liver and muscles. In discussing the results obtained the authors have taken the relevant literature into consideration. (author)

  6. Effect of whole body X-irradiation on the NP-SH level of blood in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Soo Jhi; Woo, Won Hyung

    1972-01-01

    In hope to elucidate possible changes in blood NP-SH levels when X-irradiation is made in single or fractionate dose, a whole body X-irradiation was done to rabbits either in single dose of 900 r or in fractionated dose of 300 r per day for three days. The NP-SH was measured at 1, 3, 5, 24 and 48 post-irradiation hours, and the results were compared with the normal value of the blood NP-SH. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The normal value of blood NP-SH in the rabbit was 2.11 ± 0.40 μmol/ml. 2. In the single X-irradiation group, the blood NP-SH decreased most prominently at five hours after-irradiation, and a tendency of recovery to the normal level was observed thereafter. 3. In the fractionated group, the blood NP-SH levels were higher, than in the single irradiation group throughout the experiment, and the levels were also higher than the normal in general

  7. Effects of gamma-irradiation on elongation and indole-3-acetic acid level of maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momiyama, M.; Koshiba, T.; Furukawa, K.; Kamiya, Y.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on elongation and the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) of maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles were investigated. When 3-day-old seedlings of maize were exposed to gamma-radiation lower than 1 kGy, a temporal retardation of coleoptile elongation was induced. This retardation was at least partly ascribed to a temporal decrease in the amount of free IAA in coleoptile tips on the basis of the following facts: (1) the reactivity to IAA of the elongating coleoptile cells was not altered by irradiation; (2) endogenous IAA level in the tip of irradiated coleoptiles was at first unchanged, but then declined before returning to nearly the same level as that of the non-irradiated control; and (3) the amount of IAA that diffused from coleoptile tip sections showed a similar pattern to that of endogenous IAA. The rate of conversion between free and conjugated IAA was not significantly affected by irradiation. These results suggest that a temporal inhibition of maize coleoptile elongation induced by gamma-irradiation can be ascribed to the reduction of endogenous IAA level in the coleoptile tip, and this may originate from the modulation in the rate of IAA biosynthesis or catabolism. (author)

  8. On the position of local levels of defects in proton-irradiated Pb1-xSnxTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, N.B.; Gas'kov, A.M.; Ladygin, E.A.; Skipetrov, E.P.; Khorosh, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of fast proton irradiation (T≅300 K, E=200 keV, F≤2x10 14 cm -2 ) on electrophysical properties of thin layers p-Pb 1-x Sn x Te (0.17 ≤x≤ 0.26) is investigated. Saturation of radiation flux dependences of hole density due to occurrence of a resonance level under irradiation, which is near the ceiling of the valence band of alloys, and due to stabilization of the Fermi level with the resonance level is detected. Possibility of coordination of novadays data on the position of the levels of radiation defects in alloys Pb 1-x Sn x Te is discussed

  9. SORCE XPS Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance 6-Hour Means V010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE XUV Photometer System (XPS) Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) 6-Hour Data Product SOR3XPS6 contains solar XUV irradiances in the 0.1 to 27 nm range, as well...

  10. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  11. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation: a multigenerational study using Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisset-Goussen, Adeline; Goussen, Benoit; Della-Vedova, Claire; Galas, Simon; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to 137 Cs gamma radiation (dose rate ranging from 6.6 to 42.7 mGy h −1 ) on growth and reproductive ability were carried out over three generations of Caenorhabditis elegans (F0, F1, and F2). Exposure began at the egg stage for the first generation and was stopped at the end of laying of third-generation eggs (F2). At the same time, the two subsequent generations from parental exposure were returned to the control conditions (F1’ and F2’). There was no radiation-induced significant effect on growth, hatchability, and cumulative number of larvae within generations. Moreover, no significant differences were found in growth parameters (hatching length, maximal length, and a constant related to growth rate) among the generations. However, a decrease in the cumulative number of larvae across exposed generations was observed between F0 and F2 at the highest dose rate (238.8 ± 15.4 and 171.2 ± 13.1 number of larvae per individual, respectively). Besides, the F1′ generation was found to lay significantly fewer eggs than the F1 generation for tested dose rates 6.6, 8.1, 19.4, and 28.1 mGy h −1 . Our results confirmed that reproduction (here, cumulative number of larvae) is the most sensitive endpoint affected by chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. The results obtained revealed transgenerational effects from parental exposure in the second generation, and the second non-exposed generation was indeed more affected than the second exposed generation. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to γ-radiation is studied using 3 generations of Caenorhabditis elegans. • Reproduction is the most sensitive endpoint affected by exposure to gamma radiation. • The results obtained revealed transgenerational effects from parental exposure

  12. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-01-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  13. Clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y levels changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanhong; Pan Jiongwei; Cao Zhuo; Ji Naijun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y level changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum neuropeptide Y levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 30 patients without COPD. Results: Mean serum neuropeptide Y level in patients with COPD was significantly higher than that in patients without COPD (130.36 ± 20.58 pg/ml vs 86.62 ± 13.02 pg/ml; t=10.201, p<0.01). Moreover, the levels in patients of the different stages (I, II, III) of COPD were significantly different from one another (F=20.334, p<0.01). Conclusion: the serum neuropeptide Y levels increased significantly in patients with COPD and were correlated to the different disease stages

  14. Study of p53 protein expression levels from irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes for biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, M.B.; Fernandes, T.S.; Melo, J.A.; Neves, M.A.B.; Machado, C.G.F

    2005-01-01

    Biodosimetry can be defined as the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. Scoring of unstable chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, from in vitro irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes, is commonly used for biodosimetry based on cytogenetic analysis. However, this method of analysis is time-consuming, which may represent a pitfall when fast investigation of a possible exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is needed. The interaction of IR with the living cell can cause injuries in the DNA molecules. However, normal cells possess mechanisms of repair that are capable to correct those damages. During the repair process of the DNA various proteins are expressed. Among these proteins, p53 plays an important role. This protein is a transcription factor that helps in the maintenance of the genomic integrity. p53 protein is found into the cytoplasm in reduced concentrations and has a short average life. However, expression of p53 protein can be induced by DNA harmful radioinduced, which increases the concentration and the average life of this protein, making possible its detection. Thus, the correlation between the increasing of p53 expression and the irradiation may constitute a fast and reliable method of individual monitoring in cases of accidental or suspected exposures to IR. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the p53 protein expression levels from lymphocytes of the human peripheral blood after in vitro irradiation. For this, samples of peripheral blood from healthy individuals were irradiated with known doses. Lymphocytes were separated on ficoll gradient by centrifugation and re-suspended at 1x 10 6 /mL in RPMI medium enriched with fetal calf serum. Hence, lymphocytes were incubated in 5% CO 2 at 37 deg C prior to the methodology of flow cytometry, using intranuclear antigens for the quantification of p53. In this report, the methodology performed and the results obtained

  15. Study of p53 protein expression levels from irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes for biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, M.B.; Fernandes, T.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Amaral, A. [Universite Paris XII (UPXII) (France); Melo, J.A. [Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco (CERAPE), PE (Brazil); Neves, M.A.B.; Machado, C.G.F, E-mail: maribrayner@yahoo.com.br [Fundacao de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco, PE (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Biodosimetry can be defined as the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. Scoring of unstable chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, from in vitro irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes, is commonly used for biodosimetry based on cytogenetic analysis. However, this method of analysis is time-consuming, which may represent a pitfall when fast investigation of a possible exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is needed. The interaction of IR with the living cell can cause injuries in the DNA molecules. However, normal cells possess mechanisms of repair that are capable to correct those damages. During the repair process of the DNA various proteins are expressed. Among these proteins, p53 plays an important role. This protein is a transcription factor that helps in the maintenance of the genomic integrity. p53 protein is found into the cytoplasm in reduced concentrations and has a short average life. However, expression of p53 protein can be induced by DNA harmful radioinduced, which increases the concentration and the average life of this protein, making possible its detection. Thus, the correlation between the increasing of p53 expression and the irradiation may constitute a fast and reliable method of individual monitoring in cases of accidental or suspected exposures to IR. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the p53 protein expression levels from lymphocytes of the human peripheral blood after in vitro irradiation. For this, samples of peripheral blood from healthy individuals were irradiated with known doses. Lymphocytes were separated on ficoll gradient by centrifugation and re-suspended at 1x 10{sub 6}/mL in RPMI medium enriched with fetal calf serum. Hence, lymphocytes were incubated in 5% CO{sub 2} at 37 deg C prior to the methodology of flow cytometry, using intranuclear antigens for the quantification of p53. In this report, the methodology performed and the results

  16. Presence of interleukin 6 at the cutaneous level after in vivo neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Pradeau, P.; Edgard, L.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the in situ localization of IL-6 in mixed neutron-gamma irradiated baboons belly skin. Using immunohistochemical methods, we demonstrated the presence of IL-6 as early as the first day after the irradiation day. However experimental conditions did not allow us to conclude to a causality relation between irradiation and IL-6 cutaneous presence. (author)

  17. Tin-vacancy acceptor levels in electron-irradiated n-type silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Goubet, J. J.; Mejlholm, P.

    2000-01-01

    Si crystals (n-type, fz) with doping levels between 1.5x10(14) and 2x10(16)cm(-3) containing in addition similar to 10(18) Sn/cm(3) were irradiated with 2-MeV electrons to different doses and subsequently studied by deep level transient spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and positron...... annihilation. Two tin-vacancy (Sn-V) levels at E-c - 0.214 eV and E-c - 0.501 eV have been identified (E-c denotes the conduction band edge). Based on investigations of the temperature dependence of the electron-capture cross sections, the electric-field dependence of the electron emissivity, the anneal...... temperature, and the defect-introduction rate, it is concluded that these levels are the double and single acceptor levels, respectively, of the Sn-V pair. These conclusions are in agreement with electronic structure calculations carried out using a local spin-density functional theory, incorporating...

  18. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  19. Association between serum levels of vitamin D and chronic periodontitis in premenopausal women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Eshghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontal disease is a common chronic inflammatory disease, considered as a primary cause of tooth loss due to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various studies have shown that vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties and plays a significant role in musculoskeletal health. There is strong evidence that vitamin D deficiency may increase the likelihood of osteoporosis and osteopenia as well as chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Materials &Methods: This case–control study included 30 females with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis (CP and 30 periodontally healthy females. The mean age of  the CP group   and the  control group was  34 years.  Indices of Probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL and bleeding index (BI as well as the serum level of vitamin D (1,25(OH2D were measured in both groups. The statistical analyses including t-tests, Pearson correlation coefficient and odd ratio. Results: There was a significant indirect relationship between the serum level of vitamin D and the periodontal indices (p0.05. Conclusion: It is recommended that serum levels of vitamin D in patients with chronic periodontitis be measured and then if necessary, treatment should begin.

  20. HE4 Serum Levels Are Associated with Heart Failure Severity in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, Arnold; Meijers, Wouter C.; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Sillje, Herman H. W.

    Background: The novel biomarker human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) shows prognostic value in acute heart failure (HF) patients. We measured HE4 levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and correlated them to HF severity, kidney function, and HF biomarkers, and determined its predictive

  1. (Alpha, gamma) irradiation effect on the alteration of high-level radioactive wastes matrices (UO2, hollandite, glass SON68)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of irradiation on the alteration of high level nuclear waste forms matrices. The matrices investigated are UO 2 to simulate the spent fuel, the hollandite for the specific conditioning of Cs, and the inactive glass SON68 representing the nuclear glass R7T7) The alpha irradiation experiments on UO 2 colloids in aqueous carbonate media have enabled to distinguish between the oxidation of UO 2 matrix as initial and dissolution as subsequent step. The simultaneous presence of carbonate and H 2 O 2 (product resulting from water radiolysis) increased the dissolution rate of UO 2 to its maximum value governed by the oxidation rate. ii) The study of hollandite alteration under gamma irradiation confirmed the good retention capacity for Cs and Ba. Gamma irradiation had brought only a little influence on releasing of Cs and Ba in solution. Electronic irradiation had conducted to the amorphization of the hollandite only for a dose 1000 times higher than the auto-induced dose of Ba over millions of years. iii) The experiences of glass irradiation under alpha beam and of helium implantation in the glass SON68 were analyzed by positon annihilation spectroscopy. No effect has been observed on the solid surface for an irradiation dose equal to 1000 years of storage. (author)

  2. Lithium-stimulated recovery of granulopoiesis after sublethal irradiation is not mediated via increased levels of colony stimulating factor (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium accelerates the recovery of granulopoiesis following sublethal (2 Gy) whole body x-irradiation. Studies are described that further define this Li-mediated recovery by measuring the levels of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) present in serum from mice administered 105 μg/mouse (total dose) of ultra-pure Li 2 CO 3 for 3 days following irradiation. On days 1-28 following the last lithium dose, the serum was tested for its CSF activity against both normal non-adherent derived bone marrow target cells and non-adherent marrow cells from mice administered cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body weight). Serum was assayed at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10% final concentration. No significant difference in the total number of CFU-GM was observed from normal marrow using either serum from irradiated mice or lithium-treated and irradiated mice, although the irradiation did produce a 300% rise in CFU-GM colonies compared to normal serum (days 4 and 10-15). From regenerating marrow, a significant difference (P <= 0.01) was observed in CFU-GM cultured with serum at 0.1% concentration from irradiated and lithium-treated mice compared to irradiated mice without lithium. The presence of CSF was confirmed by its reduced activity in the presence of anti-(CSF). (U.K.)

  3. Inflammatory C-reactive protein and cytokine levels in asymptomatic people with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Frederick; Roach, Mary Jo; Kushner, Irving; Schreiber, Peter

    2005-02-01

    To determine the relation between serologic markers of information and clinical characteristics of people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center SCI outpatient clinic. Convenience sample of 37 men with chronic SCI and 10 healthy control subjects. Not applicable. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP). The following results achieved statistical significance at P less than .05. Asymptomatic chronic SCI patients differed from referent controls with respect to serum CRP levels but not IL-6 or TNF-alpha. In SCI patients, higher levels of CRP correlated negatively with hemoglobin and albumin levels. A longer time since injury correlated with lower TNF-alpha values, whereas higher TNF-alpha levels correlated with higher serum albumin. Pressure ulcers and indwelling urinary catheters were associated with higher mean levels of CRP but not of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. Intermittent urinary catheterization was associated with lower levels of CRP when compared with other methods of bladder management. Asymptomatic people with long-term SCI, especially those with indwelling urinary catheters, showed serologic evidence of a systemic inflammatory state. There was no evidence of an elevation in proinflammatory cytokines. Detection of an ongoing systemic inflammatory response in apparently healthy people with indwelling urinary catheters and small skin ulcers further supports the aggressive pursuit of catheter-free voiding options and pressure ulcer healing.

  4. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, H2O2, Malondialdehyde and Photosynthetic Responses of Orthosiphon stimaneus Benth. to Different Irradiance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource availability hypothesis predicts an increase in the allocation to secondary metabolites when carbon gain is improved relative to nutrient availability, which normally occurs during periods of low irradiance. The present work was carried out to confirm this hypothesis by investigating the effects of decreasing irradiance on the production of plant secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolics in the herbal plant Orthosiphon stamineus, and to characterize this production by carbohydrate, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, net photosynthesis, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N. Four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s were imposed onto two-week old seedlings for 12 weeks in a randomized complete block design experiment. Peak production of total flavonoids, phenolics, soluble sugar, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate ocurred under low irradiance of 225 µmol/m2/s, and decreased with increasing irradiance. The up-regulation of secondary metabolites could be explained by the concomitant increases in H2O2 and MDA activities under low irradiance. This condition also resulted in enhanced C/N ratio signifying a reduction in nitrogen levels, which had established significant negative correlations with net photosynthesis, total biomass and total chlorophyll content, indicating the possible existence of a trade-off between growth and secondary metabolism under low irradiance with reduced nitrogen content. The competition between total chlorophyll and secondary metabolites production, as exhibited by the negative correlation coefficient under low irradiance, also suggests a sign of gradual switch of investment from chlorophyll to polyphenols production.

  5. Chronic radiation injury with mice and dogs exposed to external whole-body irradiation at the Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Fritz, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs

  6. Chronic irradiation and brain development. Progress report, February 15, 1976--February 15, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1977-01-01

    Tritiated water ( 3 HOH) ingested by the female rats in the dose as low as 3 μCi/ml drinking water (69 μCi/day) produced highly significant decreases in body weight, cerebral weight, cerebral DNA (cell number), and cerebral protein, of the offspring at birth. These effects of such a low dose on fetal brain development were not demonstrated before. Administration of 3 HOH before mating (and during pregnancy) seemed to be necessary for this damage; a disturbance of ovarian maturation is implicated. Chronic administration of 3 HOH until birth of F 2 generation did not result in more damage in F 2 than in F 1 ; high mortality and a selection of individuals less suceptible to radiation may be implicated

  7. Acute and chronic response of meniscal fibrocartilage to holmium:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Patrick J.; Popovic, Neven A.; Islinger, Richard B.; Kuklo, Timothy R.; Dick, Edward J.

    1997-05-01

    The acute and chronic (10 week) histological effects of the holmium:YAG laser during partial meniscectomy in an in vivo rabbit model were investigated. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral parapatellar medial knee arthrotomies. In the right knee, a partial medial meniscectomy was done through the avascular zone using a standard surgical blade. In the left knee, an anatomically similar partial medial meniscectomy was performed using a Ho:YAG laser (Coherent, USA). This study indicates that the laser creates two zones of damage in the meniscal fibrocartilage and that the zone of thermal change may act as a barrier to healing. The zone of thermal change which is eventually debrided was thought at the time of surgery to be viable. In the laser cut menisci, the synovium appears to have greater inflammation early and to be equivalent with the scalpel cut after three weeks. At all time periods there appeared more cellular damage in the laser specimens.

  8. Effects of low-level gamma irradiation on the characteristics of fermented pork sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Jo, C.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U.; Kang, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. At Day 0 of irradiation, the pH, redness (CIE a ⁎ ), yellowness (CIE b ⁎ ), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy were higher (p ⁎ values (lightness) were lower than those of the non-irradiated control (p ⁎ , CIE a ⁎ and CIE b ⁎ -value of samples were not significantly influenced by irradiation. The CIE a ⁎ , and CIE b ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy decreased with the increase of storage time. The VBN, TBARS, and CIE L ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 4 kGy were not changed significantly during refrigerated storage for 90 days (p>0.05). The total plate counts (TPC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples irradiated at 4 kGy were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those with lower irradiation doses. At the end of storage, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the samples were not increased after irradiation at 1, 0.5 and 1 kGy, respectively. TPC and LAB were not detected in samples irradiated at 4 kGy at Day 90. In addition, no coliform bacteria were found in samples irradiated at 1 kGy during refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that the rancid flavor of samples irradiated at 4 kGy was significantly higher, but aroma and taste scores were lower than those of the control at Day 3 of storage. Irradiation of dry fermented sausages at 2 kGy was the best conditions to prolong the shelf-life and decrease the rancid flavor without significant quality deterioration. - Highlights: ► Effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. ► At Day 90, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the dry fermented sausages were not increased after irradiation at 2, 0.5 and 4 kGy, respectively. ► TPC and LAB were not detected in

  9. Role of laser fluence in protein synthesis of cultured DRG neurons following low-level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Qiu, Caimin; Wang, Yuhua; Zeng, Yixiu; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2014-11-01

    Low-level lasers have been used to relieve pain in clinical for many years. But the mechanism is not fully clear. In animal models, nitric oxide (NO) has been reported involving in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive signals. So the objective of this study was to establish whether low-level laser with different fluence could stimulate the production of nitric oxide synthese (NOS), which produces NO in cultured primary dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG neurons). The primary DRG neurons were isolated from healthy Sprague Dawley rats (8-12 weeks of age) and spread on 35 mm culture dishes specially used for confocal microscopy. 24 hours after spreading, cells were irradiated with 658 nm laser for two consecutive days at the energy density of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mJ·cm-2 respectively. Control groups were not exposed to the laser, but were kept under the same conditions as the irradiated ones. The synthesis of NOS after laser irradiation was detected by immunofluorescence assay, and the changes of NOS were evaluated using confocal microscopy and Image J software. The results showed that all the laser fluence could promote the production of NOS in DRG neurons, especially the 60 mJ·cm-2 . These results demonstrated that low-level laser irradiation could modify protein synthesis in a dose- or fluence- dependent manner, and indicated that low-level laser irradiation might achieve the analgesic effect through modulation of NO production.

  10. Comparison of Serum Levels of Endothelin-1 in Chronic Periodontitis Patients Before and After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sheeja S; Sankari, M.; Jayakumar, ND.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictive peptide with multi functional activity in various systemic diseases. Previous studies indicate the detection of ET-1 in gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid. Aim The aim of this study was to estimate the serum ET-1 levels in clinically healthy subjects and subjects with chronic periodontitis, before and after treatment, and correlate it with the clinical parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 44 patients were included in the study. Group I comprised of 20 subjects with clinically healthy periodontium. Group II comprised of 24 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Group III comprised of same Group II subjects following periodontal management. Serum samples were collected from the subjects and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was done to estimate the ET-1 levels. The ET-1 levels were then correlated among the three groups with the clinical parameters namely, Plaque Index (PI), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and Periodontally Inflamed Surface Area (PISA). The independent t-test and paired t-test were used for comparison of clinical parameters and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used for correlating the ET-1 levels. Results ET-1 levels in chronic periodontitis subjects were significantly higher compared to healthy subjects (p<0.001). However, the clinical parameters did not statistically correlate with the ET-1 levels. There was a significant decrease in ET-1 levels following treatment (p<0.001). Conclusion Serum ET-1 is increased in chronic periodontitis and reduces after periodontal therapy. Further studies are required to establish ET-1 as a biomarker for periodontal disease. PMID:28571268

  11. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  12. The effects of whole-body irradiation on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a single whole-body dose of X-rays on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats were studied. The influence of radiation-induced anorexia was monitored by using pair fed control groups. A dose of 800 rad caused a reduction in T 4 levels and 750 rad had a similar effect on T 3 ; in each case the control group showed a smaller reduction. The kinetic results indicated that, in the control groups, the early reduction in hormone concentrations was caused by decreased production, whereas, in the irradiated groups, it was caused by a change in the distribution of the hormone; however the continuing reduction in hormone levels in the irradiated rats appeared to result from decreased production. The results suggest that the thyroid system may play an active part in the early metabolic changes which follow whole-body irradiation. (author)

  13. Morbidity rate of nervous system among medical personnel occupationally exposed to chronic low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the nervous system among 1190 subjects, medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation was studied by the personal analysis of the diseases, written down in the personal out-patient department cards as well as of a control group of 870 medical workers of various other specialities. The morbidity rate of the nervous system among the medical personnel, exposed to chronic occupational radiation effect, was established not to be higher than that of the other medical workers - 38.0 and 40.3% respectively. Neuroses and peripheral nervous diseases have the greatest relative share in the structure of morbidity rate of the nervous system in both groups examined, with no statistical significance in the differences of the indices. The significantly higher incidence of autonome dystonias, established among the personnel from the X-ray departments and consulting rooms could be discussed in connection with the great relative share of the subjects from that group with a length of service over 15 years and had received the possible maximum cumulative equivalent doses. 3 tabs., 21 refs

  14. Over-expression of CXCR4, a stemness enhancer, in human blastocysts by low level laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Tahmasbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the maintenance of stemness property of stem cells has been shown recently. The low level laser irradiation (LLLI is being used currently in a wide variety of clinical cases as a therapeutic tool for wound healing, relieving pain and destroying tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI mimicking low level laser therapy (LLLT on the expression level of CXCR4 gene a few hours after irradiation on human blastocysts. After the development of human embryos to the first grade blastocyst stage, they were irradiated with a low power Ga-Al-As laser at a continuous wavelength of 650 nm and a power output of 30 mW. The total RNA of the irradiated blastocysts and control groups were isolated in groups of 1x2 J/cm2, 2x2 J/cm2, 1x4 J/cm2 and 2x4 J/cm2 LLLI. Specific Real-Time PCR primers were designed to amplify all the two CXCR4 isoforms yet identified. RNA amplifications were done for all the groups. We showed for the first time that LLLI makes the human blastocysts to increase the expression level of CXCR4 a few hours after irradiation. Moreover, it was shown that two irradiation doses with one day interval can cause a significant increase in CXCR4 expression level in human blastocysts. This study revealed that LLLI could be a proliferation motivator for embryonic cell divisions through enhanced over-expression of CXCR4 level.

  15. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  16. Apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukaemia: normal responses by progenitor cells to growth factor deprivation, X-irradiation and glucocorticoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, T.A.S.; Lewis, J.L.; Grand, F.H.; Gooding, R.P.; Goldman, J.M.; Gordon, M.Y. [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    Inhibition of apoptosis (genetically programmed active cell death) by p210 BCR-ABL expression is a mechanism that might contribute to clonal expansion in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Since cell death following exposure to ionizing radiation and many chemotherapeutic agents can occur by the apoptotic pathway, inhibition of apoptosis would be expected to confer a relative resistance to these treatments. Similarly, cells deprived of growth factors in vitro die by apoptosis, and inhibition of apoptosis would therefore be expected to allow cells to survive better in growth factor-deprived conditions. We found that the survival of normal and CML myeloid progenitors was the same after in vitro incubation in deprived conditions and after treatment with X-irradiation or glucocorticoids. We also found that mature cells in colonies produced by CML progenitors (CFU-GM) did not survive better than those produced by normal progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells provided a direct indication that the degree of apoptosis may correspond to the degree of deprivation. These results suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may not be the primary mechanism whereby BCR-ABL influences the expansion of the malignant clone in CML. (Author).

  17. Selection of mutants resistant to black spot disease by chronic irradiation of gamma-rays in Japanese pear 'Osanijisseiki'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuo; Yoshioka, Toji; Kotobuki, Kazuo; Sanada, Tetsuro; Inoue, Kosuke; Murata, Kenji; Kitagawa, Kenichi; Tabira, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akira

    1997-01-01

    'Osanijisseiki', a self-compatible, spontaneous bud sport of the Japanese pear 'Nijisseiki' is an excellent cultivar with a smooth skin. However, this cultivar is susceptible to Japanese pear black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype. To obtain resistant mutants from 'Osanijisseiki', nursery plants of 'Osanijisseiki' have been irradiated chronically with gamma-rays in the Gamma Field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, NAR, MAFF, since 1986. Screening tests using AK toxin, a host-specific toxin produced by A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, were performed form 1988 to 1993. Four branches of young trees planted at a distance of 40 m from the 60 Co source were selected as being resistant mutants in 1991 (IRB 502-13T and IRB 502-14T) and 1993 (IRB 502-17T and IRB 502-18T). Sensitivity of the four resistant mutants to AK-toxin and susceptibility to the pathogen were compared with other of susceptible and resistant cultivars. The results showed that these four mutants possessed intermediate resistance. Furthermore, a mutant, IRB 502-13T, had the same characteristics as the original 'Osanijisseiki', except for the difference in toxin sensitivity. The characteristics of the other mutants, IRB 502 14-T, IRB 502-17T, and IRB 502-18T, care being examined. (author)

  18. Apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukaemia: normal responses by progenitor cells to growth factor deprivation, X-irradiation and glucocorticoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, T.A.S.; Lewis, J.L.; Grand, F.H.; Gooding, R.P.; Goldman, J.M.; Gordon, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Inhibition of apoptosis (genetically programmed active cell death) by p210 BCR-ABL expression is a mechanism that might contribute to clonal expansion in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Since cell death following exposure to ionizing radiation and many chemotherapeutic agents can occur by the apoptotic pathway, inhibition of apoptosis would be expected to confer a relative resistance to these treatments. Similarly, cells deprived of growth factors in vitro die by apoptosis, and inhibition of apoptosis would therefore be expected to allow cells to survive better in growth factor-deprived conditions. We found that the survival of normal and CML myeloid progenitors was the same after in vitro incubation in deprived conditions and after treatment with X-irradiation or glucocorticoids. We also found that mature cells in colonies produced by CML progenitors (CFU-GM) did not survive better than those produced by normal progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells provided a direct indication that the degree of apoptosis may correspond to the degree of deprivation. These results suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may not be the primary mechanism whereby BCR-ABL influences the expansion of the malignant clone in CML. (Author)

  19. Clinical significance of changes of serum TGF-β1, CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To esplore the clinical significance of serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum TGF-β 1 , SS (with RIA) serum CTGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 35 normal healthy controls. Results: Serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels were remarkably higher than those in controls (P 1 levels were positively correlated with CTGF and SS levels (r=0.6134, 0.4916, P 1 , CTGF and SS levels may help to recognize the pathogenesis and prediction in chronic hepatitis C. (authors)

  20. Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mRNA biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y-S L; Jordan, L; Chen, H-S; Kang, D; Oxford, L; Plemons, J; Parks, H; Rees, T

    2017-06-01

    More than 100 salivary constituents have been found to show levels significantly different in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from those found in healthy controls, and therefore have been suggested to be potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection. However, many of these potential OSCC salivary biomarkers are also involved in chronic inflammation, and whether the levels of these biomarkers could be affected by the presence of chronic periodontitis was not known. The objective of this pilot study was therefore to measure the levels of seven previously reported potential OSCC salivary mRNA biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis and compare them to levels found in patients with OSCC and healthy controls. The seven salivary mRNAs were interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, dual specificity phosphatase 1, H3 histone family 3A, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1, S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from a total of 105 human subjects from the following four study groups: OSCC; CPNS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, non-smokers); CPS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, smokers); and healthy controls. Levels of each mRNA in patient groups (OSCC or chronic periodontitis) relative to the healthy controls were determined by a pre-amplification reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach with nested gene-specific primers. Results were recorded and analyzed by the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System. Mean fold changes between each pair of patient vs. control groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni corrections. Only S100P showed significantly higher levels in patients with OSCC compared to both patients with CPNS (p = 0.003) and CPS (p = 0.007). The difference in S100P levels between patients with OSCC and healthy controls was also marginally significant (p = 0.009). There was no

  1. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  3. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been γ-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes. (author)

  4. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been ..gamma..-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes.

  5. Screening of large panel of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels is not adapted for the evaluation of digestive damage following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Dudoignon, N.; Monti, P.; Combes, O.; Wysocki, J.; Grison, S.; Baudelin, C.; Griffiths, N.M.; Scanff, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels as biomarkers of radiation-induced digestive tract damage. To this end, plasma levels of substance P, GRP, motilin, PYY, somatostatin-28, gastrin, and neurotensin were followed for up to 5 days in pigs after a 16-Gy whole-body X-irradiation, completed by a histopathological study performed at 5 days. Each peptide gave a specific response to irradiation. The plasma levels of GRP and substance P were not modified by irradiation exposure; neither were those of motilin and PYY. Concerning gastrin, a 2-3-fold increase of plasma concentration was observed in pig, which presented the most important histological alterations of the stomach. The plasma levels of somatostatin, unchanged from 1 to 4 days after irradiation, was also increased by 130% at 5 days. In contrast, a diminution of neurotensin plasma levels was noted, firstly at 1 day (-88%), and from 3 days after exposure (-50%). The present study suggested that changes in gastrin and neurotensin plasma levels were associated with structural alterations of the stomach and ileum, respectively, indicating that they may be relevant biological indicators of radiation-induced digestive damage to these segments. (author)

  6. Role Of SYNBIOTICS And Low Level GAMMA Irradiation Treatments In Improving Performance Of Japanese Quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A total number of 800 Japanese quail eggs were obtained from a parent flock maintained the poultry research unit of the Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Centre at Inshas, Egypt, and used in the present study. Before incubating the eggs, they were divided into two equal groups of 400 eggs each; the 1 st group was exposed to a low level of gamma irradiation at 50 rad before sitting while the 2 nd group did not exposed to gamma irradiation. After hatching of the two groups, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and hatching weight were determined. Hatched quail chicks from each group (1 and 2) were divided into four identical subgroups and all fed the basal diet but with a different supplement. The diet of the 1 st subgroup was supplemented with 2.5% Lactobacilli, the 2 nd with 1.5% lactose, the 3 rd with 2.5% Lactobacilli plus 1.5% lactose, while the 4 th subgroup was fed the basal diet only and served as control. The results showed decreased embryonic mortality and increased hatchability and hatching weight due to exposing quail eggs to low level of gamma radiation as compared to non-exposed eggs. The average body weight and the relative weights of carcass, testis and oviduct, egg production, egg weight, serum total protein, albumin, globulins, RBC, WBC and Hb values were increased significantly (P th week due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet. Significant reduction (P<0.05) in the intestinal wall index was observed due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet of hatched quails. In conclusion, adding Lactobacilli and/or lactose to the basal diet of hatched Japanese quails improved performance as well as blood constituents and intestinal wall index. The magnitude of this improvement was even greater when both supplements were combined. In addition, the exposure of eggs to low level of gamma radiation (50 rad) improved hatchability and hatching weight of Japanese quail eggs, but no relationship to dietary

  7. Bed structure (frond bleaching, density and biomass) of the red alga Gelidium corneum under different irradiance levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano, E.; Díez, I.; Muguerza, N.; Figueroa, F. L.; Gorostiaga, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades a decline in the foundation species Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J. V. Lamouroux has been detected along the Basque coast (northern Spain). This decline has been attributed to several factors, but recent studies have found a relationship between high irradiance and the biochemical and physiological stress of G. corneum. Since physiological responses to changes in light occur well before variations in morphology, the present study seeks to use a size-class demographic approach to investigate whether shallow subtidal populations of G. corneum off the Basque coast show different frond bleaching, density and biomass under different irradiance conditions. The results revealed that the bleaching incidence and cover were positively related to irradiance, whereas biomass was negatively related. The effect of the irradiance level on frond density was found to vary with size-class, i.e. fronds up to 15 cm showed greater densities under high light conditions (126.6 to 262.2 W m- 2) whereas the number of larger fronds (> 20 cm) per unit area was lower. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that irradiance might be a key factor for controlling along-shore bleaching, frond density and biomass in G. corneum. Further research should be carried out on the physiology of this canopy species in relation to its bed structure and on the interaction of irradiance and other abiotic (nutrients, temperature, wave energy) and biotic factors (grazing pressure).

  8. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  9. The effects of low level laser irradiation on proliferation of human dental pulp: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffoli, S; Romeo, U; Amorim, R N S; Migliau, G; Palaia, G; Resende, L; Polimeni, A

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability for self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation in various types of specialized cells, so they are very important in cellular therapies. MSC from dental pulp are simply obtainable and have high proliferative capability. Among the therapies that can stimulate the proliferation of certain cell types, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) stands out. The target of this study is to perform a literature review to investigate these effects of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation of human dental pulp.The electronic search of scientific papers was conducted in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and PubMed databases through scientific articles published in national and international journals in the past 20 years.The results of this review suggest that LLLT may be a useful and important tool for future advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering associated to stem cells. Studies on cell therapy for regenerating dental tissues has already been done, and shows promising results.

  10. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  11. Relationship between salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in saliva and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Mudrika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the association between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA levels in patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 20 subjects, with clinical examinations including oral hygiene index, sulcus bleeding index (Muhlemann and Son and probing depth was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software package (version 7.0, and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to see the correlation between the groups. Results: In cortisol and DHEA the mean and standard deviation of periodontitis group were (2.6 ± 0.37 and (66.7 ± 8.7 respectively. Conclusion: This shows there is an increase in the mean value of cortisol and DHEA in periodontitis than the control group. Salivary cortisol and DHEA level were found to be increased in concordance with disease severity. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001.

  12. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  13. Effects of temperature and irradiance level on carbohydrate content and keeping quality of Christmas begonia (Begonia x cheimantha Everett)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, T.

    1992-01-01

    The carbohydrate content and keeping quality of Christmas begonia were determined in a factorial experiment in which the plants were subjected to irradiance levels of 15, 30 and 60 μmol m −2 s −1 and to temperature levels of 15, 18 and 21°C for the last part of the growing period. This period lasted from 11 to 24 days depending on irradiance level and temperature. The contents of sucrose, glucose and starch were determined at the marketing stage. The keeping quality of the plants was determined after 3 weeks in a simulated interior climate. Increase in temperature and irradiance level both enhanced the development of flowers during the later part of the growing period. The temperature did not have any effect on plant quality at the marketing stage nor on the carbohydrate content, but high temperature caused an increase in flower stem height after 3 weeks in interior climate. Increase in irradiance level caused a significant increase in the content of starch at the marketing stage. Percent increase in new flowers during the interior holding period was highly correlated with the contents of sucrose and starch in the inflorescences and with the content of starch in the leaves. A large starch pool in the inflorescences and in the leaves at the marketing stage reduced the abscission rate during the interior holding period. (author)

  14. Changes in the level of urea, creatine and creatinine in the liver and serum of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    This study aims to compare between the susceptibility of two tissues (liver and serum) toγ-radiation with respect to some protein end-products; namely urea, creatine and creatinine. The results indicated that in control rat liver, the concentration of urea, creatine and creatinine ranged between 262-266, 106-108 and 18.86-19.48 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. In blood serum, the concentration of these end-products were 327-383, 94-97 and 12.36-12.51μg/ml blood serum. Whole body -irradiation at dose 5.5 Gy caused significant changes in the levels of both urea and creatine in the blood serum on the 7th and 14th post irradiation days, while the level of creatinine was not altered. As for the liver of whole body γ -irradiated rats, significant changes were observed in the content of urea at the all post-irradiation days except at the 3 rd day. The creatinine content of the liver was significantly decreased on the 3 rd, 14th and 21st days after irradiation. Similar decrease was noticed in the content of creatine, but on the 7th day, significant increase was observed. The variation in the studied parameters started early in the liver and lated longer, but it started later and lasted shorter in the serum of irradiated rats. It could be suggested that the liver of irradiated rats is more sensitive to the radiation dose 5.5 Gy than the blood.1 fig.,2 tab

  15. Study on the correlationship between serum IGF-I and HA, PIIIP levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sun Yefu; Xia Aiping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the inter-relationship between serum IGF-I and HA, PIIIP levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum IGF-I, HA and PIIIP levels were determined with RIA in 39 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 35 controls. Results: Serum IGF-I, HA and PIIIP levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The serum IGF-I levels and HA, PIIIP levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.8018, 0.7126, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-I, HA and PIIIP were useful diagnostic markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C. (authors)

  16. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, P.; Guétat, Ph.; Vichot, L.; Leconte, N.; Badot, P.M.; Gaucheron, F.; Fromm, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. - Highlights: • Tritium can be incorporated in all the hydrogenated components of milk. • Components' isotopic ratios T/H of chronically exposed milk remain in the same range. • In environmental conditions, distribution of tritium in milk components varies. • Metabolism plays a role in the distribution of tritium in the components of milk. • In environmental conditions, dilution of hydrogen dims possible isotopic effects.

  17. Chronic subdural hematoma with sedimentation level on CT: correlation with clinical and operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Lee, Won Jae [College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1994-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to correlate CT findings of the patients with chronic subdural hematoma(SDH) showing a sedimentation level with their clinical and operative findings. We selected 9 patients who showed a sedimentation level within the hematoma after reviewing the CT findings of 55 patients with SDH. We also analyzed their age, initial symptoms, cause of head injury, latent period, the level of consciousness on admission, CT findings, and operative findings. All of the 9 patients were aged persons(over 52 years). They had a history of acute exacerbation of neurologic symptoms. Five of them had an apparent history of head trauma more than one month before the exacerbation. The CT scans showed unilateral, crescent-shaped subdural fluid collection with a sedimentation level except a case of bilateral SDH and 2 cases of planoconvex-shaped SDH. The interface of the sedimentation level was sharp in 3 cases and indistinct in 6 cases. None had bleeding tendency and the hemoglobin level was slightly decreased in 2 patients. All patients revealed membrane of the hematoma during operation. The upper portion of the sedimentation was liquefied blood and the lower portion was fresh blood clots. We could observe fresh RBC's in the hematoma microscopically. A sedimentation level in chronic SDH was operatively proved to represent rebleeding, and was clinically manifested as an acute exacerbation of symptoms.

  18. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  19. Chronic stress associated with hypercaloric diet changes the hippocampal BDNF levels in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, I C; Rozisky, J R; Oliveira, C; Oliveira, C M; Laste, G; Nonose, Y; Santos, V S; Marques, P R; Ribeiro, M F M; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2015-06-01

    Chronic stress, whether associated with obesity or not, leads to different neuroendocrine and psychological changes. Obesity or being overweight has become one of the most serious worldwide public health problems. Additionally, it is related to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, which results in substituting nutritionally adequate meals for snacks. This metabolic disorder can lead to morbidity, mortality, and reduced quality of life. On the other hand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely expressed in all brain regions, particularly in the hypothalamus, where it has important effects on neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, mammalian food intake-behavior, and energy metabolism. BDNF is involved in many activities modulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on the BDNF central levels of rats. Obesity was controlled by analyzing the animals' caloric intake and changes in body weight. As a stress parameter, we analyzed the relative adrenal gland weight. We found that exposure to chronic restraint stress during 12 weeks increases the adrenal gland weight, decreases the BDNF levels in the hippocampus and is associated with a decrease in the calorie and sucrose intake, characterizing anhedonia. These effects can be related stress, a phenomenon that induces depression-like behavior. On the other hand, the rats that received the hypercaloric diet had an increase in calorie intake and became obese, which was associated with a decrease in hypothalamus BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Irradiation creep and creep rupture of titanium-modified austenitic stainless steels and their dependence on cold work level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Toloczko, M.B.; Kumar, A.S.

    1991-11-01

    A titanium-modified austenitic type stainless steel was tested at three cold work levels to determine its creep and creep rupture properties under both thermal aging and neutron irradiation conditions. Both the thermal and irradiation creep behavior exhibit a complex non-monotonic relationship with cold work level that reflects the competition between a number of stress-sensitive and temperature-dependent microstructural processes. Increasing the degree of cold work to 30% from the conventional 20% level was detrimental to its performance, especially for applications above 550 degrees c. The 20% cold work level is preferable to the 10% level, in terms of both in-reactor creep rupture response and initial strength

  1. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  2. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  3. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  4. Effects of Low-Level Laser Irradiation on the Pathogenicity of Candida albicans: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi Tasieh, S.; Hashemi, S.J.; Rezaie, S.; Fateh, M.; Djavid, G.E.; Zibafar, E.; Morsali, F.; Zand, N.; Alinaghizadeh, M.; Ataie-Fashtami, L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the in vitro growth characteristics and in vivo pathogenicity of Candida albicans in a murine model in the absence of a photosensitizer. Background data: C. albicans is an opportunistic

  5. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  6. Genomic instability in mutation induction on normal human fibroblasts irradiated with chronic low-dose radiations in heavy-ion radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Tsuruoka, C.; Uchihori, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: At a time when manned space exploration is more a reality with the planned the International Space Station (ISS) underway, the potential exposure of crews in a spacecraft to chronic low-dose radiations in the field of low-flux galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and the subsequent biological effects have become one of the major concerns of space science. We have studied both in vitro life span and genomic instability in cellular effects in normal human skin fibroblasts irradiated with chronic low-dose radiations in heavy-ion radiation field. Cells were cultured in a CO2 incubator, which was set in the irradiation room for the biological study of heavy ions in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), and irradiated with scattered radiations produced from heavy ions. Absorbed dose measured using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) and a Si-semiconductor detector was to be around 1.4 mGy per day when operating the HIMAC machine for biological experiments. The total population doubling number (tPDN) of low-dose irradiated cells was significantly smaller (79-93%) than that of unirradiated cells. The results indicate that the life span of the cell population shortens by irradiating with low-dose scattered radiations in the heavy-ion irradiation field. Genomic instability in cellular responses was examined to measure either cell killing or mutation induction in low-dose accumulated cells after exposing to X-ray challenging doses. The results showed that there was no enhanced effect on cell killing between low-dose accumulated and unirradiated cells after exposing to defined challenging doses of 200kV X rays. On the contrary, the mutation frequency on hprt locus of low-dose accumulated cells was much higher than that of unirradiated cells. The results suggested that genomic instability was induced in mutagenesis by the chronic low-dose irradiations in heavy-ion radiation field

  7. Reduction of Fermi level pinning and recombination at polycrystalline CdTe surfaces by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, Brian J. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Kheraj, Vipul [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007 (India); Palekis, Vasilios; Ferekides, Christos [Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Scarpulla, Michael A., E-mail: scarpulla@eng.utah.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Laser processing of polycrystalline CdTe is a promising approach that could potentially increase module manufacturing throughput while reducing capital expenditure costs. For these benefits to be realized, the basic effects of laser irradiation on CdTe must be ascertained. In this study, we utilize surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) to investigate the changes to the electronic properties of the surface of polycrystalline CdTe solar cell stacks induced by continuous-wave laser annealing. The experimental data explained within a model consisting of two space charge regions, one at the CdTe/air interface and one at the CdTe/CdS junction, are used to interpret our SPS results. The frequency dependence and phase spectra of the SPS signal are also discussed. To support the SPS findings, low-temperature spectrally-resolved photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence were also measured. The data show that a modest laser treatment of 250 W/cm{sup 2} with a dwell time of 20 s is sufficient to reduce the effects of Fermi level pinning at the surface due to surface defects.

  8. Demonstration of nuclide migration phenomena in rock on high level irradiation waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Okuyama, Yasuko; Takahashi, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    We have studied on main three theme. From study of material movement in rock-groundwater system in the area of high concentration of irradiative elements, the results proved that minerals with Fe 3+ and clay mineral were very important as mineral held nuclide, the existence of pyrite suggested uranium nuclei enrichment and the latter reduced circumstances, and nuclei movement and accumulation could be estimated from oxidation-reduction potential, kinds of dissolved ions and activity ratio. By study of evaluation of permeability in deep rock fissure system, each measurement method of transmissivity in the Transient Pulse method, the Oscillation test and the Flow Pump method was established. The effect of principle stress, confining pressure, pore water pressure and axial pressure on transmissivity could be determined in the limited level of stress. By study of nuclide migration phenomena and change of rock depend on fissure system, the relation between the degree of change and fissure system was investigated and alternation mineral was identified and it's formation conditions estimated. (S.Y.)

  9. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  10. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Irundika H K; Chapple, Ian L C; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. -) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. -) production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  11. Low energy electron irradiation induced deep level defects in 6H-SiC: The implication for the microstructure of the deep levels E1/E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.D.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Lui, M.K.; Ling, C.C.; Yang, C.L.; Ge, W.K.; Wang, J.N.; Gong, M.

    2004-01-01

    N-type 6H-SiC samples irradiated with electrons having energies of E e =0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.7 were studied by deep level transient technique. No deep level was detected at below 0.2 MeV irradiation energy while for E e ≥0.3 MeV, deep levels ED1, E 1 /E 2 , and E i appeared. By considering the minimum energy required to displace the C atom or the Si atom in the SiC lattice, it is concluded that generation of the deep levels E 1 /E 2 , as well as ED1 and E i , involves the displacement of the C atom in the SiC lattice

  12. Crystal growth in EPDM by chemi-crystallisation as a function of the neutron irradiation dose and flux level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambri, O.A.; Salvatierra, L.M.; Sanchez, F.A.; Matteo, C.L.; Sorichetti, P.A.; Celauro, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron irradiation at room temperature were performed on EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) in two different nuclear reactors at different fluxes. The effect of the irradiation on the chain arrangement in the polymer, as a function of the dose is discussed. Different crystal concentrations and crystal shapes, developed by chemi-crystallisation, are obtained depending on the neutron dose. In addition the radiation damage degree in the polymer depends both on the dose and the flux level. Dynamical mechanical analysis, swelling studies, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and infrared studies were employed as experimental techniques

  13. Association of Porphyromonas gingivalis with high levels of stress-induced hormone cortisol in chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Guzmán, Isabel C

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the occurrence of periodontopathogens with cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Seventy-five chronic periodontitis patients were invited to participate in the present study. Cortisol levels in serum were measured using an immunoassay method. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed to target the respective 16S rRNA gene sequences. Severe chronic periodontitis patients showed higher mean levels of cortisol (P chronic periodontitis (P chronic periodontitis patients. These results suggest that high levels of cortisol could increase the occurrence of P. gingivalis in the biofilm. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Serum leptin level and its significance in chronic renal failure hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; You Yuping; Chen Weizhen; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study serum leptin level in chronic renal failure (CRF) hemodialysis patients and the relationship between serum leptin level and residue renal function, body composition, and indices of malnutrition, 31 end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients and 38 healthy people were enrolled. Serum leptin levels were detected by radioimmunoassay. BMI, %Fat and LBM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis device. Alb, Chol, Hgb, BUN, SCr and Ccr of the patients were also examined. Results showed that Serum leptin level in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients was markedly higher than that in healthy controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Hyperleptinemia existed in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients and might cause the loss of LBM. The leptin level was not correlated with residue renal function, but it could reflect the fat content. However, serum leptin did not play a significant role in protein malnutrition in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients

  15. Seed germination of Stenocereus thurberi (Cactaceae) under different solar irradiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolasco, H.; Vega-Villasante, F.; Diaz-Rondero, A.

    1997-01-01

    Germination of Stenocereus thurberi seeds was evaluated under different conditions of solar irradiation and humidity. Seed germination increased under higher humidity and low solar irradiation which provided cooler temperatures and higher water availability. Seedlings were also greener and more turgid under these conditions. Increased solar irradiation reduced seed germination and decreased seedling size and water content. The results of this study support the importance of natural shelter systems in the arid zones in providing better conditions for S. thurberi seeds germination and seedling establishment, particularly in the desert of Baja California. (author)

  16. Dynamics of a stabilized motor defense conditioned reflex at different levels of motivation in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemberg, A S

    1982-05-01

    Postradiation dynamics of strengthened motor-defense conditioned reflex in rats-males irradiated with the doses of 94.111 and 137 Gy was studied. Phase disturbances of conditioned-reflex activity increased with enhancing irradiation dose have been revealed. Rapid recovery of conditioned reflex after short primary aggravation was a characteristic peculiarity. At that, the dynamics of relation of main nervous processes in cortex was noted for significant instability increasing with radiation syndrome development. Enhancement of force of electro-defense support promoted more effective strengthening of temporary connections and conditioned high stability of trained-reflex reactions during serious functional disturbances resulted from sublethal dose irradiation.

  17. Ammonia Levels and Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Known Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, Jacob; Feldman, Leonard

    2017-08-01

    Ammonia is predominantly generated in the gut by intestinal bacteria and enzymes and detoxified primarily in the liver. Since the 1930s, ammonia has been identified as the principal culprit in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Many physicians utilize serum ammonia to diagnose, assess severity, and determine the resolution of HE in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) despite research showing that ammonia levels are unhelpful in all of these clinical circumstances. HE in patients with CLD is a clinical diagnosis of exclusion that should not be based on ammonia levels. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 55 elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma and 35 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal high serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were important pathophysiologic features in chronic bronchial asthma. (authors)

  19. Lipid peroxide levels of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetic patients with angiopathy and 60Co-irradiated rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    For a better understanding of the relationship between lipid peroxide (LPO) and vascular diseases, the author determined LPO levels and lipid contents of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetics with angiopathy. The LPO level in high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of diabetic serum was significantly higher than that of normal serum whereas no significant increase was observed in the levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions of diabetic serum. As to the ratios of LPO to total lipids in these lipoprotein fractions, it was found that the ratio in HDL fraction of the diabetics was markedly higher than that of the normals. These results suggest that the increase in LPO levels in the sera of diabetic patiens is due to that in HDL fraction. To study further this problem, the author employed 60 Co-irradiated rabbit as a model, since it was already reported that radiation affects lipid metabolism and LPO formation, and that it induces the development of atherosclerosis. Upon irradiation with 60 Co ranging from 100R to 700R, serum LPO level of rabbit was significantly increased. Although elevation of LPO level was found in each serum lipoprotein fraction of VLDL, LDL and HDL, LPO level per lipid content was significantly increased only in HDL fraction. In the irradiated rabbit, significant elevation of the level of LPO was also observed in the liver, while no significant increase was found in the kidney and spleen. These results indicate that high level of LPO observed in the serum of irradiated rabbit would be the reflection of the increased LPO in the liver. (J.P.N.)

  20. Lipid peroxide levels of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetic patients with angiopathy and /sup 60/Co-irradiated rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunekawa, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-09-01

    For a better understanding of the relationship between lipid peroxide (LPO) and vascular diseases, the author determined LPO levels and lipid contents of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetics with angiopathy. The LPO level in high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of diabetic serum was significantly higher than that of normal serum whereas no significant increase was observed in the levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions of diabetic serum. As to the ratios of LPO to total lipids in these lipoprotein fractions, it was found that the ratio in HDL fraction of the diabetics was markedly higher than that of the normals. These results suggest that the increase in LPO levels in the sera of diabetic patients is due to that in HDL fraction. To study further this problem, the author employed /sup 60/Co-irradiated rabbit as a model, since it was already reported that radiation affects lipid metabolism and LPO formation, and that it induces the development of atherosclerosis. Upon irradiation with /sup 60/Co ranging from 100R to 700R, serum LPO level of rabbit was significantly increased. Although elevation of LPO level was found in each serum lipoprotein fraction of VLDL, LDL and HDL, LPO level per lipid content was significantly increased only in HDL fraction. In the irradiated rabbit, significant elevation of the level of LPO was also observed in the liver, while no significant increase was found in the kidney and spleen. These results indicate that high level of LPO observed in the serum of irradiated rabbit would be the reflection of the increased LPO in the liver.

  1. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  2. Nutritive value of some agricultural wastes as affected by relatively low gamma irradiation levels and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after irradiation by various levels of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy) or after spraying with different amounts of hydrobromic acid (HBr; 47%) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 0, 3, 6 ml HBr and 3, 6 g NaOH in 25 ml water/100 g DM. The results indicated that chemical treatments increased the IVOMD and ME values significantly for all samples treated except the date palm seeds. There was no significant effect of irradiation on IVOMD and ME. Combined treatments of irradiation and HBr or NaOH were also found to be ineffective in increasing the IVOMD and ME values. (Author)

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is increased in serum and skin levels of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössing, K; Novak, N; Mommert, S; Pfab, F; Gehring, M; Wedi, B; Kapp, A; Raap, U

    2011-10-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria is triggered by many direct and indirect aggravating factors including autoreactive/autoimmune mechanisms, infections, non-allergic and pseudoallergic intolerance reactions. However, the role of neuroimmune mechanisms in chronic spontaneous urticaria so far is unclear. Thus, we wanted to address the regulation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and inflammatory skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to subjects with healthy skin. Fifty adult patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and 23 skin-healthy subjects were studied. Chronic spontaneous urticaria was defined as recurrent weals for more than 6 weeks. Autologous serum skin test was performed in all patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and BDNF serum levels were analysed by enzyme immunoassay in all subjects. Furthermore, skin biopsies were taken from weals of eight patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria as well as from healthy skin of eight controls to evaluate the expression of BDNF and its receptors including tyrosine kinase (trk) B and pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) by immunohistochemistry. BDNF serum levels were detectable in all subjects studied. However, BDNF levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria compared to non-atopic skin-healthy controls (Pchronic spontaneous urticaria compared with controls (Pchronic spontaneous urticaria and controls and no difference in BDNF serum levels between autologous serum skin test-positive (n=23) and -negative (n=27) patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. This study shows that BDNF is increased in serum and diseased skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, suggesting a role for neurotrophins in the pathophysiology of this chronic inflammatory skin disease. Further studies are needed to address the functional role of BDNF on key target effector cells in chronic spontaneous urticaria to establish new

  4. SORCE SOLSTICE FUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Far-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLFUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE FUV instrument, which are...

  5. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  6. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V022

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  7. Interaction of electron irradiation with nitrogen-related deep levels in InGaAsN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aurangzeb; Gou, J.; Imazumi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of 1 MeV electron irradiation-induced defects in p-InGaAsN and their impact on nitrogen-related defects. A hitherto existing nitrogen-related electron trap E1 (0.20 eV) shows a significant increase in concentration after 1 MeV electron irradiation. In addition, 1 MeV electron irradiation induced a hole trap H1 at energy of about 0.75 eV above the valence band. Isothermal annealing analysis indicates that E1 is a complex defect involving an interstitial or a substitutional atom in combination with some other defect, whose concentration is enhanced by irradiation. A correlation exists between the recovery of free carrier concentration and recovery of the E1 center to preradiation concentrations, which indicates the possibility of the E1 as an acceptorlike center

  8. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B

    2004-01-01

    was to evaluate the circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: Twelve male patients with severe CP and 11 matched controls ingested 40 g alcohol. Plasma cytokine concentrations were measured for 24 h and assessed by sandwich ELISA......BACKGROUND: Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study...... techniques. RESULTS: IL-6 was higher in CP at fasting and 1, 4 and 24 h after alcohol intake (P

  9. Low Level (Sub Threshold), Large Spot Laser Irradiations of the Foveas of Macaca Mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    spherules. In a portion of the block containing the macula a degenerating patch is seen, displaying considerable edema, with pyknotic and missing nuclei...6 Peripheral areas 11 Macula 11 Eye # 3 M31 2KD 15 (enucleated 7 days after focal irradiation jby gallium arsenide laser). Control areas 15 Neodymium...laser irradiations peripheral areas 23 Macula 28 TABLE OF CONTENTS continued Page Eye # 5 M443 2JD Patched Eye 32 Most areas 32 area nasal to optic disc

  10. Are characteristics of team members important for quality management of chronic patients at primary care level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Poplas-Susič, Antonija

    2017-12-01

    To determine the possible associations between higher levels of selected quality indicators and the characteristics of providers. In 2011, an ongoing project on a new model of family medicine practice was launched in Slovenia; the family physicians' working team (a family physician and a practice nurse) was extended by a nurse practitioner working 0.5 full-time equivalents. This was an example of a personalised team approach to managing chronic patients. We included all family medicine practices in the six units of the Community Health Centre Ljubljana which were participating in the project in December 2015 (N = 66). Data were gathered from automatic electronic reports on quality indicators provided monthly by each practice. We also collected demographic data. There were 66 family medicine teams in the sample, with 165 members of their teams (66 family physicians, 33 nurse practitioners and 66 practice nurses). Fifty-six (84.4%) of the family physicians were women, as were 32 (97.0%) of the nurse practitioners, and 86 (95.5%) of the practice nurses. Multivariate analysis showed that a higher level of the quality indicator "Examination of diabetic foot once per year" was independently associated with nurse practitioners having attended additional education on diabetes, duration of participation in the project, age and years worked since graduation of nurse practitioners, working in the Center unit and not working in the Bezigrad unit. Characteristics of team members are important in fostering quality management of chronic patients. Nurse practitioners working in new model family practices need obligatory, continuous professional education in the management of chronic patients. The quality of care of chronic patients depends on the specific characteristics of the members of the team, which should be taken into account when planning quality improvements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The multi-level impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia on central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eddie; Yang, Bin; Du, Lida; Ho, Wai Hong; Lau, Condon; Ke, Ya; Chan, Ying Shing; Yung, Wing Ho; Wu, Ed X

    2017-08-01

    During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3-7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing. Adult rats were reared for seven days during sleeping hours in a gas chamber with oxygen level cycled between 10% and 21% (normal atmosphere) every 90s. During awake hours, the subjects were housed in standard conditions with normal atmosphere. CIH treatment significantly reduces arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygen saturation during sleeping hours (relative to controls). After treatment, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with broadband sound stimulation. Responses are observed in major auditory centers in all subjects, including the auditory cortex (AC) and auditory midbrain. fMRI signals from the AC are statistically significantly increased after CIH by 0.13% in the contralateral hemisphere and 0.10% in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In contrast, signals from the lateral lemniscus of the midbrain are significantly reduced by 0.39%. Signals from the neighboring inferior colliculus of the midbrain are relatively unaffected. Chronic hypoxia affects multiple levels of the auditory system and these changes are likely related to hearing disorders associated with sleep apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  13. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine in different regions of the cerebellum after x-irradiation-induced neuronal loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, M.A.; McBride, W.J.; Rohde, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were determined in the cortex, molecular layer, and deep nuclei of cerebella of adult rats exposed to X-irradiation at 12-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of late-forming granule cells; 12-15x group) and 8-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of granule and stellate cells; 8-15x group). Also, the levels of the four amino acids were measured in the crude synaptosomal fraction (P2) isolated from the whole cerebella of the control, 12-15x, and 8-15x groups. The level of Glu was significantly decreased by (1) 6-20% in the cerebellar cortex; (2) 15-20% in the molecular layer; and (3) 25-50% in the P2 fraction of the X-irradiated groups relative to control values. The content of Glu in the deep nuclei was not changed by X-irradiation treatment. Regional levels of Asp were unchanged by X-irradiation, while its level in P2 decreased by 15-30% after treatment. The levels of GABA and Tau in the molecular layer, deep nuclei, or P2 were not changed in the experimental groups. However, there was a 15% increase in the levels of GABA and Tau in the cerebellar cortex of the 8-15x group relative to control values. The data support the proposed role of glutamate as the excitatory transmitter released from the cerebellar granule cells but are inconclusive regarding a transmitter role for either Tau or GABA from cerebellar stellate cells

  14. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Ogunsakin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OHD 3 ] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH 2 D 3 ] and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OHD 3 , active vitamin D (1, 25(OH 2 D 3 , cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05 when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system.

  15. Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Antonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze leptin and adiponectin serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with metabolic syndrome components, biochemical features and stage of hepatitis.Materials and methods: In 93 patients with chronic HCV in age 20-55 with a few symptomatic HCV-infection and minimal liver fibrosis stage serum leptin and adiponectin was measured. Associations between leptin, adiponectin and metabolic abnormalities, biochemical features, and hepatic fibrosis were determined.Results: Abdominal obesity was revealed at 40% patients, overweight – at 41%, insulin resistance – at 36,6% cases. The leptin and adiponectin levels were within normal limits range at most patients. Patients with minimal liver fibrosis had higher index of leptin by comparison to patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (r= – 0,402, р= 0,018. In patients with HCV genotype 3a the adiponectin level was below, than in HCV genotype 1b. Patients with abdominal obesity and overweight had higher leptin and lower adiponectin indexes by comparison to patients without these metabolic abnormalities. Direct cross-correlation between the leptin level and body mass index (r=0,358, p=0,001, waist circumference (r=0,292, p=0,01; negative cross-correlation between the adiponectin level and body mass index (r=- 0,435, р <0,021, waist circumference (r=- 0,386, р =0,001 were displayed.Conclusion: Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in HCVpatientis associated with abdominal obesity and overweight. The connection of leptin level and liver fibrosis stage was revealed. Difference of adiponectin level in HCV-patients with 3a and 1b genotypes of virus was found.

  16. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  17. Altered Levels of Serum Zinc and Cadmium in Patients with Chronic Vesiculobullous Hand and Feet Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastika Suvirya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients serve many important functions in our body and altered levels of heavy and trace metals are associated with cutaneous and systemic disorders. Vesicular palmoplantar eczema is an entity whose etiopathogenesis is a mystery. In this prospective case-noncase study blood levels of Zinc and Cadmium in 37 patients of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis were estimated and compared with 40 noncases with similar age and gender distributions. Low serum Zinc levels were found in patients as compared to noncases. The mean difference of serum Zinc between the case and noncase groups was 27.26; the mean value of serum Zinc between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001. However, elevated Cadmium levels were detected in only 5 patients and in none of the noncases. The mean concentration of serum Cadmium was 2.32±0.38 μg/dL, with a range of 1.90–2.80 μg/dL for the five cases in whom Cadmium was detected. Various toxic and trace metals can interact by influencing each other’s absorption, retention, distribution, and bioavailability in the body. The clinical significance of this finding lies in the possible beneficial role of Zinc supplementation in the therapy of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis.

  18. Correlation between serum levels of PC III and the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xue; Xu Yu; Li Wenjie; Zhang Jun; Yu Ying; Wang Kun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between serum level of PC III and the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. Methods: Serum level of PC III was assayed with RIA and other markers of liver function (including ALT, AST, STB, SDB, TP, ALB, TBA) were assayed with automatic biochemical analyzer in 188 patients with various chronic liver diseases. PC III only were examined in 70 controls. Results: (1) The serum levels of PC III were in this order: chronic severe hepatitis (n=27, 501.17 ± 191.09) > liver cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis (n=27,334.52 ± 139.14) > chronic moderate hepatitis ( n = 32,298.02 ± 151.02) > primary liver cancer (n=39,281.42 ± 143.48) > normal controls (n=70,122.56 ± 92.94). (2) The serum levels of PC III were positively correlated with STB and SDB levels (P<0.05) in patients with chronic severe hepatitis and was significantly positively correlated with ALP levels (P<0.01). (3) The serum level of PC III were significantly positively correlated with STB, SDB, TBA and ALP in patients with cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis (P<0.01). (4) The serum levels of PC III were significantly positively correlated with AST and ALP levels in patients with chronic moderate hepatitis (P<0.01). (5) The serum levels of PC III were significantly positively correlated with STB, SDB, TBA, AST and ALP in patients with primary liver cancer (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum level of PC III might adequately reflect the activity of the process of hepatic fibrosis, but did not necessarily reflect the degree of fibrosis already attained. (authors)

  19. The early response of pineal N-acetyltransferase activity, melatonin and catecholamine levels in rats irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassayova, M.; Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Pastorova, B.

    1995-01-01

    Male Wistar rats adapted to an artificial light-dark regimen were whole-body gamma-irradiated with a dose of 14.35 Gy. Irradiation, sham-irradiation and decapitation 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure were performed between 2000 h and 0100 h in the darkness. The serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT), the concentration of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined. Ionizing radiation did not change the activity of NAT, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis; however, it decreased the concentration of pineal melatonin. The concentration of pineal dopamine and norepinephrine decreased 30 and 120 min after exposure, while the concentration of epinephrine was elevated 30 min after irradiation, though later it was markedly decreased. The serum melatonin level was not changed but an increase in corticosterone level was observed. In the early period after exposure a decrease in pineal melatonin occurred, accompanied by a decrease in pineal catecholamines. On the contrary, in the phase of developed radiation injury the signs of increased melatonin synthesis were observed on days 3 and 4 after the exposure. (author) 6 figs., 25 refs

  20. Chronic scream sound exposure alters memory and monoamine levels in female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Zhao, Xiaoge; Yang, Juan; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Yang; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2014-10-01

    Chronic scream sound alters the cognitive performance of male rats and their brain monoamine levels, these stress-induced alterations are sexually dimorphic. To determine the effects of sound stress on female rats, we examined their serum corticosterone levels and their adrenal, splenic, and thymic weights, their cognitive performance and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with and without exposure to scream sound (4h/day for 21 day) were tested for spatial learning and memory using a Morris water maze. Stress decreased serum corticosterone levels, as well as splenic and adrenal weight. It also impaired spatial memory but did not affect the learning ability. Monoamines and metabolites were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) levels in the PFC decreased but the homovanillic acid/DA ratio increased. The decreased DA and the increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were observed in the striatum. Only the 5-HIAA level increased in the hypothalamus. In the hippocampus, stress did not affect the levels of monoamines and metabolites. The results suggest that scream sound stress influences most physiologic parameters, memory, and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter and their metabolites in female rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Circulatory neurosteroid levels in smoking and non-smoking chronic schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Tchernihovsky, Eleonora; Maayan, Rachel; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Strous, Rael D

    2007-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients display an extremely high rate of smoking. Neurosteroids appear to play a possible role in the pathophysiology and management of schizophrenia and have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. Although many studies have evaluated blood levels of neurosteroids in schizophrenia patients, only a few studies have taken into consideration the effect of smoking on levels of neurosteroids in the illness. Forty-five DSM-IV-TR chronic schizophrenia patients were sampled for plasma levels of three steroids: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S). Patients were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and provided data on their smoking behavior. The mean level of plasma cortisol in our sample (N=45) was 197.9 nmol/L (S.D.=81.5), and the levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were 23 nmol/L (S.D.=5.5) and 4276.6 nmol/L (S.D.=2665.58), respectively. Despite a trend for lower levels of cortisol, DHEA and DHEA-S among the smokers, only DHEA, but not DHEA-S and cortisol, was significantly lower among the smokers (33% decrease, p=0.012). Smoking predicted the positive and negative scores of the PANSS, whereas cortisol was correlated with the PANSS-negative subscale. Smoking in chronic schizophrenia patients appears to be associated with lower DHEA levels. The role of this decrease in the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction and schizophrenia merits further investigation.

  2. Serum levels of immunoglobulin free light chains in patients with chronic hepatitis C presenting cryoglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela S. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infects B-lymphocytes, provokes cellular dysfunction and causes lymphoproliferative diseases such as cryoglobulinemia and non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. In the present study, we investigated the serum levels of kappa and lambda free light chains (FLC of immunoglobulins and the kappa/lambda FLC ratio in Brazilian patients with chronic HCV infection and cryoglobulinemia. We also analyzed the immunochemical composition of the cryoglobulins in these patients. Twenty-eight cryoglobulinemic HCV patients composed the target group, while 37 HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia were included as controls. The median levels of kappa and lambda FLC were higher in patients with cryoglobulinemia compared to controls (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively, but the kappa/lambda FLC ratio was similar in patients with and without cryoglobulinemia (p > 0.05. The median FLC ratio was higher in HCV patients presenting with advanced fibrosis of the liver compared to HCV patients without fibrosis (p = 0.004. Kappa and lambda FLC levels were strongly correlated with the IgA, IgG and IgM levels in the patients with cryoglobulinemia. In patients without cryoglobulinemia, the kappa FLC level was only correlated with the IgG level, whereas the lambda FLC were weakly correlated with the IgA, IgG and IgM levels. An immunochemical pattern of mixed cryoglobulins (MC, predominantly IgM, IgG, IgA and kappa light chain, was verified in these immune complexes. We concluded that HCV-infected patients presenting cryoglobulinemia have vigorous polyclonal B-lymphocyte activation due to chronic HCV infection and persistent immune stimulation.

  3. The effect of total body irradiation dose and chronic graft-versus-host disease on leukaemic relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A [Ospedale San Martino (Italy). Centro Trapianti Midollo Osseo; Scarpati, D [Univ. di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia; and others

    1989-10-01

    One-hundred and five patients undergoing allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=61) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=44) were analysed for risk factors associated with relapse. All patients received marrow from an HLA identical sibling after preparation with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 330 cGy on each of the three days prior to transplantation. A multivariate Cox analysis indicated that a lower TBI dose (less than 990 cGy) was the most significant factor associated with relapse and the second most important factor associated with recurrence of leukaemia was the absence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD). Actuarial relapse incidence was 62%, 28% and 18% for patients with no, limited or extensive chronic GvHD respectively. However, chronic GvHD had no significant impact on survival. Combined stratification for TBI dose and cGvHD showed that the dose effect of TBI on relapse was evident both in patients with and without cGvHD. Chronic GvHD influenced the risk of relapse only in patients receiving less than 990 cGy. These results suggest that a higher dose of TBI, within this schedule, produced long-term disease-free survival in the majority of AMLs and CMLs. Minor radiobiological side effects were experienced, but a small reduction of the dose may significantly increase the risk of relapse. (author).

  4. The effect of total body irradiation dose and chronic graft-versus-host disease on leukaemic relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frassoni, F.; Bacigalupo, A.; Scarpati, D.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred and five patients undergoing allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=61) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=44) were analysed for risk factors associated with relapse. All patients received marrow from an HLA identical sibling after preparation with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 330 cGy on each of the three days prior to transplantation. A multivariate Cox analysis indicated that a lower TBI dose (less than 990 cGy) was the most significant factor associated with relapse and the second most important factor associated with recurrence of leukaemia was the absence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD). Actuarial relapse incidence was 62%, 28% and 18% for patients with no, limited or extensive chronic GvHD respectively. However, chronic GvHD had no significant impact on survival. Combined stratification for TBI dose and cGvHD showed that the dose effect of TBI on relapse was evident both in patients with and without cGvHD. Chronic GvHD influenced the risk of relapse only in patients receiving less than 990 cGy. These results suggest that a higher dose of TBI, within this schedule, produced long-term disease-free survival in the majority of AMLs and CMLs. Minor radiobiological side effects were experienced, but a small reduction of the dose may significantly increase the risk of relapse. (author)

  5. Changes of serum aldosterone levels in patients with different stages of chronic renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jun; Du Xueliang; Jiang Gengru

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlationship between the serum aldosterone levels and different stages of chronic renal insufficiency. Methods: Plasma renin activity (PRA), serum angiotensin II (Ang II) contents and serum aldosterone concentration (SACs) were determined with RIA in 42 patients with chronic renal insufficiency from various causes. The patients were divided into three groups according to their endogenous creatinine clearance rate: Group 1, (n=14) Ccr≥60ml/(min·1.73m 2 ); Group 2, (n =13) 20ml/(min·1.73m 2 ) ≤Ccr 2 ); Group 3, (n=15) Ccr 2 ). Results: The SACs values in Group 3 patients were significantly higher than those in Group 1 and Group 2 patients (P<0.01). The SACs values in Group 2 patients were also significantly higher than those in Group 1 patients (P<0.05). Ccr values were higher negatively correlated with the SACs values (r= -0.685, P<0.001). Conclusion: As the creatine clearance rate gradually deteriorated, the SACs values increased correspondingly in patients with chronic renal insufficiency from various causes. (authors)

  6. Development of a single ion micro-irradiation facility for experimental radiobiology at cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberet, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    A micro-irradiation device has been developed for radiobiology applications at the scale of the cell. This device is based on an upgrade of an existing micro-beam line that was already able to deliver a 1 to 3 MeV proton or alpha beam of low intensity and whose space resolution is lower than 1 micrometer in vacuum. The important part of this work has been the development of an irradiation stage designed to fit on the micro-probe and able to deliver ions in the air with an absolute accuracy of a few micrometers. A program has been set up to monitor the complete irradiation line in testing and in automatic irradiation operating phases. Simulation tools based on Monte-Carlo calculations have been validated through comparisons with experimental data particularly in the field of spatial resolution and of the number of ions delivered. The promising results show the possibility in a near future to use this tool to study the response of cells to very low irradiation doses down to the extreme limit of one ion per cell

  7. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chun-Rong; Chen, Miao; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin. The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95) than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09), and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79), with each pmyostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each pmyostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  8. Serial Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels During Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Senol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP has been widely used as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Some patients with hepatitis C show high AFP values, but no evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of antiviral treatment on the serum AFP in patients with chronic hepatitis C without hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and Method: Thirty seven chronic hepatitis C patients (20 females and 17 males were included in the study. All patients were given a combined treatment of pegylated or conventional interferon (IFN and ribavirin. Serum AFP was measured at baseline and on months 3-6-12 of the therapy. Results: Compared to the pretreatment levels of ALT (88,59 ± 57,22 IU, those at 3, 6 and 12 months were statistically lower (p0,05, to 4,34 ± 4,64 (p>0,05 and to 2,63 ± 2,17 (p10 ng/ml. In these patients, mean serum AFP levels were decreased from pretreatment level of 15,09 ± 5,92 ng/ml to 11,39±3,30, to 6,97±2,53 (p

  9. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma oxidative stress markers and TGM-2 levels in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerik, Sema; Öztürk, Veli Özgen; Celec, Peter; Kamodyova, Natalia; Atilla, Gül; Emingil, Gülnur

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 20 patients with gingivitis and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and papillary bleeding index were recorded. GCF and plasma levels of TGM-2, TAC, TOS, TBARS and FRAP were analyzed. GCF TGM-2 was significantly lower in CP group than in gingivitis patients (P=0.006). GCF FRAP in CP and gingivitis groups was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P0.05). GCF TGM-2 level was positively correlated with GCF TAC and negatively correlated with CAL. Decreased FRAP in GCF and plasma indicating lower antioxidant status of CP patients might suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontitis. GCF TGM-2 data might suggest that TGM2 is associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix and wound healing in periodontium rather than gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Level of daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients according to GOLD classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó-Pin, Anna; Balañá, Ana; Molina, Lluís; Gea, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Diego A

    2017-02-09

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guideline) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease does not adequately reflect the impact of the disease because does not take into account daily physical activity (DPA). Forty eight patients (12 in each GOLD group) were prospectively recruited. DPA was evaluated by accelerometer. Patients were classified into 3 levels of activity (very inactive, sedentary, active). No significant differences in levels of physical activity among GOLD groups (P=.361) were observed. The percentages of very inactive patients were 33% in group A, 42% in group B, 42% in group C and 59% in group D. In addition, high percentage of sedentary patients were observed through 4 groups, in group A (50%), B and C (42%, each), and group D (41%). COPD patients has very low levels of physical activity at all stages of GOLD classification even those defined as low impact (such as GOLD A). Is necessary to detect patients at risk who might benefit from specific interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  12. Studies on the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to antibody-dependent killing of developing schistosomula using sera from chronically infected mice and mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Ford, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to in vitro killing during development of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were studied using serum from chronically infected mice (CIS) and from mice vaccinated with highly irradiated (20 krad) cercariae (VS). Binding of these sera was quantitated by counting the number of P388D 1 cells (a transformed, macrophage-like cell of mouse origin, bearing Fc receptors for IgG) binding to the parasite surface. Compared with schistosomula derived in vitro by mechanical transformation (MS), schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vitro (SS) showed a significant loss in surface binding of CIS. Schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vivo (SRS) showed even less binding, and this trend continued such that parasites recovered from the lungs 5 days after infection (LS) showed only minimal binding, and 10-day-old worms from the portal system showed no significant binding. In contrast, VS, which bound significantly less well to MS than CIS, showed enhanced binding to SS, and in the face of their declining antigenicity with respect to CIS, 3- to 24-hr SRS maintained this raised level of antigenicity. Although there appeared to be a decline in binding of VS thereafter, LS remained antigenic, still binding as many cells as MS did despite the fact that they also expressed host antigens detected usng antisera raised against mouse RBC. In spite of this persistence of VS binding up to the lung stage, resistance to eosinophil-mediated killing in vitro had developed by 48 hr post-infection, and LS were totally resistant to both eosinophil- and C-mediated killing

  13. The influence of low dose irradiation on intracellular pH level, synthesizing activity and ATP level in cultured chinese fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, I.M.; Perishvili, G.V.; Turovetskij, V.B.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Rubin, A.B.; Brovko, L.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation of Chinese fibroblasts with doses of 0.05-0.15 Gy was shown to cause intracellular pH (pH i ) changes: its diminishing during the first 40-60 min by 0.16-0.18 pH units, then the return to the control level 120 min after irradiation and, finally, the increase by 0.18-0.20 pH units. Simultaneously, the synthesizing activity of the cells changed in the same way. The ATP level changed in the opposite way: increased when pH fell and decreased when pH grew. It was shown that pH i changes were connected with the changes in Na + /H + -exchange system, and they seemed to be primary in the chain of the alterations observed

  14. Features of aseptic granulomatous imflammation in rats subjected to the chronic action of gamma irradiation in small doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranov, I; Krushkov, I; Statelov, V; Bratanov, M; Nacheva, V; Gospodinova, D; Serafimov, A

    1976-04-01

    Wistar rats were given a Co-60 dose of 2 r/day over a period of 8 months, or a total dose of 400 r. Two sterile sponge scraps of the same size and form were introduced subcutaneously into the intracapsular space of rats in the control and irradiated groups. Cuts were made in the subcutaneous tissue near the implanted foreign bodies. A vigorous inflammatory reaction developed in the unirradiated animals. The skin granulated normally. The irradiated animals showed a general bleeding of the tissues at the implantation site. A number of deviations were noted during the tissue granulation of the irradiated rats. The migration of leucocytes into the infected site was decreased. The formation of macrophage elements and their activity was lower in the irradiated animals. The reaction of the connective tissue turned out to be a rather sensitive test of the disruptive effects of long-term irradiation. 11 refs.

  15. Comparison of histopathologic changes following X-irradiation of mid-thoracic and lumbosacral levels of neonatal rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, J.K.; Gilmore, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Light microscopic changes were studied in the dorsal funiculi of spinal cords from rats irradiated (4000 R) at 3 days of age and killed from 9-60 days postirradiation (P-I). The irradiated site was limited to a 5-mm length of mid-thoracic spinal cord (T only) in one group of rats, to a 5-mm length of lumbosacral spinal cord (L only) in a second group, and to 5-mm lengths of both mid-thoracic and lumbosacral spinal cord (T/L) in the third group. Changes in the lumbosacral regions were essentially the same in both L only and T/L irradiated groups. These changes included a decreased neuroglial population and a concurrent state of hypomyelination from 9-30 days P-I. In contrast, in the mid-thoracic regions of T only and T/L irradiated groups the decrease in the neuroglial population was obvious only through 13 days P-I, and by 30 days this population resembled that of the controls. The irradiated mid-thoracic areas were hypomyelinated, with the fasciculus gracilis showing a greater degree of hypomyelination than the fasciculus cuneatus. By 25 days P-I, myelination appeared to be normal in these areas. Scattered hemorrhages were noted in both lumbosacral and mid-thoracic regions, but necrotic areas occurred only at the lumbosacral level. In general, the mid-thoracic area appeared to be less sensitive to x-radiation at 3 days of age than the lumbosacral area. These data suggest that there may be marked differences in the developmental states of cells at these two levels at 3 days of age

  16. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients. © 2013.

  17. Granzyme B mediates both direct and indirect cleavage of extracellular matrix in skin after chronic low-dose ultraviolet light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Leigh G; Toro, Ana; Zhao, Hongyan; Brown, Keddie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Granville, David J

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory diseases that can lead to a loss of function, aging, and disease progression. Ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation from the sun is widely considered as the major cause of visible human skin aging, causing increased inflammation and enhanced ECM degradation. Granzyme B (GzmB), a serine protease that is expressed by a variety of cells, accumulates in the extracellular milieu during chronic inflammation and cleaves a number of ECM proteins. We hypothesized that GzmB contributes to ECM degradation in the skin after UV irradiation through both direct cleavage of ECM proteins and indirectly through the induction of other proteinases. Wild-type and GzmB-knockout mice were repeatedly exposed to minimal erythemal doses of solar-simulated UV irradiation for 20 weeks. GzmB expression was significantly increased in wild-type treated skin compared to nonirradiated controls, colocalizing to keratinocytes and to an increased mast cell population. GzmB deficiency significantly protected against the formation of wrinkles and the loss of dermal collagen density, which was related to the cleavage of decorin, an abundant proteoglycan involved in collagen fibrillogenesis and integrity. GzmB also cleaved fibronectin, and GzmB-mediated fibronectin fragments increased the expression of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings indicate a significant role for GzmB in ECM degradation that may have implications in many age-related chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Presence of interleukin 6 at the cutaneous level after in vivo neutron irradiation; Presence d`interleukine 6 au niveau cutane apres irradiation neutronique in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agay, D.; Pradeau, P.; Edgard, L.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    In this study we investigated the in situ localization of IL-6 in mixed neutron-gamma irradiated baboons belly skin. Using immunohistochemical methods, we demonstrated the presence of IL-6 as early as the first day after the irradiation day. However experimental conditions did not allow us to conclude to a causality relation between irradiation and IL-6 cutaneous presence. (author). 4 refs.

  19. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A., E-mail: ringel.5@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V{sub T} was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. Silvaco Atlas simulations of V{sub T} shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V{sub T} dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V{sub T} shifts. The proton irradiation induced V{sub T} shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  20. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Speck, J. S.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (VT) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of VT was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 1014 cm-2. Silvaco Atlas simulations of VT shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different VT dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed VT shifts. The proton irradiation induced VT shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  1. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V T ) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V T was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10 14  cm −2 . Silvaco Atlas simulations of V T shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V T dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V T shifts. The proton irradiation induced V T shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  2. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  3. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Uma; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jeyapal, Bhagyameena; Jagadeesh, Sushuruthi; Jayakumar, Parvathee

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I) and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II) and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16), Pearson correlation, and paired t -test. Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  4. Gamma irradiation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts affects intracelluar levels of the viral symbiont CPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown a dose-dependent effect of gamma irradiation on Cryptosporidium parvum development in neonatal mice and newborn calves. In mice, C. parvum oocysts exposed to 200 Gy showed nearly complete inability to develop as measured by C. parvum-specific quantitative PCR of ileal ti...

  5. Study of some antioxidant enzymes and selenium levels in children with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex of clinical, chemical and metabolic disturbances that resulted from chronic reduction in renal function. Despite of many investigations on the pathogenesis of CRF, much remains unexplained. Studies of disorders of oxidative metabolism have indicated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of symptoms and complications of this disease. Therefore, selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in 25 children (15 males and 10 females) with advanced CRF. They were diagnosed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children Hospital, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Their ages ranged from 6-17 years with mean of 11.4 ± 3.54 years. Fifteen healthy control subjects (8 males and 7 females) matched in age were served as controls. This study revealed a very high significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The level of plasma Se concentration in patients was very highly significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Also, there were significant positive correlations between Se and total protein and albumin. Furthermore, there were negative correlations between Se, SOD, GSH-Px and both of blood urea and serum creatinine among uremic children. It could be concluded that plasma Se concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) in uremic children could be helpful in identifying the progress of kidney impairment and the response of the treatment

  6. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  7. Deep levels in as-grown and electron-irradiated n-type GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, Tran Thien [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Kordina, Olof; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    Development of high performance GaN-based devices is strongly dependent on the possibility to control and understand defects in material. Important information about deep level defects is obtained by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy on as-grown and electron irradiated n-type bulk GaN with low threading dislocation density produced by halide vapor phase epitaxy. One hole trap labelled H1 (E{sub V} + 0.34 eV) has been detected on as-grown GaN sample. After 2 MeV electron irradiation, the concentration of H1 increases and at fluences higher than 5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, a second hole trap labelled H2 is observed. Simultaneously, the concentration of two electron traps, labelled T1 (E{sub C} – 0.12 eV) and T2 (E{sub C} – 0.23 eV), increases. By studying the increase of the defect concentration versus electron irradiation fluence, the introduction rate of T1 and T2 using 2 MeV- electrons was determined to be 7 × 10{sup −3 }cm{sup −1} and 0.9 cm{sup −1}, respectively. Due to the low introduction rate of T1, it is suggested that the defect is associated with a complex. The high introduction rate of trap H1 and T2 suggests that the defects are associated with primary intrinsic defects or complexes. Some deep levels previously observed in irradiated GaN layers with higher threading dislocation densities are not detected in present investigation. It is therefore suggested that the absent traps may be related to primary defects segregated around dislocations.

  8. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  9. Association of baseline vitamin D levels with clinical parameters and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Elkhashab, Magdy; Trinh, Huy; Tak, Won Young; Ma, Xiaoli; Chuang, Wan-Long; Kim, Yoon Jun; Martins, Eduardo B; Lin, Lanjia; Dinh, Phillip; Charuworn, Prista; Foster, Graham R; Marcellin, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between vitamin D levels and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and treatment outcomes are poorly elucidated. We measured pre-treatment serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 25[OH]D3) levels and determined their association with clinical parameters and treatment outcomes in active CHB patients without advanced liver disease enrolled in a global clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either 48 weeks of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus peginterferon alfa-2a (PegIFN), TDF plus PegIFN for 16 weeks followed by TDF for 32 weeks, PegIFN for 48 weeks, or TDF for 120 weeks. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine associations between vitamin D, baseline factors, and week 48 clinical outcome. Of 737 patients, 35% had insufficient (⩾20 but vitamin D levels. In univariate analysis, lower vitamin D levels were significantly associated with the following baseline parameters: younger age, lower uric acid levels, HBeAg-positive status, lower calcium levels, blood draw in winter or autumn, and HBV genotype D. On multivariate analysis, only HBV genotype, season of blood draw, calcium level, and age retained their association. High baseline level of vitamin D was associated with low HBV DNA, normal ALT and HBsAg at week 48 independent of treatment groups, but the association, with the exception of ALT, became statistically insignificant after adjusting for age, gender, HBeAg and HBV genotype. Abnormally low vitamin D levels are highly prevalent among untreated, active CHB patients. Baseline vitamin D levels are not associated with treatment outcomes, but were associated with normal ALT. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Case report: Extreme levels of serum S-100B in a patient with chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Elisabet Persson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The protein S-100B is a biomarker increasingly used within neurosurgery and neurointensive care. As a relatively sensitive, yet unspecific, indicator of CNS pathology, potential sources of error must be clearly understood when interpreting serum S-100B levels. This case report studied the course of a 46-year-old gentleman with a chronic subdural haemorrhage, serum S-100B levels of 22 μg/L and a history of malignant melanoma. Both intra- and extra-cranial sources of S-100B are evaluated and imply an unclear contribution of several sources to the total serum concentration. Potential sources of error when interpreting serum concentrations of S-100B are discussed

  11. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  12. Plant response to chronic exposure of low levels of oxidant type air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, W.A.

    1970-01-01

    Cultivars of geranium and carnation exhibit a reduction of side branching, a retardation of floral initiation, and a decrease in floral productivity when exposed daily for 5-7 hr to 0.1 ppm ozone for 1-3 months. These plants also exhibit a reduction in leaf size, an increase in internode length, a progressive destruction of leaf tissue and eventual defoliation in the case of geranium. Cultivars of petunia exposed to chronic low levels of oxidant are slower to flower and bear fewer flowers than those same cultivars grown in charcoal-filtered air from the same source. These plant effects are of special interest because they occur in the presence of pollutant levels encountered daily in areas surrounding US metropolitan centres. 6 references, 3 figures.

  13. Plant response to chronic exposure to low levels of oxidant-type pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, W.A.

    1970-01-01

    Cultivars of geranium and carnation exhibit a reduction of side branching, a retardation of floral initiation, and a decrease in floral productivity when exposed daily for 5-7 h to 0.1 ppm ozone for 1-3 months. These plants also exhibit a reduction in leaf size, an increase in internode length, a progressive destruction of leaf tissue and eventual defoliation in the case of geranium. Cultivars of petunia exposed to chronic low levels of oxidant are slower to flower and bear fewer flowers than those same cultivars grown in charcoal-filtered air from the same source. These plant effects are of special interest because they occur in the presence of pollutant levels encountered daily in areas surrounding US metropolitan centers.

  14. Dopaminergic tone does not influence pain levels during placebo interventions in patients with chronic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyt, Ina; Moslemi, Kurosh; Baastrup, Cathrine; Grosen, Kasper; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Petersen, Gitte L; Price, Donald D; Hall, Kathryn T; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene

    2017-10-23

    Placebo effects have been reported in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Expected pain levels and positive emotions are involved in the observed pain relief, but the underlying neurobiology is largely unknown. Patients with neuropathic pain are highly motivated for pain relief, and as motivational factors such as expectations of reward, as well as pain processing in itself, are related to the dopaminergic system, it can be speculated that dopamine release contributes to placebo effects in neuropathic pain. Nineteen patients with neuropathic pain after thoracic surgery were tested during a placebo intervention consisting of open and hidden applications of the pain-relieving agent lidocaine (2 mL) and no treatment. The dopamine antagonist haloperidol (2 mg) and the agonist levodopa/carbidopa (100/25 mg) were administered to test the involvement of dopamine. Expected pain levels, desire for pain relief, and ongoing and evoked pain were assessed on mechanical visual analog scales (0-10). Significant placebo effects on ongoing (P ≤ 0.003) and evoked (P ≤ 0.002) pain were observed. Expectancy and desire accounted for up to 41.2% and 71.5% of the variance in ongoing and evoked pain, respectively, after the open application of lidocaine. We found no evidence for an effect of haloperidol and levodopa/carbidopa on neuropathic pain levels (P = 0.071-0.963). Dopamine seemed to influence the levels of expectancy and desire, yet there was no evidence for indirect or interaction effects on the placebo effect. This is the first study to suggest that dopamine does not contribute to placebo effects in chronic neuropathic pain.

  15. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...... in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association......TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two...

  16. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  17. The co-evolution of microstructure features in self-ion irradiated HT9 at very high damage levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getto, E., E-mail: getto@usna.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, 21402 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Vancoevering, G.; Was, G.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Understanding the void swelling and phase evolution of reactor structural materials at very high damage levels is essential to maintaining safety and longevity of components in Gen IV fast reactors. A combination of ion irradiation and modeling was utilized to understand the microstructure evolution of ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 at high dpa. Self-ion irradiation experiments were performed on alloy HT9 to determine the co-evolution of voids, dislocations and precipitates up to 650 dpa at 460 °C. Modeling of microstructure evolution was conducted using the modified Radiation Induced Microstructure Evolution (RIME) model, which utilizes a mean field rate theory approach with grouped cluster dynamics. Irradiations were performed with 5 MeV raster-scanned Fe{sup 2+} ions on samples pre-implanted with 10 atom parts per million He. The swelling, dislocation and precipitate evolution at very high dpa was determined using Analytical Electron Microscopy in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) mode. Experimental results were then interpreted using the RIME model. A microstructure consisting only of dislocations and voids is insufficient to account for the swelling evolution observed experimentally at high damage levels in a complicated microstructure such as irradiated alloy HT9. G phase was found to have a minimal effect on either void or dislocation evolution. M{sub 2}X played two roles; a variable biased sink for defects, and as a vehicle for removal of carbon from solution, thus promoting void growth. When accounting for all microstructure interactions, swelling at high damage levels is a dynamic process that continues to respond to other changes in the microstructure as long as they occur.

  18. Chronic Stress Reduces Nectin-1 mRNA Levels and Disrupts Dendritic Spine Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Perirhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Gong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In adulthood, chronic exposure to stressful experiences disrupts synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previous studies have shown that perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory is impaired by chronic stress. However, the stress effects on molecular expression and structural plasticity in the perirhinal cortex remain unclear. In this study, we applied the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS paradigm and measured the mRNA levels of nectin-1, nectin-3 and neurexin-1, three synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs implicated in the adverse stress effects, in the perirhinal cortex of wild-type (WT and conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 conditional knockout (CRHR1-CKO mice. Chronic stress reduced perirhinal nectin-1 mRNA levels in WT but not CRHR1-CKO mice. In conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone conditional overexpression (CRH-COE mice, perirhinal nectin-1 mRNA levels were also reduced, indicating that chronic stress modulates nectin-1 expression through the CRH-CRHR1 system. Moreover, chronic stress altered dendritic spine morphology in the main apical dendrites and reduced spine density in the oblique apical dendrites of perirhinal layer V pyramidal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic stress disrupts cell adhesion and dendritic spine plasticity in perirhinal neurons, which may contribute to stress-induced impairments of perirhinal cortex-dependent memory.

  19. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  20. Local and systemic oxidative stress and glucocorticoid receptor levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mian; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yujie; Lu, Guifang; Huang, Xiaomei; Guan, Kaipan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To study local and systemic oxidative stress status in COPD patients, and to clarify the relationship between local and systemic oxidative stress. METHODS: Lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels in induced sputum and plasma, as well as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral blood leukocytes were examined in 43 acute exacerbation of COPD patients (group A), 35 patients with stable COPD (group B) and 28 healthy controls (14 smokers [group C]; 14 nonsmokers [group D]). RESULTS: MDA levels in induced sputum and plasma decreased progressively in groups A to D, with significant differences between any two groups (P<0.001). GSH, SOD and GSH-PX levels in both induced sputum and plasma increased progressively in groups A to D, with significant differences between any two groups (P<0.001). GR levels in peripheral blood leukocytes decreased progressively in groups D to A (all comparisons P<0.001). Pearson analysis revealed strong correlations between MDA, GSH, SOD and GSH-PX levels in plasma and induced sputum. The activity of SOD in plasma and sputum were both positively correlated with GR levels (partial correlation coefficients 0.522 and 0.574, respectively [P<0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress levels were elevated in COPD patients. There was a correlation between local and systemic oxidative status in COPD, and between decreased SOD activity and decreased GR levels in COPD patients. PMID:23457673

  1. Clinical significance of determination of plasma leptin, NPY and serum Hcy levels in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between progress of disease and blood levels of leptin, NPY, Hcy in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Plasma leptin, NPY (with RIA) and serum Hcy (with CLIA) were determined in (1) 32 patients with chronic pyelonephritis (2) 28 patients with dibetic nephropathy (3) 30 patients with chronic renal failure and (4) 30 controls. Results: Blood levels of leptin, NPY and Hcy were slightly higher in patients with chronic pyelonephritis than those in controls but without significance (P>0.05). In patients with diabetic nephropathy, the plasma leptin and serum Hcy levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). In patients with chronic renal failure,the blood levels of NPY (P<0.05) and leptin, Hcy (P<0.01) were all significantly higher than those in controls. Conclusion: Blood levels of these three parameters especially leptin and Hcy, were increased in patients with chronic renal diseases and the increase was most significant in advanced cases. (authors)

  2. Saliva, Serum Levels of Interleukin-21, -33 and Prostaglandin E2 in Patients with Generalised Aggressive or Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pınar; Nizam, Nejat; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Özçaka, Özgün; Buduneli, Nurcan

    This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate saliva, serum levels of interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-33, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with generalised chronic periodontitis or aggressive periodontitis. Before initiation of any periodontal treatment, saliva and serum samples were collected and clinical periodontal measurements were recorded from 94 participants (25 aggressive periodontitis patients, 25 chronic periodontitis patients, 44 periodontally healthy individuals). IL-21, IL-33 and PGE2 levels in serum and saliva samples were determined by ELISA. Data were tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-, and Spearman-rho rank tests. Saliva IL-33 levels were statistically significantly higher in the chronic than the aggressive group (p periodontitis groups. Saliva IL-33 levels correlated with age in the chronic periodontitis group (p periodontitis groups (p chronic and aggressive periodontitis, but the present findings support the role of these cytokines in periodontitis. Statistically significantly higher saliva IL-33 levels in the chronic periodontitis group warrant further research.

  3. Association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serapinas Danielius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a well established inherited risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; however, alpha-1 antitrypsin level may result in different lung function reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible associations of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in COPD patients with different alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotypes. Methods. Serum alpha-1 antitrypsin concentration from patients (n = 1,167 with COPD, defined according to the GOLD criteria, were analyzed by nephelometry, and alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype was determined by means of isoelectric-focusing. Results. In COPD patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (MM, a significant negative association of lung function (FEV1 with serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (r = -0.511; p < 0.05 and C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations (r = -0.583; p < 0.05 was detected; moreover, the level of alpha-1 antitrypsin positively correlated with CRP concentration (r = 0.667; p < 0.05. Conclusions. In patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, detected negative association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level with FEV1 and positive association with the CRP level defined the importance of alpha-1 antitrypsin for lung function in COPD patients.

  4. Level of inflammatory factors in chronic hemodialysis patients with and without cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the existence of controversies about the predictive value of inflammatory markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD, we aimed to compare the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interlukin-6 (IL-6 level in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients with and without CVD. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, HD patients with and without CVD disease were enrolled. The presence of CVD risk factors, level of inflammatory factors including IL-6 and hs-CRP as well as lipid levels, fasting blood sugar, and other biochemical factors were compared in two studied groups. Results: During the study, eighty HD patients with (n = 40 and without (n = 40 CVD were enrolled. Diabetes was more prevalent among HD patients with CVD than those without CVD (P 0.05. Univariate analysis of variance test indicated that there was not any significant relationship between hs-CRP and CVD (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the level of inflammatory factors including hs-CRP and IL-6 are not significantly different in HD patients with and without CVD. However, for obtaining more definite conclusion in this field and evaluation their predicting role in this field, it is recommended to study other novel inflammatory markers as well as the additive effect of the inflammatory factors with traditional ones in larger sample size and longer follow-up.

  5. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalina Goutoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyse the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis prior to and following surgical and/or nonsurgical periodontal therapy for a period of 32 weeks. Methods. GCF samples were obtained from 24 nondiseased and 72 diseased sites of 12 periodontal patients prior to as well as at 6, 16, and 32 weeks following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters. Both treatment modalities resulted in similar IL-6 as well as IL-8 levels. Mean IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in non-diseased compared to diseased sites and increased significantly following treatment in diseased sites. Mean total amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 (TAIL-6, TAIL-8 did not differ significantly between diseased and nondiseased sites, while following therapy TAIL-8 levels decreased significantly. Conclusions. The data suggest that periodontal therapy reduced the levels of IL-8 in GCF. However, a strong relationship between IL-6, IL-8 amounts in GCF and periodontal destruction and inflammation was not found.

  6. Changes in hemopoiesis of mice during chronic irradiation with a dose rate of 957 mGy/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.; Marko, L.; Horak, J.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in the blood producing organs and in the peripheral blood of mice were evaluated. The animals have been continually irradiated for 42 days with a daily dosage of 957 mGy. Until the 7th day of irradiation a significant diminution of the cellularity of the bone marrow and of the cellularity as well as the mass of the spleen could be observed. After the 14th day of irradiation a temporary stabilization of the cell number in the bone marrow could be found until the 28th day, after that time there was a moderately strong decrease. The cellularity and the mass of the spleen increased temporarily until the 28th day of irradiation owing to the increase of erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis from 20% to 50%. The most significant changes in the peripheral blood could be observed in agranulocytes as a kind of sudden and permanent decrease. The diminution of the granulocyte and reticulocyte numbers proceeded somewhat more slowly, with a temporarily increasing tendency on the 28th day of irradiation. The erythrocyte numbers as well as the hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased continually beginning from the 7th day of irradiation until the death of the animals. (author)

  7. An investigation of two-level fracture in the blistering of D+ irradiated Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.B.; Jones, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The blisters produced by 200 keV D + irradiation of Cu at 120 K and subsequent heating to room temperature are found to be of two distinct types: small semi-spherical blisters and large blister flakes. A simple method has been developed to remove blister flakes enabling direct observation of the exposed underside of the flakes by scanning electron microscopy. The small semi-spherical blisters, which form before the more extensive blister flakes, have a consistently deeper plane of fracture than the flakes. To explain the different depths of fracture two alternative models are proposed. Compressional stress may inhibit bubble nucleation and early growth near the depth region around the maxima in the damage and gas deposition profiles. It is proposed that in the later stages of the irradiation shear introduced by differential expansion, caused by a combination of radiation induced swelling and localised heating plays a central role in fracture. (orig./RK)

  8. Microbiological and biochemical response of certain proteolytic bacterial isolates to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.M.N.E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Amniotic membrane allo - and xeno grafts prepared from human foetal placenta, and their potential replacement of skin autotransplant, would significantly contribute to the success of clinical treatment of skin burns. Allo-and xenografts of human amniotic membrane should be ensured for their sterility, bio-mechanics and tissue antigenicity. The present study has been focused on sterilization and sterility assurance of the membrane grafts. Physico-chemical properties and antigenicity of the grafts await investigation. In the present study the isolation and identification of the bacteria contaminating the amniotic membrane allo-and xenografts prepared from human foetal placenta and the effect of gamma irradiation on it has been investigated. The proteolytic activity of these bacteria and the role of gamma irradiation in the control of bacterial activity were similarly investigated

  9. The Role of Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Level in Tubotympanic Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Budhi Darmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is a common public health problem worldwide and a major cause of hearing impairment especially in developing countries. The role of Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL, a component of innate immunity, in CSOM has not been studied. The aim of the study was to examine whether MBL deficiency was more frequently present in cases group of tubotympanic CSOM patients rather than healthy subjects. Material and Methods. This was an analytic observational study. Subjects were enrolled in the Otorhinolaryngology Clinic at Margono Soekarjo Hospital, Purwokerto, Indonesia. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean of MBL serum concentration between tubotympanic CSOM subjects and control. Results. From 36 tubotympanic CSOM patients, there were 8 (22.22% patients with MBL deficiency (MBL level < 100 ng/ml, while no deficiency was found in the control group. The mean of MBL level in cases group was 354.88 ng/ml, with the lowest level being 0.001 ng/ml and the highest level 690.24 ng/ml, while in the control group MBL level mean was 376.27 with the lowest level being 188.71 and the highest level 794.54 ng/ml. Conclusion. There was no significant difference of MBL serum level between tubotympanic CSOM and control group. However, the presence of subjects with MBL deficiency in the tubotympanic CSOM group might be considered as playing a role in the tubotympanic CSOM.

  10. Insulin and C peptide response, and antibody levels in hepatitis C related chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Tariq, N.; Iqbal, M.; Shah, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (HC) have an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenic mechanism by which HC predisposes to DM is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin and C-peptide response to 75 gram oral glucose load and measure anti phospholipid antibody levels in patients with chronic liver disease due to HC. Design: a prospective study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at the department of medicine, Jinnah postgraduate medical centre over period of three months. Subjects and methods: An analytical case control study was carried out on 37 patients (m-18,f=19); none of these patients had received interferon. They were divided into four groups: (a) HC cirrhosis with DM (n=9 ), (b) HC cirrhosis without DM (n=11), (c) hepatitis B (HB) cirrhosis without DM (n=7), (d) chronic hepatitis C without DM (n=10). Group C and D were taken as controls. Fasting blood samples were taken and repeated after 2 hours of 75 gram oral glucose load (2 h PG). Result: mean ages of group A,B,C and D were (yr +- SD) 51.3 +- 7.6,48.9 +- 2.4, 33.7 +-10.8 and 31.7 +- 8.8 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the age, Pugh score and body mass index of HC cirrhotic patients with and without DM. Patients of group A had higher fasting and 2 h PG glucose levels (P=0.003 and 0.000) and higher fasting insulin level (p=0.045). However, increments in insulin and c peptide levels 2 h PG were much less (p=0.048 and 0.003). HB cirrhotics without diabetes (group C behaved just like HC cirrhotic without diabetes (group B). Patients of group D had normal glucose tolerance and insulin and C peptide levels. All four groups had normal anti phospholipid antibody levels. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis due to HC nd HB show evidence of glucose intolerance in spite of hyperinsulinaemia probably due to insulin resistance. HC cirrhotics with diabetes have fasting hyperglycemia in spite of

  11. A Novel Chronic Opioid Monitoring Tool to Assess Prescription Drug Steady State Levels in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  13. Examining exposure reciprocity in a resin based composite using high irradiance levels and real-time degree of conversion values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Daniela; Haenel, Thomas; Hausnerová, Berenika; Moeginger, Bernhard; Labrie, Daniel; Sullivan, Braden; Price, Richard B T

    2015-05-01

    Exposure reciprocity suggests that, as long as the same radiant exposure is delivered, different combinations of irradiance and exposure time will achieve the same degree of resin polymerization. This study examined the validity of exposure reciprocity using real time degree of conversion results from one commercial flowable dental resin. Additionally a new fitting function to describe the polymerization kinetics is proposed. A Plasma Arc Light Curing Unit (LCU) was used to deliver 0.75, 1.2, 1.5, 3.7 or 7.5 W/cm(2) to 2mm thick samples of Tetric EvoFlow (Ivoclar Vivadent). The irradiances and radiant exposures received by the resin were determined using an integrating sphere connected to a fiber-optic spectrometer. The degree of conversion (DC) was recorded at a rate of 8.5 measurements a second at the bottom of the resin using attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR). Five specimens were exposed at each irradiance level. The DC reached after 170s and after 5, 10 and 15 J/cm(2) had been delivered was compared using analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD post hoc multiple comparison tests (alpha=0.05). The same DC values were not reached after the same radiant exposures of 5, 10 and 15 J/cm(2) had been delivered at an irradiance of 3.7 and 7.5 W/cm(2). Thus exposure reciprocity was not supported for Tetric EvoFlow (p<0.05). For Tetric EvoFlow, there was no significant difference in the DC when 5, 10 and 15J/cm(2) were delivered at irradiance levels of 0.75, 1.2 and 1.5 W/cm(2). The optimum combination of irradiance and exposure time for this commercial dental resin may be close to 1.5 W/cm(2) for 12s. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A follow-up study on radiation effect of low-level γ-irradiation on 45 persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiufeng; Wang Yongxiao; Fang Yongxin

    1985-01-01

    Forty-five males once exposed to γ-irradiation were observed clinically and by biological method from 1966 to 1981. The doses ranged form 0.10 to 0.468 Gy. Neurasthenic syndromes were observed in all cases. Thirty cases of lens opacities were observed by slit lamp microscopy. There were one case of spontaneous abortion, one neonatal death, one strabismus and one mental retardation among 37 children born to the irradiated subjects. There was one case whose wife failed to conceive since she married for 4 years. Analysis of chromosome aberrations and scoring of micro-nuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes were statistically higher (P < 0.01) than that of controls, but withot linear relationships between doses and effects. The levels of serum immunoglobulin and serum follicular stimulating hormone were within normal limits. No cancer, or leukemia were detected by clinical examinations

  15. Photobiostimulation on chondrocytes proliferation in different concentration of fetal bovine serum under low-level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua; Qiu, Caimin; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the chondrocytes proliferation cultured in different concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) using 658 nm, 785 nm and 830 nm diode lasers. The role of energy density (10-70 mJ·cm-2) on chondrocytes proliferation following irradiation with 658 nm laser for 2 days was firstly investigated to find out the best laser energy density. Then the effect of LLLI on the proliferation of chondrocytes cultured with fetal bovine serum at 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% was also evaluated. The results showed that there was no or little photobiostimulation on the proliferation of chondrocytes cultured with 0% FBS and 10% FBS; the cell proliferation at 2% and 5% FBS was significantly modulated by LLLI.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of the first two mitosis in seedling root meristems of stored for a long period seeds of Crepis tectorum populations subjected to chronic irradiation in 30-km zone of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinikh, L.I.; Shevchenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Seeds of Crepis tectorum natural populations 1 and 3 subjected to chronic irradiation in 1986 during 4 months in 30-kilometers zone of Chernobyl were stored for 6 years in a laboratory. In analysis of chromosome aberrations in the first tetraploid cells was made as it was done in 1987 just after finishing of a dromant period of seeds. By extrapolation from the data obtained by studing cells of the second colchicine mitosis to the cells of the previous mitosis from which they derived it was shown that the frequency of chromaid type aberrations in the early dividing cells after 6 year storage remained at the level which was observed just after finishing of a dormant period

  17. Comparative analysis of salivary sialic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis patients: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell–cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group. Group 1: patients suffering from COPD and chronic periodontitis, Group 2: periodontitis patients without any systemic diseases Group 3: healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected around 9–10 AM; 2 h after the subjects had breakfast. The sialic acid content was determined by a combined modification of the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. Results: The mean salivary sialic acid levels were least in the healthy group followed by the periodontitis group, and it was highest in the COPD group. Conclusions: We can thus conclude that promotion of dental care knowledge is very much essential in the prevention and treatment of COPD. Thus, estimation of levels of salivary sialic acid can be used as an adjunct to diagnose the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes in subjects with COPD and chronic periodontitis.

  18. Interleukin-32 levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis after periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngöz Dede, F; Balli, U; Bozkurt Doğan, Ş; Güven, B

    2017-06-01

    The cytokine, interleukin (IL)-32, is a relatively new discovery. However, it is very powerful for stimulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) under inflammatory conditions. The objective of this research was to explore fluctuations in the levels of TNF-α, IL-32 and IL-10, in both saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. The focus was on measurements taken before and after clinical treatment of chronic periodontitis. For the purposes of the study, a total of 27 patients with chronic periodontitis and 27 controls (periodontally healthy) were recruited. Important clinical periodontal criteria were established before and 4 wk after the start of the research. The chronic periodontitis group was given an initial form of periodontal care. Samples of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected exactly 4 wk preceding and 4 wk following the care. The levels of IL-10, IL-32 and TNF-α present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were recorded via the use of an ELISA. At baseline, the levels of TNF-α and IL-32 in the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were significantly higher among patients in the chronic periodontitis group than among patients in the control group (p chronic periodontitis group than the control group (p chronic periodontitis group when compared with the baseline readings. However, the levels of IL-10 were significantly higher (p periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may be associated with the occurrence and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The onset of chronic subdural hematoma may be associated with direct or indirect minor injuries to the head or a poorly repaired vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells happen to be one of the key factors involved in hemostasis and vascular repair. This study was designed to observe the levels of endothelial progenitor cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other indicators in the peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma to determine the possible relationship between the endothelial progenitor cells and the occurrence, development, and outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma. METHOD: We enrolled 30 patients with diagnosed chronic subdural hematoma by computer tomography scanning and operating procedure at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from July 2009 to July 2011. Meanwhile, we collected 30 cases of peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers over the age of 50. Approximately 2 ml of blood was taken from veins of the elbow to test the peripheral blood routine and coagulation function. The content of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The level of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower in preoperational patients with chronic subdural hematomas than in controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the blood routine and coagulation function. However, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were significantly different between the recurrent group and the non-recurrent group. CONCLUSIONS: The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic subdural hematoma patients was significantly lower than the level in healthy controls. Meanwhile, the level of endothelial progenitor cells in recurrent patients was significantly lower than the level in patients without recurrence. Endothelial progenitor cells may be related to the

  20. Lung function testing according leptin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Radchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD belongs to urgent medical and social problems of our time. Prognosis of COPD is often determined by a comorbidity, in particular obesity. The key chain, which unites COPD and obesity, is systemic inflammation, in the development of which the hormone of fatty tissue leptin plays an important role. The presence of receptors to leptin in the alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells, in smooth muscle tissue and submucous bronchial membrane allowes to assume that leptin takes pathogenetic part in COPD progression. The aim of our research was to estimate the leptin level in COPD patient and analyze changes of the respiratory function depending on it. Methods. We have been examined 26 patients with exacerbation of COPD (13 male and 13 female, 58 y.o. and 20 healthy people representative by gender, age and body mass. The level of serum leptin has been defined by the solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent analysis, lung function – by computed testing. Results and conclusion. With the leptin level increase all of the lung function parameters progressively decreased, most significant - forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow. Patients with hyperleptinemia had significantly lower measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and vital lungs capacity. Severe degree of both obstructive and restrictive changes has been found more often among patients with hyperleptinemia and leptin level has been associated with the bronchial obstruction severity.

  1. Plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufel, Maria Fernanda Soares; Bordon, Milena; de Aquino, Talita Marques; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; de Abreu Carvalhaes, João Tomás

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study set out to compare total and acyl ghrelin levels in children with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing conservative treatment (n = 19) with children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (n = 24), and with healthy controls (n = 20). The relationship between ghrelin levels and parameters of renal function, nutritional status, and selective hormones were investigated. ESRD patients had higher total ghrelin levels than those with mild CKD or control individuals. However, acyl ghrelin did not differ between groups, indicating that the excess circulating ghrelin was desacylated. Since desacyl ghrelin has been shown to inhibit appetite, increased levels might contribute to protein-energy wasting in pediatric renal patients. When all 43 renal patients were combined, multiple regression analysis found age and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be significant negative predictors of total ghrelin. Acyl ghrelin was influenced negatively by age and positively by energy intake. Acyl to total ghrelin ratio related positively to GFR and energy intake. The results indicate that total but not acyl ghrelin is influenced by low GFR in children with CKD and suggests that ghrelin activation may be impaired in these patients. Since energy intake is a positive predictor of acyl ghrelin, the physiological control of ghrelin secretion appears to be altered in pediatric renal patients.

  2. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. III. Effect of partial 60Co thoracic irradiation upon pulmonary collagen metabolism and fractionation in syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Hahn, F.F.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in pulmonary collagen metabolism were studied in Syrian hamsters given multiple thoracic doses of 60 Co radiation to achieve cumulative exposures of 6000, 4000, and 2000 R. At 13 to 14 wk after initial exposure, 6000- and 4000-R exposures had increased incorporation of injected [ 14 C]proline into pulmonary collagenous protein which suggested an increased collagen synthesis. By 21 to 22 wk after exposure, increased pulmonary soluble collagen was noted. Increased pulmonary scarring was indicated by a variable increase in native collagen at 13 to 36 wk. A collection of alveolar macrophages at 7 to 8 wk followed by inflammation at 13 to 14 wk and a beginning of pulmonary fibrosis at 13 to 19 wk were noted. At 21 to 22 wk after exposure a somewhat more marked pulmonary fibrosis and some epithelialization were observed. Hemosiderin deposits were also observed at 35 to 36 wk after exposure, but pathologic processes were lessened by this time. The early activation of collagen synthesis presumably caused the radiation-induced fibrosis. Later, when collagen tended to accumulate, the synthetic rate was normal. The activation of collagen synthesis caused by external thoracic irradiation resembles that caused by thoracic irradiation from the internal emitter, 144 Ce. Moreover, it demonstrates the usefulness of monitoring collagen biosynthesis by [ 14 C]proline incorporation into the lung. (U.S.)

  3. Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with 60 Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as daily treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic irradiation and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study

  4. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U. (Department of Pathology, Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbh Muechen, Neuherberg (West Germany))

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern.

  5. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U.

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern

  6. Significance of changes of levels of plasma proBNP1-76 in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guizhong; Xu Hua; Cao Jun; Jiang Wei; Pang Yongzheng; Tang Chaoshu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of the changes levels of plasma proBNP 1-76 in patients with COPD and chronic pulmonary heart disease. Methods: Plasma proBNP 1-76 levels were determined with radioimmunoassay in patients with CHPD (n=23), COPD (n=24) and 32 controls. Results: The concentrations of plasma proBNP 1-76 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly increased (vs controls, p 1-76 (r=0.541, p 1-76 , right inferior pulmonary artery diameter, right ventricle out flow tract diameter and right ventricle anterior wall thickness in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease were increased significantly (vs COPD patients and controls, p 1-76 (r=0.477, p 1-76 is an early marker of right ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dysfunction, measurement of which is useful in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease in daily practice

  7. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on functional status in chronic multiple sclerosis: importance of lymphopenia early after treatment--the pros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether immunosuppression by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) slowed deterioration of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), functional impairment score and blood lymphocyte counts were compared at 6-month intervals through 4 years following treatment of MS patients by either TLI (n = 27) or sham irradiation (n = 21). At each interval, 20 to 30% fewer TLI-treated patients had deteriorated (p less than 0.05 at 6, 12, and 18 months), and the difference in mean functional impairment score between groups became progressively greater (p less than 0.01 at 42 and 48 months). Benefit accrued principally to the 17 TLI-treated patients with absolute blood lymphocyte counts less than 900/mm3 3 months after treatment, whose mean functional impairment score remained within 0.6 units of baseline (p = NS), whereas the ten TLI patients with higher post-treatment lymphocyte counts had progressive deterioration (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001 versus TLI-treated patients with lower lymphocyte counts at all intervals except 30 months) and had deteriorated by more than 5 functional scale units by 42 and 48 months. Side effects were minor and complications rare in TLI-treated patients, but one TLI-treated patient developed staphylococcal sepsis. Thus, TLI slows deterioration of chronic progressive MS, with what appears to be enduring benefit through 4 years compartmented to patients with greater induced lymphopenia. Modification of lymphoid irradiation regimens to increase the proportion of MS patients who achieve a favorable degree of lymphopenia and to avert functional hyposplenism may further improve the benefit/risk ratio

  8. Determinants of levels and changes of physical functioning in chronically ill persons: results from the GLOBE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, J; Borsboom, G; Nusselder, W; Looman, C; Schrijvers, C

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Declines in physical functioning are a common result of chronic illness, but relatively little is known about factors not directly related to severity of disease that influence the occurrence of disability among chronically ill persons. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a large number of potential determinants (sociodemographic factors, health related behaviour, structural living conditions, and psychosocial factors).
DESIGN—Longitudinal study of levels and cha...

  9. Endothelin-1 levels in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiropoulos, K; Trakada, G; Nikolaou, E; Prodromakis, E; Efremidis, G; Pouli, A; Koniavitou, A

    2003-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ET-1 levels are elevated during exacerbations of asthma and COPD in bronchoalveolar lavage, serum, and sputum and fails with treatment of the exacerbations. Hypoxemia stimulates ET-1 secretion. The aim of this study was to examine the serum ET-1 levels in stable asthmatic and COPD patients. We examined 48 COPD and 26 asthmatic patients and 34 normal subjects. We collected arterial samples to measure baseline ET-1 levels in all patients and in the control group, during the day. All the patients underwent formal polysomnography (EEG, ECG, airflow, respiratory muscle movement, oximeter) to detect the presence of nocturnal, nonapneic, and oxyhemoglobin desaturation. Twelve of the COPD patients and six of the asthmatic patients were disqualified because of inadequate sleep or sleep apnea syndrome. Nineteen of the COPD patients desaturated below a baseline sleep saturation of 90% for 5 min or more, reaching a nadir saturation of at least 85%. We collected arterial samples to measure ET-1 levels, 5 min after the first period of desaturation in each of the 19 desaturators COPD patients. None of the 20 asthmatic patients exhibited oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep. Baseline arterial ET-1 levels during the day were significantly higher in "desaturators" COPD patients (2.08+/-0.28 pg/ml) compared to "non-desaturators" COPD patients (1.38+/-0.16 pg/ml) (P<0.001) and to asthmatics (0.7+/-0.85 pg/ml) (P<0.001). ET-1 Levels in normal subjects were 1.221+/-0.02 pg/ml. In "desaturators" COPD patients ET-1 levels during the night, 5 min after the first oxyhemoglobin desaturation, were significantly higher (4.28+/-1.10 pg/ml) compared to those during the day (2.08+/-0.28 pg/ml) (P<0.001). A significant negative correlation was observed between ET-1 levels and degree of desaturation during the day (P=0.005, r=0.632) and during the night (P<0.001, r=0

  10. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF GALECTIN-3 LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Snetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a greater emphasis is placed on the search for additional biomarkers of chronic heart failure (CHF. Galectin-3, a marker of fibrosis and inflammation, has shown himself as a biomarker of CHF in many studies, but the dynamics of its levels in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 is not well-studied.Aim. To identify diagnostic significance of galectin-3 plasma level evaluation and its correlations with echocardiographic criteria for patients with CHF and DM type 2.Material and methods. The study included 33 patients with ischemic CHF (all patients had a history of myocardial infarction and DM type 2. The patients were divided into two groups according to the left ventricle (LV ejection fraction (EF: a group with CHF and preserved ejection fraction (PEF (EF≥50% and with CHF and reduced ejection fraction (EF<50%. Patients underwent clinical laboratory tests and Doppler echocardiography; moreover, the levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and galeсtin-3 were measured.Results. The mean level of galectin-3 in blood plasma in the group with CHF and PEF was significantly higher than in the group with CHF and reduced EF (p=0.007. In the group with CHF and PEF a positive correlation between the level of galectin-3 and diastolic LV function E/E' was found (r=0.620, p=0.01. A significant correlation between galectin-3 level and LV systolic function was stated in the group with reduced EF (r=0.53; p<0.05, while in the group with PEF, the correlation was not significant (p=0.225. In the group of patients with reduced EF a negative correlation between galectin-3 and the volume of left atrium was revealed (r=-0.53; p<0.05.Conclusion. Galectin-3 can be used as a diagnostic biomarker primarily in patients with CHF and PEF.

  11. Serum TNF-α, IL-6 and Resistin Levels in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Yıldırım

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disease of the skin. Despite previous extensive studies, etiology is still unclear. Obesity is a significant risk factor for psoriasis and body mass index (BMI correlates with the disease severity. In recent years, the relationship between psoriasis and adipose tissue cytokines has been reported. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the levels of adipose tissue cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and resistin in psoriasis patients and to evaluate their relation with disease severity.Material and Methods: Our study was performed between January 2010 and February 2010 on a total of 40 patients who were admitted to Abant Izzet Baysal University, Medical School Clinic of Dermatology with complaints of psoriasis. Additionally, forty healthy individuals whose age, gender and BMI did not differ from the patients’ ones formed the control group. TNF-α, IL-6, and resistin levels were measured in both the patients diagnosed with psoriasis and the control group using ELISA methods. The t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to examine the differences between the two groups. Results: In our study, TNF-α, IL-6, and resistin levels were all significantly elevated in the patient group, and serum IL-6 and resistin correlated with disease severity. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI score showed statistically significant association with IL-6 and resistin levels. Furthermore, it was detected that BMI did not correlate with serum TNF-α, IL-6, and resistin levels.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that TNF-α, IL-6, and resistin play a part in psoriasis etiopathogenesis, and IL-6 and resistin can be used as markers to assess the severity of the disease. Also, our study showed that the elevation in serum TNF-α, IL-6, and resistin levels is independent from the increase in adipose tissue. Larger studies are needed to support our findings.

  12. Effect of oral preparation of astragalus membranaceous on serum SOD levels in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiyong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma with special reference on the serum SOD levels. Methods: Serum SOD levels were measured with RIA in 42 aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma both before and after a course of treatment with oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous (10ml b. i. d for 3 months) as well as in 35 controls. Results: The patients general condition was greatly improved after the treatment. Before treatment, the serum SOD levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous was therapeutically useful for chronic bronchial asthma in aged patients with correction of the serum SOD levels. (authors)

  13. The dynamics of histamine level in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different methods of treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dytyatkovska Ye.M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the efficiency of different methods of chronic urticaria treatment. All patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment scteme. The paper shows the dynamics of histamine level in blood plasma, intestine disbiosis in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different treatment complexes. It was proved that there exists the correlation between the serum histamine level and method of treatment. Intro¬ducing bionorm into the treatment allows to decrease histamine level and correspondingly to significantly improve clinical effect and patients’ life quality.

  14. Evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with aggressive and chronic periodontitis and comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Kanaparthy

    2012-01-01

    Results : Overall, the mean CRP levels were high in subjects with generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis compared with controls. This was found to be statistically significant. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.012 was found in the CRP level between groups I and II and between groups II and III, and between groups I and III. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared with the controls.

  15. The state of glutathion system of blood, brain and liver of white rats after chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushok, N.Eh.; Lashak, L.K.; Trebukhina, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of 3-fold gamma-irradiation in total dose 0,75 Gy on the glutathion system in different periods after exposure (1 hour, 1 day, 1 and 4 weeks) in blood, brain and liver of white rats were studied. It was concluded that liver and brain have higher ability to maintain the stability of antioxidant system than blood has. After shot disturbances caused by irradiation in brain and liver the state of glutathion system of detoxication has normalized, while concentration of malonic dialdehyde was raised in all terms. The most pronounced changes of antioxidant system were registered in blood at early terms (1 hour) after irradiation that was manifested in increasing of reduced glutathion content, raising of glutathion reductase and catalase activity. In remote period the activity of this system in blood was exhausted

  16. Biogenic amines in brain areas of rats and response to varying dose levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, F.M.; Elmossalamy, N.; Othman, S.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdelraheem, K.

    1994-01-01

    The levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were examined in the brain areas:cortex,: cerebellum, striatum and pons in rats exposed to whole body gamma-irradiation at the dose levels 6.5 and 10 Gy. The data obtained indicated that: 6.5 Gy induced in all brain areas, a slight increase in 5-HT concomitant with significant decrease in NE, DA levels, besides a significant increase in 5-HTAA in cerebellum and pons. After the dose 10 Gy the maximum excitation of 5-HT level was in striatum whereas declines in NE, DA were recorded in all brain areas. 5-HIAA displayed significant increase in cerebellum and pons and maximum decline in the cortex. 4 tab

  17. Stress management skills, neuroimmune processes and fatigue levels in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stress management skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p=.019) and emotional distress (pfatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stress management skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stress management interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of pain intensity, emotional status and disability level in patients with chronic neck and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuğ, Filiz; Kavlak, Erdoğan; Kurtca, Mine Pekesen; Ünal, Ayşe; Cavlak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    This study was planned to compare of pain, emotional status and disability level in patients with chronic neck pain and low back pain. In this study, fifty patients with chronic low back pain (Group I) and fifty patients with chronic neck pain (Group II) at least 6 months were evaluated. A Visual Analog Scale was used to describe pain intensity. To determine emotional status of the subjects, the Beck Depression Scale was used The Oswestry Disability Index and the Neck Disability Index were used to evaluate disability level. The mean age of the patients with low back pain and neck pain were 39.70 ± 9.71 years, 45.44 ± 10.39 years, respectively. It was not found a significant difference between in low back pain (Group I) and neck pain (Group II) in results of pain intensity (p= 0.286) and pain duration (p= 0.382). It was found a significant difference between group I and group II in results of emotional status (p= 0.000) and disability level (p= 0.000). The emotional status and disability level scores were found highest in patient's with low back pain. Chronic low back pain is affect in patients than chronic neck pain as a emotional status and disability level.

  19. Study on the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jianping; Feng Jiangchao; Zhang Guoyuan; Xiong Gang; Tu Lirong; Xia Chengyun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis of various types and stages. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 71 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and 36 controls. Results: 1) Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis than those in controls (p<0.01) but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (p<0.01). 2)Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were positively correlated to BUN levels (p<0.01). 3)There were no significant differences of these cytokines levels among the different types of patients (i.e. general type n=18, nephrotic type n=33 and hypertensive type n=20). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of chronic glomerulonephritis. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the disease

  20. Influence of thymogene on the repair of lymphocyte DNA in the spleen of minks under the influence of chronic irradiation.; Vpliv timogehu na reparatsyiyu DNK lyimfotsityiv selezyinki norok za umov khronyichnogo opromyinennya.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkhorzhevs` kij, B M; Demidov, S V; Ryasenko, V Yi; Khrapunov, S M [Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Results of own investigations of the authors as to the thymogene influence on correction of the repair system under the effect of chronic irradiation are discussed in the article. The influence of thymogene on the repair of DNA in lymphocytes of the spleen of minks has been investigated. Changes in the correlation between single- and double stranded DNA forms in a cell were determinated. It has been found that the quantity of DNA with single stranded breaks has considerably increased in animals under conditions of chronic irradiation. The use of thymogene promotes activation of repair processes in a cell.

  1. Reduction in sperm levels after testicular irradiation of the mouse: a comparison with man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistrich, M.L.; Samuels, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The potential and limitations of applying extrapolation factors (EFs) to the results of animal studies to predict effects of toxic agents on human male fertility were evaluated using radiation data. The EF is the ratio of the dose to produce a given effect in the mouse to that necessary to produce the same effect in man. Sperm counts in mouse testes were compared to those in the ejaculates of human males. Sperm counts performed at times at which the sperm develop from irradiated stem cells in both species yielded EFs between 11 and 44. However, if sufficient time was allowed for maximum recovery in both species, the EF was less than 1.7. These results indicate that man appears to be much more sensitive than the mouse to the testicular effects of irradiation at 2 to 9 months postexposure, but both species are comparable in their sensitivity to irreversible damage. The use of EFs may be appropriate, but since the EF is very dependent on the time at which the comparison was made, different values must be used for prompt and permanent testicular injury

  2. Influence of diethylmaleate on the survival of irradiated mice and on serum protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major of the living plants or animal cell low molecular weight thiol compound which serves as a main endogenous cellular radioprotector. In order to improve radiotherapy, a possible approach should be to try to administrate hypoxic cell radiosensitizers altogether with glutathione intracellular depletors, for example, a binding GSH agent like diethylmaleate (DEM), in an attempt to overcome the neurotoxic side effects while maintaining their radiosensitizing properties. This study was performed to investigate whether the administration of DEM alone could modify the radioresistance of mice as measure by the 30-day-survival after irradiation and to establish whether this modification can be reflected in the murine serum protein profiles. Millimolar concentrations of DEM were dissolved alternatively in commercial peanut oil or absolute ethanol (final concentration 0.27%) and administered to male or female albino mice ip 1 h prior to 9 Gy sup(60) Cowhole-body irradiation with an average dose rate of 5.2 Gy/min. (author)

  3. Caffeine enhanced measurement of mutagenesis by low levels of [gamma]-irradiation in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, T.P.; Johnson, R.; Waldren, C.A. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)); Morse, H. (Univ. of Colorado Cancer Center, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The well-known action of caffeine in synergizing mutagenesis (including chromosome aberrations) of agents like ionizing radiation by inhibition of cellular repair processes has been incorporated into a rapid procedure for detection of mutagenicity with high sensitivity. Effects of 5-10 rads of [gamma]-irradiation, which approximate the human lifetime dose accumulation from background radiation, can be detected in a two-day procedure using an immortalized human WBC culture. Chromosomally visible lesions are scored on cells incubated for 2 h after irradiation in the presence and absence of 1.0 mg/ml of caffeine. An eightfold amplification of scorable lesions is achieved over the action of radiation alone. This approach provides a closer approximation to absolute mutagenicity unmitigated by repair processes, which can vary in different situations. It is proposed that mutagenesis testing of this kind, using caffiene or other repair-inhibitory agents, be employed to identify mutagens in their effective concentrations to which human populations may be exposed; to detect agents such as caffeine that may synergize mutagenic actions and pose epidemiologic threats; and to discover effective anti-mutagens. Information derived from the use of such procedures may help prevent cancer and newly acquired genetic disease.

  4. The Effect of Tamoxifen Administration and γ-Irradiation on Thyroid Hormones Levels in Rats Bearing Mammary Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world, in female, tamoxifen acting as an oestrogen antagonist on the breast. Thyroid hormones can stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen and/ or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in rats' mammary tumours. Forty-two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups' proliferation (6 rats each). Control group, normal rats supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks, normal rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays, rats treated with Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) dissolved in corn oil (30ppm) sc and followed for 6 months until breast cancer occurrence, breast cancer bearing rats supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks twice a day, breast cancer bearing rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays, breast cancer bearing rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays and supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks twice a day. At the end of the experiment, mammary tumours and control rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks from different treatments and serum thyroid hormones and estradiol (E2) levels were assayed using commercial kits. Results show T4 and E2 levels not triiodothyronine (T3) were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that γ-irradiation promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both E2 and thyroid hormones and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Tamoxifen administration and γ-irradiation may have worth effects on thyroxin (T4) and E2 levels. It is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of γ-rays exposure and tamoxifen treatment on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  5. Effects of sub-lethal dose of gamma-irradiation on levels of acid phosphatase in cerebellum of pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.C.; Gadhia, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    The changes in the activities of acid phosphatase in the sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated cerebellum of pigeons have been studied both biochemically as well as histochemically after 400 rads. The specific activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly after 48h and 72h of irradiation. The histochemical observations following total body irradiation confirmed the results obtained by quantitative biochemical studies. (author)

  6. Effect of chronic fractionated low-dose gamma irradiation on division potential of human embryonic cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami; Suzuki, Masao; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Kimiko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Nakano, Kazushiro

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the in vitro phenotypic transformation of human embryo (HE) cells that were repeatedly irradiated (7.5 cGy once a week) throughout their life-span. Irradiation was repeated until the cells had accumulated 195 cGy (equivalent to the 26th passage). Samples of cells were assayed for survival by colony formation, as well as for mutation at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus and for transformation by focus formation. The life-span (mean number of population doublings) of multiply irradiated cells with a total dose of 97.5 cGy was slightly but significantly prolonged over that of controls. After HE cells had accumulated 195 cGy, the maximum number of divisions increased to 130-160% of the number in non-irradiated control cells. Transformed foci were not observed until cells had accumulated 97.5 cGy, and then increased with the increasing accumulation of radiation. However, no cells showed immortality or expressed a malignant phenotype in vitro. (author).

  7. Capacitance transient study of a bistable deep level in e--irradiated n-type 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, F C; Hemmingsson, C G; Pedersen, H; Henry, A; Janzén, E; Isoya, J; Ohshima, T; Morishita, N

    2012-01-01

    Using capacitance transient techniques, a bistable centre, called FB centre here, was observed in electron irradiated 4H-SiC. In configuration A, the deep level known as EH5 (E a = E C - 1.07 eV) is detected in the deep level transient spectroscopy spectrum, whereas for configuration B no obvious deep level is observed in the accessible part of the band gap. Isochronal annealing revealed the transition temperatures to be T A→B > 730 K and for the opposite process T B→A ≈ 710 K. The energy needed to conduct the transformations were determined to be E A (A → B) = (2.1 ± 0.1) eV and E A (B → A) = (2.3 ± 0.1) eV, respectively. The pre-factor indicated an atomic jump process for the opposite transition A → B and a charge carrier-emission dominated process in the case of B → A. Minority charge carrier injection enhanced the transformation from configuration B to configuration A by lowering the transition barrier by about 1.4 eV. Since the bistable FB centre is already present after low-energy electron irradiation (200 keV), it is likely related to carbon.

  8. Evaluation of damage induced by high irradiation levels on α-Ni-Ni3Si eutectic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho Olguin, Carlos Alberto; Garcia-Borquez, Arturo; González-Rodríguez, Carlos Alberto; Loran-Juanico, Jose Antonio; Cruz-Mejía, Hector

    2015-06-01

    to 380 dpa at 650°C in a Tandetron linear accelerator. The level of irradiation dose was chosen similar to the irradiation conditions of the next-generation nuclear reactors. The theoretical maximum depth of the DII (maximum depth of damage (MDD)) was calculated as 1.35 µm using the SRIM-2013 program; the laminar microstructure of the eutectic was simulated using the lattice parameters of the eutectic before irradiation. The experimental MDD was 1.47 µm, as determined through transmission electron microscope (TEM) images and the DII was characterized using µX-ray diffraction and TEM. The elimination of cubic phase of the intermetallic Ni3Si, the suppression of lamellae of the α-Ni phase, the generation of dislocation loops and lines, all of these changes generated by the irradiation are clear evidences that the DII was severe. Based on theoretical and experimental evidence, we propose that the amount of phases, alternate of lamellae with different chemical concentrations of silicon and lamellae spatial distribution have a direct relation with the severe evolution of the DII.

  9. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD and identify the related factors.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD.Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99, female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53, hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42, high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61, high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20, and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year were independent predictors of CKD.A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  10. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lee, Ching-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify the related factors. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD. Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99), female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53), hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42), high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61), high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20), and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year) were independent predictors of CKD. A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  11. Biological effects of tolerable level chronic boron intake on transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenay Boyacioglu, Seda; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kahraman, Erkan; Yildirim, Hatice; Bora, Selin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects. The RNA was then reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed using the Human Transcription Factors RT 2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays. While the boron amount in urine was detected as 3.56±1.47mg/day in the boron group, it was 0.72±0.30mg/day in the control group. Daily boron intake of the boron and control groups were calculated to be 6.98±3.39 and 1.18±0.41mg/day, respectively. The expression levels of the transcription factor genes were compared between the boron and control groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (P>0.05). The data suggest that boron intake at 6.98±3.39mg/day, which is the dose at which beneficial effects might be seen, does not result in toxicity at molecular level since the expression levels of transcription factors are not changed. Although boron intake over this level will seem to increase RNA synthesis, further examination of the topic is needed using new molecular epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of low level laser therapy on chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are vulnerable to physical injury of the intervertebral foramen, and chronic compression of the DRG (CCD an result in nerve root damage with persistent morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the DRG in a CCD model and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. CCD rats had L-shaped stainless-steel rods inserted into the fourth and fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen, and the rats were then subjected to 0 or 8 J/cm2 LLLT for 8 consecutive days following CCD surgery. Pain and heat stimuli were applied to test for hyperalgesia following CCD. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43 messenger RNA (mRNA expression were measured via real-time PCR, and protein expression levels were analyzed through immunohistochemical analyses. Our data indicate that LLLT significantly decreased the tolerable sensitivity to pain and heat stimuli in the CCD groups. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were increased following CCD, and we found that these increases could be reduced by the application of LLLT. Furthermore, the expression of GAP-43 was enhanced by LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT was able to enhance neural regeneration in rats following CCD and improve rat ambulatory behavior. The therapeutic effects of LLLT on the DRG during CCD may be exerted through suppression of the inflammatory response and induction of neuronal repair genes. These results suggest potential clinical applications for LLLT in the treatment of compression-induced neuronal disorders.

  13. Medical and Periodontal Clinical Parameters in Patients at Different Levels of Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Perozini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the clinical periodontal and medical parameters in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF at different levels of renal disease. Background. CRF is a progressive and irreversible loss of renal function associated with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate. Periodontal disease is a destructive inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues that shows high prevalence in patients with CRF. Materials and Methods. 102 CRF patients were included and divided into an early stage group (EG, predialysis group (PDG, and hemodialysis group (HDG. The medical parameters were taken from the patients’ records. Results. Periodontal clinical condition differed among the CRF groups. Clinical attachment loss was greater in the HDG and PDG group compared to the EG (p=0.0364; the same was observed in the Plaque Index (p=0.0296; the others periodontal parameters did not show any differences. Ferritin levels were significantly higher in the HDG when compared to the EG and PGD (p<0.0001, and fibrinogen was higher in PDG compared with the others (p<0.0001; the triglycerides also showed higher values in the HDG compared with the other groups (p<0.0001. Conclusion. The patients with renal involvement should have a multidisciplinary approach to an improvement in their oral and systemic health.

  14. Serum Lipoprotein (a Levels in Chronic Renal Failure and Liver Cirrhosis Patients. Relationship with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Mady

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein (a levels and the development of atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure (CRF patients with the possible role of the liver. Serum Lp (a levels were measured in samples from 20 CRF patients on hemodialysis (HD, 20 liver cirrhosis (LC patients, 20 patients having both CRF and LC and undergoing HD, and 20 normal control subjects. Renal function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine, hepatic function (transaminases (ALT and AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin investigations and serum cholesterol were carried out for all the subjects enrolled in this study. Serum Lp (a concentration in CRF patients without LC was 87.25 ± 6.17 mg/dl, which was significantly higher than all the investigated groups (P < 0.001. Lp(a concentration in patients with both CRF and LC was 24.65 ± 1.98 mg/dl, which was not significantly different from the controls, but was significantly higher than that in the subjects with LC only (P < 0.001 where the latter group had significantly low Lp (a values (11.1 ± 0.99 relative to all the other groups (P < 0.001. Lp (a correlated positively with cholesterol in all groups except the LC subjects, but did not correlate with age, or renal function in both CRF groups.

  15. Physical fitness level affects perception of chronic stress in military trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Carolin; Teubel, Thomas; La Marca, Roberto; Roos, Lilian; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO 2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT). VO 2 max and four influencing variables (perceived stress in Week 1, neuroticism, transformational leadership style, and education level) explained 44.44% of the variance of the increase in perceived stress during 10 weeks of BMT (R 2  = 0.444, F = 23.334, p good aerobic fitness on the varied level of perceived stress. We conclude that it is advisable to provide conscripts with a specific endurance training program prior to BMT for stress prevention reasons. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aquaporin-1-Mediated Effects of Low Level He-Ne Laser Irradiation on Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Yue Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of membrane aquaporin-1 (APQ-1 in the photobiomodulation (PBM on erythrocyte deformability will be studied in this paper with human dehydrated erythrocytes as echinocytic shape alterations lead to decreased cellular deformability. Human dehydrated erythrocytes were irradiated with low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation (LHNL at 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, and 4.4 mW/cm2 for 5, 15, and 30 min, respectively, and APQ-1 inhibitor, 0.2 μmol/L HgCl2, was used to study the role of APQ-1 in mediating PBM with LHNL at 4.4 mW/cm2 for 5 min. Comprehensive morphological parameters of an intact cell such as contact area, perimeter, roundness and erythrocyte elongation index (EEI were measured to characterize erythrocyte deformability with fast micro multi-channel spectrophotometer. It was observed that the dosage of LHNL improvement of the morphological parameters of dehydrated erythrocytes was morphological-parameter-dependent, but the Bunsen-Roscoe rule did not hold for roundness. The LHNL at 4.4 mW/cm2 for 5 min significantly improved the contact area (P<0.05 and EEI (P<0.05 of the dehydrated erythrocytes, but the improvement was significantly inhibited by 0.2 μmol/L HgCl2 (P<0.05. It was concluded that AQP-1 might mediate the effects of LHNL on erythrocyte deformability, which supports the membranotropic mechanism of PBM.

  18. Association of L-ficolin levels and FCN2 genotypes with chronic Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola R Luz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: L-ficolin (encoded by FCN2 binds to acetylated sugar moieties of many pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, promoting their phagocytosis and lysis by the complement system. METHODS: We investigated L-ficolin levels in 160 T. cruzi infected patients with chronic Chagas disease and 71 healthy individuals, and FCN2 polymorphisms (-986 G>A, -602 G>A, and -4 A>G in the promoter and A258S in exon 8 in 243 patients, being 88 indeterminate (asymptomatic, 96 with cardiac, 23 with digestive and 33 with cardiodigestive manifestations (two were unspecified and 305 controls (135 for A258S. RESULTS: Patients presented lower L-ficolin plasma levels than controls (p<0.0001. Among the different groups of cardiac commitment, individuals with moderate forms had higher L-ficolin levels than the severe forms (P = 0.039. Lower L-ficolin levels were found associated with the 258S variant in the patients (P = 0.034. We found less -4A/G heterozygotes in the cardiac patients, than in the controls (OR = 0.56 [95% CI = 0.33-0.94], P = 0.034. Heterozygote -4A/G genotypes with the 258S variant and 258SS homozygotes were nevertheless more frequent among cardiodigestive patients than in controls (OR = 14.1 [95% CI = 3.5-56.8], P = 0.0001 and in indeterminate patients (OR = 3.2 [95% CI = 1.1-9.4], P = 0.037. We also found an association of the allelic frequency of the 258S variant with cardiodigestive Chagas disease compared to controls (OR = 2.24 [95% CI = 1.1-4.5], P = 0.037. Thus, decreased patient levels of L-ficolin reflect not only protein consumption due to the disease process, but also the higher frequency of the 258S variant in patients with cardiodigestive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The very first study on Brazilian cohort associates both L-ficolin plasma levels and FCN2 variants to Chagas disease and subsequent disease progression. The prognostic value of L-ficolin levels and the FCN2*A258S polymorphism

  19. Decoupling Solar Variability and Instrument Trends Using the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Harder, Jerald; Snow, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The solar spectral irradiance (SSI) dataset is a key record for studying and understanding the energetics and radiation balance in Earth's environment. Understanding the long-term variations of the SSI over timescales of the 11-year solar activity cycle and longer is critical for many Sun-Earth research topics. Satellite measurements of the SSI have been made since the 1970s, most of them in the ultraviolet, but recently also in the visible and near-infrared. A limiting factor for the accuracy of previous solar variability results is the uncertainties for the instrument degradation corrections, which need fairly large corrections relative to the amount of solar cycle variability at some wavelengths. The primary objective of this investigation has been to separate out solar cycle variability and any residual uncorrected instrumental trends in the SSI measurements from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission and the Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere, Energetic, and Dynamics (TIMED) mission. A new technique called the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) analysis has been developed, which examines an SSI time series at different levels of solar activity to provide long-term trends in an SSI record, and the most common result is a downward trend that most likely stems from uncorrected instrument degradation. This technique has been applied to each wavelength in the SSI records from SORCE (2003 - present) and TIMED (2002 - present) to provide new solar cycle variability results between 27 nm and 1600 nm with a resolution of about 1 nm at most wavelengths. This technique, which was validated with the highly accurate total solar irradiance (TSI) record, has an estimated relative uncertainty of about 5% of the measured solar cycle variability. The MuSIL results are further validated with the comparison of the new solar cycle variability results from different solar cycles.

  20. Clinical significance of determination of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Yu Fan; Zhao Changxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels were detected with RIA in 42 cases with chronic hepatitis C and 35 controls. Results: The levels of serum HA, PC III and ADA in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum HA, PC m and ADA levels were positive correlated (r=0.6178, 0.6211, P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggested the serum HA, PC m and ADA levels can reflect the degree of hepatic injury in the patients with cirrhosis, detection of serum HA, PC m and ADA levels is helpful in estimating the status of the disease. (authors)

  1. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Study of serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Freethi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem, with increasing prevalence and lethal adverse outcomes like progressive loss of kidney function, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Disturbances in mineral metabolism and bone disease are common complications of CKD and an important cause of morbidity and decreased quality of life in patients with CKD. Patients with renal failure have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality that may be due in part to vascular calcification. To measure serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in patients in various stages of CKD and to correlate the same with creatinine and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFRvalues. This is a cross sectional study done at Thanjavur Medical College Hospital. 60 CKD patients and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of creatinine, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were measured and eGFR values correlated with the serum creatinine. The mean values of creatinine (4.9 ± 2.23 mg/dl, cal cium (9.8 ± 0.456 mg/dl , phosphorus (4.19 ± 0.404 mg/dl and alkaline phosphatase (94.01 ± 15.10 U/L in the stu dy group are significantly higher than the control group in which the mean levels are 0.89 ± 0.102 mg/dl, 10.17 ± 0.37 mg/dl, 4.02 ± 0.16 mg/dl and 25.16 ± 4.65U/ L respectively. We have found that there is a significant difference in the above said parameters among patients in different stages of CKD (stage 3-5 indicating the progression of mineral bone disease with advancing stage of CKD.

  3. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  4. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  5. Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddarth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Tyagi, Vipin; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-05-26

    Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n = 100), patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (n = 100), and patients with chronic kidney disease of known etiology (CKDk) (n = 100). Blood OCP levels of all three study groups were analyzed by gas chromatography. Increased level of OCPs, namely α-HCH, aldrin, and β-endosulfan, were observed in CKDu patients as compared to healthy control and CKD patients of known etiology. The levels of these pesticides significantly correlated negatively with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and positively with urinary albumin of CKD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed association of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDE, and β-endosulfan with CKDu on adjustment of age, sex, BMI, and total lipid content. Increased blood level of certain organochlorine pesticides is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology.

  6. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  7. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, G.H. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wuhan University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan, China, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  8. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X.; Wang, G.H.; Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD

  9. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  10. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  11. INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUTION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS USING LOW LEVEL Y - IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects o f s e l ected l ow l evel doses of y - Rad iation (100-400 K rad on t he abi l ity o f toxin strain o f Asperg i l l us flavus t o survive and pr oduce a f latox in in c ul t ure med ium and p is tachio nuts hav e been s tudied . A reduction of 60 per c e nt in growth and spore production by Asperg i l l us flavus in c u l ture me di um was observed after treatment wi th 100 K rad of y - Radiation ."nIn spore inoculated pistachio nuts , 100 K rad o f y Radi a tion reduced the a f la toxin B l and G l nroduction by 75% aft er e i ght week s s t orage per iod . The afla toxin prod~ ction ability by Aspergillus f lavus on pistachio nuts was affectively eliminated by t he treatment o f spore inoculated pist achio nuts wi th 200 K rad of y-Radiation , although very l itt le growth coul d be detected after eight weeks ' storage of 40 0 K rad y-irradiated pistachio nuts.  

  12. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O 2 - ) and ozonide (O 3 - ) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K 2 O: 56 SiO 2 was prepared from reagent grade K 2 CO3 and SiO 2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10 8 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  13. Growth and accumulation of carotenoids and nitrogen compounds in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta cultured under different irradiance and nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramlov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the interaction of irradiance and nutrient levels on growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids and proteins in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta were investigated experimentally. Nutrient availability provided by dilutions of the nutrient solution of von Stosch (25 and 50%, which corresponded to nitrate concentrations of 125 and 250 μmol, respectively and two photon flux densities [low PFD (50±5 and high PFD (100±5 μmol photons.m-2.s-1] were tested. Growth rates of G. domingensis were stimulated by high PFD. The interaction between high nutrient availability (50% VSES and high PFD stimulated the accumulation of total soluble protein. Phycobiliprotein concentrations (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin and carotenoid contents were influenced by irradiance levels. Phycobiliprotein concentrations were higher at low PFD and high irradiances stimulated carotenoid accumulation. These results reflect the function of these pigments in photoprotection and the acclimation of G. domingensis to changes in irradiance levels. Our results indicate that light is a limiting factor for G. domingensis growth, that variations in phycobiliprotein contents under different irradiance levels are related to photoacclimation process, and that higher carotenoid contents at high irradiances are due to a photoprotection mechanism.

  14. Growth and accumulation of carotenoids and nitrogen compounds in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta cultured under different irradiance and nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramlov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the interaction of irradiance and nutrient levels on growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids and proteins in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta were investigated experimentally. Nutrient availability provided by dilutions of the nutrient solution of von Stosch (25 and 50%, which corresponded to nitrate concentrations of 125 and 250 μmol, respectively and two photon flux densities [low PFD (50±5 and high PFD (100±5 μmol photons.m-2.s-1] were tested. Growth rates of G. domingensis were stimulated by high PFD. The interaction between high nutrient availability (50% VSES and high PFD stimulated the accumulation of total soluble protein. Phycobiliprotein concentrations (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin and carotenoid contents were influenced by irradiance levels. Phycobiliprotein concentrations were higher at low PFD and high irradiances stimulated carotenoid accumulation. These results reflect the function of these pigments in photoprotection and the acclimation of G. domingensis to changes in irradiance levels. Our results indicate that light is a limiting factor for G. domingensis growth, that variations in phycobiliprotein contents under different irradiance levels are related to photoacclimation process, and that higher carotenoid contents at high irradiances are due to a photoprotection mechanism.

  15. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α. IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-α and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-α and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-α and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossouw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  17. Elevated Levels of Peripheral Kynurenine Decrease Bone Strength in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Kalaska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 3 months after 5/6 Nx or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats presented higher concentrations of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone both 1 and 3 months after nephrectomy. These animals revealed higher concentrations of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the serum and higher gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR as a physiological receptor for kynurenine and AhR-dependent cytochrome in the bone tissue. Furthermore, nephrectomy significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the bone without affecting their resorptive activity measured in serum. These changes were particularly evident in rats 1 month after 5/6 Nx. The main bone biomechanical parameters of the tibia were unchanged between nephrectomized and sham-operated rats but were significantly increased in older compared to younger animals. A similar trend was observed for geometrical parameters measured with calipers, bone mineral density based on Archimedes' method and image of bone microarchitecture obtained from micro-computed tomography analyses of tibial cortical bone. In nephrectomized animals, peripheral kynurenine levels correlated negatively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics, bone geometry, and bone mineral density values. In conclusion, our data suggest that CKD-induced elevated levels of peripheral kynurenine cause pathological changes in bone

  18. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effects of γ-irradiation on caprolactam level from multilayer PA-6 films for food packaging: Development and validation of a gas chromatographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Henrique Peres; Felix, Juliana Silva; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo; Padula, Marisa; Monteiro, Magali

    2008-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method to determine caprolactam in multilayer PA-6 films used for meat foodstuffs and cheese was developed and validated. A wide linear range (0.8-400 μg/ml), RSD≤4.1% and recovery higher than 90.0% were obtained for the chromatographic system, while precision and accuracy of the method showed RSD≤3.8%, recovery from 95.5-100.0% and LOQ of 32 μg/g. Irradiated (3, 7 and 12 kGy) and non-irradiated commercial films were analyzed. Most of them increased caprolactam levels with the increase of irradiation doses

  20. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on caprolactam level from multilayer PA-6 films for food packaging: Development and validation of a gas chromatographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Henrique Peres; Felix, Juliana Silva [Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Manzoli, Jose Eduardo [Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Padula, Marisa [Packaging Technology Center/Food Technology Institute (CETEA/ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Magali [Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: monteiro@fcfar.unesp.br

    2008-07-15

    A gas chromatographic method to determine caprolactam in multilayer PA-6 films used for meat foodstuffs and cheese was developed and validated. A wide linear range (0.8-400 {mu}g/ml), RSD{<=}4.1% and recovery higher than 90.0% were obtained for the chromatographic system, while precision and accuracy of the method showed RSD{<=}3.8%, recovery from 95.5-100.0% and LOQ of 32 {mu}g/g. Irradiated (3, 7 and 12 kGy) and non-irradiated commercial films were analyzed. Most of them increased caprolactam levels with the increase of irradiation doses.

  1. The value of umbilical blood 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels in the diagnosis of chronic fetal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadlo, M; Böswart, J; Petová, J; Hosková, K

    1990-01-01

    The authors assessed the levels of lactate and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate in the umbilical blood of 105 full-term neonates. A significant increase was found in the levels of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate in newborns of mothers with a history of imminent chronic intrauterine hypoxia. The lactate levels of these newborns were the same as in children of mothers without a history showing a risk of intrauterine hypoxia. The psychomotor development of newborns with increased levels of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate was significantly more altered than in those with normal levels in their first year of life.

  2. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Means V002 (TCTE3TSI6) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSI6 contains 6-hour averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant)...

  3. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Chatterjee, Elashri; Rajesh, K S; Kumar, M S Arun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and correlate salivary thiocyanate (SCN) levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. The study population consisted of 40 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years that was further divided into four groups: Control, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) (Loe and Silness-1963), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss was assessed. Estimation of SCN was performed by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 447 nm wavelength. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVAs Welch test and Pearson's correlation test using SPSS version 17 software. Results showed statistically significant increase in SCN levels in smokers as compared to gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis, control, and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis subjects. Significantly higher PD and loss of attachment were seen in smokers group compared with other groups. A negative correlation observed between the GI and thiocyanate levels. The present study revealed a significant increase in SCN levels in smokers with periodontitis as compared to nonsmokers.

  4. Relationship between educational and occupational levels, and Chronic Kidney Disease in a multi-ethnic sample- The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei, David N.; Stronks, Karien; Adu, Dwomoa; Snijder, Marieke B.; Modesti, Pietro A.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Vogt, Liffert; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups in high-income countries are disproportionately affected by Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for reasons that are unclear. We assessed the association of educational and occupational levels with CKD in a multi-ethnic population. Furthermore, we assessed to what extent ethnic

  5. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schueller, Gerd; Uffmann, Martin; Bader, Till

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions

  6. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Singh, Abanish; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2013-04-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: claudia.schueller-weidekamm@meduniwien.ac.at; Schueller, Gerd [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Uffmann, Martin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bader, Till [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions.

  8. The Relevance of Chromosome Aberration Yields for Biological Dosimetry After Low-Level Occupational Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Hug, O. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, Institut fuer Biologie, Neuherberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1971-06-15

    The usefulness of chromosome analysis for biological dosimetry has been tested in two groups of persons occupationally exposed to radiation: (I) in nurses employed in gynaecological radiology, exposed especially when handling radium inserts; and (II) in nuclear industry workers, all of which were exposed to external gamma irradiation and some of them also to internal radiation after incorporation of various radionuclides. The total dose registered with personal dosimeters ranged in Group 1 from 0.1 to 91.1 rem accumulated over working periods of 0.1 to 13 years, and in Group II from 1.0 to 18.2 rem accumulated over 1 to 9 years. Compared with unexposed controls, both groups exhibit a significant increase of cells with chromosome aberrations as well as larger numbers of breaks per cell. Dicentrics and rings could be observed in some cells, providing good evidence for previous radiation exposure, since these types of aberrations are extremely rare events in unexposed individuals. No correlation between the aberration yields and the film badge values could be demonstrated in Group II. Also, in Group I the fluctuations from individual to individual are rather high. Nevertheless, a positive correlation to the ''dose'' was obtained. Even a sub-group of the nurses that had only been exposed to 20 rem showed significantly more aberrations than control persons. From the results obtained, type and frequency of chromosome aberrations may be considered an indicator of radiation exposure even at the low doses. The reasons for lack of correspondence of chromosome aberration yields and the results of personal monitoring procedures are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. A constitutive damage specific DNA-binding protein is synthesized at higher levels in UV-irradiated primate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, S.; Levine, A.S.; Ozato, K.; Protic, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using a DNA band shift assay, we have identified a DNA-binding protein complex in primate cells which is present constitutively and has a high affinity for UV-irradiated, double-stranded DNA. Cells pretreated with UV light, mitomycin C, or aphidicolin have higher levels of this damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex, suggesting that the signal for induction can either be damage to the DNA or interference with cellular DNA replication. Physiochemical modifications of the DNA and competition analysis with defined substrates suggest that the most probable target site for the damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is a 6-4'-(pyrimidine-2'-one)-pyrimidine dimer: specific binding could not be detected with probes which contain -TT- cyclobutane dimers, and damage-specific DNA binding did not decrease after photoreactivation of UV-irradiated DNA. This damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is the first such inducible protein complex identified in primate cells. Cells from patients with the sun-sensitive cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (group E), are lacking both the constitutive and the induced damage-specific DNA-binding activities. These findings suggest a possible role for this DNA-binding protein complex in lesion recognition and DNA repair of UV-light-induced photoproducts

  10. Deep defect levels in standard and oxygen enriched silicon detectors before and after **6**0Co-gamma-irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, J; Lindström, G; Pintilie, I

    2003-01-01

    Capacitance Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (C-DLTS) measurements have been performed on standard and oxygen-doped silicon detectors manufactured from high-resistivity n-type float zone material with left angle bracket 111 right angle bracket and left angle bracket 100 right angle bracket orientation. Three different oxygen concentrations were achieved by the so-called diffusion oxygenated float zone (DOFZ) process initiated by the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration. Before the irradiation a material characterization has been performed. In contrast to radiation damage by neutrons or high- energy charged hadrons, were the bulk damage is dominated by a mixture of clusters and point defects, the bulk damage caused by **6**0Co-gamma-radiation is only due to the introduction of point defects. The dominant electrically active defects which have been detected after **6**0Co-gamma-irradiation by C-DLTS are the electron traps VO//i, C//iC//s, V//2( = /-), V //2(-/0) and the hole trap C//i O//i. The main difference betwe...

  11. Chronic UVA (365-nm) irradiation induced scratching in hairless mice: dose-time dependency and the effect of ketanserin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laat, J.M.T. de; Groenendijk, M.; Vloten, W.A. van; Gruijl, F.R. de; Seite, S.

    1997-01-01

    In a study on the dose-response relationship for longwave UVA (UVA1; 340-400 nm) carcinogenesis in hairless mice scratch marks appeared after months of daily exposure as an unwanted side effect. Tumor induction in the highest of the 4 tested dose groups (receiving a daily dose of 430 kJ/m 2 of 365-nm radiation) could not be determined because extensive scarification occurred prior to the development of any tumors. The induction of scratch marks could be scored and quantified in all 4 dose groups tested. The UVA1 dose-dependencies for the induction of tumors and scratch marks were compared. We found that the induction of scratch marks depended mainly on the cumulative UVA1 exposure, whereas tumor induction showed a lesser dose-dependency. An attempt was made to prevent the apparent pruritogenic effect of UVA1 irradiation and to understand its mechanism. The influence of ketanserin, a serotonin/histamine antagonist, on the UVA1 induction of scratch marks was tested in groups of 8 mice daily irradiated with 430 kJ/m 2 . No difference was found between treated and untreated animals. Histological examination of skin biopsies from irradiated mice from the 430-kJ/m 2 dose group from the UVA1 carcinogenic experiment, showed no changes in numbers of mast cells or other inflammatory features when compared to skin biopsies from unirradiated control mice. This indicated that UVA1-induced scratching is not mediated through mast cell release of serotonin and/or histamine. An adequate therapeutic treatment which can prevent UVA1-induced scratching would enable us to test tumor induction with UVA1 over a larger dose range, and may provide additional insight in how this radiation damages the skin. It remains conjectural whether there exists and analogous UVA-induced pruritus in human skin. (au)

  12. Hippocampal development in the rat: cytogenesis and morphogenesis examined with autoradiography and low-level x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.A.; Altman, J.

    1974-01-01

    The cytogenesis and morphogenesis of the rat hippocampus was examined with the techniques of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography, cell pyknosis produced by low-level x-irradiation, and quantitative histology. The procedure of progressively delayed cumulative labelling was used for autoradiography. Groups of rats were injected with four successive daily doses of 3 H-thymidine during non-overlapping periods ranging from birth to day 19. They were killed at 60 days of age, and the percentage of labelled cells was determined. Cell pyknosis in Ammon's horn reaches a maximal level prenatally and declines rapidly during the early postnatal period. Cell pyknosis in the dentate gyrus reaches its highest level during the second postnatal week and declines gradually with some radiosensitive cells still present in the adult. Immature granule cells are also at their highest level during the second postnatal week, while mature granule cells gradually accumulate to attain asymptotic levels at around two months of age. The alignment of the pyramidal cells to form the characteristic curvature of Ammon's horn occurs shortly after pyramidal cell cytogenesis is completed. Mechanisms for the morphological development of the dentate gyrus along with a consideration of the possible migratory route of granule cell precursors are discussed. (U.S.)

  13. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: II. Ion irradiated Au-Si Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Here we introduce a new technique called scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS) for the spatial analysis of electrically active defects in devices. In the first part of this paper, a simple theory behind SIDLTS was introduced and factors determining its sensitivity and resolution were discussed. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique on MeV boron implantation induced defects in an Au-Si Schottky junction. SIDLTS measurements are compared with capacitance DLTS measurements over the temperature range, 100-300 K. SIDLTS analyses indicate the presence of two levels, one of which was positively identified as the E c - 0.23 eV divacancy level. The high sensitivity of SIDLTS is verified and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in light of non-exponential components in the charge transient response. Reasons for several undetected levels are also discussed

  14. Molecular response to imatinib & its correlation with mRNA expression levels of imatinib influx & efflux transporters in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Imatinib is the standard first-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients. About 20 to 30 per cent patients develop resistance to imatinib and fail imatinib treatment. One of the mechanisms proposed is varying expression levels of the drug transporters. This study was aimed to determine the expression levels of imatinib transporter genes (OCT1, ABCB1, ABCG2 in CML patients and to correlate these levels with molecular response. Methods: Sixty three CML chronic phase patients who were on 400 mg/day imatinib for more than two years were considered for gene expression analysis study for OCT1, ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. These were divided into responders and non-responders. The relative transcript expression levels of the three genes were compared between these two categories. The association between the expression values of these three genes was also determined. Results: No significant difference in the expression levels of OCT1, ABCB1 and ABCG2 was found between the two categories. The median transcript expression levels of OCT1, ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes in responders were 26.54, 10.78 and 0.64 versus 33.48, 7.09 and 0.53 in non-responders, respectively. A positive association was observed between the expression of the ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporter genes (r=0.407, P<0.05 while no association was observed between the expression of either of the ABC transporter genes with the OCT1 gene. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of imatinib transporter genes were not correlated with molecular response in CML patients. Further studies need to be done on a large sample of CML patients to confirm these findings.

  15. UV Irradiation and Pleiotropic Effects of Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease - Benefits on Cardiovascular Comorbidities and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rolfdieter; Stange, Rainer; Kaase, Heinrich; Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D3 can be metabolized in the skin to 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D because the skin expresses vitamin D-25-hydroxylase, 25(OH)D-1-alpha-hydroxylase, and the vitamin D receptor. The aim of this review was to discuss the pleiotropic effects after serial suberythemal UVB irradiation with a sun-simulating UV spectrum in end-stage kidney disease patients. Fourteen hemodialysis patients, with a mean age of 51 (range 41-57) years, were whole-body UV irradiated over 6 months. Patients demonstrated an increase in their hematocrit and required less erythropoietin. An increase in maximal oxygen uptake and workload capacity was associated with decreased lactic acid production. The patients demonstrated a decreased heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure with an increase in the R-R-interval and the beat-to-beat-differences. Cardiovascular disease is the most important comorbidity. Exposure to simulated sunlight that contains both UVB and UVA reduce cardiovascular risk factors and improve quality of life. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Aggressive Periodontitis and Chronic Arthritis: Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression and Plasma Protein Levels of Cytokines and Cytokine Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Korsbæk Connor; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    -inflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors in patients with periodontitis and patients with arthritis representing two examples of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis and arthritis. To identify possible disease-specific characteristics of subjects with periodontitis relative to subjects with chronic......TNF-RI plasma levels in patients with LAgP and RA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated only a few changes in the PBMC expression of various cytokine and cytokine inhibitor genes in aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis compared to controls. There were a few similarities among disease groups...... inflammation in general, patients with arthritis (juvenile idiopathic arthritis [JIA] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) were included. METHODS: The study population consisted of white adults periodontitis (LAgP; n = 18), generalized aggressive periodontitis...

  17. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Yena; Choi, Kyungho

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 ± 1.0 μW cm -2 d -1 ), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of α-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna

  18. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungkon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: koguma@snu.ac.kr; Park, Yena [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: elohim@snu.ac.kr; Choi, Kyungho [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 {+-} 1.0 {mu}W cm{sup -2} d{sup -1}), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of {alpha}-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna.

  19. Correlation with liver scintigram, reticuloendothelial function test, plasma endotoxin level and liver function tests in chronic liver diseases. Multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Ideguchi, Seiji and others

    1989-02-01

    Liver scintigrams with Tc-99m phytate were reviewed in a total of 64 consecutive patients, comprising 28 with chronic hepatitis and 36 with liver cirrhosis. Reticuloendothelial (RES) function, plasma endotoxin (Et) levels and findings of general liver function tests were used as reference parameters to determine the diagnostic ability of liver scintigraphy. Multivariate analyses revealed that liver scintigrams had a strong correlation with RES function and Et levels in terms of morphology of the liver and hepatic and bone marrow Tc-99m uptake. General liver function tests revealed gamma globulin to be correlated with hepatic uptake and the degree of splenogemaly on liver scintigrams; and ICG levels at 15 min to be correlated with bone marrow and splenic uptake. Accuracy of liver scintigraphy was 73% for chronic hepatitis, which was inferior to general liver function tests (83%). When both modalities were combined, diangostic accuracy increased to 95%. Liver scintigraphy seems to be useful as a complementary approach. (Namekawa, K).

  20. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of low-energy ion-irradiated silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkovsky, Vladimir; Privitera, V.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

     During electron-gun deposition of metal layers on semiconductors, the semiconductor is bombarded with low-energy metal ions creating defects in the outermost surface layer. For many years, it has been a puzzle why deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra of the as-deposited, electron-gun evapor...

  1. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  2. Effect of deep levels of radiation-induced defects in silicon γ-irradiated Al-V-n-Si structures characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzaneva, E.V.; Vdovichenko, A.D.; Kuznetsov, G.V.; Muntyan, Yu.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of high energy γ-quanta irradiation on the mechanism of current transmission in Al-V-N-Si structures employed in Schottky barrier instruments has been investigated. Before irradiation the structures have been annealed in the nitrogen atmosphere at T=500 deg C. The samples have been γ-irradiated on the side of the metall film at T=20 deg C. The irradiation spectrum is continuous, maximum γ-quanta energy 50 MeV, medium one is 20 MeV. The integral flux of γ-quanta, PHIsub(γ) varied from 10 7 to 10 13 quantum/cm -2 . The volt-ampere and volt-farad characteristics have been measred. It is shown that variation of the main electrophysical characteristics of the Al-V-nSi structures upon γ-irradiation is due to deep levels of radiation defects arising in silicon with the energetic position Esub(c)-E=0.38-0.4 eV and Esub(v)+Esub(2)=0.23-0.25 → β, where Esub(c), Esub(v) are energies for the conduction band bottom and the valence band ceiling. In the 77-293 K temperature range the determining range the determining effect on current mission mechanism in irradiated structures is exerted by resonance electron tunnelling with participation of a level with the Esub(c)-Esub(1)=0.38-0.4 eV

  3. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  4. Crescimento e metabolismo em artemísia em função do nível de irradiância Growth and metabolism of feverfew plants in response to the irradiance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemísia [Tanacetum parthenium (L. Schultz-Bip.] é uma planta medicinal fortemente aromática, cujo princípio ativo característico é a lactona sesquiterpênica partenolídeo. Entre os fatores que afetam o cultivo das plantas medicinais destaca-se a irradiância luminosa. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar efeitos de três níveis de irradiância luminosa (730, 523 e 382 µmol de fótons m-2 s-1 na altura, área foliar, número de folhas, teor de açúcares, de amido e de partenolídeo em artemísia. As plantas cresceram a pleno sol e com 30 e 50% de redução na irradiância por 105 dias. A redução na irradiância foi obtida por meio de sombreamento artificial, com a utilização de telas de polietileno pretas. A redução na irradiância incidente causou aumento na altura e na área foliar total de cada planta, mas não alterou o número de folhas. Houve diminuição nos teores de açúcares e de amido em função do sombreamento, mas os teores de partenolídeo não foram alterados significativamente.Feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L. Schultz-Bip.] is a strongly aromatic medicinal plant, whose active principle is the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. Irradiance ranks among the most important factors that affect growth of medicinal plants. The effect of three irradiance levels (730, 523 and 382 µmol of fotons m-2 s-1 were assessed on feverfew plants height, leaf area, and leaf number, as well as on the contents of sugar, starch, and parthenolide. Plants grew on full sunshine and under 30 and 50% of irradiance reduction, for 105 days. Irradiance was controlled by shadowing plants with a black polyethylene screen. Reduction on irradiance increased plant height and total leaf area, but had no effect on leaf number. A reduction in sugar and starch contents in association with shadowing was observed. Nevertheless, shadowing did not affect significantly the parthenolide content.

  5. Food irradiation

    <