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Sample records for level black youths

  1. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  2. Relocating the Deficit: Reimagining Black Youth in Neoliberal Times

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    Baldridge, Bianca J.

    2014-01-01

    After-school community-based spaces are often recognized in political and educational discourse as institutions that "save" and "rescue" Black youth. Such rhetoric perpetuates an ethos of pathology that diminishes the agency of youth and their communities. Through ethnographic research with 20 youth workers at a college…

  3. Mission Impossible? Social Work Practice with Black Urban Youth Gangs.

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    Fox, Jerry R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of social work practice skills to serve black urban youth gangs. Presents a model for practice which respects youths' right to self-determination and community needs. Model stages discussed include contact, rapport, setting goals, assigning roles, procuring resources, and evaluation. Model applicability is suggested. (NRB)

  4. On Being Disrupted: Youth Work and Black Lives Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marie Bonfiglio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth workers are constantly figuring out how to respond to their young people, especially in times of disruption. The Black Lives Matter movement came close to home in the aftermath of the shooting by police of Jamar Clark, a young black man in north Minneapolis. This article is a reflection on the tensions that six area youth workers faced and the variety of roles that they played in working with their young people. The goal of this paper is to inspire other youth workers to be bold to act in times of disruption in order to support their young people and challenge the systems that impact them.

  5. Strengths as the Foundation for Intervention with Black Youth

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    Lambert, Michael Canute; Rowan, George T.; Longhurst, Jim; Kim, Soyoun

    2006-01-01

    The inherent strengths of Black youth are sometimes overlooked by assessment and intervention following perspectives of the dominant culture. This article describes the unique ways in which strengths and difficulties are defined in Black culture. This research is informing more appropriate strategies for building on the strengths of this…

  6. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Catherine; Antin, Tamar; Annechino, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25) to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity...... plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking...... cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due...

  7. Branded for Life: The Case of Detained Black Youth.

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    Swan, L. Alex

    The concept represented by the term juvenile delinquency covers a wide range of activities and a complex set of juvenile offenses. Moreover, the concept is vague and its definition is often left to the discretion of law enforcement agencies and the courts. A problem for black youth is that their acts are assessed by outsiders who have the power to…

  8. The level of youth activism

    OpenAIRE

    Borojević, Tatjana; Vuk, Drago; Petrović, Nataša; Slović, Dragoslav

    2017-01-01

    During the period from 2007 to 2014, and in addition to huge institutional changes, large steps were taken in the field of youth policy in the Republic of Serbia in order to create national resources which would have influence on the improvement of the youth status and life. On the other hand, the practice shows that the existence of the national framework for youth support, as a local service network intended for youths, is not a crucial prerequisite to change the current situation when it c...

  9. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Hess

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25 to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due in part perhaps to the fact that use of these devices would signal alignment with a middle class, hipster identity. This analysis is discussed within a highly charged political and public health debate about the benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use.

  10. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

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    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  11. Are Non-intellectually Disabled Black Youth with ASD Less Impaired on Parent Report than Their White Peers?

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    Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social–emotional functioning. White and Black youth (n = 64; ages 6–17) with ASD without ID were compared on each of these domains. Black youth had significantly lower levels of impairment on all three domains. Findings may reflect better daily functioning among Black youth with ASD and/or cultural differences in parent response to questionnaires. Regardless, these findings raise concern about the sensitivity of commonly used measures for Black children with ASD and the impact of culture on daily functioning and symptom manifestation. PMID:26439481

  12. The use of slang by black youth in Gauteng | Bembe | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth generally use slang to identify themselves with particular groups in terms of age, gender, region, race, etc. The focus of this paper is to discuss the use of slang, particularly in. English, by black youth in Gauteng and their social motivations for using this variety of English. Thepaper will demonstrate, through examples ...

  13. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

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    Levin, Janna

    2009-12-01

    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  14. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Janna

    2009-01-01

    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  15. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-15

    Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES) on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A). Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio) were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily) discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low) perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth depends on the

  16. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life—Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A. Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth

  17. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

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    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  18. Do African Lives Matter to Black Lives Matter? Youth Uprisings and the Borders of Solidarity

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    Strong, Krystal

    2018-01-01

    Despite experiencing a proliferation of youth-led mobilizations in recent years, Africa remains peripheral to the analysis of the U.S.-centered Movement for Black Lives (M4BL). This article explores points of convergence and tension between African uprisings and the M4BL, with a focus on two movements at the intersection of education and activism:…

  19. After-School Programs: A Resource for Young Black Males and Other Urban Youth

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    Woodland, Malcolm H.

    2016-01-01

    While after-school programs are plentiful, they are often developed arbitrarily with little attention given to theoretical underpinnings that may inform program interventions. In this article, after-school programs are situated in resilience theory as protective factors, which encourage resilience among young Black males and other urban youth. The…

  20. Critical Multicultural Citizenship Education among Black Immigrant Youth: Factors and Challenges

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    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Smith, Patriann

    2016-01-01

    This study uses qualitative interviews with 18 participants across five states to examine the factors that promote enhancement of critical multicultural education for Black immigrant youth. Findings suggest that class discussion, influence of social media and technology, non-educational practices, and cultural and language differences are the…

  1. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

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    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Measurement Noninvariance of Safer Sex Self-Efficacy Between Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Black Youth.

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    Gerke, Donald; Budd, Elizabeth L; Plax, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth. The study uses cross-sectional data collected through baseline surveys with 226 Black youth (15 to 24 years) enrolled in community-based HIV-prevention programs. Participants use a 4-point Likert-type scale to report their confidence in performing 6 healthy sexual behaviors. CFAs are conducted on 2 factor structures of the scale. Using the best-fitting model, the scale is tested for measurement invariance between the 2 groups. A single-factor model with correlated errors of condom-specific items fits the sample well and, when tested with the heterosexual group, the model demonstrates good fit. However, when tested with the LGBQ group, the same model yields poor fit, indicating factorial noninvariance between the groups. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale does not perform equally well among Black heterosexual and LGBQ youth. Study findings suggest additional research is needed to inform development of measures for safer sex self-efficacy among Black LGBQ youth to ensure validity of conceptual understanding and to accurately assess effectiveness of HIV/STD prevention interventions among this population.

  3. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth.

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    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-09-01

    Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Weaponization and Prisonization of Toronto’s Black Male Youth

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    Wesley Crichlow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Informed by Galtung (1969, Anderson (2012 and Wacquant (2001, this paper argues that a lifetime of spiralling and everyday state structural violence and overtly racist criminal profiling principally targeted at young Black men living in the Toronto Community Housing Corporation prepares them for prison. Moreover, it contends that interpersonal violence, transmitted from generation to generation and producing a vicious cycle, is a manifestation of institutionalized and systemic inequity. In the context of a hypermasculine culture, young Black men are both victims and participants in a dialectic of interpersonal-structural violence. Routinely precipitated by powerful state actors and agencies of criminal justice, public policy and assorted ‘moral entrepreneurs’, young Black men have their masculinity weaponized and prisonized by the state’s low-intensity declaration of war against them, and, among others, the poor, LGBTQ, immigrants, and First Nations and other people of colour.

  5. Dynamics of the youth travel market on a global level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea DEMETER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The segment of young tourists has been considered a niche market and was treated as a branch of the tourism industry. In the past 10 years, however, its market value has began to increase significantly bringing real benefits to the companies adapting to this segment by developing appropriate strategies and policies. Therefore, the aim of this project is to analyse the dynamics of the youth travel market, on a global level, taking into consideration the international youth arrivals, youth accommodation units and the behavioural habits of young tourists, serving as a starting point in the strategy development process.

  6. "In my house": laying the foundation for youth HIV prevention in the Black church.

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    Lightfoot, Alexandra F; Woods, Briana A; Jackson, Melvin; Riggins, Linda; Krieger, Kathleen; Brodie, Kimberly; Gray, Phyllis; Howard, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process our community-academic partnership used to lay the groundwork for successful implementation of an adolescent-focused, evidence-based HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum in two Black churches. We highlight the challenges encountered and lessons learned in building a relationship with two churches, garnering the pastor's support, and implementing the curriculum within church youth groups. We engaged a Community Advisory Board (CAB) made up of youth, parents, and diverse faith leaders to ensure community relevance and guide project development, implementation, and evaluation. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach helped us to (1) engage diverse, intergenerational community members, (2) initiate a "culturally humble" process to build relationships with faith leaders, (3) remain responsive to stakeholder concerns, and (4) open the door to HIV prevention in the Black church. Finding effective and responsive ways to implement HIV/AIDS prevention in faith settings is facilitated by engaging diverse partners throughout the research process.

  7. Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

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    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13-17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96-1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01-54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42-1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.

  8. A Ratchet Lens: Black Queer Youth, Agency, Hip Hop, and the Black Ratchet Imagination

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    Love, Bettina L.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the utilization of the theory of a Black ratchet imagination as a methodological perspective to examine the multiple intersections of Black and queer identity constructions within the space of hip hop. In particular, I argue for the need of a methodological lens that recognizes, appreciates, and struggles with the fluidity,…

  9. Enhancing condom use among Black male youths: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Crosby, Richard A; Charnigo, Richard J; Salazar, Laura F; Pasternak, Ryan; Terrell, Ivy W; Ricks, JaNelle; Smith, Rachel V; Taylor, Stephanie N

    2014-11-01

    We tested the efficacy of a brief intervention to promote correct and consistent use of condoms among Black male youths attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 3 southern US cities. In 2010 to 2012, we screened (n = 1102) and enrolled (n = 702) youths aged 15 to 23 years who identified as Black and reported recent (past 2 months) sexual activity and randomized them to a private, brief, interactive intervention (n = 349) or an attention-equivalent control condition (n = 353). Assessments occurred at baseline and 2 and 6 months after the intervention. At 6 months, with adjustment for age and pretest nonequivalence of the outcome variable, an estimated odds ratio (EOR) of 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 2.49; P = .02) indicated efficacy for correct condom use. An adjusted generalized estimating equations model with both 2- and 6-month condom use variables produced an EOR of 1.49 (95% CI = 1.06, 2.08; P = .02). We did not observe significant effects on chlamydia and gonorrhea incidence. This brief intervention, delivered as part of STI clinical care, could help alleviate the disproportionate STI-HIV burden among young Black men.

  10. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

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    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. PMID:28241490

  11. The Enduring Significance of Racism: Discrimination and Delinquency Among Black American Youth

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    Martin, Monica J.; McCarthy, Bill; Conger, Rand D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent explanations of the overrepresentation of Black Americans in criminal justice statistics focus on the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, racial isolation, and social disorganization. We suggest that perceived personal discrimination is an important but frequently neglected complement to these factors. We test this hypothesis with longitudinal data on involvement in general and violent juvenile delinquency in a sample of Black youth from a variety of communities in 2 states. We examine the direct effects of concentrated disadvantage and racial isolation and the direct and mediating effects of social organization, support for violence, and personal discrimination. Consistent with our hypothesis, perceived personal discrimination has notable direct effects on both general and violent delinquency and is an important mediator between neighborhood structural conditions and offending; moreover, its effects exceed those associated with neighborhood conditions. PMID:21941426

  12. Popular Visual Images and the (Mis)Reading of Black Male Youth: A Case for Racial Literacy in Urban Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda; Greene, Perry

    2015-01-01

    In the majority of public schools across the nation, Black male youth are undergoing what can be deemed as "educational genocide"--the killing off of any chances for an equitable education. This dramatically decreases opportunities for Black male youth to develop into fully participating citizens in a democratic society. In many ways,…

  13. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-10-29

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers' responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure-a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer's perspective ("it's about demand"; "consumers choose"), respect for community ("marketers are setting us up for failure"; "making wrong assumptions"), and food environments as a social justice issue ("no one is watching the door"; "I didn't realize"). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants' stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  14. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Isselmann DiSantis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30 and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35 from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”, respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”, and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”. Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  15. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A.; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-01-01

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”), respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”), and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization. PMID:29109377

  16. Manga comic influences snack selection in Black and Hispanic New York City youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Agaronov, Alen; Hou, Ningqi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a single exposure to a Manga comic (Japanese comic art) with multiple messages promoting fruit intake influenced snack selection in minority urban youth. Fifty-seven youth (mean age 10.8 y; 54% female; 74% black/African American) attending after-school programs in Brooklyn, NY participated in a pilot study in which they were randomly assigned to receive the comic or a non-health-related newsletter. After reading their media, participants were offered a snack and could choose from among healthy/unhealthy options. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations related to fruit intake and media transportation. Data were analyzed using regression and paired t test. Comic group participants were significantly more likely to choose a healthy snack, compared to the Attention-control group (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-12.1, P = .04). The Comic group reported increases in self-efficacy (P = .04) and greater transportation (immersion into media) (P = .006). Results suggest Manga comics may be a useful format to promote healthy snack selection in urban minority youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...

  18. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  19. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and HIV-related Stigma among African Diasporic Youth; Results from the African, Caribbean, and Black Youth (ACBY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Northington, Toya; Sockdjou, Tamara; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2018-01-01

    Socio-environmental factors such as neighborhood quality are increasingly recognized drivers of HIV disparities. Additionally, HIV- related stigma heightens HIV vulnerability among youth in the African Diaspora. However, little research examines the intersection of neighborhood quality and HIV- related stigma. This study uses survey data (N=495) from African, Caribbean, and Black youth in a midsized city in Ontario, Canada to address this research deficit. Analysis of variance and multivariate ordinary least squares regressions were conducted to determine differences in HIV- related stigma by neighborhood quality, experiences of discrimination, HIV- knowledge, and demographic factors. Residents in more socially disordered neighborhoods (p<.05), males (p<.0001), African- Muslim youth (p<.01), and individuals with lower HIV- knowledge (p<.0001) endorsed stigmatizing beliefs more often. Addressing neighborhood disadvantage may have implications for HIV- related stigma. More research should be conducted to understand the impact of socio- environmental disadvantage and HIV- related stigma.

  20. Classroom and School Predictors of Civic Engagement Among Black and Latino Middle School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagers, Robert J; Lozada, Fantasy T; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Guillaume, Casta

    2017-07-01

    This study used short-term longitudinal data to examine the contributions of democratic teaching practices (e.g., the Developmental Designs approach) and equitable school climate to civic engagement attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among 515 Black and Latino middle school students (47.9% male). Concurrent experiences of democratic homeroom and classroom practices, and equitable school climate were associated with higher scores on each civic engagement component. The relation between classroom practices and civic attitudes was more robust when school climate was seen as more equitable. Longitudinally, homeroom practices and equitable school climate predicted higher civic attitudes 1 year later. Discussion focuses on civic attitudes and future research on school experiences that support civic engagement among youth of color. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Delinquency Level Classification Via the HEW Community Program Youth Impact Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The former HEW National Strategy for Youth Development (NSYD) model was created as a community-based planning and procedural tool to promote youth development and prevent delinquency. To assess the predictive power of NSYD Impact Scales in classifying youths into low, medium, and high delinquency levels, male and female students aged 10-19 years…

  2. Contesting History and Pursuing "Other" Knowledge: A Study of Hip-Hop and Non-Formal Education among Native American Youth in San Francisco and Black Portuguese Youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…

  3. Emerging Critical Meta-Awareness among Black and Latina/o Youth during Corrective Feedback Practices in Urban English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses teachers' uptake of Black and Latina/o youth linguistic repertoires within the official space of an English Language Arts (ELA) classroom and how youth respond to corrective feedback that is focused on the form of their messages, rather than their function. Corrective feedback offered by one Latina teacher indexed larger…

  4. Distinguishing the City, Neighbourhood and Individual Level in the Explanation of Youth Delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijters, Gijs; Scheepers, Peer; Gerris, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on intercity differences in crime rates neglects individual determinants of youth delinquency, whereas studies focusing on neighbourhoodand individual-level explanations of youth delinquency neglect higher-level, city characteristics. This raises the question of the extent to which

  5. Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status at Birth among Black than White Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the effects of family SES (i.e., family structure, maternal education, and income at birth on subsequent household income at age 15. Methods: This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, which followed 1471 non-Hispanic Black or White families from the time of birth of their child for 15 years. Two family SES indicators (maternal education and income at birth were the independent variables. Family income 15 years later was the outcome. Maternal age, child gender, and family structure at baseline were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, maternal education (b = 11.62, p < 0.001 and household income (b = 0.73, p < 0.001 at baseline were predictive of family income 15 years later. Race, however, interacted with maternal education (b = −12,073.89, p < 0.001 and household income (b = −312.47, p < 0.001 at birth on household income 15 years later, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. These differential gains were independent of family structure, mother age, and child gender. Conclusions: The economic return of family SES is smaller for Black compared to White families, regardless of the SES indicator. Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to minimize the diminished return of SES resources across racial minority groups. Policies should also reduce extra cost of upward social mobility for racial minorities. As the likely causes are multi-level, solutions should

  6. Are Delinquents Different? Predictive Patterns for Low, Mid and High Delinquency Levels in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Impact Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Office of Youth Development's National Strategy for Youth Development model was promoted as a community-based planning and procedural tool for enhancing positive youth development and reducing delinquency. To test the applicability of the model as a function of delinquency level, the program's Impact Scales…

  7. Cumulative incidence of youth obesity is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and with maternal overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reis Gaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This longitudinal study evaluated the association between the incidence of youth overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF over 4 years and youths' and their parents' demographic and nutritional characteristics. The randomized sample comprised 398 youth, aged 7-17 years at baseline, from a city in southern Brazil. Subjects were classified as being Ow/Ob according to international body mass index (BMI parameters. Parental weight and height were determined by direct questioning. Youth CRF was measured by a 9-minute walk-and-run test. The cumulative incidences of Ow/Ob and of low CRF levels were 25.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Relative to other youth, youth who were classified as "unhealthy" at baseline (with respect to CRF and by the fourth year were more likely to be classified as Ow/Ob (relative risks: 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Youth whose mothers were categorized as Ow/Ob were at higher risk of being classified as Ow/Ob than youth whose mothers had normal BMIs (relative risks: 1.19 at baseline and 1.20 in the fourth year. The incidence of Ow/Ob among the former youth was associated with low CRF levels and with maternal Ob.

  8. Youth Center Members and According to Some Variables Levels of Leisure Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur SÖNMEZOĞLU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leisure satisfaction levels of youth center members in Ankara, Bolu and Duzce, as well as the relationship between leisure satisfaction levels and some demographic features of the youth center members (i.e., gender, membership duration and usage frequency. The sample consisted of 371 youth center members (216 males, 155 females from 3 different youth centers. The data were obtained by the “ Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS . The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences between male and female groups in leisure satisfaction lev els (p<.01. Also, there were significantly positive relationships between the membership duration, usage frequency and leisure satisfaction levels of youth center members.

  9. Contesting history and pursuing "other" knowledge: A study of hip-hop and non-formal education among Native American youth in San Francisco and black Portuguese youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop - a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music - to examine how youth from specific communities access knowledge which is denied to them in schools, give revolutionary voice to their realities, and broadcast perspectives on race, place and belonging. When knowledge is negated in learning institutions, non-formal education created by youth is a powerful force in re-affirming tradition and transformation. Hip-hop becomes a medium to create alternative educational projects addressing the needs of youth in San Francisco, USA, and Lisbon, Portugal, where this research was conducted.

  10. Present level of contaminants in the Romanian Black Sea sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.; Apas, M.; Cociasu, A.; Cuingioglu, E.; Patrascu, V.; Pecheanu, I.; Piescu, V.; Popa, L.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of environmental quality in the Romanian Black Sea sector is being constantly made by the Romanian Marine Research Institute (RMRI) within the National Integrated Monitoring System. The contamination of the marine environment is expressed by considering four chemical and a biological parameter: nutrients (N-NO 2 , N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 , P-PO 4 , organic P, Si-SiO 4 ), heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb), artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs), total hydrocarbons, parasite and saprophyte fungi in sediments, sea water and/or biota. Present levels of contaminants are discussed as to their historical evolution during the last few years or decades. Inorganic N and P concentrations still exceed three to five times those before eutrophication started to intensify in the early '70s. Practical uses of results by national and regional authorities are discussed. (author)

  11. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  12. The Self-Concept Level of Black Adolescents with and without African Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Francis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…

  13. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  15. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  16. 'Ballroom itself can either make you or break you' - Black GBT Youths' psychosocial development in the House Ball Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telander, Kyle; Hosek, Sybil G; Lemos, Diana; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2017-11-01

    Social context plays a significant role in adolescent identity development, particularly for youth lacking traditional systems of support. Using ecological and symbolic interactionism perspectives, this study qualitatively explored the psychosocial identity development of Black gay, bisexual, or transgendered youth participating in the House Ball Community (HBC). The HBC is a diverse network of family-like structures called 'houses', as well as a glamorous social outlet via pageant-like 'balls' in which participants compete. A series of focus groups were conducted with youth and leaders from the HBC (n = 37; age range = 17-24). Via cross-case and comparative analyses, specific motivating factors related to entry into and continued involvement in the community were identified. Factors related to entry into the community included lack of safe spaces, opportunities for acceptance, means of subsistence, and allure of the scene. Factors related to continued involvement included resilience and coping skills development, sexual identity acceptance and pride, prevalence of risky behaviour, and risk of exploitation. Discussion of these factors provides insight on how self-constructed, supplementary social contexts may provide both unique supports and risks to members, allowing for more focused and well-informed interventions and policies to enhance healthy development in such communities while mitigating risk.

  17. New Possibilities: (Re)Engaging Black Male Youth within Community-Based Educational Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Bianca J.; Hill, Marc Lamont; Davis, James Earl

    2011-01-01

    Despite the assertion that due to an Obama presidency America has become a post-racial society, Black males still face a unique social crisis. In this article, we hold that both race and gender continue to work in tandem to produce a certain set of social outcomes for young Black men in America despite this assertion. The educational, economic,…

  18. Inclusion and exclusion factors in adult education of youth with a low educational level in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salva-Mut Salva-Mut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse, from a biographical perspective, youth participation in education and training, aged between 26 and 28 years, who have no qualifications or at most have a qualification corresponding to the Lower Secondary Education Certificate (LSEC (ISCED 0-2, during the 10 years elapsed between the end of compulsory education (2000 and the time of the interview (2010. As regards their personal life stories, we cover a broad period which includes different stages in the transition into adulthood, stages which take place in a historical context in which we have moved from a time characterised by ease of access to employment among youth with a low educational level to another time in which youth unemployment levels affects over half of the workforce aged 16 to 24 and in which public policies supporting training and social and professional insertion of young people with a low educational level have been reduced.

  19. Self-regulation of learning and performance level of elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Jordet, Geir; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-regulated learning and performance level of 256 elite youth soccer players aged 12 to 17 years (M-age = 14.2; SD = 1.2). As relative age may affect this relationship through its association with maturation, experience, and performance level, we

  20. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Black American Youth and Families: A Case Study from the EMBRace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana E. Anderson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Black American youth are vulnerable to the consequences of repeated exposure to racial discrimination, particularly through hampered coping abilities and greater internalizing and externalizing problems. One way in which Black American parents have protected their children from these deleterious consequences is through racial socialization, or communication regarding aspects of racialized experiences and contexts. Less is known, however, about the potential therapeutic benefits of racial socialization via clinical intervention. The five-week Engaging, Managing, and Bonding through Race (EMBRace racial socialization intervention was developed to enhance coping strategies for parents and adolescents and reduce adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. The purpose of this study is to describe a case study of one family through a mixed methods approach. Variables of interest included racial discrimination, racial socialization, coping, and psychological well-being. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed two weeks prior to and one week after the implementation of EMBRace, with qualitative data collected throughout the intervention. Results indicate a developing sense of coping for the adolescent and parent and reduced adolescent psychosocial problems despite increased racialized stress. Results will be used to further investigate the hypotheses proposed in the pilot with a powered sample, and future studies will explore how sociodemographic and biopsychosocial variables relate to policy recommendations, program implementation, and psychosocial outcomes.

  1. Black youth's personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue: does the public service announcement still work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.

  2. Community-Level Inequalities in Concussion Education of Youth Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Kerr, Zachary Y; Lee, Joseph G L

    2017-04-01

    USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football. This study tested the hypothesis that there will be lower adoption of HUF among coaches of youth football players in lower-SES communities. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between community-level characteristics and number of USA Football youth league coaches who have completed HUF. Data were collected in 2014 and analyzed in 2015-2016. Implementation of the HUF program was patterned by community-level socioeconomic characteristics. Leagues located in communities with a higher percentage of families with children aged football, it is important to consider not just the effectiveness of these interventions, but also whether they reduce or exacerbate health inequities. These results suggest that relying on voluntary adoption of coach education may result in inequitable implementation. Further study is required to identify and remedy organizational and contextual barriers to implementation of coach education in youth sport. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatal youth of the Universe: black hole threat for the electroweak vacuum during preheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry; Levkov, Dmitry; Panin, Alexander, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: levkov@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: panin@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    Small evaporating black holes were proposed to be dangerous inducing fast decay of the electroweak false vacuum. We observe that the flat-spectrum matter perturbations growing at the post-inflationary matter dominated stage can produce such black holes in a tiny amount which may nevertheless be sufficient to destroy the vacuum in the visible part of the Universe via the induced process. If the decay probability in the vicinity of Planck-mass black holes was of order one as suggested in literature, the absence of such objects in the early Universe would put severe constraints on inflation and subsequent stages thus excluding many well-motivated models (e.g. the R {sup 2}-inflation) and supporting the need of new physics in the Higgs sector. We give a qualitative argument, however, that exponential suppression of the probability should persist in the limit of small black hole masses. This suppression relaxes our cosmological constraints, and, if sufficiently strong, may cancel them.

  4. Unitas: Evaluating a Preventative Program for Hispanic and Black Youth. Monograph No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procidano, Mary E.; Glenwick, David S.

    This monograph is the third of a trilogy of studies on the Unitas Therapeutic Community, a program that attempts to strengthen the competencies of the Hispanic and Black youngsters living in the Longwood/Hunts Point section of the South Bronx, New York City. The program uses indigenous nonprofessionals as surrogate parents, uncles, and aunts for…

  5. The Enduring Significance of Racism: Discrimination and Delinquency among Black American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J.; McCarthy, Bill; Conger, Rand D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent explanations of the overrepresentation of Black Americans in criminal justice statistics focus on the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, racial isolation, and social disorganization. We suggest that perceived personal discrimination is an important but frequently neglected complement to these factors. We test this…

  6. Suicide prevention as a community development process: understanding circumpolar youth suicide prevention through community level outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David

    2009-06-01

    Community-based models have become increasingly prominent in prevention, and have special relevance for suicide prevention in circumpolar Indigenous communities. It follows that outcomes from circumpolar suicide prevention programs might be more completely understood at the community level. We present here a methodology for analysis at this level. This paper seeks to understand a cultural prevention program for rural Yup'ik youth in Alaska targeting suicide and co-occurring alcohol abuse as a community development process through changes at the community level. Quasi-experimental design with assessment at pre- and post-intervention or at 4 time points. The community development process for this project began in October 2004. The first program baseline assessment began in November 2006, prior to prevention activities with youth and parents, and the post-intervention assessment concluded in March 2008. Five key informants pre- and post-intervention completed a community readiness assessment, which is a structured procedure assessing a community's awareness of suicide as an issue and its, organizational readiness for prevention programming. Forty-three adult caregivers or sponsors of youth in the prevention program completed an assessment of behaviours that contributed to community protective factors from youth suicide and alcohol abuse at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The 54 youth who participated in the prevention program completed an assessment of community protective factors, also at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The community protective factors from suicide that were assessed included safety, enforcement of alcohol prohibitions, role models, support and opportunities for youth. Community readiness for the prevention efforts increased to new developmental stages of readiness post-intervention, and a trend in the data suggested community protective factors increased in the amount of protective behaviours

  7. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  8. Mental Health and Educational Experiences Among Black Youth: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Theda; Lindsey, Michael A; Xiao, Yunyu; Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Joe, Sean

    2017-11-01

    Disproportionately lower educational achievement, coupled with higher grade retention, suspensions, expulsions, and lower school bonding make educational success among Black adolescents a major public health concern. Mental health is a key developmental factor related to educational outcomes among adolescents; however, traditional models of mental health focus on absence of dysfunction as a way to conceptualize mental health. The dual-factor model of mental health incorporates indicators of both subjective wellbeing and psychopathology, supporting more recent research that both are needed to comprehensively assess mental health. This study applied the dual-factor model to measure mental health using the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a representative cross-sectional survey. The sample included 1170 Black adolescents (52% female; mean age 15). Latent class analysis was conducted with positive indicators of subjective wellbeing (emotional, psychological, and social) as well as measures of psychopathology. Four mental health groups were identified, based on having high or low subjective wellbeing and high or low psychopathology. Accordingly, associations between mental health groups and educational outcomes were investigated. Significant associations were observed in school bonding, suspensions, and grade retention, with the positive mental health group (high subjective wellbeing, low psychopathology) experiencing more beneficial outcomes. The results support a strong association between school bonding and better mental health and have implications for a more comprehensive view of mental health in interventions targeting improved educational experiences and mental health among Black adolescents.

  9. "Hold up..do pigs eat bacon?!" An investigation of science instruction for urban Black youth and the need for a culturally considerate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Monica Lynn

    As a critical race ethnography, this dissertation attempts to foreground the richness of Black urban youth culture during and around science classroom instruction. Ironically, during an era of much diversity rhetoric in the United States, the culture of urban Black youth is rarely reflected in mainstream public school culture. I attempt to explicate such a worldview compassionately and authentically for both insiders and outsiders of the lived experiences of Black America. Education in the United States can be damning for Black youth who do not fit the mainstream mold, and several authors have provided detailed critique of mechanisms that shape, direct, and marginalize outliers to the successful academic cultural model. The U.S. through this lens is experiencing an opportunity gap, not an achievement gap--one which equitable educational experience can best be viewed through the richness of critical ethnographic methods. This methodical approach allowed me as a researcher to listen to marginalized voices and to incorporate lived interactions with youth, their parents, and community stakeholders all committed to provide support for the today's youth. As a Black female science educator, I explore the evidence for reform impact as I examine in school experiences and science teaching of culturally relevant pedagogies for urban, working-class and poor families of color in grades six-eight who participated in a Western New York academic enrichment program. Findings suggest that skepticism of reform efforts and new pedagogical approaches existed for all stakeholders aforementioned, but that students were the most amenable and responsive to alternative educational approaches. Specific recommendations for engaging students in inquiry processes are given for teachers, institutions, parents and students on the basis of videotaped lessons, interviews, and instructional artifacts. Implications include the recommendations that educators working with youth of color need to be

  10. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  11. Individual- and community-level determinants of Inuit youth mental wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew Paul; Richer, Faisca; Harper, Sam

    2016-10-20

    Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics. Mental wellness was measured in the form of two primary outcomes: self-esteem and suicidal ideation. Using cross-sectional data from the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey and multilevel regression modelling, we estimated associations between these two outcomes and various independent individual- and community-level explanatory factors among Inuit youth. All variables were selected to reflect Inuit perspectives on determinants of mental wellness. The study design and interpretation of results were validated with Inuit community representatives. Pride in Inuit identity, traditional activities, community-level social support and community-level socio-economic status were found to be protective. Barriers to participating in traditional activities, household crowding and high community rates of violence were risk factors. These findings support Inuit perspectives, expand the scope of epidemiological analysis of Inuit mental wellness and reinforce the need for locally informed, community-wide approaches to mental wellness promotion for Inuit youth.

  12. Parental acculturation level moderates outcome in peer-involved and parent-involved CBT for anxiety disorders in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Daniella; Buitron, Victor; Rey, Yasmin; Marin, Carla E; Silverman, Wendy K; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) are efficacious treatments for anxiety disorders in Latino youth. However, there is a gap in knowledge about moderators of CBT outcomes in Latino youth. This study addresses this gap by examining parental acculturation as a moderator of youth anxiety outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of parent-involved CBT (CBT/P) and peer-involved group CBT (GCBT) in 139 Latino youth (ages 6 to 16 years; mean age = 9.68 years). Comparable youth anxiety reduction effects were found for CBT/P and GCBT. Parental acculturation to majority US culture, but not identification with country of origin, significantly moderated youth anxiety outcomes: at low levels of parental acculturation to majority US culture, youth posttreatment anxiety scores were lower in GCBT than CBT/P; at high levels of parental acculturation to majority US culture, youth posttreatment anxiety scores were lower in CBT/P than GCBT. These findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of CBTs for anxiety disorders in Latino youth and also provide guidance for moving toward personalization of CBTs' selection depending on parental acculturation levels.

  13. Impact of parent-child communication interventions on sex behaviors and cognitive outcomes for black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth: a systematic review, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Egorov, V.N.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m −3 , respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq 137 Cs and 22 Bq 90 Sr per m 3 as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly 90 Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995–1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. -- Highlights: • Concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Black Sea water is still relatively high. • The Black Sea continues to receive considerable radionuclide amount from the rivers. • The North-Crimean Canal is significant source of the Black Sea radioactivity. • Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea increased in the late 1990's. • Radionuclide remobilization from sediments leads to a further Black Sea pollution

  15. Individual-level factors associated with mental health in Rwandan youth affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Pamela; Duarte, Cristiane S; Stevenson, Anne; Mushashi, Christine; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Munyana, Morris; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-07-01

    Prevention of mental disorders worldwide requires a greater understanding of protective processes associated with lower levels of mental health problems in children who face pervasive life stressors. This study aimed to identify culturally appropriate indicators of individual-level protective factors in Rwandan adolescents where risk factors, namely poverty and a history of trauma, have dramatically shaped youth mental health. The sample included 367 youth aged 10-17 in rural Rwanda. An earlier qualitative study of the same population identified the constructs "kwihangana" (patience/perseverance) and "kwigirira ikizere" (self-esteem) as capturing local perceptions of individual-level characteristics that helped reduce risks of mental health problems in youth. Nine items from the locally derived constructs were combined with 25 items from an existing scale that aligned well with local constructs-the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). We assessed the factor structure of the CD-RISC expanded scale using exploratory factor analysis and determined the correlation of the expanded CD-RISC with depression and functional impairment. The CD-RISC expanded scale displayed high internal consistency (α = 0.93). Six factors emerged, which we labeled: perseverance, adaptability, strength/sociability, active engagement, self-assuredness, and sense of self-worth. Protective factor scale scores were significantly and inversely correlated with depression and functional impairment (r = -0.49 and r = - 0.38, respectively). An adapted scale displayed solid psychometric properties for measuring protective factors in Rwandan youth. Identifying culturally appropriate protective factors is a key component of research associated with the prevention of mental health problems and critical to the development of cross-cultural strength-based interventions for children and families.

  16. Incarceration and Black-White inequality in Homeownership: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do men need empowering too? A systematic review of entrepreneurial education and microenterprise development on health disparities among inner-city black male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Economic strengthening through entrepreneurial and microenterprise development has been shown to mitigate poverty-based health disparities in developing countries. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of similar approaches on disadvantaged U.S. populations, particularly inner-city African-American male youth disproportionately affected by poverty, unemployment, and adverse health outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted to guide programming and research in this area. Eligible studies were those published in English from 2003 to 2014 which evaluated an entrepreneurial and microenterprise initiative targeting inner-city youth, aged 15 to 24, and which did not exclude male participants. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from two electronic bibliographic databases. A manual search was conducted among web-based gray literature and registered trials not yet published. Among the 26 papers retrieved for review, six met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. None of the 16 registered microenterprise trials were being conducted among disadvantaged populations in the U.S. The available literature suggests that entrepreneurial and microenterprise programs can positively impact youth's economic and psychosocial functioning and result in healthier decision-making. Young black men specifically benefited from increased autonomy, engagement, and risk avoidance. However, such programs are vastly underutilized among U.S. minority youth, and the current evidence is insufficiently descriptive or rigorous to draw definitive conclusions. Many programs described challenges in securing adequate resources, recruiting minority male youth, and sustaining community buy-in. There is an urgent need to increase implementation and evaluation efforts, using innovative and rigorous designs, to improve the low status of greater numbers of African-American male youth.

  18. Population-level resource selection by sympatric brown and American black bears in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belant, Jerrold L.; Griffith, Brad; Zhang, Yingte; Follmann, Erich H.; Adams, Layne G.

    2010-01-01

    Distribution theory predicts that for two species living in sympatry, the subordinate species would be constrained from using the most suitable resources (e.g., habitat), resulting in its use of less suitable habitat and spatial segregation between species. We used negative binomial generalized linear mixed models with fixed effects to estimate seasonal population-level resource selection at two spatial resolutions for female brown bears (Ursus arctos) and female American black bears (U. americanus) in southcentral Alaska during May–September 2000. Black bears selected areas occupied by brown bears during spring which may be related to spatially restricted (i.e., restricted to low elevations) but dispersed or patchy availability of food. In contrast, black bears avoided areas occupied by brown bears during summer. Brown bears selected areas near salmon streams during summer, presumably to access spawning salmon. Use of areas with high berry production by black bears during summer appeared in response to avoidance of areas containing brown bears. Berries likely provided black bears a less nutritious, but adequate food source. We suggest that during summer, black bears were displaced by brown bears, which supports distribution theory in that black bears appeared to be partially constrained from areas containing salmon, resulting in their use of areas containing less nutritious forage. Spatial segregation of brown and American black bears apparently occurs when high-quality resources are spatially restricted and alternate resources are available to the subordinate species. This and previous work suggest that individual interactions between species can result in seasonal population-level responses.

  19. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Es...

  20. The Impact of News Use and Social Capital on Youth Wellbeing: An Aggregate-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the socioenvironmental determinants of youth development, with a focus on the mass media and social capital; it tests a model in which news use and social capital influence youth wellbeing. Social capital is operationally defined in terms of youth involvement and perceptions of place, and youth wellbeing is measured with…

  1. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  2. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, Andrew R; Meyer, Vanessa J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P; Esteves, Kyle C; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-05-01

    The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and telomere length (TL) in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C). TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05), while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging. © 2016 The authors.

  3. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dismukes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and telomere length (TL in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C. TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05, while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF SELF-EFFICACY, PERFORMANCE INDICATORS, AND PARTICIPATION IN YOUTH BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the relationship between the level of self-efficacy of the player with the ball in basketball, various performance indicators, and individual participation of the youth player in competition, with the goal of being able to establish initial values that help to define game styles and systems that are adapted to the characteristics of the youth player. In order to evaluate the levels of self-efficacy, a questionnaire was administered to 187 players from the under-16 age category. From a total of 22 games, the following variables related to the individual performance of the player were analyzed: a points scored; b shot attempts and shots made of 1, 2, and 3 points; c efficacy percentage of 1, 2, and 3-point shots; d rebounds made; and e personal fouls received. With regard to participation, the following variables were analyzed: f minutes played; g total time of ball possession; h number of ball possessions; i number of passes received; and j number of offensive phases in which the player participates. The results indicate that the performance and participation variables correctly classify 74.2% when differentiating between players with high and low levels of selfefficacy. The players with high levels of self-efficacy presented higher values in the different performance and participation variables than the players with low levels of self-efficacy.

  5. Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

  6. Study of black carbon levels in city centers and industrial centers in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasha, K.M.; Almomani, M.S.; Abu-Allaban, M.; Arnott, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption coefficients of black carbon (B abc ) were measured at serveral urban and industrial locations in Jordan during summer of 2007 and winter of 2008 using the photoacoustic instrument at a wavelength of 870 nm. Black carbon mass concentration (BC) was calculated using B abc .Black carbon levels at urban locations in the summer of 2007 were higher than those obtained at industrial centers.Zarqa had the highest value of BC in summer (29.24μg/m 3 ) and in winter (13.27μg/m 3 ). Ibbeen and Irbid city center had relatively high values of BC in winter: 11.75μg/m 3 and 12.48μg/m 3 , respectively. (authors).

  7. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  8. Idle behaviors of the hippocampus reflect endogenous cortisol levels in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Tocco, Maria A; Quednau, Kelly A; Bedway, Andrea R; Carré, Justin M

    2013-06-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that disruption in functional connectivity (FC) in brain networks underlies many psychiatric and developmental disorders. Current theory posits that biological (i.e., cortisol) and environmental (i.e., stress) experiences in early life are strong determinants in the development of functional brain systems and formative in the genesis of such disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which individual differences in cortisol concentrations during FC magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would map onto variability in hippocampal to default mode network (DMN) connectivity in typically developing youth. Salivary cortisol and FC MRI data were collected concurrently in 33 scan-naive 7- to 15-year-old participants. Twenty-nine of these participants previously completed the Trier Social Stress Test. Hippocampal to DMN FC and endogenous cortisol variability during MRI were examined. A possible association between MRI cortisol and cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test during the preceding visit or a participant's ratings of anxiety during MRI was tested. There were significant positive relations between MRI cortisol levels and measurements in the following 3 areas: hippocampal to DMN FC during the resting state, cortisol levels during the Trier Social Stress Test, and fear/anxiety ratings during MRI. Fear/anxiety ratings during MRI also related to self-reported anxiety on standardized measurements. This study shows for the first time that FC of the hippocampus is altered with changing cortisol responsivity in youth. Altered FC during the resting state may represent altered alertness or monitoring resulting from variation in glucocorticoid function in youth, which carries implications for the effect of stress on response monitoring and decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical activity levels during youth sport practice: does coach training or experience have an influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Chelsey R; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Milliken, George A; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels in youth during flag football practice and compared youth MVPA in practices led by trained or untrained, and by experienced or inexperienced, coaches. Boys (n = 111, mean age = 7.9 ± 1.2 years) from 14 recreation-level flag football teams wore an accelerometer during two practices. Each team's volunteer head coach reported prior training and coaching experience. Mixed-model team-adjusted means showed the proportion of practice time spent in sedentary (13 ± 1%), MVPA (34 ± 2%) and vigorous (12 ± 1%) activity. Practice contributed ~20 min of MVPA towards public health guidelines. There was no significant difference in percentage time spent in MVPA between teams with trained (mean = 33.3%, 95% CI = 29.4%, 37.2%) and untrained coaches (mean = 35.9%, 95% CI = 25.5%, 42.4%) or between experienced (mean = 34.1%, 95% CI = 30.2%, 38.0%) and inexperienced coaches (mean = 33.8, 95% CI = 27.9%, 39.7%). Although sport provides a setting for youth to accrue MVPA, two-thirds of practice was spent sedentarily or in light activity. Participation in a coach training programme was not associated with higher MVPA. Further research is needed to inform volunteer coach training programmes that provide coaches with skills necessary to increase the percentage of practice time spent in MVPA.

  10. Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Comparing Age- and Weight-Based Levels of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mireille E; Urban, Jillian E; Miller, Logan E; Jones, Derek A; Espeland, Mark A; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 5,000,000 athletes play organized football in the United States, and youth athletes constitute the largest proportion with ∼3,500,000 participants. Investigations of head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football have been limited in size and duration. The objective of this study was to evaluate HIE of athletes participating in three age- and weight-based levels of play within a single youth football organization over four seasons. Head impact data were collected using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Mixed effects linear models were fitted, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and number of impacts among levels and session type (competitions vs. practices). The three levels studied were levels A (n = 39, age = 10.8 ± 0.7 years, weight = 97.5 ± 11.8 lb), B (n = 48, age = 11.9 ± 0.5 years, weight = 106.1 ± 13.8 lb), and C (n = 32, age = 13.0 ± 0.5 years, weight = 126.5 ± 18.6 lb). A total of 40,538 head impacts were measured. The median/95th percentile linear head acceleration for levels A, B, and C was 19.8/49.4g, 20.6/51.0g, and 22.0/57.9g, respectively. Level C had significantly greater mean linear acceleration than both levels A (p = 0.005) and B (p = 0.02). There were a significantly greater number of impacts per player in a competition than in a practice session for all levels (A, p = 0.0005, B, p = 0.0019, and C, p football and are an important step in making evidence-based decisions to reduce HIE.

  11. "Without Porn … I Wouldn't Know Half the Things I Know Now": A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    Information about the pornography-viewing habits of urban, low-income youth of color in the United States is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16- to 18-year-old urban-residing, low-income Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching; where and for what purpose? (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors? and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (1) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (2) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (3) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (4) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (5) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youth's use of pornography but underequipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a preference for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity.

  12. Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multi-level, Multi-domain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on two of the most prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (1) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level, (2) both social and physical domains in the environment, and finally (3) dynamic relationships between these factors. A synthesis of existing research and our proposed model draw attention to the notion of adverse physical and social exposures in youth’s neighborhood environments altering family characteristics and youth psychosocial and behavioral profiles, thereby increasing youth’s risk for health problems. We also note the importance of acknowledging reciprocal influences across levels and domains (e.g., between family and child) that create self-perpetuating patterns of influence that further accentuate the impact of these factors on youth health. Finally, we document that factors across levels can interact (e.g., environmental pollution levels with child stress) to create unique, synergistic effects on youth health. Our model stresses the importance of evaluating influences on youth’s physical health not in isolation but in the context of the broader social and physical environments in which youth live. Understanding the complex relationships between the factors that link low SES to youth’s long-term health trajectories is necessary for the creation and implementation of successful interventions and policies to ultimately reduce health disparities. PMID:22845752

  13. The "Gay Comfort Level": Examining a Media Advocacy Group's Efforts to Combat Youth Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachgal, Tara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…

  14. The levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in Black Sea ecosystems (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of geographically varying marine ecosystem properties on the uptake of radionuclides and toxic metals in marine environment, samples of sand, slime and silt sediments were taken during the period 1991-2004. Samples were collected from different zones along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast - from the north Romanian border (Durankulak) to the South Turkish border (Rezovo). Technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured by Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy using HPGe detector with 35 % counting efficiency and energy resolution 1.8 KeV (1332 KeV). Heavy metals (HM) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) - ETAAS (Perkin - Elmer Zeeman 3030 with graphite furnace) and flame AAS - Pye Unicam SP 1950. The measured radionuclides concentrations in Black Sea sediments were found to depend on sediment type - slime sediments accumulate technogenic ( 1 37Cs) and natural nuclides (U and Th series) to the highest extent. Considerably low levels of technogenic and natural radionuclides and a narrow concentration intervals were established for sand and silt sediment samples. The intercomparison of radionuclide and HM content in bottom sediments from one and the same sampling location gives information for mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and shows the trend of potential hazard of anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems. The obtained data show that highest nuclide and heavy metal content in Black Sea sediments were determined in the northern part of the Black Sea coast. It can be attributed to the influence of the big rivers entering the northern part of the Black Sea - Danube, Dnyepr, Dnester. Data for radionuclides and heavy metals in sediments are in the limits of the cited in literature natural levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination

  15. Are we leveling the playing field? Trends and disparities in sports participation among sexual minority youth in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Doull

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sports participation and physical fitness are widely beneficial for young people, yet activity levels among young people are declining. Despite growing popular media attention on the participation of sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in sports and various campaigns to improve the often homophobic climate of sports, there is limited evidence that sexual minority youth participate in sports. Our aim was to provide a current portrait of sports participation among 3 groups of sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual in British Columbia, Canada, as well as to document population trends. Methods: Pooled population-level data from British Columbia, Canada (n = 99,373 were used to examine trends and disparities in sports participation among sexual minority and heterosexual youth. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine changes in participation over time and disparities in participation over time (1998–2013. Results: We found an overall decline in sports participation and physical activity (PA for all youth. Sexual minority students were less likely to participate in formal sports (with a coach and informal sports (without a coach compared with their heterosexual peers. The disparity in participating in informal sports between heterosexual and sexual minority youth has narrowed over time for some sexual orientation groups, whereas the disparity in participating in formal sports has widened over time in some cases. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive examination of sports participation among sexual minority youth over the past 15 years. Despite changing societal attitudes and laudable efforts to reduce homophobia in sports, results suggest that there are continued barriers to participation for sexual minority youth. Further research is needed to understand the factors that limit sports participation for these youth and to inform program development. PA is critical to

  16. Sea level change along the Black Sea coast from satellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin B. Avsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea level change affects human living conditions, particularly ocean coasts. However, sea level change is still unclear along the Black Sea coast due to lack of in-situ measurements and low resolution satellite data. In this paper, sea level change along the Black Sea coast is investigated from joint satellite altimetry, tide gauge (TG and Global Positioning System (GPS observations. The linear trend and seasonal components of sea level change are estimated at 8 TG stations (Amasra, Igneada, Trabzon-II, Sinop, Sile, Poti, Tuapse, and Batumi located along the Black Sea coast, which are compared with Satellite Altimetry and GPS. At the tide gauge stations with long-term records such as Poti (about 21 years and Tuapse (about 19 years, the results obtained from the satellite altimetry and tide gauge observations show a remarkably good agreement. While some big differences are existed between Satellite Altimetry and TG at other stations, after adding vertical motion from GPS, correlation coefficients of the trend have been greatly improved from 0.37 to 0.99 at 3 co-located GPS and TG stations (Trabzon-II, Sinop and Sile.

  17. The Most Blessed Room in the City: The Influence of a Youth Development Program on Three Young Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Malcolm H.; Martin, Justin F.; Hill, R. LeRoi; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The social and educational life risks associated with being a Black male in the United States are not novel concerns. However, researchers, policymakers, educators, and other stakeholders have yet to consistently identify programs and interventions that can mediate the inequities that confront young Black men. Some researchers have indicated that…

  18. High normal fasting glucose level in obese youth: a marker for insulin resistance and beta cell dysregulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, G

    2010-06-01

    A high but normal fasting plasma glucose level in adults is a risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether normal fasting plasma glucose levels (<5.60 mmol\\/l) are associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, as well as an adverse cardiovascular profile in obese youth.

  19. “Without Porn…I Wouldn’t Know Half The Things I Know Now”: A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample Of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson

    2014-01-01

    Information about pornography-viewing habits of urban, low income, youth of color in the U.S. is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16-18 year old urban-residing, low income, Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching, where, and for what purpose?; (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors?; and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (a) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse, but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (b) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (c) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (d) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (e) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youths’ use of pornography, but under-equipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a prefererence for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity. PMID:25350847

  20. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, M.; Minoletti, F.; Pellenard, P.

    2013-12-01

    seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios) during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon isotopes returning to pre-T-OAE values. Comparing palaeoredox proxies with the inferred sequence stratigraphy for Sancerre suggests that episodes of short-term organic carbon enrichment were primarily driven by third-order sea level changes. These black shales exhibit remarkably well-expressed higher-frequency cyclicities in the oxygen availability in the water column whose nature has still to be determined through cyclostratigraphic analysis.

  1. Stakeholder conceptualisation of multi-level HIV and AIDS determinants in a Black epicentre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Reason, Janaiya L; Hanlon, Kelsey; Guthrie, Barbara; Schensul, Jean J

    2017-09-01

    HIV has reached epidemic proportions among African Americans in the USA but certain urban contexts appear to experience a disproportionate disease burden. Geographic information systems mapping in Philadelphia indicates increased HIV incidence and prevalence in predominantly Black census tracts, with major differences across adjacent communities. What factors shape these geographic HIV disparities among Black Philadelphians? This descriptive study was designed to refine and validate a conceptual model developed to better understand multi-level determinants of HIV-related risk among Black Philadelphians. We used an expanded ecological approach to elicit reflective perceptions from administrators, direct service providers and community members about individual, social and structural factors that interact to protect against or increase the risk for acquiring HIV within their community. Gender equity, social capital and positive cultural mores (e.g., monogamy, abstinence) were seen as the main protective factors. Historical negative contributory influences of racial residential segregation, poverty and incarceration were among the most salient risk factors. This study was a critical next step toward initiating theory-based, multi-level community-based HIV prevention initiatives.

  2. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  3. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  4. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  5. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865

  6. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of top-level youth cross-country cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, Alessandro; Savoldelli, Aldo; Modena, Roberto; Boccia, Gennaro; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico

    2018-04-01

    In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO 2max , PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years. Our findings showed in bikers, already at young age, a specific athletic profile advantageous for XCO performance. At the age of 16, just before entering the junior category and competing at international level, male and female bikers showed physiological values normalized to the body mass comparable to those reported in literature for high level athletes (VO 2max >70 and >60 ml/kg/min, PPO >6.5 and >5.5 W/kg, respectively in males and females). The production of high power-to-weight ratios and high peaks of anaerobic power attests the presence of highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems in young XCO cyclists reflecting the high physiological demand of this sport.

  7. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  9. Trajectories of HbA1c Levels in Children and Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Hamiel, Uri; Boyko, Valentina; Graph-Barel, Chana; Reichman, Brian; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the distribution of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels according to age and gender among children, adolescents and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Methods Consecutive HbA1c measurements of 349 patients, aged 2 to 30 years with T1DM were obtained from 1995 through 2010. Measurement from patients diagnosed with celiac disease (n = 20), eating disorders (n = 41) and hemoglobinopathy (n = 1) were excluded. The study sample comprised 4815 measurements of HbA1c from 287 patients. Regression percentiles of HbA1c were calculated as a function of age and gender by the quantile regression method using the SAS procedure QUANTREG. Results Crude percentiles of HbA1c as a function of age and gender, and the modeled curves produced using quantile regression showed good concordance. The curves show a decline in HbA1c levels from age 2 to 4 years at each percentile. Thereafter, there is a gradual increase during the prepubertal years with a peak at ages 12 to 14 years. HbA1c levels subsequently decline to the lowest values in the third decade. Curves of females and males followed closely, with females having HbA1c levels about 0.1% (1.1 mmol/mol) higher in the 25th 50th and 75th percentiles. Conclusion We constructed age-specific distribution curves for HbA1c levels for patients with T1DM. These percentiles may be used to demonstrate the individual patient's measurements longitudinally compared with age-matched patients. PMID:25275650

  10. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  11. Future Directions in Research on Racism-Related Stress and Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-01-01

    Research on racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors represents an important enterprise for optimizing the mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth. However, there has been a relative dearth of work on these factors in the clinical psychology research literature, and more work is needed in outlets such as these. To this end, the current article adopts a developmental psychopathology framework and uses recent empirical findings to outline our current understanding of racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors (i.e., racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) for African American youth. We then provide nine recommendations-across basic, applied, and broader/cross-cutting research lines-that we prioritize as essential to advancing the future scientific investigation of this crucial research agenda. Within and across these recommendations, we issue a charge to researchers and clinicians alike, with the ultimate goal of alleviating the negative mental health impact that racism-related stress can have on the well-being and mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth.

  12. COMPARISON BETWEEN SPORT PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION AND GOAL-ORIENTATION OF YOUTH ATHLETES: THE ROLE OF PARENTS' EDUCATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Benar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of present study was to (A compare and prioritizing the main six motivations of sport participation of youth athletes, (B compare and prioritize task and ego-orientation of youth athletes, and (C the role of parents' education level and its impact on the motivation of sport participation and goal-orientation youth athletes. In the study, descriptive-analytic design was applied. For the study 376 Iranian youth athletes were singled out by cluster-random sampling. They answered to participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ and task & ego-orientation in sport questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q. Also data about parents' education level (PEL was obtained using questions about demographic features. The findings showed that those who participated in individual sports had more motivation for status than team sports athletes and they were more ego-orientation. Also it was found that more highly educated mothers came to induce internal motivation in youth athletes using Kruskal-Wallis test, whereas more highly educated fathers came to induce both internal and external motivation to them. It seems that those athletes who participated in individual and open-skilled sports are more ego-oriented than those who participated in team and open-skilled sports. The feedbacks which are based on task orientation are probably provided, along with promotion of mothers' education level; however with promotion of fathers' education level, both of these feedbacks and those based on ego-orientation will be provided, probably for their children to participation in sport activities.

  13. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  14. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  15. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (Pstress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features. Records of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected. IM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3%) and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%). Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids) was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001), and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality. The incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  17. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsInfectious mononucleosis (IM is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features.MethodsRecords of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected.ResultsIM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3% and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%. Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001, and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality.ConclusionsThe incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  18. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  19. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  20. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Mental Health Service Use by Urban, Under-Resourced Black Youth: Adolescent and Caregiver Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.

  1. Water Level Controls on Sap Flux of Canopy Species in Black Ash Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Shannon; Matthew Van Grinsven; Joshua Davis; Nicholas Bolton; Nam Noh; Thomas Pypker; Randall Kolka

    2018-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) exhibits canopy dominance in regularly inundated wetlands, suggesting advantageous adaptation. Black ash mortality due to emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) will alter canopy composition and site hydrology. Retention of these forested wetlands requires understanding black ash...

  2. Effect of Black Rice Powder Levels on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Young; Kim, Hack-Youn

    2016-01-01

    The effects of black rice powder on the quality of sausage were investigated. Samples were prepared with 0% (control), 1%, 3%, and 5% black rice powder. With increasing black rice powder content, the moisture and ash content of sausage increased, while protein content was significantly less than that observed for the control (p

  3. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Gay-Straight Alliances are Associated with Lower Levels of School-Based Victimization of LGBTQ+ Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Robert A; Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2016-07-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) are school-based organizations for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) youth and their allies that often attempt to improve school climate for sexual and gender minority youth. This meta-analysis evaluates the association between school GSA presence and youth's self-reports of school-based victimization by quantitatively synthesizing 15 primary studies with 62,923 participants. Findings indicate GSA presence is associated with significantly lower levels of youth's self-reports of homophobic victimization, fear for safety, and hearing homophobic remarks, and these results are robust, controlling for a variety of study-level factors. The findings of this meta-analysis provide evidence to support GSAs as a means of protecting LGTBQ+ youth from school-based victimization.

  5. Gender Disparity in Structured Physical Activity and Overall Activity Level in Adolescence: Evaluation of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kang, Youjeong; Daly, Brian P.; Brown, Michael D.; Patterson, Freda

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adolescent girls are less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than boys. This study examined the relative contribution of structured physical activity opportunities including physical education (PE) class and sports teams to overall activity levels for girls and boys. Methods. Data from 591 9th–12th grade students who completed the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between PE and sport...

  6. Mental Health Practitioners' Perceived Levels of Preparedness, Levels of Confidence and Methods Used in the Assessment of Youth Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health practitioners working within school or community settings may at any time find themselves working with youth presenting with suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Although always well intended, practitioners are making significant clinical decisions that have high potential for influencing a range of outcomes, including very negative…

  7. Serum Lipoprotein (a Levels in Black South African Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein (a (Lp(a which is a low-density lipoprotein-like particle containing apo(a is considered as an emergent cardiovascular risk factor. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with a two- to threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Lp(a in Black South African T2DM patients and its association with other metabolic factors. 67 T2DM patients and 48 healthy control participants were recruited for the cross-sectional study. The Lp(a level was determined by ELISA and the result was analyzed using SPSS. The Lp(a level in diabetics was found to be significantly increased (P=0.001 when compared to the normal healthy group. In the diabetic group, the Lp(a levels correlated significantly with the duration of diabetes (P=0.008 and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL levels (P=0.03 and decreased total antioxidant capacity (P=0.001. The third tertile of Lp(a was significantly correlated with increased ox-LDL, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides and decreased total antioxidant capacity.

  8. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-03-03

    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to residential air pollution estimates, which are normally used in epidemiological studies. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the variability in personal air pollution levels during the day and (2) the relationship between modeled home and school estimates and continuously measured personal air pollution exposure levels in different microenvironments (e.g., home, school, and commute). We focused on black carbon as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. We recruited 54 school children (aged 7-11) from 29 different schools around Barcelona as part of the BREATHE study, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. For 2 typical week days during 2012-2013, the children were given a smartphone with CalFit software to obtain information on their location and physical activity level and a small sensor, the micro-aethalometer model AE51, to measure their black carbon levels simultaneously and continuously. We estimated their home and school exposure to PM2.5 filter absorbance, which is well-correlated with black carbon, using a temporally adjusted PM2.5 absorbance land use regression (LUR) model. We found considerable variation in the black carbon levels during the day, with the highest levels measured during commuting periods (geometric mean = 2.8 μg/m(3)) and the lowest levels at home (geometric mean = 1.3 μg/m(3)). Hourly temporally adjusted LUR model estimates for the home and school showed moderate to good correlation with measured personal black carbon levels at home and school (r = 0.59 and 0.68, respectively) and lower correlation with commuting trips (r = 0.32 and 0.21, respectively). The correlation between modeled home

  9. Dynamic Black-Level Correction and Artifact Flagging for Kepler Pixel Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Clarke, B. D.; Caldwell, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Methods applied to the calibration stage of Kepler pipeline data processing [1] (CAL) do not currently use all of the information available to identify and correct several instrument-induced artifacts. These include time-varying crosstalk from the fine guidance sensor (FGS) clock signals, and manifestations of drifting moire pattern as locally correlated nonstationary noise, and rolling bands in the images which find their way into the time series [2], [3]. As the Kepler Mission continues to improve the fidelity of its science data products, we are evaluating the benefits of adding pipeline steps to more completely model and dynamically correct the FGS crosstalk, then use the residuals from these model fits to detect and flag spatial regions and time intervals of strong time-varying black-level which may complicate later processing or lead to misinterpretation of instrument behavior as stellar activity.

  10. Interpreting Black-Box Classifiers Using Instance-Level Visual Explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagnini, Paolo; Krause, Josua W.; Dasgupta, Aritra; Bertini, Enrico

    2017-05-14

    To realize the full potential of machine learning in diverse real- world domains, it is necessary for model predictions to be readily interpretable and actionable for the human in the loop. Analysts, who are the users but not the developers of machine learning models, often do not trust a model because of the lack of transparency in associating predictions with the underlying data space. To address this problem, we propose Rivelo, a visual analytic interface that enables analysts to understand the causes behind predictions of binary classifiers by interactively exploring a set of instance-level explanations. These explanations are model-agnostic, treating a model as a black box, and they help analysts in interactively probing the high-dimensional binary data space for detecting features relevant to predictions. We demonstrate the utility of the interface with a case study analyzing a random forest model on the sentiment of Yelp reviews about doctors.

  11. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  12. Continued Importance of Family Factors in Youth Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent–adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Methods: A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 – T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Conclusions: Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups. PMID:22454285

  13. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  14. Population-level correlates of preterm delivery among black and white women in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan L Carmichael

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.

  15. XXI century projections of wind-wave conditions and sea-level rise in the Black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, A.; Garmashov, A.; Fomin, V.; Valchev, N.; Trifonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    Projection of regional climate changes for XXI century is one of the priorities of EC environmental programme. Potential worsening of the waves' statistics, sea level rise and extreme surges are the principal negative consequences of the climate change for marine environment. That is why the main purpose of this presentation is to discuss the above issue for the Black sea region (with a strong focus to the south-west subregion because the maximum heights of waves exceeding 10 m occur just here) using output of several global coupled models (GCM) for XXI century, wave simulation, long-term observations of sea level and statistical techniques. First of all we tried to choose the best coupled model (s) simulated the Black sea climate change and variability using the control experiments for 20 century (203). The principal result is as follows. There is not one model which is simulating adequately even one atmospheric parameter for all seasons. Therefore we considered (for the climate projection) different outputs form various models. When it was possible we calculated also the ensemble mean projection for the selected model (s) and emission scenarios. To calculate the wave projection we used the output of SWAN model forced by the GCM wind projection for 2010 to 2100. To estimate the sea level rise in XXI century and future surges statistics we extrapolate the observed sea level rise tendencies, statistical relation between wave heights and sea level and wave scenarios. Results show that in general, the climate change in XXI century doesn't lead to the catastrophic change of the Black sea wind-wave statistics including the extreme waves in the S-W Black sea. The typical atmospheric pattern leading to the intense storm in the S-W Black sea is characterized by the persistent anticyclonic area to the North of the Black sea and cyclonic conditions in the Southern Black sea region. Such pressure pattern causes persistent and strong eastern or north-eastern wind which

  16. Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2013-12-01

    Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth.

  17. Gay-Straight Alliances vary on dimensions of youth socializing and advocacy: factors accounting for individual and setting-level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Marx, Robert A; Calzo, Jerel P; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2015-06-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8 % LGBQ; 69.9 % White; 70.1 % cisgender female), we found substantial variation among GSAs and youth in levels of socializing and advocacy. GSAs were more distinct from one another on advocacy than socializing. Using multilevel modeling, we identified group and individual factors accounting for this variability. In the socializing model, youth and GSAs that did more socializing activities did more advocacy. In the advocacy model, youth who were more actively engaged in the GSA as well as GSAs whose youth collectively perceived greater school hostility and reported greater social justice efficacy did more advocacy. Findings suggest potential reasons why GSAs vary in how they function in ways ranging from internal provisions of support, to visibility raising, to collective social change. The findings are further relevant for settings supporting youth from other marginalized backgrounds and that include advocacy in their mission.

  18. Prevalence of Obesity Among Youths by Household Income and Education Level of Head of Household - United States 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Fakhouri, Tala H; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S

    2018-02-16

    Obesity prevalence varies by income and education level, although patterns might differ among adults and youths (1-3). Previous analyses of national data showed that the prevalence of childhood obesity by income and education of household head varied across race/Hispanic origin groups (4). CDC analyzed 2011-2014 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of childhood obesity prevalence by household income (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) and head of household education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014 the prevalence of obesity among U.S. youths (persons aged 2-19 years) was 17.0%, and was lower in the highest income group (10.9%) than in the other groups (19.9% and 18.9%) and also lower in the highest education group (9.6%) than in the other groups (18.3% and 21.6%). Continued progress is needed to reduce disparities, a goal of Healthy People 2020. The overall Healthy People 2020 target for childhood obesity prevalence is <14.5% (5).

  19. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  20. Consistency and Variation in School-Level Youth Sports Traumatic Brain Injury Policy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C; Marsh, Abigail A; Blair, Karina S; Reid, Marguerite E; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2011-02-01

    Dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. The specific nature of the functional irregularities within these structures remains poorly understood. The authors used a passive avoidance task to examine the responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. While performing the passive avoidance learning task, 15 youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus a high level of psychopathic traits and 15 healthy subjects completed a 3.0-T fMRI scan. Relative to the comparison youths, the youths with a disruptive behavior disorder plus psychopathic traits showed less orbitofrontal responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as less caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. There were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness to these two task measures, but amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was lower in the youths with psychopathic traits. Compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information in the orbitofrontal cortex of youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits suggests that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate, and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted. This provides a functional neural basis for why such youths are more likely to repeat disadvantageous decisions. New treatment possibilities are raised, as pharmacologic modulations of serotonin and dopamine can affect this form of learning.

  2. Senior Level Administrators and HBCUs: The Role of Support for Black Women’s Success in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Washington Lockett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While it is important for college and university senior administrators to embrace the traditional roles of their administrative positions, senior administrators’ interactions with students also shape institutional culture, students’ engagement, and ultimately play a role in students’ motivation to succeed. This engagement is especially evident in the Historically Black College and University (HBCU context as senior administrators’ engagement with students can directly or indirectly affect how students perceive themselves and their ability to succeed. This article aims to illuminate the role that HBCU senior level administrators play in students’ motivation toward success. We also highlight the notion that senior level administrators’ role in organizational culture ultimately led historically-disempowered Black women students toward success in even the most historically inaccessible pathways in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields. The study used semi-structured interviews with 71 Black women STEM students across 10 HBCUs and asked questions to better understand how events in their lives and on their campuses shaped their choice to pursue and persist through a STEM degree program. The study found that the women were highly motivated by their HBCUs’ family-like community of support. Integral to this article, this support was not confined to professors and peers, but extended to senior administrators. We conclude that Black women STEM students’ perception of their ability to succeed and their motivation is influenced by the institutions’ senior administration.

  3. IS YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE LEVEL OF CRIME, MIGRATION, SUICIDE AND DIVORCE? AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Ufuk; Topal, Mehmet Hanefi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Youth unemployment is one of the important socio-economic problems in Turkey. Previousstudies on youth unemployment in Turkey focused specifically on the causes and economic influences ofyouth unemployment. Studies on the social consequences of youth unemployment are quite limited. Thisstudy aims to empirically examine whether youth unemployment in Turkey has an effect on other socialproblems such as crime, migration, suicide and divorce.Method: The data of 26 regions (NUTS-2) in Tur...

  4. Increased Pre- and Post-Meal Free Fatty Acid Levels in Black, Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazeau, Rachel-Marie; Rauch, Lindsey; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A; Hoffman, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    Black adolescents are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease but have lower fasting triglyceride, which is usually associated with decreased risk. No one has studied racial differences in triglycerides or free fatty acids (FFAs) after a high-fat meal. Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to assess insulin secretion, sensitivity, and disposition index (DI). Endothelial function, triglycerides, FFA, c-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL6), and adiponectin were measured both pre- and 3 hr postprandially (McDonald's Big Breakfast(®) and 12 ounce Sprite(®)) in obese adolescents (10-13 years, 9 black and 7 white). Endothelial function was assessed using reactive hyperemic changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed no difference in insulin sensitivity, but blacks tended to have (P = 0.08) higher insulin secretion and had increased DI (P = 0.003). After a high-fat meal, triglycerides increased in both groups (P < 0.001), tended to be lower in blacks compared with whites preprandially (64 ± 33 mg/dL vs 110 ± 80, P = 0.064), and was lower postprandially (112 ± 63 vs 188 ± 112, P = 0.039). Pre- and postprandial FFA (Black: 0.58 ± 0.15 and 0.39 ± 0.18 vs. white: 0.44 ± 0.14 and 0.26 ± 0.06, P = 0.020) and adiponectin (P = 0.002) were increased in blacks. FFA decreased in both groups postprandially (P = 0.002). IL6 increased after the meal (P = 0.022). Endothelial function decreased postprandially (P < 0.02), but this was due to a decrease in preocclusion FVR. These results indicate that differences in fat metabolism are present in both black and white obese adolescents. How these differences explain higher rates of cardiometabolic disease in blacks is unclear.

  5. Reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a calcium food frequency questionnaire for use in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette S; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2015-04-01

    A dietary assessment instrument designed for use in a nationally representative pediatric population was required to examine associations between calcium intake and bone mineral accrual in a large, multicenter study. To determine the reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a youth calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multiracial/ethnic sample of children and adolescents. Reproducibility (n=69) and intermethod reliability (n=393) studies were conducted by administering repeat FFQs and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls to stratified random samples of individuals participating in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study. Children and adolescents ages 5 to 21 years. Calcium intake estimated from the FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intermethod reliability was assessed by deattenuated Pearson correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls. Attenuation factors and calibration corrected effect estimates for bone density were calculated to determine the potential influence of measurement error on associations with health outcomes. The ICC (0.61) for repeat administrations and deattenuated Pearson correlation between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls (r=0.60) for all subjects indicated reproducibility and intermethod reliability (Pearson r=0.50 to 0.74 across sex and age groups). Attenuation factors were ≤0.50 for all sex and age groups and lower for non-Hispanic blacks (λ=0.20) and Hispanics (λ=0.26) than for non-Hispanic whites (λ=0.42). The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study calcium FFQ appears to provide a useful tool for assessing calcium intake in children and adolescents drawn from multiracial/ethnic populations and/or spanning a wide age range. However, similar to other FFQs, attenuation factors were substantially <1, indicating the potential for appreciable measurement error bias. Calibration correction should be performed and racial/ethnic differences

  6. Clinical symptoms of psychotic episodes and 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels in black first-generation immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealberto, M-J

    2013-12-01

    Dark-skinned immigrants have a higher risk for schizophrenia and other psychoses than other immigrants. The first British studies reported that first-generation immigrants (FGIs) from the Caribbean presented atypical psychoses. This study examines the characteristics of psychotic episodes in black FGIs to Canada. The charts of 18 FGIs from Africa and Haiti, extracted from a series of 20 black patients consecutively admitted to Psychiatry, were retrospectively reviewed regarding clinical features, diagnoses and vitamin D levels. Young FGIs presented acute psychotic episodes with abrupt onset, florid positive symptoms, few negative symptoms and good evolution. The onset was more insidious in older FGIs. Overall, catatonia was very frequent (28%), and mood symptoms still more frequent (44%). No cognitive decline was observed during follow-up. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D were in the insufficiency range. Supplementation at 1000 IU/day did not restore normal levels. The clinical features of psychotic episodes in black FGIs are similar to those reported in dark-skinned FGIs to other countries. They are also observed in other immigrants and in non-immigrants. These atypical psychoses are possibly related to a recent vitamin D deficit. This hypothesis should be tested by clinical trials of sufficient vitamin D supplementation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. LP (a) levels and apo (a) phenotypes in urban black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    300 U/I), intermediate (300 - 700 UII) and high (> 700 UII) plasma Lp (a) ... Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, W Cape ... up to 200-fold difference in Lp (a) concentrations.' In addition, ethnic .... An interesting observation was the large number of phenotypes, Le. ... sample of black Americans with a high-resolution SOS- agarose ...

  8. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  9. A census tract-level examination of social determinants of health among black/African American men with diagnosed HIV infection, 2005-2009--17 US areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanetta Gant

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM. A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population.Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract-level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ≥ 15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs and prevalence odds ratios (PORs, using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling.Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54. At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81 and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86. In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65. HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75 and non-MSM (RR: 4.90 whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06 and non-MSM (RR: 0.26 as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased.This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income.

  10. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, Kathleen M; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-10-16

    Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family) and area- (school and neighborhood) levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km) of their school. Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997) from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1) individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2) area-level administrator (school) questionnaires; and (3) area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91), having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97), and family socioeconomic status (RR for 'not well off' vs. 'very well off' = 1.14, 1.01-1.26). Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42), the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for 'major problem' vs. 'no problem' = 1.47, 1.16-1.57), and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.33 CI, 1.05-1.53). Engagement in active transportation to school was related

  11. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  12. Predicting homophobic behavior among heterosexual youth: domain general and sexual orientation-specific factors at the individual and contextual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R

    2013-03-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth.

  13. The effects of yellow soybean, black soybean, and sword bean on lipid levels and oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Sun

    2010-04-01

    Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supplemented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups. Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  14. The relationship between population-level exposure to alcohol advertising on television and brand-specific consumption among underage youth in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Padon, Alisa A; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Jernigan, David H

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13-20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship Between Population-Level Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption Among Underage Youth in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. Methods: We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Results: Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. Conclusions: At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. PMID:25754127

  16. Effects of nutrition level of concentrate-based diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Li, Mao; Shi, Liguang; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the effects of different nutrition levels of diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six diet treatments, which consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP; 15 and 17 %) and three levels of digestive energy (DE; 11.72, 12.55, and 13.39 MJ/kg). The results revealed that 17 % CP significantly (P  0.05) on carcass characteristics of the goats. The mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in muscle tissues increased with increasing CP and DE levels (P < 0.05).

  17. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    and fiber intake (OR 1.26; 1.06-1.50; OR 1.28; 1.03-1.58, respectively). Also, youth with parents who shopped more frequently at fast-food stores had 7 % lower odds for higher vegetable intake (95 % CI: 0.88-0.99). In this study, both, youth and household factors were associated with youth FV and fiber intake, underscoring the need for a multi-level approach to increasing youths' diet quality. These results will inform and shape an effective intervention program for improving youth dietary intakes.

  18. Testing the Association Between Traditional and Novel Indicators of County-Level Structural Racism and Birth Outcomes among Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Brittany D; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Tanner, Amanda E; Nichols, Tracy R; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly

    2017-12-07

    Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine Black-White differences among 531,170 primiparous women across 33 California counties. Traditional (e.g., dissimilarity index) and novel indicators (e.g., Black to White ratio in elected office) were associated with earlier gestational age and lower birth weight among Black and White women. A traditional indicator was more strongly associated with earlier gestational age for Black women than for White women. This was the first study to empirically demonstrate that structural racism, measured by both traditional and novel indicators, is associated with poor health and wellbeing of infants born to Black and White women. However, findings indicate traditional indicators of structural racism, rather than novel indicators, better explain racial disparities in birth outcomes. Results also suggest the need to develop more innovative approaches to: (1) measure structural racism at the county-level and (2) reform public policies to increase integration and access to resources.

  19. Few words on the high level of social distrust among the Russian youth: Civil servants’ social image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the empirical data of the repeated surveys conducted by the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, the authors consider the student youth typical answers to quite simple questions on the political interest and awareness as well as on the level of social trust in the most general interpretation of the term. According to the surveys data, since 2007 we cannot identify the students’ value orientations as political apathy (which is typical for the Russian media, political unawareness or electoral ignorance. Moreover, the Moscow student youth consider themselves patriots and identify as grounds for their national pride the historical past, natural resources, cultural heritage and sports achievements, though not the development of the economic and social spheres, respect for human rights and freedoms, activities of the public authorities, and general standards of living. The authors believe that such pessimistic evaluation of the situation in the country is connected (if not determined by the low level of social trust (or high level of social distrust, especially to the public administration and the officials of all kinds in general. The authors conducted an exploratory online opinion poll to reconstruct the social image of the civil servant in the Russian public opinion to explain the low level of social trust in the society and the stable proportion of young respondents claiming that the Russian state represents and defends the interests of the rich and the civil servants. The questionnaire consisted of the questions on the obligatory ethical principles that should be guiding for all state/municipal employees, on the grounds for considering the behavior of civil servants as unethical, on the requirements to the applicants for the public administration positions, on the appropriate ways to deal with cases of unethical behavior in the public administration bodies, on the social image of the civil servant

  20. The association of physical activity, body mass index and the blood pressure levels among urban poor youth in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afrifa-Anane, Ernest; Agyemang, Charles; Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) among adults and youth. However, the mechanisms of how the risk factors (physical inactivity and obesity) relate with blood pressure (BP) are not well known especially among the urban poor youth in low and middle income

  1. "Everyone just keeps their eyes closed and their fingers crossed": sexual health communication among black parents and children in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Antoinette N; Gahagan, Jacqueline C; George, Clemon

    2013-07-22

    Black Canadian youth remain disproportionally affected by an array of social and health issues, including sexually transmitted infections. While research exists in support of the involvement of parents as a key means to prevent or modify harmful behaviours among youth, less is known about how parent-child communication can serve as a prevention intervention strategy within Black families in Canada. This study explores sexual health communication between Black parents and youth in Nova Scotia and identifies facilitators, obstacles and issues that families face in dialoguing about sexual health. Focus groups and in-depth interview sessions were held with a diverse sample of parents of Black youth, health and education professionals, and Black youth in Nova Scotia, as part of a larger study aimed at exploring parent-child communication on sexual health and HIV. The research team worked in partnership with and received feedback from key informants and a community advisory committee throughout the various stages of this study. All sessions were audio-taped with permission and thematic analysis was carried out on the verbatim transcripts. Six key themes emerged from the data analysis in relation to parent-child communication within Black families in Nova Scotia: 1. the gendered nature of [sexual] health communication; 2. fear and uncertainty as obstacles; 3. open and honest dialogue from an early age as a facilitator; 4. media as both a catalyst and a barrier; 5. peers as a catalyst; and 6. time constraints as an obstacle. The findings of this study reveal that parent-child communication regarding sexual health promotion within Black families in Nova Scotia remains varied and is heavily affected by a myriad of intersecting determinants of health faced by Black youth and their parents. Health promotion interventions aimed at fostering and supporting parent-child communication on sexual health must simultaneously target both parents and youth and further, such efforts must

  2. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p travel (both p travel is a major contributor to physical activity, future research should attempt to determine whether the intensity of this activity plays a role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  3. Parenting and youth sexual risk in context: The role of community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M; Armistead, Lisa P; Tully, Erin C; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Black South African youth are disproportionately affected by HIV, and risky sexual behaviors increase youths' vulnerability to infection. U.S.-based research has highlighted several contextual influences on sexual risk, but these processes have not been examined in a South African context. In a convenience sample of Black South African caregivers and their 10-14-year-old youth (M age  = 11.7, SD = 1.4; 52.5% female), we examined the relation between parenting and youth sexual risk within the context of community-level processes, including neighborhood quality and maternal social support. Hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that better neighborhood quality and more social support predicted positive parenting, which in turn predicted less youth sexual risk. There was a significant indirect effect from neighborhood quality to youth sexual risk via parenting. Results highlight the importance of the community context in parenting and youth sexual risk in this understudied sample. HIV prevention-interventions should be informed by these contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use among youth globally: a systematic review and meta-analysis of country level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Stockings, Emily; Chai, Li Kheng; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Paul, Christine; Peruga, Armando; Kingsland, Melanie; Attia, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2018-03-12

    To describe the prevalence and change in prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use in youth by country and combustible smoking status. Databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to December 2015. Studies describing the prevalence of ENDS use in the general population aged ≤20 years in a defined geographical region were included. Where multiple estimates were available within countries, prevalence estimates of ENDS use were pooled for each country separately. Data from 27 publications (36 surveys) from 13 countries were included. The prevalence of ENDS ever use in 2013-2015 among youth were highest in Poland (62.1%; 95%CI: 59.9-64.2%), and lowest in Italy (5.9%; 95%CI: 3.3-9.2%). Among non-smoking youth, the prevalence of ENDS ever use in 2013-2015 varied, ranging from 4.2% (95%CI: 3.8-4.6%) in the US to 14.0% in New Zealand (95%CI: 12.7-15.4%). The prevalence of ENDS ever use among current tobacco smoking youth was the highest in Canada (71.9%, 95%CI: 70.9-72.8%) and lowest in Italy (29.9%, 95%CI: 18.5-42.5%). Between 2008 and 2015, ENDS ever use among youth increased in Poland, Korea, New Zealand and the US; decreased in Italy and Canada; and remained stable in the UK. There is considerable heterogeneity in ENDS use among youth globally across countries and also between current smokers and non-smokers. Implications for public health: Population-level survey data on ENDS use is needed to inform public health policy and messaging globally. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  6. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  7. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  8. Placement Work Experience May Mitigate Lower Achievement Levels of Black and Asian vs. White Students at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Moores

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority groups have been shown to obtain poorer final year degree outcomes than their majority group counterparts in countries including the United States, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Obtaining a lower degree classification may limit future employment prospects of graduates as well as opportunities for higher level study. To further investigate this achievement gap, we analyzed performance levels across three academic years of study of 3,051 Black, Asian and White students from a United Kingdom University. Analyses of covariance investigated effects of ethnicity and work placement experience (internships on first, second and final year marks, whilst statistically controlling for a number of factors thought to influence achievement, including prior academic performance. Results demonstrated superior achievement of White students consistently across all years of study. Placement experience reduced, but did not eliminate, the size of the achievement gap exhibited by final year students. Sex, parental education and socioeconomic status had no significant main effects. Female students showed a more complex pattern of results than males, with Black females not showing the same final year uplift in marks as their Asian and White counterparts. Implications and possible explanations are discussed.

  9. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  10. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  11. Self-regulation of learning and performance level of elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marije Elferink-Gemser; G. Pepping; G. Jordet; C. Visscher; T. Toering

    2012-01-01

    In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process (Zimmerman, 1989, 2006). We examined the relationship between self-regulation and performance level

  12. Self-regulation and performance level of elite and non-elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, T. T.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Jordet, G.; Visscher, C.

    2009-01-01

    In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process (Zimmerman, 1989, 2006). We examined the relationship between self-regulation and performance level

  13. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable and fiber intake (OR 1.26; 1.06–1.50; OR 1.28; 1.03–1.58, respectively. Also, youth with parents who shopped more frequently at fast-food stores had 7 % lower odds for higher vegetable intake (95 % CI: 0.88–0.99. Conclusion In this study, both, youth and household factors were associated with youth FV and fiber intake, underscoring the need for a multi-level approach to increasing youths’ diet quality. These results will inform and shape an effective intervention program for improving youth dietary intakes.

  14. Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-01-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

  15. Program-Level Variation in Cadet Outcomes at the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ChalleNGe is to help “young people improve their self - esteem , self -confidence, life skills , education levels, and employment potential” [2...discipline), whether he thinks the development of cognitive or noncognitive skills is more important, and how often the cadets communicate with...components: 1. Leadership/followership 2. Responsible citizenship 3. Service to community 4. Life-coping skills 5. Physical fitness 6. Health and

  16. Physical activity level and medial temporal health in youth at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M; Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Dean, Derek J; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Smith, Ashley K; Robustelli, Briana L; Leopold, Daniel R; Millman, Zachary B

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, MRI, and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared with healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r = .44, left: r = .55) and with occupational functioning (r = -.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  18. Continued importance of family factors in youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2012-12-01

    Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent-adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 - T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p < .05). Separate models by race/ethnicity showed the protective effect of increased perceived punishment in all racial/ethnic groups and protection against initiation by increased parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups.

  19. Osteogenesis imperfecta: Level of independence and of social, recreational and sports participation among adolescents and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Celin, Mercedes; Fano, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders that cause bone fragility, with a wide clinical variability resulting in varying degrees of motor disability. To describe the level of independence and of social, recreational and sports participation among adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta. Descriptive, analytical and crosssectional study conducted in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta older than 15 years old attending the Skeletal Dysplasia Office of Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" (May 2013 through December 2014). Self-administered survey. Short stature was an outcome measure that indicated severity. There were 18 patients; age: 19.17 (±3.4 sDE); 83% had moderate-severe forms of OI; median height: -7.9 sDE; 50% used a wheelchair. Average education years: 12.2; 56% participated in sporting activities; and 78% were involved in recreational and social activities. A high level of independence was observed. We found a correlation between short stature and use of wheelchair (r: -0.77) and between short stature and participation in sporting activities (r: 0.66). No correlation was observed with years of education (r: -0.15), participation in social activities (r: -0.22) or recreational activities (r: 0.35). Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  20. Positive association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and diabetes mellitus among US non-Hispanic black adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, A; Li, J

    2008-08-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a positive association between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and diabetes mellitus. However among US race-ethnicities, the putative association between CRP and diabetes mellitus in non-Hispanic Blacks is not clear. We specifically examined the association between high-sensitivity CRP level and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of US non-Hispanic blacks. Cross-sectional study among 1,479 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 non-Hispanic black participants aged > or = 20 years. Main outcome-of-interest was the presence of diabetes mellitus (fasting plasma glucose > or = 126 mg/dL, non-fasting plasma glucose > or = 200 mg/dL, or self-reported current use of oral hypoglycemic medication or insulin) (n=204). Higher CRP levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus, independent of smoking, waist circumference, hypertension, and other confounders. Multivariable odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals (CI)] comparing elevated CRP level (>3 mg/L) to low CRP level (diabetes mellitus appeared to be present across the full range of CRP, without any threshold effect. Higher serum high-sensitivity CRP levels are positively associated with diabetes mellitus in a sample of US non-Hispanic blacks. Inflammatory processes previously shown to be related to diabetes mellitus in other race-ethnicities may be involved in non-Hispanic blacks also.

  1. Level ofaggression and sense of control inself-harming youth receiving psychiatric treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acts of autoaggression are a more and more frequent reason for psychiatric hospitalisation of adolescents. Within the last years the number of patients committing acts of deliberate self‑harm without suicidal intensions almost doubled. Deliberate self‑harm (DSH is defined as an act of direct destructiveness, in which a person wants to commit self‑harm immediately, without an intention of killing her/himself. In this paper we present the results of the study on the level and direction of aggression and the sense of control among inpatients (N=187 of the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Central University Hospital in Łódź. The studied group consisted of patients with deliberate self‑harm (DSH group, N=88, whereas the control group comprised the patients without such behaviours (non‑DSH group, N=99. For the study we recruited patients who were admitted to the hospital due to various mental disorders – 58 boys, mean age 16.81, SD=1.25, and 129 girls, mean age 16.5, SD=1.38. The mean age of all patients was 16.59 (SD=1.35. Patients with men‑ tal retardation were excluded from the study, due to expected difficulties with understanding the questions. We used the IPSA (Inventory of Psychological Syndrome of Aggression and “Delta” (test invented by Drwal, designed for evalua‑ tion of the sense of control. In the DSH group we found a significantly higher level of aggression, directed both inwards and outwards, a greater tendency of retaliatory behaviours and by far lower sense of internal control of one’s behaviours, as compared to the non‑DSH group. Therapeutic programs for patients with DSH should aim at the reduction of aggres‑ sion and the development of internal control over one’s behaviours.

  2. Violent political contexts and the emotional concerns of township youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, G; Mendelsohn, M; Moosa, F; Tudin, P

    1996-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a series of studies that examine the perceptions of black South African youth about township life and the civil conflict and violence it encompasses. The studies were conducted with comparable samples of 58-82 youth at 3 points in South Africa's history, all characterized by high levels of violence but differing in terms of their political contexts. These contexts were overt State-community conflict, covert opposition and political repression, and intracommunity violence. The data revealed that in all 3 contexts youth reported a high exposure to violence, but only when violence occurred in the context of intracommunity conflict was it subjectively construed to be the most problematic. Reasons for this may include the real increase in more extreme forms of violence, including deaths, that occurs in intracommunity violence and the blurring of the distinction between political and criminal violence in this context.

  3. THE PRESENCE OF POSTURAL DEFORMITIES OF THE YOUTH DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PARENTS KNOWLADGE ABOUT DEFICIENT BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is deterimining the presence of postural deformities in sagittal view (defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture of the youth depanding on the level of parents knowladge about defi cient body posture. The complete content of the program was conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools, comprising 299 students of the 5th grade and their parents. The object of this study was to determine the number of students with defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture, to determine the presence of dis arrangements depanding on the gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity depanding on the parents level of information about defi ciant body posture among children. Kyphotic deformity of the examiners of male population is mostly present in the group of parents who are poorly informed about body posture defi ciency. Regarding examiners of female population , the presence of deformation is equally divided on the group of parents who expressed themselves as being very well, those who are undecided and those who are poorly informed. The more signifi cant presence of kyphotic deformity is at examiners of male population than at the examiners of female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at the examiners of female population. Regarding female population we can observe the highest presence of deformation in the group of parents who are undecided while the other groups are very equabal by the presence of deformation. Stated measures impose a statement that it is necessary to continuosly work on both - children education and parents education aiming to recognize posture defi ciency and physical deformation of school and preschool population and all of this with the object of reducing the deformation and on time detecting certain disarrangements and taking adaquate measures for its senctuary

  4. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  5. [LEVELS OF OBESITY, METABOLIC PROFILE, CONSUMPTION OF TABACO AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEDENTARY YOUTHS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Delgado Floody, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    in Chile, the National Health Survey (ENS) conducted in 2009-2010 reported high prevalence of overweight, sedentary lifestyle, high cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in the population. to determine the prevalence in young sedentary obesity and consumption of tabaco and analyze their association with the metabolic profile, body fat percentage and blood pressure. 125 young sedentary, 26 men and 99 women, aged between 17 and 29 years old were evaluated. Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (% fat), waist contour (CC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides: measurements were performed, glycemia and consumption of snuff. HDL-C (p = 0.000) and% MG (p = 0.043) were higher in women. 37.6% of young people turned smoker. 35, 2% of the sample showed excessive malnutrition. Obese subjects had higher levels: waist contour (p = 0.000) and% FM (p = 0.000). When analyzing obesity DC, this showed significant differences in BMI,% fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. BMI presented positive association with CC,% fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p tabaco in the study sample, while other variables are not high-risk categories, it is an opportune time to intervene and reverse these negative health trends now. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, Kent W.; Elliott, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ( 238 U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L −1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L −1 ). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger

  7. Effects of Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism on Lipogenic Gene Expression Levels in Diaphragm Tissues of Japanese Black Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ardiyanti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two SNPs, i.e. L127V and T172M, of bovine growth hormone (GH causing the presence of GH gene haplotypes A, B, and C was previously shown to alter intramuscular fatty acid (FA composition in Japanese Black (JB heifers. To determine the SNP effect on somatotropic hormone concentration and lipogenesis, we measured plasma GH, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentrations. We also measured mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1 and FA composition in diaphragm tissues. Heifers with genotype CC had the lowest plasma insulin concentration and FASN and SCD mRNA levels among genotypes. FASN mRNA levels in haplotype A tended to positively correlate with saturated FA (SFA content and negatively correlated with C18:2 and unsaturated FA (USFA contents. SCD mRNA levels in haplotype A positively correlated with monounsaturated FA (MUFA contents and negatively correlated with C18:0 content. They also tended to positively correlate with C16:1, C18:1, and USFA contents and USFA/SFA ratio and negatively correlate with SFA content. Taken together, GH gene polymorphism affects the lipogenic genes expression levels and their relationships with fatty acid compositions in diaphragm tissues of JB heifers at 31 months of age.

  8. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson

    2000-01-01

    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  9. The Role of Religiousness on Substance-Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Battle, DuWayne; Pagano, Maria E.; Andrade, Fernando H.; Bradley, Jaclyn C.; Delva, Jorge; Johnson, Shannon M.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares 41 Black and 124 White adolescents at intake and discharge from a residential treatment program for substance-use disorders. Study data were obtained as part of a larger study (N = 195) that sought to assess the relationship of helping behavior and addiction recovery. This post-hoc analysis aims to identify cultural strengths that may be associated with recovery from substance-use disorders among Black adolescents. Using regression analyses and controlling for the severity of substance use and background variables that distinguish racial groups, religious practices and behaviors at intake were examined. Specifically, Black youth and White youth were compared on treatment outcomes, including alcohol or drug use during treatment, drug craving, 12-Step work, and 12-Step helping. The burden of health and socioeconomic disparities at intake did not disproportionately disfavor Black adolescents. Outcomes related to 12-Step measures were similar between Black and White youth. White adolescents reported higher craving scores at discharge, and Black adolescents were more likely to use drugs during treatment. High levels of religiousness at treatment intake were linked to greater 12-Step work and greater 12-Step helping at discharge. High levels of religiousness at intake were not related to drug use during treatment or to craving scores at discharge. The relationship between intake levels of religiousness and treatment-related outcomes did not differ by race. PMID:22970338

  10. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy levels of a scalar particle in a static gravitational field close to the black hole limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, G. H.; Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The bound-state energy levels of a scalar particle in the gravitational field of finite-sized objects with interiors described by the Florides and Schwarzschild metrics are found. For these metrics, bound states with zero energy (where the binding energy is equal to the rest mass of the scalar particle) only exist when a singularity occurs in the metric. Therefore, in contrast to the Coulomb case, no pairs are produced in the non-singular static metric. For the Florides metric the singularity occurs in the black hole limit, while for the Schwarzschild interior metric it corresponds to infinite pressure at the center. Moreover, the energy spectrum is shown to become quasi-continuous as the metric becomes singular.

  12. "Nothing Has Stopped Me. I Keep Going:" Black Gay Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Are being Black and gay problematic in the United States? Are Black gay youth "suffering" with these two intersecting identities? Traditional Eurocentric epistemologies would have one believe that Black males, Black gay males, and gay males (liminal groups) are suffering, rarely acknowledging those successfully navigating through…

  13. Prognostic relevance of motor talent predictors in early adolescence: A group- and individual-based evaluation considering different levels of achievement in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner, Oliver; Votteler, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    In the debate about the usefulness of motor diagnostics in the talent identification process, the prognostic validity for tests conducted in early adolescence is of critical interest. Using a group- and individual-based statistical approach, this prospective cohort study evaluated a nationwide assessment of speed abilities and technical skills regarding its relevance for future achievement levels. The sample consisted of 22,843 U12-players belonging to the top 4% in German football. The U12-results in five tests served as predictors for players' selection levels in U16-U19 (youth national team, regional association, youth academy, not selected). Group-mean differences proved the prognostic relevance for all predictors. Low individual selection probabilities demonstrated limited predictive values, while excellent test results proved their particular prognostic relevance. Players scoring percentile ranks (PRs) ≥ 99 had a 12 times higher chance to become youth national team players than players scoring PR talents) but also led to lower sensitivity (loss of talents). Extending the current research, these different approaches revealed the ambiguity of the diagnostics' prognostic relevance, representing both the usefulness and several pitfalls of nationwide diagnostics. Therefore, the present diagnostics can support but not substitute for coaches' subjective decisions for talent identification, and multidisciplinary designs are required.

  14. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according......, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors...

  15. The outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence : A multi-level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbosch, E.L.L.; Huijs, J.A.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; de Swart, J.J.W.; van der Veen, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The outcome of institutional youth care for children is heavily debated. This multilevel meta-analysis aims to address the outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence in economically developed

  16. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  17. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Herve; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M.; Andral, Bruno; Barisic, Delko; Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto; Bologa, Alexandru S.; Boudjenoun, Redouane; Delfanti, Roberta; Egorov, Victor N.; El Khoukhi, Tahar; Florou, Heleni; Kniewald, Goran; Noureddine, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137 Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137 Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137 Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  18. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  19. What "price" means when buying food: insights from a multisite qualitative study with Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Grier, Sonya A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Baskin, Monica L; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Young, Deborah Rohm; Lassiter, Vikki; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2013-03-01

    We explored the role of price in the food purchasing patterns of Black adults and youths. We analyzed qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with socioeconomically diverse, primarily female, Black adults or parents (n = 75) and youths (n = 42) in 4 US cities. Interview protocols were locality specific, but all were designed to elicit broad discussion of food marketing variables. We performed a conventional qualitative content analysis by coding and analyzing data from each site to identify common salient themes. Price emerged as a primary influence on food purchases across all sites. Other value considerations (e.g., convenience, food quality, healthfulness of product, and family preferences) were discussed, providing a more complex picture of how participants considered the price of a product. Food pricing strategies that encourage consumption of healthful foods may have high relevance for Black persons across income or education levels. Accounting for how price intersects with other value considerations may improve the effectiveness of these strategies.

  20. In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamova, Katerina; Kokoska, Ladislav; Flesar, Jaroslav; Sklenickova, Olga; Svobodova, Blanka; Marsik, Petr

    2010-12-01

    The antiyeast activity of the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) quinones dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymoquinone (TQ) were evaluated in vitro with a broth microdilution method against six dairy spoilage yeast species. Antifungal effects of the quinones were compared with those of preservatives commonly used in milk products (calcium propionate, natamycin, and potassium sorbate) at two pH levels (4.0 and 5.5). THQ and TQ possessed significant antiyeast activity and affected the growth of all strains tested at both pH levels, with MICs ranging from 8 to 128 μg/ml. With the exception of the antibiotic natamycin, the inhibitory effects of all food preservatives against the yeast strains tested in this study were strongly affected by differences in pH, with MICs of ≥16 and ≥512 μg/ml at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. These findings suggest that HQ and TQ are effective antiyeast agents that could be used in the dairy industry as chemical preservatives of natural origin.

  1. Youth Services Participation of YouthYouth Policy in Hungary (2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANCSÁK, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary’s youth context changed in 2006, before the world crisis, and recession has spread since then. Youth institutions have gone through constant changes which are difficult to follow, after six years almost none of them are left. Youth resources have decreased both on the local and on the national level, due to mutually reinforcing economic and political effects. During the examined period, the proportion of youth tolerating more violent behaviour has increased, as well as those longing for strong leaders and those disillusioned with capitalism. Nowadays, apart from lobbying, demonstrations, elaborating independent political alternatives, a new, rational behaviour appears among youth, the phenomenon of leaving the country.

  2. Quantifying the potential for low-level transport of black carbon emissions from cropland burning in Russia to the snow-covered Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne V.; Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Short-lived aerosols and pollutants transported from northern mid-latitudes have amplified the short term warming in the Arctic region. Among those black carbon is recognized as the second most important human emission in regards to climate forcing, behind carbon dioxide, with a total climate forcing of +1.1Wm-2. Studies have suggested that cropland burning may be a large contributor to the black carbon emissions which are directly deposited on the snow in the Arctic. However, commonly applied atmospheric transport models rely on estimates of black carbon emissions from cropland burning which are known to be highly inaccurate in both the amount and the timing of release. Instead, this study quantifies the potential for the deposition of hypothetical black carbon emissions from known cropland burning in Russia, identified by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections, through low-level transport to the snow in the Arctic using wind vectors from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ ERA-Interim Reanalysis product. Our results confirm that Russian cropland burning is a potentially significant source of black carbon deposition on the Arctic snow in the spring despite the low injection heights associated with cropland burning. Approximately 10% of the observed spring (March - May) cropland active fires (7% annual) likely contribute to black carbon deposition on the Arctic snow from as far south as at least 40°N. Furthermore, our results show that potential spring black carbon emissions from cropland burning in Russia can be deposited beyond 80°N, however, the majority ( 90% - depending on injection height) of all potential spring deposition occurs below 75°N.

  3. Quantifying the Potential for Low-Level Transport of Black Carbon Emissions from Cropland Burning in Russia to the Snow-Covered Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne V. Hall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Short lived aerosols and pollutants transported from northern mid-latitudes have amplified the short term warming in the Arctic region. Among those black carbon is recognized as the second most important human emission in regards to climate forcing, behind carbon dioxide, with a total climate forcing of +1.1 Wm−2. Studies have suggested that cropland burning may be a large contributor to the black carbon emissions which are directly deposited on the snow in the Arctic. However, commonly applied atmospheric transport models rely on estimates of black carbon emissions from cropland burning which are known to be highly inaccurate in both the amount and the timing of release. Instead, this study quantifies the potential for the deposition of hypothetical black carbon emissions from known cropland burning in Russia, identified by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS active fire detections, through low-level transport to the snow in the Arctic using wind vectors from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim Reanalysis product. Our results confirm that Russian cropland burning is a potentially significant source of black carbon deposition on the Arctic snow in the spring despite the low injection heights associated with cropland burning. Approximately 10% of the observed spring (March–May cropland active fires (7% annual likely contribute to black carbon deposition on the Arctic snow from as far south as at least 40°N. Furthermore, our results show that potential spring black carbon emissions from cropland burning in Russia can be deposited beyond 80°N, however, the majority (~90%-depending on injection height of all potential spring deposition occurs below 75°N.

  4. From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Cynthia D.

    Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for

  5. Gene expression profiling and association of circulating lactoferrin level with obesity-related phenotypes in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Campbell, L E; Shaibi, G Q; Coletta, D K

    2015-10-01

    Low-grade inflammation is an underlying feature of obesity and identifying inflammatory markers is crucial to understanding this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to perform a global microarray analysis and (ii) to investigate the role of lactoferrin (LTF), one of the most altered genes, in relation to obesity in Latino youth. Non-diabetic Latino youth (71 males/92 females; 15.6 ± 3.2 years) were studied. A subset of 39 participants was randomly selected for global microarray analysis profiling from the whole blood sample. Serum LTF was compared between lean (n = 78) and overweight/obese (n = 85) participants. Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 1870 probes were altered in expression ≥1.2-fold and P obese participants compared with lean. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways including toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor signalling pathways. LTF and TLR5 were increased in expression by 2.2 and 1.5 fold, respectively, in the overweight/obese participants. Increased LTF concentrations were significantly associated with high risk of obesity-related phenotypes (all P obesity risk among Latino youth. This finding is discordant to what has been shown in adults and suggests that age may modulate the association between LTF and obesity-related health. © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. On the interpretation of millennium-scale level variations of the Black Sea during the first quarter of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. During the first quarter of the Holocene, the Black Sea (BS) experienced large changes: amid the gradually rising water surface, Black Sea level (BSL) fluctuations occurred. We calculated based on records (e.g., Balabanov, 2007) that the standard deviation is ˜3.5 ÷ 5 m. Their typical duration was ˜1000 years. Time of occurrence of positive and negative anomalies of the BS is different in different reconstructions. The source of these discrepancies could be tectonically induced vertical motions. Before ˜7 ka BP the BSL was higher than the level of the World Ocean. The rising BS spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosphorus (Chepalyga, 2007). It is clear that if the water discharge were quite large, the long-term BSL anomalies could not be. This study focuses on the quantification of this concept. Methodology. I use the equation of the water balance of the BS in term of the annual averaged level anomalies. Time scales of the BSL fluctuations were determined based on the BS basin morphology and averaged volumes of rivers runoff and water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill. The short-term (1-2 year) contribution (like random white noise) to level changes are due to variations of river runoff and precipitation mines evaporation. From this perspective, the water balance equation is represented as a stochastic Langevin equation (Kislov, 2015). In another case, the BSL anomaly could be destructed due to relation "BSL anomaly - value of water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill" which acts as a negative feedback. Results. To quantify the parameters, I use the present day information about hydrological regime of the BS. It should not lead to serious errors, because the first and last quarters of the Holocene exhibit similarity in their hydroclimatic regimes (Panin, Matlakhova, 2014). As well, the paleohydrological data about dynamics of the Dnieper River runoff was used (Swetc, 1978). It was found that the time scale of the BSL fluctuations due to water discharge

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (FFIETH00470046) on Town Highway 47, crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00470046 on Town Highway 47 crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 37.8 mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Black Creek has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.0005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 0.189 mm (0.00062 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 12, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 47 crossing of Black Creek is a 35-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-ft steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 28.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately zero degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-toroadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 6.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed just downstream of the

  8. Evaluation of the contamination level of sea bottom sediments on the Crimean coast of the Black and Azov Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhonova Elena

    2016-12-01

    At the most stations in the Azov Sea the content of HM exceeded values obtained in the Black Sea. Now (2016 in the open Crimean coast bottom sediments of the Black Sea have properties typical for marine sediments of the studied area. There is an upward trend in the content of chloroform-extracted substances in the Black Sea region, but the sediments are not contaminated with oil products. Taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of marine sediments, it can be stated that the condition the studied area as a whole is safe.

  9. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  10. Vitamin D levels in patients with albinism compared with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Walt, Johanna E C; Sinclair, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Associations between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases, including several bone diseases, various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, have been suggested. It is therefore important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in high-risk groups. Because patients with albinism (PWA) practice a policy of strict sun avoidance, they may be at risk for low levels of vitamin D. This study was conducted in patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, to determine sun avoidance behavior in the patient population and to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in PWA with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending the same clinics. Serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed in 50 PWA and 50 normally pigmented Black control subjects. Questionnaires on sun exposure avoidance behaviors were administered to all participants. The present study showed no statistically significant difference in median 25(OH)D levels between PWA and controls with normally pigmented Black skin. Rather, the study found a tendency for controls to have lower 25(OH)D levels. A total of 53% (n = 53) of all study participants (PWA and controls) had a 25(OH)D level of albinism attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, need not be viewed as specifically at risk for low vitamin D levels. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Review of Ecosystem Level Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Black Ash Wetlands: What Does the Future Hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall K. Kolka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western Great Lakes region. Using two companion studies that are simulating short- and long-term EAB infestations and what is known from the literature, we synthesize our current limited understanding and predict anticipated future impacts of EAB on black ash wetlands. A key response to the die-back of mature black ash will be higher water tables and the potential for flooding and resulting changes to both the vegetation and animal communities. Although seedling planting studies have shown some possible replacement species, little is known about how the removal of black ash from the canopy will affect non-ash species growth and regeneration. Because black ash litter is relatively high in nitrogen, it is expected that there will be important changes in nutrient and carbon cycling and subsequent rates of productivity and decomposition. Changes in hydrology and nutrient and carbon cycling will have cascading effects on the biological community which have been scarcely studied. Research to address these important gaps is currently underway and should lead to alternatives to mitigate the effects of EAB on black ash wetland forests and develop management options pre- and post-EAB invasion.

  12. Designs for Evaluating the Community-Level Impact of Comprehensive Prevention Programs: Examples from the CDC Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David; Bradshaw, Catherine; Reischl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of developing research designs to evaluate the impact of community-level prevention efforts. To illustrate examples of evaluation designs, we describe six projects funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate multifaceted approaches to reduce youth violence in high-risk communities. Each of these projects was designed to evaluate the community-level impact of multiple intervention strategies to address individual and contextual factors that place youth at risk for violent behavior. Communities differed across projects in their setting, size, and how their boundaries were defined. Each project is using multiple approaches to compare outcomes in one or more intervention communities to those in comparison communities. Five of the projects are using comparative interrupted time-series designs to compare outcomes in an intervention community to matched comparison communities. A sixth project is using a multiple baseline design in which the order and timing of intervention activities is randomized across three communities. All six projects are also using regression point displacement designs to compare outcomes within intervention communities to those within broader sets of similar communities. Projects are using a variety of approaches to assess outcomes including archival records, surveys, and direct observations. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the designs of these projects and illustrate the challenges of designing high-quality evaluations of comprehensive prevention approaches implemented at the community level.

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Increased Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Levels Are Independent Predictors of Dyslipidemia in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenekli, Kudret; Oztas, Efser; Kuscu, Elif; Keskin, Uğur; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Tas, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Nafiye

    2017-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) irrespective of age. Our aim was to investigate soluble tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK), a cardiovascular risk marker in PCOS, and to determine if it is associated with dyslipidemia in youth. A prospective-observational study was carried out including 35 PCOS patients and 35 healthy controls. Serum sTWEAK levels were measured using commercially available kits. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then performed to verify the statistically significant differences in the possible predictors of dyslipidemia. Serum sTWEAK levels and the percentage of women with dyslipidemia were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p = 0.024 and p dyslipidemia. The percentage of women with PCOS was significantly higher in the dyslipidemic group when compared with controls; 70.7 vs. 20.7%, respectively (p 693 pg/ml; OR 3.810, 95% CI 1.075-13.501, p = 0.038) were independently associated with dyslipidemia. Increased levels of both sTWEAK and PCOS were found to be independently associated with dyslipidemia in youth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Marginalized Youth. An Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Kessl, Fabian; Otto, Hans-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The life conduct of marginalized groups has become subject to increasing levels of risk in advanced capitalist societies. In particular, children and young people are confronted with the harsh consequences of a “new poverty” in the contemporary era. The demographic complexion of today’s poverty is youthful, as a number of government reports have once again documented in recent years in Australia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the US or Scandinavian countries. Key youth studies have shown a ...

  15. The relationship between future time perspective, self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour in the Black youth of central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2016-01-01

    An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.

  16. Maturity status influences the relative age effect in national top level youth alpine ski racing and soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Gonaus, Christoph; Perner, Christoph; Müller, Erich; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Since the relative age effect (RAE) characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR) and soccer players (SP). In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated. Additionally, a comparison group of 413 non-athletes was evaluated. The birth months were split into four relative age quarters. The biological maturity status was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method; according to the M±SD of the comparison group, the athletes were divided into normal, early and late maturing. Chi2-tests indicated a significant RAE among YSR (χ2(3,N = 183) = 18.0; psports are effectively based on early biological development and relatively older age, both of which should be considered in future in the talent selection process. In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used. PMID:28759890

  17. Blood lead levels for Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus migrating between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kenny

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, we have been determining blood lead levels (BLLs for Eurasian black vulture (EbVs, Aegypius monachus in Mongolia. Since EbVs migrated from Mongolia to the Republic (R. of Korea in 2012, we started comparing BLLs from Mongolia to Korean birds [Mongolia; mean=2.72±0.09 μg/dL standard error (SE, n=181, R. of Korea; mean=6.68±0.58 μg/dL SE, n=124]. In Korea we also analyzed birds by comparing BLLs for free-ranging birds (mean=7.54±0.50 μg/dL SE, n=44 to rehabilitation center birds (mean=6.21±0.86 μg/dL SE, n=80, and for birds fed rescued water deer (Hydropotes inermis (mean=11.26±1.66 μg/dL SE, n=7 to birds fed livestock (mean=1.97±0.27 μg/dL, n=4. Finally, we analyzed BLLs from Mongolia and the R. of Korea according to the following categories: background=<10.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 100%, n=181; R. of Korea 83.1%, exposure=≥10.0 μg/dL to <45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 16.1%, n=20, and diagnostic=≥45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 0.8%, n=1. Our research indicates that EbVs are acquiring lead while migrating to the R. of Korea.

  18. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  19. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  20. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  1. The efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, P. N. R.; Akrom; Darmawan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a conditions caused by metabolic abnormalities include central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. HbA1c examination is required to study the long-term glycemic status and to prevent diabetic complications of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk. This research performed using an experimental randomized single - blind controlled trial design. A total of 99 outpatients at the Jetis I Public Health Center, Yogyakarta, Indonesia with metabolic syndrome risk were divided into three groups: The control group received placebo and two treatment groups received black seed oil orally at dose of 1.5 mL/day and 3 mL/day, respectively, for 20 days. The clinical conditions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, BMI, blood glucose serum and HbA1c levels were examined on day 0 and 21. The results obtained were analyzed with one-way ANOVA test. The mean of HbA1c levels of all groups before treatment was higher than the normal values and there was no significant difference in HbA1c value on day 0. Administration of 1.5 and 3 mL/day of black seed oil for 20 days decreased (padministration of black cumin seed oil and hypoglycemic drug combination for 20 days in patients at risk of metabolic syndrome may reduce to HbA1c levels.

  2. ‘I am very, very proud of myself’: Improving youth activity levels using self-determination theory in program development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy B Springer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This ten-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention.

  3. A Macrolevel Examination of County-Level Risk Factors for Underage Drinking Prevention: Intervention Opportunities to Protect Youth in the State of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. O'Quin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Underage drinking can have profoundly negative impacts on childhood development. This study compares 4 categories of known underage drinking risk factors with alcohol consumption. The social indicators in these categories will be compared in the 10 most-at-risk (MAR counties and the 10 least-at-risk (LAR counties identified in Georgia. Methods. Independent 2-tailed t-tests were conducted to compare group means among MAR and LAR counties for all identified risk factors. Results. Significant differences were observed in all factors included in the poverty and alcohol outlet density categories. Discussion. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding youth drinking, poverty, and alcohol outlet density. However, our findings, supported by previous individual and aggregated level research, support strategies for researchers and policy makers to more proactively respond to poverty-stricken and high-density alcohol outlet indicators. The current ecological evaluation of underage drinking risk assessed on a macrolevel offers insights into the demographic features, social structures, and cultural patterns of counties that potentially predispose youth to greater health risks specifically associated with underage drinking.

  4. Response of northern red oak, black walnut, and white ash seedlings to various levels of simulated summer deer browsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the response of tree seedlings to browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) is critical to the management of high value hardwood plantations in the Central Hardwood Forest Region. One-year-old black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white ash...

  5. Review of ecosystem level impacts of emerald ash borer on black ash wetlands: What does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Anthony W. D' Amato; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Robert A. Slesak; Thomas G. Pypker; Melissa B. Youngquist; Alexis R. Grinde; Brian J. Palik

    2018-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western...

  6. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  7. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  8. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  9. Youth Awareness on Youth Development Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Azhar, Alias; Ayub, Zainal Amin; Abdullah, Siti Alida John; Arshad, Rozita; Suhaimi, Safiah

    2016-01-01

    Lack of awareness and understanding of youth development law amongst youth and policy makers is quite significant. Among the reasons that have been identified to be the root cause of this weakness is due to the failure or less priority given by the youth societies and related organization which are responsible in providing quality programmes for youth. In light of the above gap, the paper examines youth awareness on youth development law from the perspective of policy makers and youth themse...

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  12. Involving youth in program decision-making: how common and what might it do for youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Thomas; Cortina, Kai S; Smith, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The strategy of sharing program decision-making with youth in youth programs, a specific form of youth-adult partnership, is widely recommended in practitioner literature; however, empirical study is relatively limited. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of youth program decision-making practices (e.g., asking youth to help decide what activities are offered), using single-level and multilevel methods with a cross-sectional dataset of 979 youth attending 63 multipurpose after-school programs (average age of youth = 11.4, 53 % female). The prevalence of such practices was relatively high, particularly for forms that involved low power sharing such as involving youth in selecting the activities a program offers. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed positive associations between youth program decision-making practices and youth motivation to attend programs. We also found positive correlations between decision-making practices and youth problem-solving efficacy, expression efficacy, and empathy. Significant interactions with age suggest that correlations with problem solving and empathy are more pronounced for older youth. Overall, the findings suggest that involving youth in program decision-making is a promising strategy for promoting youth motivation and skill building, and in some cases this is particularly the case for older (high school-age) youth.

  13. Single season changes in resting state network power and the connectivity between regions distinguish head impact exposure level in high school and youth football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Gowtham; Saghafi, Behrouz; Davenport, Elizabeth; Wagner, Ben; Urban, Jillian; Kelley, Mireille; Jones, Derek; Powers, Alex; Whitlow, Christopher; Stitzel, Joel; Maldjian, Joseph; Montillo, Albert

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repetitive sub-concussive head impact exposure in contact sports like American football on brain health is poorly understood, especially in the understudied populations of youth and high school players. These players, aged 9-18 years old may be particularly susceptible to impact exposure as their brains are undergoing rapid maturation. This study helps fill the void by quantifying the association between head impact exposure and functional connectivity, an important aspect of brain health measurable via resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, the data from two separate studies (youth and high school) are combined to form a high-powered analysis with 60 players. These players experience head acceleration within overlapping impact exposure making their combination particularly appropriate. Second, multiple features are extracted from rs-fMRI and tested for their association with impact exposure. One type of feature is the power spectral density decomposition of intrinsic, spatially distributed networks extracted via independent components analysis (ICA). Another feature type is the functional connectivity between brain regions known often associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Third, multiple supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated for their stability and predictive accuracy in a low bias, nested cross-validation modeling framework. Each classifier predicts whether a player sustained low or high levels of head impact exposure. The nested cross validation reveals similarly high classification performance across the feature types, and the Support Vector, Extremely randomized trees, and Gradboost classifiers achieve F1-score up to 75%.

  14. Cairo youth declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M

    1995-01-01

    More than 100 young people from 56 countries voiced their needs and concerns in a Youth Consultation held just before the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), August 31 to September 4, 1994. Many journalists from the international press followed the consultation and interviewed the youths, with a short film even produced on the proceedings. After discussing the main topics of the ICPD, participants produced a Youth Declaration with recommendations for action and conclusions for partnership. More than 20 participants remained in Cairo to present consultation conclusions in well-attended workshops and role play at the ICPD NGO Forum. One representative presented the Youth Declaration in ICPD plenary session. These young men and women from all regions of the world, from a diversity of cultural, religious, and political backgrounds found common ground on the need for population concerns to be explicitly and consistently integrated with development in the context of a just and equitable international economic system; a strong focus upon youth education and mobilization in the areas of adolescent health, sexual and reproductive health, the environment, human rights, and political and economic systems; and the sense that now is the time to act at the individual, organizational, national, and national levels. Education and safe sexual behavior do not encourage promiscuity. On the contrary, they promote and enhance healthy, responsible relationships, minimizing the incidence of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections when sex does take place. Participants recommend promoting peer education; involving and educating peers through artistic activities such as music and drama; implementing peer counseling and raising awareness through one-on-one interaction, group discussions, printed media, and radio programs; organizing services for youths in a variety of settings; creating jobs for youths in cooperatives and businesses; educating

  15. Pathways to youth homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Claudine; Sharpe, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Research documents high levels of psychopathology among homeless youth. Most research, however, has not distinguished between disorders that are present prior to homelessness and those that develop following homelessness. Hence whether psychological disorders are the cause or consequence of homelessness has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate causal pathways to homelessness amongst currently homeless youth in Australia. The study uses a quasi-qualitative methodology to generate hypotheses for larger-scale research. High rates of psychological disorders were confirmed in the sample 35 homeless youth aged 14-25. The rates of psychological disorders at the point of homelessness were greater than in normative samples, but the rates of clinical disorder increased further once homeless. Further in-depth analyses were conducted to identify the temporal sequence for each individual with a view to establishing a set of causal pathways to homelessness and trajectories following homelessness that characterised the people in the sample. Five pathways to homelessness and five trajectories following homelessness were identified that accounted for the entire sample. Each pathway constituted a series of interactions between different factors similar to that described by Craig and Hodson (1998. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379-1388) as "complex subsidiary pathways". The major findings were that (1) trauma is a common experience amongst homeless youth prior to homelessness and figured in the causal pathways to homelessness for over half of the sample; (2) once homeless, for the majority of youth there is an increase in the number of psychological diagnoses including drug and alcohol diagnoses; and (3) crime did not precede homelessness for all but one youth; however, following homelessness, involvement in criminal activity was common and became a distinguishing factor amongst youth. The implications of these findings for future research and service

  16. Differential accounts of refugee and resettlement experiences in youth with high and low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology: A mixed-methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Lucy S; Melvin, Glenn A; Newman, Louise K

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased debate and critique of the focus on psychopathology in general, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in particular, as a predominant consequence of the refugee experience. This study was conducted to broaden the conceptualization and examination of the outcomes of the refugee experience by jointly examining how adaptive processes, psychosocial factors, and psychopathology are implicated. A mixed-methods approach was used to specifically examine whether adolescents' (N = 10) accounts of their refugee and resettlement experiences differed according to their level, "high" or "low," of PTSD symptomatology. The superordinate themes of cultural belongingness and identification, psychological functioning, family unit functioning and relationships, and friendships and interpersonal processes, were identified as having particular relevance for the study's participants and in distinguishing between participants with high and low levels of PTSD symptomatology. Findings were characterized by marked differences between adolescents' accounts according to their symptomatology levels, and may thereby inform important avenues for future research as well as clinical prevention and intervention programs with refugee youth. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The association of area-level social class and tobacco use with adverse breast cancer characteristics among white and black women: evidence from Maryland, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Ann C; Pankiewicz, Aaron; Hsieh, Stephanie; Ward, Abigail; Curriero, Frank C

    2015-04-01

    In breast cancer, worse disease characteristics are associated with fewer social resources and black race. However, it is unknown whether social gradients have similar impact across race, and whether behaviors, including tobacco use, may explain a portion of the social gradient. We modeled relationships between area-level social class, tobacco spending and tumor characteristics, using 50,062 white and black cases diagnosed from 1992-2003 in Maryland, a racially and economically diverse state on the east coast of the United States. Multi-level models estimated the effect of area-level social class and tobacco consumption on tumor grade, size, and stage at diagnosis. Adjusting for race, age and year of diagnosis, higher social class was associated with lower risk for tumors with histological grade 3 or 4 (O.R. 0.96, 95% C.I. 0.94,0.99), those diagnosed at SEER stage 2 or later (O.R. 0.89, 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.91), and tumor size >2 cm (O.R. 0.87, 95% C.I. 0.84, 0.90). Higher tobacco spending was associated with higher risk for higher grade (O.R. 1.01, 1.00, 1.03) and larger tumors (O.R. 1.03, 95% C.I. 1.01, 1.06), but was not statistically significantly related to later stage (O.R. 1.00, 95% C.I. 0.98, 1.02). Social class was less protective for black women, but tobacco effects were not race-specific. Results suggest that in one U.S. geographic area, there is a differential protection from social class for black and white women, supporting use of intersectionality theory in breast cancer disparities investigations. Area-level tobacco consumption may capture cases' direct use and second hand smoke exposure, but also may identify neighborhoods with excess cancer-related behavioral or environmental exposures, beyond those measured by social class. Given the growing global burden of both tobacco addiction and aggressive breast cancer, similar investigations across diverse geographic areas are warranted.

  18. Typologies of Youth Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeter, T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tourism differentiated itself from the concept of traditional tourism by the distinctive profile of its participants. In the last 10 years this branch had a very rapid growth, contributingsignificantly to any countries’ economy due to the amount of money that was spent by young people on different types of tourism. The aim of this paper is to present the most practiced forms of youth tourism, and their development worldwide and also in Romania. The conclusions show the most practiced types on a European and on Romanian level.

  19. Radically Healing Black Lives: A Love Note to Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginwright, Shawn A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how present conditions in Black communities have fostered the development of new modes of youth leadership that focus on hope, love, and joy, and are ultimately restorative and redemptive. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Estimation of Sea Level variations with GPS/GLONASS-Reflectometry Technique: Case Study at Stationary Oceanographic Platform in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, G. A.; Padokhin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we study GNSS - reflectometry methods for estimation of sea level variations using a single GNSS-receiver, which are based on the multipath propagation effects (interference pattern in SNR of GNSS signals at small elevation angles) caused by the reflection of navigational signals from the sea surface. The measurements were carried out in the coastal zone of Black Sea at the Stationary Oceanographic Platform during one-week campaign in the summer 2017. GPS/GLONASS signals at two working frequencies of both systems were used to study sea level variations which almost doubled the amount of observations compared to GPS-only tide gauge. Moreover all the measurements were conducted with 4-antenna GNSS receiver providing the opportunity for different orientations of antennas including zenith and nadir looking ones as well as two horizontally oriented ones at different azimuths. As the reference we used data from co-located wire wave gauge which showed good correspondence of both datasets. Though tidal effects are not so pronounced for the Black Sea, the described experimental setup allowed to study the effects of sea surface roughness, driven by meteorological conditions (e.g. wind waves), as well as antenna directivity pattern effects on the observed interference patterns of GPS/GLONASS L1/L2 signals (relation of the main spectral peak to the noise power) and the quality of sea level estimations.

  1. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed.

  2. Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…

  3. Investigating the incidence of youth mental health problem by merging person register and school level class room survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Merikukka

    2017-04-01

    It is possible to merge datasets from school level to an individual level register data. The merged big data offers new possibilities to study questions related to the prevalence of mental health problems. The new linked data can be further analyzed to hierarchical model.

  4. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

    2011-12-01

    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  5. Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lori L.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-87, suggest that the percentage of white women in an occupation negatively affects wage levels. The percentages of black men or women or Latino/a men or women do not have negative effects. Occupational devaluation does not contribute to the race/ethnic wage gap and comparable worth policies…

  6. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  7. Amphibia and insects as potential bioindicators of high acid and aluminium levels in the northern part of the Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, J.; Vollmer, W.; Rahmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide loads have caused an acidification of numerous surface waters in the calcium-deficient regions of Europe. The effects of acidification on aquatic organisms was examined in the Northern Black Forest. High acid loads and correlatively high aluminium loads were found to decrease the diversity of aquatic species. Both in wild conditions and in the aquarium embryonic and larval mortality rates were seen to be elevated, leading to a decrease in population of many species. Sublethal impairments such as damage to organs or growth or behavioural disorders were also found. The observed changes in amphibian spawn and populations were used exemplarily as a bioindication of the acid state of the 37 standing waters studied. (orig.) [de

  8. Mode of Communication, Perceived Level of Understanding, and Perceived Quality of Life in Youth Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, P.; Topolski, T. D.; Schick, B.; Edwards, T. C.; Skalicky, A. M.; Patrick, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Given the important role of parent–youth communication in adolescent well-being and quality of life, we sought to examine the relationship between specific communication variables and youth perceived quality of life in general and as a deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) individual. A convenience sample of 230 youth (mean age = 14.1, standard deviation = 2.2; 24% used sign only, 40% speech only, and 36% sign + speech) was surveyed on communication-related issues, generic and DHH-specific quality of life, and depression symptoms. Higher youth perception of their ability to understand parents’ communication was significantly correlated with perceived quality of life as well as lower reported depressive symptoms and lower perceived stigma. Youth who use speech as their single mode of communication were more likely to report greater stigma associated with being DHH than youth who used both speech and sign. These findings demonstrate the importance of youths’ perceptions of communication with their parents on generic and DHH-specific youth quality of life. PMID:21536686

  9. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  10. Effects of inclusion levels of pelleted silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis Andress.) in the diet on digestibility, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in breeding Japanese Black cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Keigo; Ishida, Miho; Ishida, Motohiko

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effects of inclusion levels of pelleted silvergrass (PS) in the diet on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and nutrient status of breeding Japanese Black cows, four cows were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. Treatments were control fed a diet consisting of 89.4% Sudangrass hay and 10.6% soybean meal on a dry matter (DM) basis, and PS18, PS27 and PS45 fed the diet replaced with 18%, 27% and 45% of control with PS, respectively. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) content of PS was 45.6% on a DM basis. The TDN intakes were significantly decreased by increasing PS level in the diet (P ruminal fluid and serum metabolite concentrations were not significantly different among the treatments. The results suggested that including PS up to 45% in the diet did not have adverse effects on the ruminal fermentation and nutrient status in breeding Japanese Black cows at the maintenance stage. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  12. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals.

  13. Moral Markets for Troubling Youths: A Disruption!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Linwood H.

    2001-01-01

    Maintains that public policy discourse with narrow views of morality and character are at the center of contemporary definitions and marketing of services for violent/troubled youth. Uses descriptive and ethnographic data on violence in urban and black schools/communities to argue that, left undisturbed, moral entrepreneurs pose as much risk as…

  14. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  15. Interracial and intraracial contact, school-level diversity, and change in racial identity status among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K; Sellers, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age=14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined. Contact with Black students, Black friends, and White friends predicted change in identity status. Furthermore, in racially diverse schools, having more Black friends was associated with identity stability. Students reporting low contact with Black students in racially diverse schools were more likely to report identity change if they had few Black friends. In students reporting high contact with Blacks in predominantly White schools, their identity was less likely to change for students with fewer White friends. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Physical abuse in early childhood and transition to first sexual intercourse among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of physical abuse in early childhood and timing of first sexual intercourse among young South Africans aged 14 to 22 in Cape Town. Using the Cape area panel survey and applying log-normal models, time ratios were estimated to show how rapidly or slowly youth experience first sexual intercourse. Results indicated that boys who experienced physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Boys and girls with violent school environments had faster timing to first sex. Race moderated the effects of physical abuse. Compared to Blacks, Coloreds who experienced higher levels of physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Youth with greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS and those with greater risk perception of contracting HIV/AIDS delayed first sex. On the basis of these findings, policy makers are encouraged to consider the early childhood experiences of youth when designing policies toward HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa.

  17. Examining levels of risk behaviors among black men who have sex with Men (MSM and the association with HIV acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risha Irvin

    Full Text Available Seroadaptation is defined as the practice of modifying sexual behavior based on one's own HIV serostatus, the perceived HIV serostatus of sexual partners, and differences in risk of HIV transmission by sexual acts. Because this definition implies intent, we use the term "seroprotection" to describe HIV negative participants reporting condomless anal sex (CAS either exclusively with seronegative partners, or only as the insertive partner with HIV positive or unknown serostatus partners. Little is known about seroprotection in Black men who have sex with men (MSM. We evaluated the independent association of seroprotection and HIV acquisition among the 1144 HIV-negative Black MSM enrolled in HPTN 061 using Cox models; we stratified by city of enrollment, and controlled for number of partners, age, and drug use. Behaviors reported at 0, 6, and 12 months were assigned to three mutually exclusive categories: (1 No CAS; (2 Seroprotection; and (3 CAS without seroprotection. In 2,861 six-month intervals; 28 HIV seroconversions occurred. No CAS was reported at 33.3% of visits, seroprotection at 46.6% of visits, and CAS without seroprotection at 20.1% of visits. The seroconversion rate per 100 person-years for no CAS was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.51, compared with 2.39 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.71 and 13.33 (95% CI: 7.62, 21.66 for seroprotection and CAS without seroprotection, respectively. Compared to CAS without seroprotection, intervals without CAS were associated with an 87% reduction (aHR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.46 in HIV acquisition and intervals with seroprotection with a 78% reduction (aHR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.09-0.57. No CAS is the safest behavior to prevent HIV acquisition. Seroprotective behaviors significantly reduced risk, but HIV incidence was still >2/100 person-years, suggesting that additional strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, are warranted for this population.

  18. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The relationship between cannabis use and cortisol levels in youth at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Emily E; Spencer, Robert L; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have posited a relationship between cannabis use and the biological stress system, but this critical relationship has not been evaluated during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychotic disorders. Salivary cortisol samples were collected on 46 UHR and 29 control adolescents; these individuals were assessed for current cannabis use with a urine panel and self-report. UHR participants where separated into two groups: Current Cannabis Use (UHR-CU) and No Current Cannabis Use (UHR-NC). Healthy Control participants (HC) were free of cannabis use. Consistent with the literature, results indicate UHR individuals showed elevated cortisol levels when compared to HC participants. Further, we also observed that UHR-CU participants exhibited elevated levels when compared to both the non-using UHR and HC groups. Findings suggest that cannabis use may interact with underlying biological vulnerability associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cortical thickness, surface area, and folding alterations in male youths with conduct disorder and varying levels of callous–unemotional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Fairchild

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the social cognitive impairments displayed by youths with CD, whereas reduced OFC SA may lead to impairments in emotion regulation and reward processing in youths with CD. The increased cortical folding observed in the insula may reflect a maturational delay in this region and could mediate the link between CU traits and empathy deficits. Altered cortical folding was observed in childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of CD.

  1. Gay-Straight Alliances Vary on Dimensions of Youth Socializing and Advocacy: Factors Accounting for Individual and Setting-Level Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Marx, Robert A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2015-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8% LGBQ; ...

  2. Effects of super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran on amyloid β peptide production and abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Hara, Takashi; Joh, Toshio; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Akira; Kasuga, Kensaku; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are very serious diseases with the latter having been suggested to cause the former. We prepared super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran (SRBBB), which contained a high amount of resistant starch that showed strong inhibitory activities against β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase even after heating. Black rice bran showed greater β-secretase inhibitory activity (3.6-fold) than Koshihikari rice. The bran contained more oleic acid and anthocyanin, meaning that it is potentially a biofunctional food with a high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, aged mice, which were fed a SRBBB diet for four weeks, showed lower amyloid β 40 peptide in the blood than mice fed a commercial diet (p < 0.01). Additionally, their initial blood glucose levels (BGLs) after 12 weeks of being fed SRBBB were significantly lower than those in the control group. Taken together, our results indicate SRBBB shows promise for inhibiting not only amyloid β production, but also abrupt increases in postprandial BGLs.

  3. Serum Biochemistry, Organ Weight, Carcass Characteristics, Organoleptic Properties and Villi Morphometry of Nera Black Cocks fed Varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Kayode Ojediran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total number of sixty-four (28 weeks old matured Nera black cocks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary groups. Diet T1 (control had no Moringa Oleifera leaf meal (MOLM inclusion while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 10%, 20% and 30% replacement for soya bean meal (w/w respectively  in a completely randomized design. All the serum biochemistry parameters evaluated differs significantly (P≤0.05 except albumin and cholesterol (P>0.05 among the dietary treatments. The weight of the kidney, heart, pancrease, proventriculus and spleen were influenced by the dietary treatments (P≤0.05. The weights of breast and empty gizzard increased (P≤0.05 linearly with MOLM inclusion while the wings, thigh and drum stick compared (P≤0.05 with those fed the control diet. The villi length and muscle thickness were significantly (P≤0.05 influenced by MOLM inclusion. The MOLM supplemented birds had longer villi than birds in the control group. The result of the this study showed that replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 30% inclusion in the diets of Nera black cocks was not detrimental to organ weights, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes and villi morphometrics. However, some serum parameters were adversely affected.

  4. LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in schools without LGB support groups. 8 A recent study found that LGB students had fewer suicidal thoughts ... factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the ... Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89‒112. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. ...

  5. Pathways to Youth Empowerment and Community Connectedness: A Study of Youth-Adult Partnership in Malaysian After-School, Co-Curricular Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kim, Taehan; Collura, Jessica; Abdullah, Haslinda

    2016-08-01

    After-school programs are prevalent across the world, but there is a paucity of research that examines quality within the "black box" of programs at the point of service. Grounded in current theory, this research examined hypothesized pathways between the experience of youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision-making; supportive adult relationships), the mediators of program safety and engagement, and the developmental outcomes of youth empowerment (leadership competence, policy control) and community connectedness (community connections, school attachment). Surveys were administered to 207 ethnically diverse (47.3 % female; 63.3 % Malay) youth, age 15-16, attending after-school co-curricular programs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed that youth voice in program decision-making predicted both indicators of youth empowerment. Neither youth voice nor supportive adult relationships was directly associated with community connectedness, however. Program engagement mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and empowerment. In contrast, program safety mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and community connectedness. The findings indicate that the two core components of youth-adult partnership-youth voice and supportive adult relationships-may operate through different, yet complementary, pathways of program quality to predict developmental outcomes. Implications for future research are highlighted. For reasons of youth development and youth rights, the immediate challenge is to create opportunities for youth to speak on issues of program concern and to elevate those adults who are able and willing to help youth exercise their voice.

  6. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  7. Black Otherfathering in the Educational Experiences of Black Males in a Single-Sex Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooms, Derrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: A good deal of research has been written about the problems and challenges facing Black male youth in their educational endeavors, ranging from academic performances, aspirations, and outcomes to student-teacher relationships, social experiences, and identity development. Statements calling for more Black male teachers abound…

  8. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The…

  9. Potential of Anti Breast Cancer Black Ethanol Rice Extract (Oryza sativa L. indica In Decreasing Levels of CA 15-3 Serum in the White Mice Sprague dawley in Induction 7.12-Dimethylbenz (α Antracene (DMBA and Estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanuar Abidin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is cancer that has the high incidence in Indonesia. Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica is a plant that has an anticancer potency. This research aim is to prove black rice as a potential anticancer by using experimental animals, 20 Sprague Dawley female rats aged 7-8 weeks induced breast cancer by using the combination of 7,12-dimethylbenz (α anthracene (DMBA and estrogen. Rats were divided into two groups, namely the K-induced breast cancer and a group of P-induced cancer and treated with black rice. Black rice is given in the form of ethanol extract at a dose of 75 mg / kg / day for six weeks. Levels of CA 15-3 serum are used as a parameter. The result showed that the differences in levels of serum CA 15-3 are significant (p <0.05. Serum CA 15-3 level in P group is lower than in K group. This study proved that the ethanol extract of black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica has potential as an anticancer breast as indicated by decreased level of serum CA 15-3

  10. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  11. 4-H Youth Development Professionals’ Perceptions of Youth Development Core Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Fox

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the perceived level of competence among 4-H Youth Development Agents from a Southern state in the United States. The findings will be used to identify gaps in and opportunities for professional training and development experiences in supporting the competence and growth of youth professionals. Based on the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competency Model (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence in nine youth development core competency areas. Utilizing a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1=no knowledge to 5=expert, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence ranging from 3.12 to 3.54. According to an interpretive scale, youth development professionals rated their competence as intermediate. Staff felt most competent in the areas of current youth issues, career opportunities for youth, and family structures/relationships. Staff felt least competent in the area of mental development of youth. No one identified themselves as an expert in the areas of psychological development, emotional development, and current youth issues.

  12. Effects of dapagliflozin on insulin-requirement, glucose excretion and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels are not related to baseline HbA1c in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, Torben; Aschemeier, Baerbel; Fath, Maryam; Frey, Marcel; Scheerer, Markus F; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) infrequently achieve HbA1c targets. Therefore, this placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study was set up to assess the safety, effect and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 10 mg dapagliflozin (DAPA) as add-on to insulin in relationship to HbA1c in youth. A total of 33 youths (14 males, median age 16 years, diabetes duration 8 years) were included and stratified into 3 baseline HbA1c categories (9.0; n = 11 each). During the study period of 24 hours, intravenous insulin administration and glucose-infusion kept blood glucose levels at 160 to 220 mg/dL. DAPA reduced mean insulin dose by 13.6% ( P  HbA1c. Six independent episodes in 6 patients with plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate levels between ≥0.6 and HbA1c levels, for adjunct SGLT2-inhibitor therapy in the paediatric age group by lowering insulin dose and increasing glucose excretion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Black Hole in Science Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews four decades of research on race and education in Great Britain and discusses the deficit theories of underachievement that serve as the structure of most of the studies. Focus is placed on black youth of Caribbean origin and how they perform in British schools. Consideration is also given to constructive frameworks from gender…

  14. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  15. Sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms: effects of pubertal development and gender role orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth.

  16. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  17. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  18. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  19. Cortical thickness, surface area, and folding alterations in male youths with conduct disorder and varying levels of callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Toschi, Nicola; Hagan, Cindy C; Goodyer, Ian M; Calder, Andrew J; Passamonti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in gray matter volume in youths with conduct disorder (CD), although these differences are difficult to interpret as they may have been driven by alterations in cortical thickness, surface area (SA), or folding. The objective of this study was to use surface-based morphometry (SBM) methods to compare male youths with CD and age and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) in cortical thickness, SA, and folding. We also tested for structural differences between the childhood-onset and adolescence-onset subtypes of CD and performed regression analyses to assess for relationships between CD symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and SBM-derived measures. We acquired structural neuroimaging data from 20 HCs and 36 CD participants (18 with childhood-onset CD and 18 with adolescence-onset CD) and analyzed the data using FreeSurfer. Relative to HCs, youths with CD showed reduced cortical thickness in the superior temporal gyrus, reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and increased cortical folding in the insula. There were no significant differences between the childhood-onset and adolescence-onset CD subgroups in cortical thickness or SA, but several frontal and temporal regions showed increased cortical folding in childhood-onset relative to adolescence-onset CD participants. Both CD subgroups also showed increased cortical folding relative to HCs. CD symptoms were negatively correlated with OFC SA whereas CU traits were positively correlated with insula folding. Cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the social cognitive impairments displayed by youths with CD, whereas reduced OFC SA may lead to impairments in emotion regulation and reward processing in youths with CD. The increased cortical folding observed in the insula may reflect a maturational delay in this region and could mediate the link between CU traits and empathy deficits. Altered cortical folding was observed in childhood-onset and

  20. Youth and the Cult of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Smolík, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...

  1. Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in a Dutch Cohort : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual

  2. Predicted eelgrass response to sea level rise and its availability to foraging Black Brant in Pacific coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Frank J.; Gilkerson, Whelan; Black, Jeffrey M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Managers need to predict how animals will respond to habitat redistributions caused by climate change. Our objective was to model the effects of sea level rise on total eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat area and on the amount of that area that is accessible to Brant geese (Branta bernicla), specialist grazers of eelgrass. Digital elevation models were developed for seven estuaries from Alaska, Washington, California (USA), and Mexico. Scenarios of future total eelgrass area were derived from combinations of estuarine specific sediment and tectonic rates (i.e., bottom change rate) with three rates of eustatic sea level rise (ESLR). Percentages of total eelgrass areas that were accessible to foraging Brant were determined for December when the birds overwinter at more southerly sites and in April as they move north to sites where they build body stores on their way to nesting areas in Alaska. The modeling showed that accessible eelgrass area could be lower than total area due to how daytime low-tide height, eelgrass shoot length, and the upper elevation of eelgrass determined Brant-reaching depth. Projections of future eelgrass area indicated that present-day ESLR (2.8 mm/yr) and bottom change rates should sustain the current pattern of estuarine use by Brant except in Morro Bay, where use should decrease because eelgrass is being ejected from this estuary by a positive bottom change rate. Higher ESLR rates (6.3 and 12.7 mm/yr) should result in less Brant use of estuaries at the northern and southern ends of the flyway, particularly during the winter, but more use of mid-latitude estuaries. The capacity of mid-latitude estuaries to function as Brant feeding refugia, or for these estuaries and Izembek Lagoon to provide drift rather than attached leaves, is eventually limited by the decrease in total eelgrass area, which is a result of a light extinction affect on the eelgrass, or the habitat being pushed out of the estuary by positive tectonic rates. Management

  3. Youth Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…

  4. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  5. Active video games for youth: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether a population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA. Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth wer...

  6. Factors Affecting Youth Voice in Decision-Making Processes within Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Tarifa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.

  7. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  8. Determination of radioactivity levels and heavy metal concentrations in seawater, sediment and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) from the Black Sea in Rize, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Kiris, Erkan; Sirin, Murat

    2017-03-15

    Seawater, sediment and fish (anchovy) samples consumed in the Rize province of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey were collected from five different stations. The radioactivity levels ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs) were determined in all the samples using a high-purity germanium detector. While 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K radionuclides were detected in all samples, the radionuclide concentration of 137 Cs, except for the sediment samples (mean activity is 9±1.4Bqkg -1 ), was not detected for the seawater and fish samples. The total annual effective dose rates from the ingestion of these radionuclides for fish were calculated using the measured activity concentrations in radionuclides and their ingested dose conversion factor. Also, the concentrations of some heavy metals in all the samples were determined. The activity and heavy metal concentration values that were determined for the seawater, sediment and fish samples were compared among the locations themselves and with literature values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  10. Will Integration Hurt My Black Son's Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Leah Y.

    1987-01-01

    In integrated schools, the educational system is slow to encourage black youngsters to participate at all levels of school life. Black participation is also inhibited by an insidious peer pressure and immature code of racial pride that defines blackness in terms that often exclude excellence in efforts beyond music, dance, and sports. (PS)

  11. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  12. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  13. Youth Culture and Cell Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed zokaei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranian youth’s leisure culture has been immediately affected by the digital media culture. As a communicative media, cell phone has crossed borders of youth norms and identity; and in addition to facilitating their communication, has changed its patterns. Applying Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field, and relied on the qualitative and quantitative data gathered from the mobile youth users, the present study argues that mobile has produced a new field in which youth’s opportunities for leisure, entertainment, communication, and independence have extended. In addition, cell phone has facilitated and compensated for some defects in public sphere, and therefore empowered youth agency, individuality, and power. Despite this strengthening, cell phone does not cross borders of gender and class differences, or the levels of social capital.

  14. Youth violence directed toward significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratcoski, P C

    1985-06-01

    This study explored violent behavior of high school students toward their parents, using a self-report questionnaire. The families of the students were characterized as having high, moderate, or low levels of family functioning, and these levels were correlated with the amount of violent behavior manifested by the youths. It was found that violence by young people toward their parents tended to be concentrated in households with strong manifestations of intra-family violence or aggression between the parents, between parents and children, and between siblings. Low levels of family functioning, characterized by disagreements over money matters, inappropriate disciplining of children, few share activities, and alcohol abuse, also correlated strongly with youth violence toward parents. It was also found that youths involved in deviant peer group activity had higher levels of violence toward parents than youths who were not involved in this way.

  15. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  16. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  17. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  18. Catholic Media and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Stephen A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the impact of media on youth and suggests some possible directions for the Catholic media, especially in the areas of textbooks, magazines, television, movies, and radio, in responding to the needs of youth. (Author/FM)

  19. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.

  20. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  1. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  2. Youth Development: Maori Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  3. Arab Youth: A Contained Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Gertel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.

  4. Scars of disengagement: perspectives on community leadership and youth engagement in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Jooste, Karien; Aziato, Lydia; Anakwe, Adaobi

    2017-08-01

    Given the emerging global youth disengagement epidemic, anticipated population growth, and the threat of continued rural-urban migration among young adults, recent research has focused on community leadership practice and the factors that influence youth engagement at the local level. Studying these practices and factors can elicit interventions that can improve youth engagement and youth health. This study engaged South African rural community leaders in interviews to collect perceptions and experiences on community leadership and factors that influence youth engagement and their health behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Emergent themes are categorized into four domains: conceptualizations of leadership, current youth behaviors, barriers to youth engagement, and youth leadership opportunities and potential solutions. Findings demonstrate a clear grasp of the concept of community leadership among community leaders, and an awareness of the complex interplay of social, economic and environmental factors on youth disengagement and the potential interventions to promote more youth participation.

  5. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth.

  6. Daily Parental Knowledge of Youth Activities Is Linked to Youth Physical Symptoms and HPA functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  7. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András

    2015-01-01

    Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...... significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes...

  8. Risky movies, risky behaviors, and ethnic identity among Black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Jamieson, Patrick E; Khurana, Atika; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-12-01

    To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black adolescents and content analysis ratings on top-grossing 2014 films and 2013/2014 Black-oriented films. Content-specific exposure measures for alcohol, sexual activity, and violence were calculated from self-reported exposure data and content analysis ratings. Regression analyses estimated the associations among exposures to risky health content in mainstream and Black-oriented films and adolescent behaviors as well as moderation by ethnic group identity. Black adolescents were mostly unaffected by exposure to risk portrayals in mainstream films, but exposure to risk in Black-oriented films was related to their behavior in all three domains. Strong group identity strengthened the relationship between exposure to sex in Black-oriented and mainstream films depending on the sexual outcome. The type of movie (i.e., mainstream or Black-oriented) through which Black adolescents are exposed to risky health portrayals is important for understanding its relationship to their behavior, and variations by ethnic identity were limited to sex content. Future research should identify the mechanisms through which risk content in Black-oriented films is associated with Black adolescents' risky behaviors to determine how media influence contributes to behavioral disparities among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Black-hole creation in quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Chao, Wu [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics]|[Specola Vaticana, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See)

    1997-11-01

    It is proven that the probability of a black hole created from the de Sitter space-time background, at the Wkb level, is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of the black hole and cosmological horizon areas, or the total entropy of the universe. This is true not only for the spherically symmetric cases of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, but also for the rotating cases of the Kerr black hole and the rotating charged case of the Newman black hole. The de Sitter metric is the most probable evolution at the Planckian era of the universe.

  10. Broadening the Bounds of Youth Development: Youth as Engaged Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Inca A.; Wheeler, Wendy

    This report focuses on leadership development, especially on efforts that promote youth engagement as a youth development strategy. Part 1 is an edited version of the publication, "Youth Leadership for Development: Civic Activism as a Component of Youth Development Programming." It provides an overview of youth development theory, including an…

  11. Self-efficacy and Perceived Organizational Support by Workers in a Youth Development Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rockow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy levels of workers in the youth development field can significantly impact the work done with youth.  These levels may be impacted by workers’ perceptions of administrative occupational support at their organization.  To date, limited research exists that examines youth work efficacy levels, and no research studies exist analyzing the relationship between youth workers’ efficacy levels and perceived organizational support.  The current study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and the perceived organizational support felt by workers in a youth development setting.  A total of 198 surveys were completed; results indicated that youth work efficacy was significantly related to perceived organizational support.  This study is important to enhancing the body of knowledge regarding self-efficacy levels of workers in a youth development setting, as well as understanding motivation and self-confidence of youth development professionals.

  12. Preference for flavoured cigar brands among youth, young adults and adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Giovenco, Daniel P; Ambrose, Bridget K; Corey, Catherine G; Conway, Kevin P

    2015-07-01

    While cigarette consumption in the USA continues to decline, cigar consumption has increased. Tobacco-trade publications suggest that flavoured cigars are driving the recent growth in cigar consumption. Limited survey data exist to explore flavoured cigar preferences among youth and adults. This study used the 2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and Nielsen market scanner data. The NSDUH sample consisted of 6678 past 30-day cigar smokers who reported smoking a usual brand of cigars. NSDUH contains a measure on usual cigar brand smoked and was merged with Nielsen data to estimate the per cent of each cigar brand's market share that is flavoured. Multivariate analyses indicate that youth, young adults, females, blacks, cigarette smokers, blunt users and daily cigar smokers are significantly more likely to report a usual cigar brand that is flavoured. Preference for a usual brand that produces flavoured cigars decreases significantly with age. This study finds recent growth in flavoured cigar consumption and preference among youth and young adults for cigar brands that are flavoured. These findings underscore the need to expand monitoring of product attributes as well as individual-level cigar use behaviours captured through population surveillance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. What “Price” Means When Buying Food: Insights From a Multisite Qualitative Study With Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Grier, Sonya A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Baskin, Monica L.; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Young, Deborah Rohm; Lassiter, Vikki

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the role of price in the food purchasing patterns of Black adults and youths. Methods. We analyzed qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with socioeconomically diverse, primarily female, Black adults or parents (n = 75) and youths (n = 42) in 4 US cities. Interview protocols were locality specific, but all were designed to elicit broad discussion of food marketing variables. We performed a conventional qualitative content analysis by coding and analyzing data from each site to identify common salient themes. Results. Price emerged as a primary influence on food purchases across all sites. Other value considerations (e.g., convenience, food quality, healthfulness of product, and family preferences) were discussed, providing a more complex picture of how participants considered the price of a product. Conclusions. Food pricing strategies that encourage consumption of healthful foods may have high relevance for Black persons across income or education levels. Accounting for how price intersects with other value considerations may improve the effectiveness of these strategies. PMID:23327261

  14. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. Aim: We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. Results: In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02−1.17. This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01−1.17 and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03−1.32, males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00−1.25, and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00−1.16. Conclusion: Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  16. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-11-06

    Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years). Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.17). This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01-1.17) and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03-1.32), males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00-1.25), and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00-1.16). Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  17. Preparation of black soybean (Glycine max L) extract with enhanced levels of phenolic compound and estrogenic activity using high hydrostatic pressure and pre-germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the estrogenic properties and conversion of the phenolic compounds in germinated black soybean. The black soybean was germinated for two- or four-days, and then subjected to HHP at 0.1, 50, 100, or 150 MPa for 12 or 24 h. The highest total polyphenol content (3.9 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (0.8 mg CE/g), phenolic acid content (940 ± 18.96 μg/g), and isoflavonone content (2600 μg/g) were observed after germination for four days and HHP treatment at 100 MPa for 24 h. In terms of isoflavone composition, the malonyl, acetyl and β-glycoside contents decreased, while the aglycone content increased with HHP. The highest proliferative effect (150%) is observed at four days germination and HHP treatment at 100 MPa. These results suggest that application of HHP may provide useful information regarding the utility of black soybean as alternative hormone replacement therapy.

  18. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  19. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding.…

  20. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  1. Malt Beverage Brand Popularity Among Youth and Youth-Appealing Advertising Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    This study examined whether alcohol brands more popular among youth are more likely to have aired television advertisements that violated the alcohol industry's voluntary code by including youth-appealing content. We obtained a complete list of 288 brand-specific beer advertisements broadcast during the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's and women's basketball tournaments from 1999 to 2008. All ads were rated by a panel of health professionals using a modified Delphi method to assess the presence of youth-appealing content in violation of the alcohol industry's voluntary code. The ads represented 23 alcohol brands. The popularity of these brands was operationalized as the brand-specific popularity of youth alcohol consumption in the past 30 days, as determined by a 2011 to 2012 national survey of underage drinkers. Brand-level popularity was used as the exposure variable to predict the odds of having advertisements with youth-appealing content violations. Accounting for other covariates and the clustering of advertisements within brands, increased brand popularity among underage youth was associated with significantly increased odds of having youth-appeal content violations in ads televised during the NCAA basketball tournament games (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.09). Alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers are more likely to air television advertising that violates the industry's voluntary code which proscribes youth-appealing content. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community.

  3. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  4. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  5. Impact of change in neighborhood racial/ethnic segregation on cardiovascular health in minority youth attending a park-based afterschool program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Patel, Hersila H; Ahmed, Zafar; Hansen, Eric; Sunil Mathew, M; Nardi, Maria I; Messiah, Sarah E

    2018-05-01

    Research on the mechanistic factors associating racial/ethnic residential segregation with health is needed to identify effective points of intervention to ultimately reduce health disparities in youth. We examined the association of changes in racial/ethnic segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes including body mass index percentile, sum of skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentile, and 400 m run time in non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic youth (n = 2,250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% NHB; 49% high area poverty; 25% obese) attending Fit2Play™, a multisite park-based afterschool program in Miami, Florida, USA. A series of crude and adjusted two-level longitudinal generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts for park effects were fit to assess the association of change in segregation between home and program/park site and cardiovascular health outcomes for youth who participated for up to two school years in Fit2Play™. After adjusting for individual-level factors (sex, age, time, and park-area poverty) models showed significantly greater improvements in cardiovascular health if youth attended Fit2Play™ in an area less segregated than their home area (p < 0.05 for all outcomes) except 400 m run time and diastolic blood pressure percentile in Hispanics (p<.001 and p = 0.11, respectively). Area poverty was not found to confound or significantly modify this association. These findings have implications for youth programming focused on reducing health disparities and improving cardiovascular outcomes in NHB and Hispanic youth, particularly in light of a continually expanding obesity epidemic in these groups. Parks and Recreation Departments have potential to expand geographic mobility for minorities, therein supporting the national effort to reduce health inequalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  7. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  8. [Gap between the use of and need for youth care: research in Rotterdam neighbourhoods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Anschutz, Justine; de Zwart, Onno

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the need for care and the use of care in the youth care system at neighbourhood level and the relationship with population characteristics, with consideration of the decentralisation of youth care. Descriptive, retrospective study. Data on youth care use, indicators of need for care and population characteristics were gathered from monitors and the records of the municipality, institutions and health insurance companies. Data were grouped on a neighbourhood level (n = 49). For the analyses we used univariate and multivariate regression. We used these to distinguish between neighbourhoods with large and small gaps between youth care use and need for youth care. Differences between these neighbourhoods were analysed with t-tests. A multivariate model showed that the percentage of youths with emotional problems and behavioural problems and the percentage of parents with self-reported need for care were not predictors of youth care use at a neighbourhood level. About two thirds of the variance in youth care use between neighbourhoods could be explained by the population characteristics of a neighbourhood, particularly the percentage of youths originally from non-western countries, the percentage of youths with a low level of education or special training and the percentage of people who received income support. The number of 12-18-year-olds in a neighbourhood was a predictor of youth mental health care, and the percentage of youths in a single-parent family was a predictor of out-patient youth and parenting support. Neighbourhoods with a large gap between the need for and use of youth care were socially more disadvantaged than neighbourhoods with a smaller gap. Population characteristics explain the rate of use of youth care better than the need for youth care in a neighbourhood as measured by municipal monitors. The possible gap between the use of and need for youth care on an individual level in neighbourhoods with many

  9. ?Are Thai children and youth sufficiently active? prevalence and correlates of physical activity from a nationally representative cross-sectional study?

    OpenAIRE

    Amornsriwatanakul, Areekul; Lester, Leanne; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youth?s PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youth?s participati...

  10. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  11. "What's Going On?": A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Activism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores activism, education, and the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Using critical race theory (CRT), I analyze what this emergence of primarily youth-led activism means in the context of decades of neoliberal education reform. I raise specific questions about how youth-led activism, which has its genesis in and is largely shaped by…

  12. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  13. Newspaper coverage of youth and tobacco: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Wakefield, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    The presentation of smoking as a "youth" issue is a powerful component of current tobacco-control efforts. Agenda setting theory demonstrates that the media serve as a potent forum in which the consideration and presentation of perspectives of social problems take place. This analysis of 643 U.S. youth-focused newspaper articles examines the messages being conveyed to the public and policymakers through coverage of tobacco issues focused on youth. Data illustrate that the issue of youth tobacco use is newsworthy but also suggest that youth-focused issues garner little commentary coverage. Rather, straightforward reports of "feel good" stories dominate the coverage, and youth-focused articles tend to conceptualize the problem of tobacco as being one of a need for greater individual-level education rather than structural or policy changes.

  14. Satisfaction with life, psychosocial health and materialism among Hungarian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F

    2006-11-01

    Previous research suggests that youth's life satisfaction may be influenced by health and certain socioeconomic/sociocultural factors, which may be important in a post-socialist country like Hungary. We investigated the relationship between youth's life satisfaction, materialism and their psychosocial health in a sample of secondary school students (N = 1114) in Hungary. Findings show that youth's psychosocial health may play an important role in their levels of life satisfaction, particularly depressive and psychosomatic symptoms and health behaviors (e.g. diet control and smoking). SES self-assessment and materialistic success were positively, while materialistic happiness was negatively related to youth's life satisfaction.

  15. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  16. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  17. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  18. Youth Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Youth unemployment has been a cause for concern in the United States for years. Youth unemployment costs society--through the loss of talent and costs of social supports and subsidies. Jobless young people are more vulnerable to a range of challenges, including the ills already plaguing their communities: high rates of unplanned pregnancy,…

  19. Participation of Youth

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides examples that investors, civil society, and governments can follow to engage youth in participating in agriculture. Young people can be the driving force for the inclusive rural transformation needed to address the many challenges posed by growing populations, urbanization, and youth unemployment. Yet, many young people are frustrated by the lifestylesand opportunities a...

  20. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  1. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  2. Alliance in Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linda Rothman; H. Pijnenburg; Rinie van Rijsingen

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of alliance in youth care. The concept of (therapeutic) alliance originates in adult psychotherapy and related research. Alliance refers to the working relationship between youth care workers and their clients. Within this concept, personal (emotional) and task

  3. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the

  4. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  5. Black layers on historical architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Zerbi, Carlotta M; Bugini, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The external surface of any building in urban polluted environment is unavoidably destined to be covered with layers that assume a grey to black colour and are generally called 'black crusts'. These, according to standard protocols and glossary, are deteriorated surface layers of stone material; they can have variable thickness, are hard and fragile and can detach spontaneously from the substrate, which, in general, is quite decayed. Plain visual examination may lead to consider 'black crusts' all similar, whilst only a careful diagnostic investigation can distinguish 'black crusts' and the consequences of their formation on stone substrates. In this paper, various black layers on marble are studied and compared and the morphological and compositional characteristics discussed according to the related mechanisms of formation. Differences between old (hundred years) and recent crusts (30 years) are investigated and pointed out. Samples of black crusts collected from the Milan Cathedral façade (Candoglia Marble) have been studied and compared with the careful and synergic employ of traditional techniques: optical (transmission and reflected VIS light) and electron microscopy, X-ray spectrometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Visual examination of loose fragments does not allow to point out outstanding differences amongst the various samples; black layers have similar main mineral components, gypsum and airborne particles, with different spatial distribution. The microscopic studies allowed to point out the porosity differences, the gypsum crystallisation habit, different amount of embedded particles, level and progress of marble decay. The observations lead to define three main types of black crusts: black crust deriving from marble sulphation, compact deposit and encrustation due to exogenic materials deposition. Black crusts show evidence of sulphation in progress, without a clear continuity solution between crust and marble; the lack of

  6. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  7. Media and youth: access, exposure, and privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D F

    2000-08-01

    To describe U.S. youth's access and exposure to the full array of media, as well as the social contexts in which media exposure occurs. A cross-sectional national random sample of 2065 adolescents aged 8 through 18 years, including oversamples of African-American and Hispanic youth, completed questionnaires about use of television, videotapes, movies, computers, video games, radio, compact discs, tape players, books, newspapers, and magazines. U.S. youngsters are immersed in media. Most households contain most media (computers and video game systems are the exception); the majority of youth have their own personal media. The average youth devotes 6 3/4 h to media; simultaneous use of multiple media increases exposure to 8 h of media messages daily. Overall, media exposure and exposure to individual media vary as a function of age, gender, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic level. Television remains the dominant medium. About one-half of the youth sampled uses a computer daily. A substantial proportion of children's and adolescents' media use occurs in the absence of parents. American youth devote more time to media than to any other waking activity, as much as one-third of each day. This demands increased parental attention and research into the effects of such extensive exposure.

  8. 'Youth' making us fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This article problematizes the construction of youth as a ‘driving force’ in the contemporary configuration of the European Union (EU) as an educational and political space. The study draws empirical nourishment out of documents that are central to the ongoing formation of the Union, be it White...... Papers, scripts or memos concerning political arenas such as youth and education policies and the Bologna process. Theoretically the article draws on insights from post-Foucauldian traditions with a focus on mentalities, subject constructions, technologies and practices operating within the ongoing...... governmentalization of Europe. Central questions are ‘who’ and ‘what’ the problematization of youth as political technology is about. Drawing on homologies in the coding of citizen, independent of age, the authors claim that problematization of youth is directed to all of us. We are all, in the name of youth...

  9. Reducing youth internalizing symptoms: Effects of a family-based preventive intervention on parental guilt induction and youth cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKEE, LAURA G.; PARENT, JUSTIN; FOREHAND, REX; RAKOW, AARON; WATSON, KELLY H.; DUNBAR, JENNIFER P.; REISING, MICHELLE M.; HARDCASTLE, EMILY; COMPAS, BRUCE E.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the associations among parental guilt induction (a form of psychological control), youth cognitive style, and youth internalizing symptoms, with parents and youth participating in a randomized controlled trial of a family-based group cognitive–behavioral preventive intervention targeting families with a history of caregiver depression. The authors present separate models utilizing parent report and youth report of internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that families in the active condition (family-based group cognitive–behavioral group) relative to the comparison condition showed a significant decline in parent use of guilt induction at the conclusion of the intervention (6 months postbaseline). Furthermore, reductions in parental guilt induction at 6 months were associated with significantly lower levels of youth negative cognitive style at 12 months. Finally, reductions in parental use of guilt induction were associated with lower youth internalizing symptoms 1 year following the conclusion of the intervention (18 months postbaseline). PMID:24438999

  10. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  11. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Experiential Manifestation of Youth Violence in Tanzania: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increased trend of rural-urban migration annually exacerbates the common problem of youth unemployment. Problems of street-level employment opportunities force many youth to join notorious gang activities aimed at terrorizing communities barely for the sake of making ends meet. They formed nefarious gangs that ...

  14. The 'youth and agriculture' problem: implications for rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a common perception in South Africa that the youth are not interested in agriculture, leading to two concerns: first, that this is exacerbating the youth unemployment crisis, and second, that the already low levels of agricultural activity in the former homelands/reserves are likely to drop further, imperiling any hope for ...

  15. Interactions between youth and mental health professionals: The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) experience Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Conversations about mental health Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15–17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: “interested”, “foot in the door”, “respect for authority”, “careful”, and “not my topic”. Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: “engaged”, “initially hesitant”, “cautious”, “eager to please”, or “disengaged”. We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along

  16. Parental Perceptions of Physical Activity Benefits for Youth with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, E. Andrew; Siebert, Erin; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity promotion is of need for youth with developmental disabilities. Parental perceptions of physical activity benefits may influence youth behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between parental beliefs on the importance of physical activity and physical activity levels among youth with disabilities. Parents and…

  17. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    't entirely understand, the other one gets the upper hand." GRS 1915+105 Chandra X-ray Image of GRS 1915+105 The latest Chandra results also show that the wind and the jet carry about the same amount of matter away from the black hole. This is evidence that the black hole is somehow regulating its accretion rate, which may be related to the toggling between mass expulsion via either a jet or a wind from the accretion disk. Self-regulation is a common topic when discussing supermassive black holes, but this is the first clear evidence for it in stellar-mass black holes. "It is exciting that we may be on the track of explaining two mysteries at the same time: how black hole jets can be shut down and also how black holes regulate their growth," said co-author Julia Lee, assistant professor in the Astronomy department at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Maybe black holes can regulate themselves better than the financial markets!" Although micro-quasars and quasars differ in mass by factors of millions, they should show a similarity in behavior when their very different physical scales are taken into account. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption "If quasars and micro-quasars behave very differently, then we have a big problem to figure out why, because gravity treats them the same," said Neilsen. "So, our result is actually very reassuring, because it's one more link between these different types of black holes." The timescale for changes in behavior of a black hole should vary in proportion to the mass. For example, an hour-long timescale for changes in GRS 1915 would correspond to about 10,000 years for a supermassive black hole that weighs a billion times the mass of the Sun. "We cannot hope to explore at this level of detail in any single supermassive black hole

  18. What does a black hole look like?

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...

  19. Adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines: an evaluation of advertising placement in relation to underage youth readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H; Wulach, Laura; Ross, Craig; Dixon, Karen; Ostroff, Joshua

    2009-12-01

    To investigate whether alcoholic beverages popular among underage youths are more likely than those less popular among these youths to be advertised in magazines with high underage youth readerships. We compared the alcohol advertisement placement in 118 magazines during the period 2002 to 2006 for alcoholic beverages popular among youths to that of alcoholic beverages less likely to be consumed by youths. Using a random effects probit model, we examined the relationship between a magazine's youth (ages 12-20) readership and the probability of youth or nonyouth alcoholic beverage types being advertised in a magazine, controlling for young adult (ages 21-34) readership, cost of advertising, and other factors. Youth alcoholic beverage types were significantly more likely to be advertised in magazines with higher youth readership. Holding all other variables constant, the ratio of the probability of a youth alcoholic beverage type being advertised to that of a nonyouth alcoholic beverage type being advertised in a given magazine increased from 1.5 to 4.6 as youth readership increased from 0% to 40%. In magazines with the highest levels of youth readership, youth alcoholic beverage types were more than four times more likely to be advertised than nonyouth alcoholic beverage types. Alcoholic beverages popular among underage youths are more likely than those less popular among youths to be advertised in magazines with high youth readerships.

  20. Methods for diagnosing the level of preparedness of future specialists of physical education and sports unto the organization labour staff of youth sports school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov D.A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical questions of determination of level of readiness of future specialists are examined to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The plan of creation of structural functional model of readiness of specialists is presented to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. Procedure of determination of specific gravity of factors of professional readiness of specialists is described to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The qualimetry vehicle of determination of level of their professional readiness is given. The general view of form of expert estimation of this readiness is presented.

  1. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  2. Drifting black aurorae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability

  3. Black lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP), often called Black Lung Disease is a occupational disease which results from inhalation of coal mine dust which usually contains small amounts of free crystalline silica. This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CWP and how it has been controlled in the USA through the 1969 Coal Mine Act and dust level standards. It describes the sampling methods used. Medical control methods and engineering control of the disease is discussed. Work of the Generic Mineral Technology Center for Respirable Dust is described. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P specializing in a single sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  5. Talent identification in youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath; White, Jordan; Georgiou, Andreas; Iga, John; Drust, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games.

  6. Comparison of Positive Youth Development for Youth With Chronic Conditions With Healthy Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N; Pollock, McLean D

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents with childhood-onset chronic condition (COCC) are at increased risk for physical and psychological problems. Despite being at greater risk and having to deal with traumatic experiences and uncertainty, most adolescents with COCC do well across many domains. The Positive Youth Development (PYD) perspective provides a framework for examining thriving in youth and has been useful in understanding positive outcomes for general populations of youth as well as at-risk youth. This study aimed to compare levels of PYD assets between youth with COCC and youth without illness. Participants with COCC were recruited from specialty pediatric clinics while healthy participants were recruited from a large pediatric primary care practice. Inclusion criteria for participants included being (1) English speaking, (2) no documented intellectual disability in electronic medical record, and (3) aged between 13 and 18 years during the recruitment period. Univariate and bivariate analyses on key variables were conducted for adolescents with and without COCC. Finally, we performed multivariable linear regressions for PYD and its subdomains. There were no significant differences between overall PYD or any of the subdomains between the two groups. Multivariable linear regression models showed no statistically significant relationship between chronic condition status and PYD or the subdomains. The findings from this study support the application of the PYD perspective to this population of youth. The results of this study suggest that approaches shown to benefit healthy youth, could be used to promote positive outcomes for youth with COCC. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Youth in Dead End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu TANRIKULU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  8. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  9. An overview of the ecological half-life of the 137Cs radioisotope and a determination of radioactivity levels in sediment samples after Chernobyl in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Cevik, Ugur

    2018-01-01

    A study which determined the activity concentration of 137Cs in sediments contaminated by effluents from the Chernobyl accident which had collected along the coast of the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey was carried out in 1993. Marine sediment samples were collected in 2015 from the same fifteen sampling points, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined for the sediment samples. The activity concentrations ranged from 10.94-25.95, 12.14-33.05, 265.74-459.89 and 2.08-37.45 Bq kg- 1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The results showed that there was a steep decline in 137Cs within the sediment at most of the sampling sites from the Eastern Black Sea region during the 22-year period, except for two sites at which the measured levels were much higher. This may be the result of the combined effects of radioactive contaminant entry into this area from rivers, environmental changes and nuclear testing between 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the ecological half-life (EHL) of the 137Cs radionuclide was estimated for the sediment samples, and radiological hazard parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. It was shown that these sediments do not present any significant health risk for humans in this area.

  10. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  11. Positive Youth Development and Resilience: Growth Patterns of Social Skills Among Youth Investigated for Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Topple, Trasie A; Carlson, Matthew W

    2017-07-01

    Maltreated children are a vulnerable population, yet many of these youth follow positive developmental pathways. The primary aim was to identify social skills growth trajectories among at-risk youth to understand processes underlying resilience. Nationally representative, longitudinal data from 1,179 families investigated for child maltreatment (M age  = 12.75) were obtained from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Four trajectories were identified-stress-resistant, emergent resilience, breakdown, and unresponsive-maladaptive. Protective resources from multiple levels of the youth ecology (individual, family, school, and social service) predicted positive growth social skills trajectories. Resilience process and attendant positive outcomes in multiple domains of functioning were evident among the stress-resistant and emergent resilience trajectories. Results underscore the saliency of social skills development for resilient outcomes in youth. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Matthew H.; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Curry, Susanna R.; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Methods Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13–17 and young adults aged 18–25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18–25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. Conclusions The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. PMID:29153445

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Matthew H; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Curry, Susanna R; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F

    2018-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13-17 and young adults aged 18-25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18-25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Boosted quantum black hole and black string in M-theory, and quantum correction to Gregory-Laflamme instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyakutake, Yoshifumi [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University,Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan)

    2015-09-11

    We take into account higher derivative R{sup 4} corrections in M-theory and construct quantum black hole and black string solutions in 11 dimensions up to the next leading order. The quantum black string is stretching along the 11th direction and the Gregory-Laflamme instability is examined at the quantum level. Thermodynamics of the boosted quantum black hole and black string are also discussed. Especially we take the near horizon limit of the quantum black string and investigate its instability quantitatively.

  16. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  17. Post-apartheid representations of youth in the Zulu novel Kungasa ngifile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Zulu

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article representation of black African youth in the Zulu novel “Kungasa ngifile” is examined. The view is presented that the novel, though seeming to be politically neutral, deals with images of the youth that have ideological concerns in terms of theme, plot action and character portrayal. Such ideological modes of representation seem to be in tune with the present call for moral rejuvenation and the empowerment of the youth who lost opportunities during the liberation struggle. In this respect, the novel backs positive post-apartheid cultural forms.

  18. Contents hormone cortisol in the blood youths with different levels of physical training and its changes in the single training sessions under athleticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obtained and summarized the results of studies indicate that the content of the hormone cortisol when exposed to body exercise power orientation exhibits rapid reaction type, which have no signs of consolidation over the three years of occupation by force sports. The studies found that reducing the amount of cortisol in the blood, fixed after the training load in all four study groups, showing a certain dependence on the magnitude and intensity of training loads, and possibly on the level of fitness.

  19. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  20. A Process and Outcome Evaluation of Police Working with Youth Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Anderson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A process and outcome evaluation of 10 Police Working with Youth Programs was conducted. Process results indicated that the core components of the programs were consistent with those identified in previous literature as characteristic of quality youth development programs. Outcome results indicated that youth participants reported significantly improved attitudes toward police and social support received from significant, non-familial adults. Two subgroups of youth, most notably minority youth and younger participants in lower grade levels, reported positive changes in their capacity to resist peer pressures. Minority youth reported positive changes in their sense of mastery over stressful life situations. Relationships between core program components and youth outcomes also were examined. Implications of the findings and future process and outcome evaluations of youth programs are discussed.

  1. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  2. Journal of Youth Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Solay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Journal was published by Turkey Ministry of Youth and Sports for young people in order to support academic studies which is semi annual and articles submitted for “blind referee” method.

  3. Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Menu Bullying What Is Bullying The Roles Kids Play Who Is at Risk Warning Signs for Bullying Effects of Bullying Diversity, Race & Religion LGBTQ Youth ...

  4. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  5. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  6. Novel platinum black electroplating technique improving mechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Raeyoung; Nam, Yoonkey

    2013-01-01

    Platinum black microelectrodes are widely used as an effective neural signal recording sensor. The simple fabrication process, high quality signal recording and proper biocompatibility are the main advantages of platinum black microelectrodes. When microelectrodes are exposed to actual biological system, various physical stimuli are applied. However, the porous structure of platinum black is vulnerable to external stimuli and destroyed easily. The impedance level of the microelectrode increases when the microelectrodes are damaged resulting in decreased recording performance. In this study, we developed mechanically stable platinum black microelectrodes by adding polydopamine. The polydopamine layer was added between the platinum black structures by electrodeposition method. The initial impedance level of platinum black only microelectrodes and polydopamine added microelectrodes were similar but after applying ultrasonication the impedance value dramatically increased for platinum black only microelectrodes, whereas polydopamine added microelectrodes showed little increase which were nearly retained initial values. Polydopamine added platinum black microelectrodes are expected to extend the availability as neural sensors.

  7. Youth Homelessness in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børner Stax, Tobias

    Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....

  8. Youth Education - Programs / Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Christine Bozak: 4-H Steers that Work. Rebecca Brooks: Relationship Skills Education. Travis Burke: Defining Competency in the 4-H Professional’s Job. Holly L. Hays Butler: 4-H at the Indiana School for the Deaf . Kevin D. Chilek: Quality Assurance Program for Youth Livestock Exhibitors. Graham Cochran: Lessons from an Innovative Urban Youth Education Center. Steve Cramer: Use Activities Fun and Humor to Teach Character Education. Annette Devitt: Life on the Farm Project. Janet Edwards: Emot...

  9. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Møller, N C

    2011-01-01

    of Danish children followed longitudinally for 6 years. The study comprised 226 children randomly sampled at age 9, who had their blood pressure and HR measured during ergometer exercise to exhaustion and was reassessed in adolescence. SBP and RPP during exercise in stage two of the test were positively......The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample...... remained significant (P=0.059 and P=0.012, respectively). No significant independent associations were observed for HR during exercise, but associations were in the same direction. Our results supports that measuring SBP and RPP, during a standard acute ergometer exercise test in children, improves...

  10. Youth Homelessness and Vulnerability: How Does Couch Surfing Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Susanna R; Morton, Matthew; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Dworsky, Amy; Samuels, Gina M; Schlueter, David

    2017-09-01

    Youth homelessness is a problem characterized by high levels of vulnerability. The extent to which couch surfing - moving from one temporary housing arrangement to another - is part of youth homelessness is not well understood. Chapin Hall's Voices of Youth Count, a national research initiative, involves a multicomponent approach to studying youth homelessness. This study reports emerging findings regarding couch surfing and homelessness primarily from a national survey of 13,113 adults with youth ages 13-25 in their households or who are themselves ages 18-25. Findings suggest that couch surfing is relatively common, particularly among the older age group. Among households with 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds, 4.0% and 20.5%, respectively, reported that any of them had couch surfed in the last 12 months. There are notable social, economic, and educational differences, on average, between youth reporting homelessness and those reporting only couch surfing. However, most youth who report experiencing homelessness also report couch surfing, and these youth who experience both circumstances present high levels of socioeconomic vulnerability. Couch surfing encompasses a range of experiences, some of which likely include need for services. Interviews currently in the field, and expanded analysis of data, will contribute more nuanced policy insights. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  11. THE BITTER TRUTH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BLACK MALE AND BLACK FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    SHERRHONDA R. GIBBS

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines variables stated to be central to entrepreneurial success and reports differences between black male and black female entrepreneurs. Variables studied include task-specific efficacy, firm performance and opportunity recognition. Using a sample of 85 males and 58 females, results indicated that although black male and female entrepreneurs are somewhat similar in terms of business environment and demographics (e.g., education levels, years of business industry experience, lik...

  12. Interactions between youth and mental health professionals: The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) program experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity", "frustration

  13. Lee–Wick black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bambi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  14. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  15. Family and School Influences on Youths' Behavioral and Academic Outcomes: Cross-Level Interactions between Parental Monitoring and Character Development Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Namik; Liew, Jeffrey; Luo, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring. Results indicated that parental monitoring was a significant predictor of school behaviors and school grades. Furthermore, the Second Step curriculum moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and problem behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and grades at school. Specifically, in schools without the Second Step curriculum parental monitoring predicted higher school grades but had no impact on students' school behaviors. By contrast, in schools with the Second Step curriculum, parental monitoring predicted fewer problem behaviors as well as more prosocial behaviors. The study results highlight the joint influences of the family and the school in children's behavioral and academic trajectories. Results have implications for education and intervention, including improving the school climate, student behaviors, and learning or achievement.

  16. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  17. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  18. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  19. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  20. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  1. Managing the water crisis: A youth perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simataa, Faith

    2017-04-01

    The youth are identified as a key group to include in effective engagement and decision-making for water security and sustainable development. An increase in severe droughts in Namibia has highlighted its destructive impacts and led to a growing concern about the societal exposure of communities. Acknowledging the benefit of access to safe drinking water to humanity, in reality a disproportionate burden of protecting environmental benefits such as clean water is borne by the poor and vulnerable sections of the society. As a result, a key consideration highlighted in the Hyogo and Sendai Frameworks is the inclusion of gender & age perspectives, and vulnerable groups in planning for disaster risk reduction. Therefore, the paper argues that empowering the youth with knowledge and skills capability in disaster risk issues becomes essential for a sustainable management approach, and a potential 'rescue' mechanism from the web of poverty. The paper also illustrates that there is indeed weak adherence to good governance and that the government needs to improve structures for youth coordination to ensure water stewardship. Realizing this gap in knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of resilience at all levels of society, the paper offers a perspective on the role of youth in the development agenda of Namibia and how they can influence decision-making processes in addressing water insecurity in the country. Keywords: Empowerment, Namibia, Water insecurity, Youth

  2. Child and Youth Care Approaches to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the themes and issues related to child and youth care approaches to management. The profession is significantly underrepresented at the management level. To some extent, this reflects the challenges of being recognized in the broader human services sector as a profession, but perhaps more so, it reflects an underdevelopment…

  3. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add

  4. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  5. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  6. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  7. Youth Agripreneurs: Expanding Opportunities for Youth in Agro ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify, develop, and field test creative and bold business models to help ... Research to improve young lives Much of the available evidence on youth ... youth entrepreneurs -develop and test practical business plans and pilot ...

  8. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  9. Temporal Effects of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Neighborhood Disadvantage on Black/White Disparities in Young Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from birth through age 17 years on obesity incidence in early adulthood and black/white disparities therein. Individual- and household-level data from the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods (n = 1,498). Marginal structural models with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights are used to quantify the probability of being obese at least once between ages 18 and 30 years as a function of cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage throughout childhood and adolescence or during each of three developmental stages therein. Longer term exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from ages 0-17 years is more common among blacks than among whites and is associated with significantly greater odds of being obese at least once in early adulthood. Exposure to neighborhood-level deprivation during adolescence (ages 10-17 years) appears more consequential for future (young adult) obesity than exposure that occurs earlier in childhood. The duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage during childhood and adolescence are associated with obesity incidence in early adulthood for both blacks and whites. However, given inequalities in the likelihood and persistence of experiencing neighborhood disadvantage as children and youth, such adverse effects are likely to be more concentrated among black versus white young adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SOCIOCULTURAL ACTIVITY YOUTH CENTERS: THE SPIRITUAL AND MORAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Petrovna Shtumpf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reality of life today is set the challenge and create the preconditions for youth associations in the diverse groups and movements. Such unity is a unifying factor in shaping the collective consciousness of the group, the basic concepts of the spiritual and moral values of shared responsibility on the individual, group and societal levels. In this work the motives of familiarizing young people to the activities of such organizations, the specifics of the youth socialization issues of leadership in them. Peculiarities of organizational core movement – the youth center, its structural composition, mechanism of operation, providing the main areas of work - organizational, methodical and information. Is proposed the collection practices, subjects, activities implemented in the work of youth organizations. We discuss the possible risks related to the status of the leader and worker center, with a possible negative impact of group on the individual participant. Attention is drawn to the importance of personal competences of worker of youth centers.

  11. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  12. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized co...

  13. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  15. Surface effects in black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, T.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution reviews briefly the various analogies which have been drawn between black holes and ordinary physical objects. It is shown how, by concentrating on the properties of the surface of a black hole, it is possible to set up a sequence of tight analogies allowing one to conclude that a black hole is, qualitatively and quantitatively, similar to a fluid bubble possessing a negative surface tension and endowed with finite values of the electrical conductivity and of the shear and bulk viscosities. These analogies are valid simultaneously at the levels of electromagnetic, mechanical and thermodynamical laws. Explicit applications of this framework are worked out (eddy currents, tidal drag). The thermostatic equilibrium of a black hole electrically interacting with its surroundings is discussed, as well as the validity of a minimum entropy production principle in black hole physics. (Auth.)

  16. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  17. Youth leadership at PPNC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, N; Smith, J

    2000-04-01

    Planned Parenthood of Nassau County (PPNC) employs a wide range of local programs to assist young people in developing the skills necessary to make responsible decisions and help them become good leaders in the future. The mission that underpins their work with the youth is to help them recognize the powerful positive impact they can have on their peers, friends, loved ones, and families. For the last 16 years, peer education has played an essential role in the programs and services of PPNC for teens. The Teen Advocate Project (TAP) has trained and supported dozens of local youth who have in turn participated in several outreach and education activities. The PPNC also created the Teen Info Line, a telephone peer support service operated by and for teens. Along with the TAP, PPNC operates three other successful components of its education programs targeting the youth and their families: 1) male involvement program, 2) multicultural education program, and 3) substance awareness/sexual health education program. In recognizing that its mission to help the youth must not stop at the county border, PPNC established the Global Institute for Training in 1992 to develop youth leadership programs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe.

  18. Marginal youth transititions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised and fragmen......A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised...... of the future (as grown ups). The longitudinal design furthermore makes it possible to get an insight into how the narratives– and not least the young people’s pathways – actually develop over time. Focusing on two of the young people’s narratives and actual pathways, I will illustrate some of the dilemmas...... and challenges that especially ‘youth a rick’ face as part of the life and educational pathways from primary school and onwards. Finally I will discuss to what extent the young people’s narratives can be said to support a movement towards choice biographies and yoyo transitions, or if alternative understandings...

  19. Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Ford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

  20. Segregation or "Thinking Black"?: Community Activism and the Development Of Black-Focused Schools in Toronto and London, 1968-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved a city-wide Africentric elementary school under their Alternative School policy, sparking a contentious debate. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. The historical record…

  1. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  2. Chapter 11: Civic Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a…

  3. Pregnancy risk among black, white, and Hispanic teen girls in New York City public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S

    2010-05-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.

  4. LGBTQ Youth Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Tracy; Kartoz, Connie; Himelfarb, Chaya

    2017-03-01

    In order to provide holistic care, school nurses must be culturally competent by being sensitive to health disparities experienced by students in at-risk populations. Despite the growing acceptance toward gender and sexual minorities, LGBTQ youth remain an at-risk population in our communities and our schools. School nurses as well as school counselors, social workers, and psychologists can increase their cultural competence in caring for this group of students by increasing their understanding of appropriate terminology and risks associated with this vulnerable group. This article is Part 1 of a two-article series designed to increase school nurses' abilities to advocate and care for LGBTQ youth in school settings. This first article provides information regarding proper terminology and current percentages of youth who identify as LGBTQ and concludes with implications for school nurses, including resources for nurses, school staff, and families.

  5. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  6. Coffee Shop Youth Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shalchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a review on the third zone coffee shop youth life style and looks forward to note the features of this group’s life style. Some of the other objective of this article are notifying the importance of different elements in life, consumption norms and the types of leisure. The results of this research shows that in this social atmosphere, post modern lifestyle features are seen as fashion, hybrid taste, interaction among local and global affairs, the importance of hobbies, consumption and the necessity of leisure. The study on this group of Iranian youth foretells how difficult. Complicated and fragile cultural policy is. Therefore, cultural affecting on the youth generation is not possible only through addrssing the values in surface.

  7. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rosenthal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.

  8. Interaction Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Individual Social Support on Frequency of Alcohol Use in Youth Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Nugent, Nicole R; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Bruce, Douglas; Tanney, Mary R; Fernández, M Isabel; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2018-02-05

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) experience multiple disease-related stresses along with the same structural and developmental challenges faced by their uninfected peers; alcohol use among YLH represents a risk behavior by virtue of potential effects on youth health and increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex while drinking alcohol. Research aimed at better understanding the interplay of individual- and neighborhood-level influences on alcohol use for YLH is needed to inform interventions. This study examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) and social support influence, independently and through interaction, alcohol use in YLH. Data from the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) consisted of YLH across 538 neighborhoods in the United States who acquired HIV behaviorally. Neighborhood-specific data were compiled from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau and matched with individual-level data from the ATN (N = 1,357) to examine effects that contribute to variation in frequency of alcohol use. Other drug use, being male, being non-Black, and older age were associated with greater alcohol use. Higher social support was negatively associated with alcohol use frequency. A cross-level interaction indicated that the association found between decreasing social support and increasing alcohol use frequency was weakened in areas with lower SED. Implications are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  9. Youth Historians in Harlem: An After-School Blueprint for History Engagement through the Historical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, written with the educator in mind, describes the Youth Historians in Harlem (YHH) program, a twenty-week after-school history program that engaged urban students in history by immersing them in aspects of the historical process. Throughout the program, a group of Black male high school students were apprenticed as historical…

  10. Problematizing Social Justice in Health Pedagogy and Youth Sport: Intersectionality of Race, Ethnicity, and Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a…

  11. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…

  12. Black supernovae and black holes in non-local gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen,72076 Tübingen (Germany); Malafarina, Daniele [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,010000 Astana (Kazakhstan); Modesto, Leonardo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-22

    In a previous paper, we studied the interior solution of a collapsing body in a non-local theory of gravity super-renormalizable at the quantum level. We found that the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the body starts expanding. A black hole, strictly speaking, never forms. The gravitational collapse does not create an event horizon but only an apparent one for a finite time. In this paper, we solve the equations of motion assuming that the exterior solution is static. With such an assumption, we are able to reconstruct the solution in the whole spacetime, namely in both the exterior and interior regions. Now the gravitational collapse creates an event horizon in a finite comoving time, but the central singularity is approached in an infinite time. We argue that these black holes should be unstable, providing a link between the scenarios with and without black holes. Indeed, we find a non catastrophic ghost-instability of the metric in the exterior region. Interestingly, under certain conditions, the lifetime of our black holes exactly scales as the Hawking evaporation time.

  13. Parent-youth informant disagreement: Implications for youth anxiety treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Haimes, Emily M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2018-01-01

    Greater parent-youth disagreement on youth symptomatology is associated with a host of factors (e.g., parental psychopathology, family functioning) that might impede treatment. Parent-youth disagreement may represent an indicator of treatment prognosis. Using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study, this study used polynomial regression and longitudinal growth modeling to examine whether parent-youth agreement prior to and throughout treatment predicted treatment outcomes (anxiety severity, youth functioning, responder status, and diagnostic remission, rated by an independent evaluator). When parents reported more symptoms than youth prior to treatment, youth were less likely to be diagnosis-free post-treatment; this was only true if the youth received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, not if youth received medication, combination, or placebo treatment. Increasing concordance between parents and youth over the course of treatment was associated with better treatment outcomes across all outcome measures ( ps < .001). How parents and youth "co-report" appears to be an indicator of CBT outcome. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  15. International Youth Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available International Youth Library, the biggest youth library in the world, was founded in 1948 in Munich, Germany, by Jella Lepman. She aimed to unite all the children of the world through books by establishing this library. IYL is still trying to achieve this end supporting scholarship programmes in children’s literature research, participating in or organizing meetings on children’s literature, and working with other national and international organizations deeding with children’s literature. Unfortunately the library is facing some problems recently which have risen from economic difficulties which also inhibits promotional activities.

  16. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  17. Type 1 Diabetes eHealth Psychoeducation: Youth Recruitment, Participation, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Faulkner, Melissa S; Murphy, Kathryn; Delamater, Alan; Grey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet and other eHealth technologies offer a platform for improving the dissemination and accessibility of psychoeducational programs for youth with chronic illness. However, little is known about the recruitment process and yield of diverse samples in Internet research with youth who have a chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of youth with Type 1 diabetes on recruitment, participation, and satisfaction with 2 eHealth psychoeducational programs. Methods Youth with Type 1 diabetes from 4 sites in the United States were invited to participate (N=510) with 320 eligible youth consenting (mean age=12.3, SD 1.1; 55.3% female; 65.2% white; and mean A1C=8.3, SD 1.5). Data for this secondary analysis included demographic information (age, race/ethnicity, and income), depressive symptoms, and recruitment rates, including those who refused at point of contact (22.0%), passive refusers who consented but did not participate (15.3%), and those who enrolled (62.7%). Participation (80% lessons completed) and a satisfaction survey (ie, how helpful, enjoyable) were also analyzed. Chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were used. Results There were significant differences in recruitment rates by income and race/ethnicity such that black, Hispanic, or mixed race/ethnicity and low-income youth were more likely to refuse passively compared to white and higher-income youth who were more likely to enroll (P<.001). Participation in program sessions was high, with 78.1% of youth completing at least 4 of 5 sessions. There were no significant differences in participation by program, age, gender, or race/ethnicity. Low-income youth were less likely to participate (P=.002). Satisfaction in both programs was also high (3.9 of 5). There were significant gender, race/ethnicity, and income differences, in that girls (P=.001), black, Hispanic, or mixed race/ethnicity youth (P=.02), and low

  18. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  19. Family Relationships and Adolescent Well-Being: Are Families Equally Protective for Same-Sex Attracted Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may…

  20. Strengthening Social Ties to Increase Confidence and Self-Esteem Among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijnders, Kim A; Wilkerson, J Michael; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Bauldry, Jessica; Lawler, Sylvia M

    2017-05-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth too often live in nonsupportive environments. This study reports the influence of social support from primary and secondary social ties on confidence and self-esteem among participants in Hatch Youth, a drop-in group-level intervention for SGM youth. Each 3-hour Hatch Youth meeting consists of a social, educational, and youth-led support hour. Over 14 weeks, these meetings were randomly observed and individual interviews with participating youth ( n = 12) and staff and volunteers ( n = 12) were conducted; data underwent a content analysis. Participants perceived an increase in confidence and self-esteem through enhanced bonding with family and friends, a sense of belonging, and community empowerment because of their involvement with Hatch Youth, suggesting drop-in centers can strengthen secondary social ties and improve confidence and self-esteem.

  1. Youth and Adult Perceptions of a New Technology in California 4-H: The Online Record Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra M. Lewis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth development research suggests that adult volunteers have the potential to influence the how and when youth engage with technology as a legitimate form of program participation. The adults’ comfort levels with technology, coupled with the historical structure of the youth development organization itself, shapes which technologies are made available to, adopted by, or perceived as relevant or useful to youth. This study explores how adults and youth members of California 4-H perceived the 4-H Online Record Book (ORB, an electronic version of the traditional  4-H record book. Survey data from 236 self-identified users and non-users of ORB provided feedback about their use of and feelings towards ORB, with youth expressing more positive feelings towards ORB and adults feeling more negative about the system. Youth however, felt supported by adults to use ORB.

  2. E-cigarette curiosity among U.S. middle and high school students: Findings from the 2014 national youth tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Katherine A; Nguyen, Anh B; Slavit, Wendy I; King, Brian A

    2016-08-01

    Curiosity is a potential risk factor for electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, which has increased considerably among US youth in recent years. We examined the relationship between curiosity about e-cigarettes and perceived harm, comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertisement exposure. Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students. In 2014, 2.5% of middle school and 9.2% of high school students currently used cigarettes, while 3.9% of middle school and 13.4% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use. Among never e-cigarette users (n=17,286), descriptive statistics assessed curiosity about e-cigarettes by combustible tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and school level. Associations between curiosity and perceived harm (absolute and comparative to cigarettes), comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertising exposure were explored using multivariate models in 2015. Among youth who never used e-cigarettes, 25.8% reported curiosity about e-cigarettes. Higher levels of perceived absolute harm and comparative harm were associated with lower levels of curiosity, while no association was observed between comparative addictiveness and curiosity. Among never combustible tobacco users, the odds of high curiosity were greater among non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio (OR): 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-1.88), Hispanics (OR=1.79; 95% CI:1.48-2.16), and non-Hispanic 'Other' (OR=1.47; 95% CI:1.15-1.89) race/ethnicities than non-Hispanic whites. One-quarter of middle and high school students who have never used e-cigarettes are curious about the products, with greater curiosity among those with lower perceptions of harm from these products. These findings may help inform future strategies aimed at reducing curiosity about e-cigarettes among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The story of the Australian Youth Forum — the political and social realities behind online technological solutions in youth political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pillay, Prashanth

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the difficulties in using online media as a tool to solve youth political engagement problems. It argues that online media has complicated the relationship between the government and young Australians, highlighting the practical difficulties of operationalising effective political communication practices. The Australian Youth Forum (AYF), Australia’s main online government project to raise low youth public engagement levels, is used as a case study. Originally inten...

  4. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  5. An Event-Level Analysis of Condomless Anal Intercourse with a HIV-Discordant or HIV Status-Unknown Partner Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men from a Multi-site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Tobin, Karin; Seal, David; Koblin, Beryl; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Flores, Stephen; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2018-05-19

    Despite the high HIV incidence and prevalence among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), little research has examined partner characteristics, partner seeking venue, sexual position, substance use, and sexual risk behavior at the sex event-level among BMSM. Using the baseline data from a multi-site study of 807 BMSM stratified by their HIV status, the goal of this study was to conduct a detailed event-level analysis of 1577 male anal sex events to assess the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a HIV-discordant or HIV status-unknown partner. We found CLAI with an HIV-discordant or unknown HIV status partner among HIV-negative BMSM was negatively associated with having sex with a main partner, and was positively associated with taking both receptive and insertive sexual positions during sex. As compared to a sex partner met at bar, night club or dance club, HIV-positive BMSM were less likely to engage in CLAI with HIV-discordant and unknown HIV status partner met at party or friend's house or at community organizations. HIV-positive BMSM had lower odds of engaging in CLAI with HIV-discordant and unknown HIV status partner if they had insertive sexual position or both receptive and insertive sexual positions. These results underscore the importance of delineating unique sex event-level factors associated with sexual risk behavior depending on individuals' HIV status. Our findings suggest event-level partner characteristics, sexual position, and partner seeking venues may contribute to disparities in HIV incidence.

  6. Depilating Global Charge From Thermal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John David; March-Russell, John; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    At a formal level, there appears to be no difficulty involved in introducing a chemical potential for a globally conserved quantum number into the partition function for space-time including a black hole. Were this possible, however, it would provide a form of black hole hair, and contradict the idea that global quantum numbers are violated in black hole evaporation. We demonstrate dynamical mechanisms that negate the formal procedure, both for topological charge (Skyrmions) and complex scalar-field charge. Skyrmions collapse to the horizon; scalar-field charge fluctuates uncontrollably.

  7. Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large disparity in HIV prevalence rates between young Black and White Americans, including young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Research focusing on individual behaviors has proven insufficient to explain the disproportionately high rate of HIV among Black YMSM. The purpose of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the pronounced racial disparity in HIV by evaluating whether YMSM are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors as a function of their partner's race. Participants included 117 YMSM from a longitudinal study evaluating lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (ages 16-20 at baseline), who reported characteristics and risk behaviors of up to 9 sexual partners over an 18-month period. Results indicated that participants were less likely to have unprotected sex with Black partners, and this finding was not driven by a response bias (i.e., Black YMSM did not appear to be minimizing their reports of unprotected sex). Furthermore, there was support for the hypothesis that participants' sexual networks were partially determined by their race insofar as sexual partnerships were much more likely to be intra-racial (as opposed to interracial). It is possible that dyad- and sexual network-level factors may be needed to understand racial disparities in HIV among YMSM.

  8. The "here and now" of youth: the meanings of smoking for sexual and gender minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antin, Tamar M J; Hunt, Geoffrey; Sanders, Emile

    2018-05-31

    The mainstream tobacco field in the USA tends to situate youth as passive, particularly in terms of their susceptibility to industry manipulation and peer pressure. However, failing to acknowledge youths' agency overlooks important meanings youth ascribe to their tobacco use and how those meanings are shaped by the circumstances and structures of their everyday lives. This article is based on analysis of 58 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with sexual and gender minority youth living in the San Francisco Bay area in California. Topics covered in interviews focused on meanings of tobacco in the lives of youth. Interviews lasted approximately 2.5 h and were transcribed verbatim and linked with ATLAS.ti, a qualitative data analysis software. Following qualitative coding, narrative segments were sorted into piles of similarity identified according to principles of pattern-level analysis to interpret to what extent meanings of smoking for young people may operate as forms of resistance, survival, and defense. Analysis of our participants' narratives highlights how smoking is connected to what Bucholtz calls the "'here-and-now' of young people's experience, the social and cultural practices through which they shape their worlds" as active agents (Bucholtz, Annu Rev Anthropol31:525-52, 2003.). Specifically, narratives illustrate how smoking signifies "control" in a multitude of ways, including taking control over an oppressor, controlling the effects of exposure to traumatic or day-to-day stress, and exerting control over the physical body in terms of protecting oneself from violence or defending one's mental health. These findings call into question the universal appropriateness of foundational elements that underlie tobacco control and prevention efforts directed at youth in the USA, specifically the focus on abstinence and future orientation. Implications of these findings for research, prevention, and policy are discussed, emphasizing the risk of furthering

  9. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  10. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  11. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  12. Positive and Negative Affect in Clinic-Referred Youth With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Izumi; Mueller, Charles W; Nakamura, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    To examine self-reported positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) among youth with ADHD (only and comorbid) and other non-ADHD-referred youth in an ethnically diverse clinical sample. Semi-structured interviews identified 80 pure ADHD, 284 ADHD plus one or more comorbidities, and 730 non-ADHD youth (e.g., other diagnoses or no diagnosis). The Positive and Negative Affect Scale-Children (PANAS-C) was used to assess affective states. Even after controlling for the influence of potential confounds, youth with only ADHD reported higher PA and lower NA than other clinic-referred youth. The ADHD-comorbid group reported higher PA than the "non-ADHD" group, but these groups did not differ on level of NA. ADHD subtype did not influence results. Among clinic-referred youth, ADHD is associated with higher levels of PA and when there are no comorbid disorders, lower levels of NA. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  14. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.

  15. Motivating Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Television, advertising, the Internet, music, and the proliferation of chain stores have had a homogenizing effect on children. Regardless of what type of environment they live in, the style of youth's dress, the way they talk, and how they respond to a wide range of stimuli are surprisingly similar. In spite of these similarities, the challenges…

  16. Learning in Youth Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This response identifies several strengths of the article, "Pushing the Boundaries: What Youth Organizers at Boston's Hyde Square Task Force Have to Teach Us about Civic Engagement" and draws connections to recent developments in sibling fields, including social and emotional learning and internet activism. These developments offer ideas…

  17. International Youth Nuclear Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.

    2017-01-01

    International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa

  18. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  19. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...

  20. Boundaries of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roosmalen, Erica; Krahn, Harvey

    1996-01-01

    Examines normative, everyday gendered youth culture among a sample of 2,074 high school seniors in 3 Canadian cities. Findings reveal adolescent males participate more in drinking activities, hobbies, sports, and television watching than adolescent females, but in fewer indoor nonpaid work activities or social activities. The research does not…

  1. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  2. Youth Suicide: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Velting, Drew M.; Shaffer, David

    2006-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review of the research literature on youth suicide, the authors discuss the rates and patterns of completed suicides and suicide attempts. The state of research on potential risk and protective factors is also reviewed, covering personal characteristics, family characteristics, adverse life circumstances, and…

  3. Youth behind bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbenfeldt Bengtsson, Tea

    , actively drawing on theories of youth and crime. By applying a relational approach founded in interactional sociology, the thesis explores how apparently senseless actions and situations are constructed socially by the young people when they bring together meanings in their everyday practices. Data...

  4. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Rwanda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For more information, please refer to Laterite Ltd. (2015) Youth employment in Rwanda: A scoping paper, commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. 13.5% of Rwandans with a university degree are unemployed– 7 times the national unemployment rate. Among the economically inactive, more than 1 in 5 ...

  5. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  6. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  7. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Opportunities and challenges in promoting youth entrepreneurship in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Karadzic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunities and challenges that youth entrepreneurs are facing in Montenegro, considering all aspects of youth participation in the development of the country. A quality research of several successful young entrepreneurs is presented. Design/methodology/approach – Several successful young entrepreneurs were interviewed. The principles of case study design and method were followed. Data collection involved both macro and micro level analysis of interviews and direct observation. Findings – The analysis shows that although in the areas of youth participation, significant progress has been made in the last several years, youth entrepreneurship programme in Montenegro is still in its early stages of development and needs strong sustainable commitment, assuring the development and efficient functioning of various youth participation mechanisms at the local, regional and national level. It is also essential to continue to standardize and support youth work, youth information and non-formal business education of young people. Surveys show that young people in Montenegro believe they have much to offer and can significantly contribute to all areas of the society’s development. However, their potential remains greatly untapped due to certain obstacles that they face. There are needs for encouraging programs to inform youth about the value of their participation in all aspects of society. Research limitations/implications – The main limitations were access to a greater number of successful young entrepreneurs making the analysis more descriptive and conclusive. Originality/value – The paper supports understanding of the complex employment challenges and opportunities facing youth and stimulates discussion on how to address this key development issue.

  10. Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  12. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…

  14. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  15. Youth Climate Summits: Empowering & Engaging Youth to Lead on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretser, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Wild Center's Youth Climate Summits is a program that engages youth in climate literacy from knowledge and understanding to developing action in their schools and communities. Each Youth Climate Summit is a one to three day event that brings students and teachers together to learn about climate change science, impacts and solutions at a global and local level. Through speakers, workshops and activities, the Summit culminates in a student-driven Climate Action Plan that can be brought back to schools and communities. The summits have been found to be powerful vehicles for inspiration, learning, community engagement and youth leadership development. Climate literacy with a focus on local climate impacts and solutions is a key component of the Youth Climate Summit. The project-based learning surrounding the creation of a unique, student driven, sustainability and Climate Action Plan promotes leadership skills applicable and the tools necessary for a 21st Century workforce. Student driven projects range from school gardens and school energy audits to working with NYS officials to commit to going 100% renewable electricty at the three state-owned downhill ski facilities. The summit model has been scaled and replicated in other communities in New York State, Vermont, Ohio, Michigan and Washington states as well as internationally in Finland, Germany and Sri Lanka.

  16. Youth policy and participation: An analysis of pedagogical ideals in municipal youth policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    Over the past two decades, in several Northern and Western European Union countries responsibility for general youth policy has been transferred from the central government to the local level of municipalities. In this transformation process the local authorities. guided by central government's

  17. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  18. Relative deprivation and disordered gambling in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Canale, Natale; Wohl, Michael J A; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio

    2018-03-07

    Previous research has found that area-level income inequality and individual-level relative deprivation both contribute to disordered gambling in adults. However, the socioeconomic factors that contribute to disordered gambling in youths and protective factors in their social environment have not been fully explored. This study examined the association between relative deprivation and youth disordered gambling and the potential moderating role of social support in this association. We used data on family material assets and self-reported symptoms of disordered gambling symptoms in 19 321 participants of the 2013/2014 Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index and classmates as a social reference group. Its association with disordered gambling was tested using multilevel negative binomial regression analyses. We also tested moderated effects of relative deprivation on disordered gambling by four sources of social support: families, peers, teachers and classmates. Relative deprivation related to a fourfold increase in the rate of disordered gambling symptoms (incidence rate ratio=4.18) after differences in absolute family wealth and other variables were statistically controlled. Symptoms were also more prevalent in males, first-generation immigrants and less supported youth. Peer support moderated the association between relative deprivation and symptoms, suggesting that high deprivation and low peer support have interactive links to disordered gambling. Relative deprivation among classmates relate to youth symptoms of disordered gambling. Youth who live in economically unequal settings and perceive a lack of social support may be at greatest risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Embedded in a context : the adaptation of immigrant youth

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    With rising levels of immigration comes a need to know what fosters positive adaptation for the youth growing up in a new culture of settlement.The issue is increasingly studied; however, little of the research conducted has combined a developmental with a contextual approach. The aim of this dissertation was to explore the adaptation of immigrant youth on the basis of developmental theories and models which put emphasis on setting or contextual conditions. This entailed viewing immigrant you...

  20. Specific Phobia in Youth: Phenomenology and Psychological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Raishevich, Natoshia; Davis, Thompson E.; Sirbu, Cristian; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of 62 youth with animal and natural environment types of specific phobia were examined in a treatment-seeking sample. Differences due to age, sex, ethnicity, family structure, and family socioeconomic status were not found between youth with the two types of specific phobia. Moreover, differences were not obtained between the two groups in the clinical severity of their phobias, the perceived dangerousness of the feared outcomes associated with their phobias, the perceived levels of coping with their phobias, or overall fearfulness. However, differences between youth with the two types of specific phobias were found on somatic/anxious symptoms, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. In addition, differences were noted on withdrawn, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed symptoms, and social problems as reported by the mothers of these youngsters. Finally, differences in the percent of co-occurring anxiety disorders between youth with the two types of specific phobia were found. On all of the domains in which differences were found, youth with the natural environment type fared more poorly than those with the animal type. These findings converge with those obtained in treatment studies which indicate that youth with the natural environment type are more difficult to treat than youth with the animal type. PMID:20171334

  1. Safety training for working youth: Methods used versus methods wanted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2016-04-07

    Safety training is promoted as a tool to prevent workplace injury; however, little is known about the safety training experiences young workers get on-the-job. Furthermore, nothing is known about what methods they think would be the most helpful for learning about safe work practices. To compare safety training methods teens get on the job to those safety training methods teens think would be the best for learning workplace safety, focusing on age differences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students in two large high schools in spring 2011. Seventy percent of working youth received safety training. The top training methods that youth reported getting at work were safety videos (42%), safety lectures (25%), and safety posters/signs (22%). In comparison to the safety training methods used, the top methods youth wanted included videos (54%), hands-on (47%), and on-the-job demonstrations (34%). This study demonstrated that there were differences in training methods that youth wanted by age; with older youth seemingly wanting more independent methods of training and younger teens wanting more involvement. Results indicate that youth want methods of safety training that are different from what they are getting on the job. The differences in methods wanted by age may aid in developing training programs appropriate for the developmental level of working youth.

  2. Assessing Restrictiveness: A Closer Look at the Foster Care Placements and Perceptions of Youth With and Without Disabilities Aging Out of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Miranda; Dalton, Lawrence D.; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Orozco, Claudia Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the experience of restrictiveness among transition-aged youth with disabilities in foster care. Utilizing a sample of 207 youth, placement types were explored for differences in disability status, race and sex. Further, youth perceptions of restriction around communication, movement around one’s home, and access to the community were examined for youth receiving special education services (SPED), youth receiving developmental disability services (DD), and youth without disabilities. Youth with disabilities were more likely to be placed in more restrictive placement types and had significantly higher levels of perceived restriction around communication, movement, and community when compared to youth without disabilities. Additionally, males with disabilities experienced higher levels of restrictiveness, particularly those who received DD services, while White youth with disabilities also experienced greater community restrictiveness. PMID:24489523

  3. Global Inequalities in Youth Mortality, 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is limited cross-national research on youth mortality. We examined age- and gender variations in all-cause mortality among youth aged 15-34 years across 52 countries. Methods: Using the 2014 WHO mortality database, mortality rates for all countries were computed for the latest available year between 2007 and 2012. Rates, rate ratios, and ordinary least squares (OLS and Poisson regression were used to analyze international variation in mortality. Results: Mortality rates among youth aged 15-34 years varied from a low of 28.4 deaths per 100,000 population for Hong Kong to a high of 250.6 for Russia and 619.1 for South Africa. For men aged 15-34, Singapore and Hong Kong had the lowest mortality rates (≈40 per 100,000, compared with South Africa and Russia with rates of 589.7 and 383.3, respectively. Global patterns in mortality among women were similar. Youth aged 15-24 in South Africa had 14 times higher mortality and those in the Philippines, Mexico, Russia, Colombia, and Brazil had 5-7 times higher mortality than those in Hong Kong. Youth aged 25-34 in Russia and South Africa had, respectively, 10 and 29 times higher mortality than their counterparts in Hong Kong. United States (US had the 12th highest mortality rate among youth aged 15-24 and the 13th highest rate among youth aged 25-34. Overall, the US youth had 2-3 times higher rates of mortality than their counterparts in many industrialized countries including Hong Kong, Singapore, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Income inequality, unemployment rate, and human development explained 50-66% of the global variance in youth mortality. Compared to the countries with low unemployment and income inequality and high human development levels, countries with high unemployment and income inequality and low human development had, respectively, 343%, 213%, and 205% higher risks of youth mortality. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Marked international

  4. Global Inequalities in Youth Mortality, 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K.; Lokhande, Anagha; Azuine, Romuladus E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited cross-national research on youth mortality. We examined age-and gender-variations in all-cause mortality among youth aged 15-34 years across 52 countries. Methods: Using the 2014 WHO mortality database, mortality rates for all countries were computed for the latest available year between 2007 and 2012. Rates, rate ratios, and ordinary least squares (OLS) and Poisson regression were used to analyze international variation in mortality. Results: Mortality rates among youth aged 15-34 years varied from a low of 28.4 deaths per 100,000 population for Hong Kong to a high of 250.6 for Russia and 619.1 for South Africa. For men aged 15-34, Singapore and Hong Kong had the lowest mortality rates (≈40 per 100,000), compared with South Africa and Russia with rates of 589.7 and 383.3, respectively. Global patterns in mortality among women were similar. Youth aged 15-24 in South Africa had 14 times higher mortality and those in the Philippines, Mexico, Russia, Colombia, and Brazil had 5-7 times higher mortality than those in Hong Kong. Youth aged 25-34 in Russia and South Africa had, respectively, 10 and 29 times higher mortality than their counterparts in Hong Kong. United States (US) had the 12th highest mortality rate among youth aged 15-24 and the 13th highest rate among youth aged 25-34. Overall, the US youth had 2-3 times higher rates of mortality than their counterparts in many industrialized countries including Hong Kong, Singapore, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Income inequality, unemployment rate, and human development explained 50-66% of the global variance in youth mortality. Compared to the countries with low unemployment and income inequality and high human development levels, countries with high unemployment and income inequality and low human development had, respectively, 343%, 213%, and 205% higher risks of youth mortality. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Marked international disparities in

  5. A Socially Inclusive A-Star Is Only Possible through the Understanding of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Ciara; Houghton, Jack; Read, Beth; Bird, Danny; Tatten, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is written by young people who attend an open-access youth project in the city centre of Hull. Although they describe themselves as "educational failures" (the "black holes"), they argue that they have a significant contribution to make to discussions about how to develop socially just education in schools. In the…

  6. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  7. The Talented Tenth: Gay Black Boys and the Racial Politics of Southern Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    This interview-based, narrative study examines the effects of schooling in a Deep South urban community on the identity construction of gay African American boys and young men. Specifically, it exposes the ways in which the dominant culture of White racism creates and imposes a hegemonic masculinity on Black youth culture that forces these young…

  8. Effectiveness of a Combined Tutoring and Mentoring Intervention with Ninth-Grade, Urban Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Wang, Dan; Piliawsky, Monte

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a combined tutoring and mentoring intervention for urban, low-income Black youth during the transition to high school. Participants were 118 ninth-grade students (experimental n = 69; comparison n = 49). After 7 months in the intervention program, students in the experimental group showed…

  9. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  10. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  11. Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression of their male kids in Taihang Black Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Duan, Yunli; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yue, Wenbin; Lei, Fulin

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters. Testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR. Localization and quantification of androgen receptor (AR) in testis of goats were determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The results show that Se supplementation in the diet of dams led to higher (p kids. Excessive Se (4.0 mg/kg) can inhibit the development of testis by decreasing testicular weight and volume. The density of spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the Se treatment groups was significantly (p kids by modulating testosterone synthesis in goats. More attention should be given to the potential role of maternal nutrition in improving reproductive performance of their offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent-Youth Differences in Familism Values from Adolescence into Young Adulthood: Developmental Course and Links with Parent-Youth Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Rovine, Michael J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    A critical step in capturing family processes is to incorporate the perspectives and experiences of multiple family members toward characterizing how families operate as systems. Although some research has examined differences between parents' and youth's family experiences, most studies have focused on European American families, and we know little about the nature and implications of divergent parent-youth experiences in other ethnic groups. Accordingly, we focused on Mexican-origin families and assessed the links between mother-youth and father-youth differences in familism values and parent-youth conflict from early adolescence into young adulthood. Participants were mothers, fathers, and two siblings (248 female and 244 male; Mage = 14.02 years) from 246 families who were interviewed in their homes on three occasions over eight years. We operationalized parent-youth differences in familism values using difference scores, controlling for mean levels of familism. Multilevel models revealed that mothers' and fathers' familism values remained relatively stable over time, but youth's (51% female) familism values declined until age 17, stabilized, and then increased slightly in young adulthood. Lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether parent-youth differences in familism values predicted parent-youth conflict or vice versa. The findings revealed that parent-youth conflict predicted greater differences in parent-youth familism values, but differences in familism values did not predict conflict. Our findings align with a family systems perspective in documenting the significance of differences between family members' perspectives and highlighting that such processes are dynamic. Further, by testing bidirectional associations in longitudinal models, we were able to disentangle the temporal ordering of differences in familism values and parent-youth conflict thereby advancing understanding of parent-youth discrepancies in cultural values. PMID

  13. “You Must Know Where You Come From”: South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered. PMID:24932064

  14. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered.

  15. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  16. Necessary but Not Sufficient? Youth Responses to Localised Returns to Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the 2001 Australian Census is used to estimate predicted net benefits of education at a small geographic level. These are then linked to youth in the areas to test the associations with high school participation. This is done separately for Indigenous youth, a population sub-group with historically low levels of education…

  17. Smoking initiation among youth: the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2011-05-01

    Existing evidence for the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices as significant determinants of youth smoking initiation is mixed. A few studies have considered the possibility that the impact of cigarette taxes and prices might differ by gender or race/ethnicity. In this paper, we address the role of cigarette taxes and prices on youth smoking initiation using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort and discrete-time survival methods. We present results overall and by gender, race/ethnicity, and gender by race/ethnicity. We examine initiation over the age range during which youth are most at risk of initiation and over a period in which substantial changes have occurred in tax and price. The result for cigarette excise taxes is small and mixed across alternative specifications, with the effect strongest for black youth. Cigarette prices are more consistently a significant determinant of youth smoking initiation, especially for black youth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Depression Among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and major depression disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents in the USA. The study also tested the effects of ethnicity and gender as possible moderators. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)-Adolescents, a representative household mental health survey of Black adolescents in the USA. Participants consisted of 1170 Black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks). Obesity was defined determined by the cutoff points based on the body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender. Twelve-month MDD was measured using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In the first step, the association between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample, controlling for the main effects of gender and ethnicity. In the next steps, two interactions were tested: (1) obesity and ethnicity and (2) obesity and gender. Although any associations between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample of Blacks were not found, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and obesity on MDD. Upon testing the associations across intersections of ethnicity and gender, a positive association was found among Caribbean Black females but not Caribbean Black males, African American males, or African American female. The link between BMI and MDD among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender, and risk of comorbid depression among Black youth with obesity is highest among Caribbean Black females.

  19. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  20. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)