WorldWideScience

Sample records for level artificial ion

  1. Human-Level Artificial Intelligence? Be Serious!

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    2005-01-01

    I claim that achieving real human-level artificial intelligence would necessarily imply that most of the tasks that humans perform for pay could be automated. Rather than work toward this goal of automation by building special-purpose systems, I argue for the development of general-purpose, educable systems that can learn and be taught to perform any of the thousands of jobs that humans can perform. Joining others who have made similar proposals, I advocate beginning with a system that has mi...

  2. CALCULATION OF AIR ION REGIME IN THE CASE OF ARTIFICIAL AIR IONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILIAIEV M. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the major tasks in the field of labor protection is providing of the necessary qualitative composition of air in the working areas of office and industrial spaces. In order to maintain the necessary air ion level in the air space premises, the artificial ionization of air is used often in the premises. At present in Ukraine analytical model are used for the calculation of air ion regime in premises, influencing on the formation process of air ions concentration field. An alternative solution is the use of CFD models, developing including the air jets aerodynamics in the premise, the presence of furniture, equipment, transfer of ions under an electric field, and other physical factors, determining intensity and shape of air ions concentration field in the premise. Methodology. Influence of air flow was taken into account in the development of CFD models for calculation of air ion regime in the apartment, caused by operation of ventilation, diffusion, electric field impact, as well as the interaction of different polarity ions with each other, and their interaction with dust particles. The proposed model of calculation of air ion regime in premises based on the use of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer levels. This model allows operatively to calculate air ions concentration field with the influence of the walls, floor, ceiling and obstacles on the process of air ions dispersion, the specific location of different polarity ions emission and their interaction in the premise and work areas in conditions of artificial air ionization. Results. The calculated data were obtained and on their base could be estimated the concentration of air ion anywhere in the premise with artificial air ionization. Ions concentration field, being calculated using this CFD model, as concentration field isolines is presented. Originality. The results of the air ion regime calculation in the premise are presented, based on numerical 2D CFD model

  3. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  4. Artificial Heads for High-Level Impulse Sound Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, K

    1999-01-01

    If the Insertion Loss (IL) of hearing protectors has to be determined with very high impulse or continuous noise levels, the acoustic insulation of the Artificial Test Fixture has to exceed at least the Insertion Loss (IL...

  5. Forecasting daily lake levels using artificial intelligence approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Shiri, Jalal; Nikoofar, Bagher

    2012-04-01

    Accurate prediction of lake-level variations is important for planning, design, construction, and operation of lakeshore structures and also in the management of freshwater lakes for water supply purposes. In the present paper, three artificial intelligence approaches, namely artificial neural networks (ANNs), adaptive-neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and gene expression programming (GEP), were applied to forecast daily lake-level variations up to 3-day ahead time intervals. The measurements at the Lake Iznik in Western Turkey, for the period of January 1961-December 1982, were used for training, testing, and validating the employed models. The results obtained by the GEP approach indicated that it performs better than ANFIS and ANNs in predicting lake-level variations. A comparison was also made between these artificial intelligence approaches and convenient autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, which demonstrated the superiority of GEP, ANFIS, and ANN models over ARMA models.

  6. Facile Determination of Sodium Ion and Osmolarity in Artificial Tears by Sequential DNAzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Eun-Song; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Young-Pil

    2017-12-07

    Despite high relevance of tear osmolarity and eye abnormality, numerous methods for detecting tear osmolarity rely upon expensive osmometers. We report a reliable method for simply determining sodium ion-based osmolarity in artificial tears using sequential DNAzymes. When sodium ion-specific DNAzyme and peroxidase-like DNAzyme were used as a sensing and detecting probe, respectively, the concentration of Na⁺ in artificial tears could be measured by absorbance or fluorescence intensity, which was highly correlated with osmolarity over the diagnostic range ( R ² > 0.98). Our approach is useful for studying eye diseases in relation to osmolarity.

  7. Lysimeter study with a cambric arenosol exposed to artificial acid rain: I. Concentrations of ions in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogn, T.A.; Abrahamsen, G.; Stuanes, A.O.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of artificial acid rain on soil leachate composition were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Cambic Arenosol (Typic Udipsamment) in monolith lysimeters was treated for 6 1/2 year with 125 mm yr -1 artificial rain in addition to natural precipitation. Artificial acid rain was produced from groundwater with H 2 SO 4 added. pH levels of 6.1, 4 and 3 were used. Increasing content of H 2 SO 4 in the artificial rain increased the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the leachate significantly. The pH of the leachate was slightly reduced only by the most acidic treatment (pH 3). The H + retention was not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the Al ion concentration. A slight increase in the Al ion concentration was only observed in the leachate from the pH 3-treated lysimeter. It is concluded that cation exchange and/or weathering were the main buffer mechanisms in the soil. The study supports conclusions from other acidification studies, that acidic precipitation is likely to increase the leaching of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Gap Filling of Daily Sea Levels by Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Pashova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, intelligent methods as artificial neural networks are successfully applied for data analysis from different fields of the geosciences. One of the encountered practical problems is the availability of gaps in the time series that prevent their comprehensive usage for the scientific and practical purposes. The article briefly describes two types of the artificial neural network (ANN architectures - Feed-Forward Backpropagation (FFBP and recurrent Echo state network (ESN. In some cases, the ANN can be used as an alternative on the traditional methods, to fill in missing values in the time series. We have been conducted several experiments to fill the missing values of daily sea levels spanning a 5-years period using both ANN architectures. A multiple linear regression for the same purpose has been also applied. The sea level data are derived from the records of the tide gauge Burgas, which is located on the western Black Sea coast. The achieved results have shown that the performance of ANN models is better than that of the classical one and they are very promising for the real-time interpolation of missing data in the time series.

  9. Artificial neural network modelling in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-dahshan, E.; Radi, A.; El-Bakry, M.Y.; El Mashad, M.

    2008-01-01

    The neural network (NN) model and parton two fireball model (PTFM) have been used to study the pseudo-rapidity distribution of the shower particles for C 12, O 16, Si 28 and S 32 on nuclear emulsion. The trained NN shows a better fitting with experimental data than the PTFM calculations. The NN is then used to predict the distributions that are not present in the training set and matched them effectively. The NN simulation results prove a strong presence modeling in heavy ion collisions

  10. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, L.; Girault, P.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.L.; Dinhut, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 16 ions/cm 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced

  11. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, L; Grosseau-Poussard, J L; Dinhut, J F

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced.

  12. CFD SIMULATION OF AIR ION REGIME IN WORK AREAS AT CONDITION OF ARTIFICIAL AIR IONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper supposes creation of a CFD model for calculating the air ion regime in the premises and in work areas at artificial ionization of the air by the ionizer installation indoors with considering the most important physical factors that influence the formation of ions concentration field. Methodology. The proposed CFD model for calculation of the air ion regime in work areas at artificial ionization of the air by installing ionizer indoors is based on the application of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer equations. The mass transfer equation takes into account the interaction of different polarities of ions with each other and with the dust particles. The calculation of air flow rate in the room is realized on the basis of the potential flow model by using the Laplace equation for the stream function. Poisson equation for the electric potential is used for calculation of the charged particles drift in an electric field. At the simulation to take into account: 1 influence of the working area geometric characteristics; 2 location of the ventilation holes; 3 placement of furniture and equipment; 4 ventilation regime in the room; 5 presence of obstacles on the ions dispersion process; 6 specific location of dust particles emission and ions of different polarity, and their interaction in the room and in the working zones. Findings. The developed CFD model allows determining the concentration of negative ions in the room and in the area of the human respiratory organs. The distribution of the negative ions concentration is presented in the form of concentration field isolines. Originality. The 2D CFD model for calculating the air ion regime in working areas, providing the ability to determine the ions concentration in a given place in the room was created. The proposed model is developed taking into account: placement of furniture and equipment in the room; geometric characteristics of the room; location of dust emissions

  13. In-Situ Ion Analysis of Fresh Waters via an ISE Multiprobe and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological and geochemical sciences stand to substantially gain from capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and in-lab analysis. In-situ chemical instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, by reducing the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. We have pursued in-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup (>99%) of oxic natural fresh waters via an instrument combining an array of ion-selective electrode (ISE) hardware with an appropriate multivariate signal processing architecture. Commercially available electrochemical sensors promote low cost and a fast development schedule, as well as easy maintenance and reproduction. Data processing techniques are adapted from artificial intelligence and chemometrics to extract accurate information from the corresponding in-situ data matrix. This architecture takes into account temperature, conductivity, and non-linearity effects, as well as taking advantage of sensor cross-selectivities traditionally considered as interferences. Chemical and mathematical constraints, e.g. charge balance and total ionic strength, provide further system-level information. Maximizing data recovery from the sensor array allows use of the instrument without the standard additions or ionic strength adjustment traditionally-required with use of ISEs. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium ) and hydrogen ion in a simplified

  14. Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm-Based Particle Filter for Li-Ion Battery Life Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent online prognostic approach is proposed for predicting the remaining useful life (RUL of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries based on artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA and particle filter (PF, which is an integrated approach combining model-based method with data-driven method. The parameters, used in the empirical model which is based on the capacity fade trends of Li-ion batteries, are identified dependent on the tracking ability of PF. AFSA-PF aims to improve the performance of the basic PF. By driving the prior particles to the domain with high likelihood, AFSA-PF allows global optimization, prevents particle degeneracy, thereby improving particle distribution and increasing prediction accuracy and algorithm convergence. Data provided by NASA are used to verify this approach and compare it with basic PF and regularized PF. AFSA-PF is shown to be more accurate and precise.

  15. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenter; Hoenik, V. [Thin Films and Nanostructures, Department of Physics, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno [Institute of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, Kassel Univ. (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Artificial ferrimagnets (AFi) have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning with He ions on a single layer reference electrode of magnetic tunnel junctions is possible. For some applications a combination of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning and artificial ferrimagnets as a reference electrode is desirable. The effect of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning on pinned artificial ferrimagnets with a Ru interlayer which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions as well as pinned AFis with a Cu interlayer has been tested. Special attention has been given to the question whether the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling can withstand the ion dose necessary to turn the exchange bias.

  16. Ion Release and Galvanic Corrosion of Different Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in Artificial Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Sheikh, Tahereh; Hemmati, Yasamin B

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the galvanic corrosion of brackets manufactured by four different companies coupled with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in an artificial saliva solution. A total of 24 mandibular central incisor Roth brackets of four different manufacturers (American Orthodontics, Dentaurum, Shinye, ORJ) were used in this experimental study. These brackets were immersed in artificial saliva along with SS or NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016'', round) for 28 days. The electric potential difference of each bracket/ wire coupled with a saturated calomel reference electrode was measured via a voltmeter and recorded constantly. Corrosion rate (CR) was calculated, and release of ions was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Stereomicroscope was used to evaluate all samples. Then, samples with corrosion were further assessed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Among ions evaluated, release of nickel ions from Shinye brackets was significantly higher than that of other brackets. The mean potential difference was significantly lower in specimens containing a couple of Shinye brackets and SS wire compared with other specimens. No significant difference was observed in the mean CR of various groups (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation showed corrosion in two samples only: Shinye bracket coupled with SS wire and American Orthodontics bracket coupled with NiTi wire. Shinye brackets coupled with SS wire showed more susceptibility to galvanic corrosion. There were no significant differences among specimens in terms of the CR or released ions except the release of Ni ions, which was higher in Shinye brackets.

  17. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  18. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on artistic bronze and copper artificial patinas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta, I.Z.; Pederzoli, S.; Iacob, E.; Bersani, M.

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the natural processes of decay and to develop and improve the treatments of conservation and restoration of artistic bronzes meaning statues and sculptures, it is important understanding the patination processes and the knowledge of artificially corroded surfaces. Chemical and physical characterization of artificial patinas obtained on artistic bronzes and coppers by using the 19th century Western traditional patination techniques and recipes by means of SEM-EDS, light microscopy and ATR/FT-IR has been done in previous studies [I.Z. Balta, L. Robbiola, Characterization of artificial black patinas on artistic cast bronze and pure copper by using SEM-EDS and light microscopy, in: Proceedings of the 13th European Microscopy Congress, 22-27 August 2004, Antwerp, Belgium, EMC 2004 CD-Rom Conference Preprints; I.Z. Balta, L. Robbiola, Traditional artificial artistic bronze and copper patinas-an investigation by SEM-EDS and ATR/FT-IR, in: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Non Destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, 15-19 May 2005, Lecce, Italy, ART'05 CD-Rom Conference Preprints]. Differences in morphology (structure, thickness, porosity, adherence, compactity, uniformity, homogeneity) and also in composition, on both artistic cast bronze and pure copper patinas, were clearly evidenced. Further in-depth investigation is required to be carried out in order to better understand the patinas mechanisms of formation and the layers kinetics of growth. The elemental and chemical analysis, either on a surface monolayer or in a depth profile, by using the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, can provide this kind of information, unique at trace-level sensitivity. SIMS has proved to be a suitable analytical technique for analyzing small amounts of material with high atomic sensitivity (ppm or even ppb) and high

  19. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on artistic bronze and copper artificial patinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balta, I.Z., E-mail: balta_z_i@yahoo.com [National Research Institute for Conservation and Restoration, Calea Victoriei 12, Sector 3, 030026 Bucharest (Romania); Pederzoli, S.; Iacob, E.; Bersani, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Centro per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica, Trento (Italy)

    2009-04-01

    To prevent the natural processes of decay and to develop and improve the treatments of conservation and restoration of artistic bronzes meaning statues and sculptures, it is important understanding the patination processes and the knowledge of artificially corroded surfaces. Chemical and physical characterization of artificial patinas obtained on artistic bronzes and coppers by using the 19th century Western traditional patination techniques and recipes by means of SEM-EDS, light microscopy and ATR/FT-IR has been done in previous studies [I.Z. Balta, L. Robbiola, Characterization of artificial black patinas on artistic cast bronze and pure copper by using SEM-EDS and light microscopy, in: Proceedings of the 13th European Microscopy Congress, 22-27 August 2004, Antwerp, Belgium, EMC 2004 CD-Rom Conference Preprints; I.Z. Balta, L. Robbiola, Traditional artificial artistic bronze and copper patinas-an investigation by SEM-EDS and ATR/FT-IR, in: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Non Destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, 15-19 May 2005, Lecce, Italy, ART'05 CD-Rom Conference Preprints]. Differences in morphology (structure, thickness, porosity, adherence, compactity, uniformity, homogeneity) and also in composition, on both artistic cast bronze and pure copper patinas, were clearly evidenced. Further in-depth investigation is required to be carried out in order to better understand the patinas mechanisms of formation and the layers kinetics of growth. The elemental and chemical analysis, either on a surface monolayer or in a depth profile, by using the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, can provide this kind of information, unique at trace-level sensitivity. SIMS has proved to be a suitable analytical technique for analyzing small amounts of material with high atomic sensitivity (ppm or even ppb) and

  20. Decoupling electron and ion storage and the path from interfacial storage to artificial electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Maier, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    The requirements for rechargeable batteries place high demands on the electrodes. Efficient storage means accommodating both ions and electrons, not only in substantial amounts, but also with substantial velocities. The materials' space could be largely extended by decoupling the roles of ions and electrons such that transport and accommodation of ions take place in one phase of a composite, and transport and accommodation of electrons in the other phase. Here we discuss this synergistic concept being equally applicable for positive and negative electrodes along with examples from the literature for Li-based and Ag-based cells. Not only does the concept have the potential to mitigate the trade-off between power density and energy density, it also enables a generalized view of bulk and interfacial storage as necessary for nanocrystals. It furthermore allows for testable predictions of heterogeneous storage in passivation layers, dependence of transfer resistance on the state of charge, or heterogeneous storage of hydrogen at appropriate contacts. We also present an outlook on constructing artificial mixed-conductor electrodes that have the potential to achieve both high energy density and high power density.

  1. Exploration of artificial neural network [ANN] to predict the electrochemical characteristics of lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthiban, Thirumalai; Ravi, R.; Kalaiselvi, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630006 (India)

    2007-12-31

    CoO anode, as an alternate to the carbonaceous anodes of lithium-ion cells has been prepared and investigated for electrochemical charge-discharge characteristics for about 50 cycles. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are useful in estimating battery performance, has been deployed for the first time to forecast and to verify the charge-discharge behavior of lithium-ion cells containing CoO anode for a total of 50 cycles. In this novel approach, ANN that has one input layer with one neuron corresponding to one input variable, viz., cycles [charge-discharge cycles] and a hidden layer consisting of three neurons to produce their outputs to the output layer through a sigmoid function has been selected for the present investigation. The output layer consists of two neurons, representing the charge and discharge capacity, whose activation function is also the sigmoid transfer function. In this ever first attempt to exploit ANN as an effective theoretical tool to understand the charge-discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells, an excellent agreement between the calculated and observed capacity values was found with CoO anodes with the best fit values corresponding to an error factor of <1%, which is the highlight of the present study. (author)

  2. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  3. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  4. Application of artificial neural network model for groundwater level forecasting in a river island with artificial influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Yoon, Heesung; Park, Byeong-Hak; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater use has been increased for various purposes like agriculture, industry or drinking water in recent years, the issue related to sustainability on the groundwater use also has been raised. Accordingly, forecasting the groundwater level is of great importance for planning sustainable use of groundwater. In a small island surrounded by the Han River, South Korea, seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater level is characterized by multiple factors such as recharge/discharge event of the Paldang dam, Water Curtain Cultivation (WCC) during the winter season, operation of Groundwater Heat Pump System (GWHP). For a period when the dam operation is only occurred in the study area, a prediction of the groundwater level can be easily achieved by a simple cross-correlation model. However, for a period when the WCC and the GWHP systems are working together, the groundwater level prediction is challenging due to its unpredictable operation of the two systems. This study performed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to forecast the groundwater level in the river area reflecting the various predictable/unpredictable factors. For constructing the ANN models, two monitoring wells, YSN1 and YSO8, which are located near the injection and abstraction wells for the GWHP system were selected, respectively. By training with the groundwater level data measured in January 2015 to August 2015, response of groundwater level by each of the surface water level, the WCC and the GWHP system were evaluated. Consequentially, groundwater levels in December 2015 to March 2016 were predicted by ANN models, providing optimal fits in comparison to the observed water levels. This study suggests that the ANN model is a useful tool to forecast the groundwater level in terms of the management of groundwater. Acknowledgement : Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) This research was

  5. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  6. The influence of artificial salivary pH on nickel ion release and the surface morphology of stainless steel bracket-nickel-titanium archwire combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Narmada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the oral cavity, orthodontic appliances come into contact with saliva which may cause corrosion capable of changing their surface morphology due to the release of metal ions. Surface roughness can influence the effectiveness of tooth movement. One of the ions possibly released when body fluid comes into contact with brackets and archwire is nickel ion (Ni. Ni, one of the most popular components of orthodontic appliances, is, however, a toxic element that could potentially increase the likelihood of health problems such as allergic responses during treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different artificial salivary pH on the ions released and the surface morphology of stainless steel (SS brackets-nickel-titanium (NiTi and archwire combinations. Methods: Brackets and archwires were analyzed by an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Detector System (EDX to determine their composition, while NiTi archwire compound was examined by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The immersion test was performed at artificial salivary pH levels of 4.2; 6.5; and 7.6 at 37°C for 28 days. Ni ion release measurement was performed using an Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Surface morphology was analyzed by means of a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Results: The chemical composition of all orthodontic appliances contained Ni element. In addition, XRD was depicted phases not only NiTi but also Ni, Titanium, Silicon and Zinc Oleate. The immersion test showed that the highest release of Ni ions occured at a pH of 4.2, with no significant difference at various levels of pH (p=.092. There were surface morphology changes in the orthodontic appliances. It was revealed that at a pH of 4.2, the surfaces of orthodontic appliances become unhomogenous and rough compared to those at other pH concentrations. Conclusion: The reduction of pH in the artificial saliva increases the amount of released Ni ions, as well as causing changes to

  7. The effect of Nb addition on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and metal-ion release of ZrAlCuNi bulk metallic glasses in artificial body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, C L; Liu, L; Sun, M; Zhang, S M

    2005-12-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(65 - x)Nb(x)- Cu(17.5)Ni(10)Al(7.5) with Nb = 0, 2, and 5 at % were prepared by copper mold casting. Compression tests reveal that the two BMGs containing Nb exhibited superior strength and plasticity to the base alloy. The corrosion behavior of the alloys obtained was investigated in artificial body fluid by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the addition of Nb significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the Zr-based BMG, as indicated by a remarkable increase in corrosion potential and pitting potential. XPS analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was enriched in aluminum oxide and depleted in phosphate ions for the BMGs containing Nb, which accounts for the improvement of corrosion resistance. On the other hand, metal-ion release of different BMGs were determined in PPb (ng/mL) level with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after being immersed in artificial body fluid at 37 degrees C for 20 days. It was found that the addition of Nb considerably reduced the ion release of all kinds of metals of the base system. This is probably attributed to the promoting effect of Nb on a rapid formation of highly protective film.

  8. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses.

  9. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  10. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of a new technique for the MeV ion microbeam are described in detail for the first time. The basis of the technique, termed scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS), is the imaging of defect distributions within semiconductor devices. The principles of SIDLTS are similar to those behind other deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques with the main difference stemming from the injection of carriers into traps using the localized energy-loss of a focused MeV ion beam. Energy-loss of an MeV ion generates an electron-hole pair plasma, providing the equivalent of a DLTS trap filling pulse with a duration which depends on space-charge screening of the applied electric field and ambipolar erosion of the plasma for short ranging ions. Some nanoseconds later, the detrapping current transient is monitored as a charge transient. Scanning the beam in conjunction with transient analysis allows the imaging of defect levels. As with DLTS, the temperature dependence of the transient can be used to extract trap activation levels. In this, the first of a two-part paper, we introduce the various stages of corner capture and derive a simple expression for the observed charge transient. The second paper will illustrate the technique on a MeV ion implanted Au-Si Schottky junction

  11. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  12. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  13. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koseki H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hironobu Koseki,1 Masato Tomita,2 Akihiko Yonekura,2 Takashi Higuchi,1 Sinya Sunagawa,2 Koumei Baba,3,4 Makoto Osaki2 1Department of Locomotive Rehabilitation Science, Unit of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan; 3Industrial Technology Center of Nagasaki, Ikeda, Omura, Nagasaki, Japan; 4Affiliated Division, Nagasaki University School of Engineering, Bunkyo, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: Metal-on-metal (MoM bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa, a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and

  14. Functionalized mesoporous silicas with crown ether moieties for selective adsorption of lithium ions in artificial sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Soo Park; Moorthy, Madhappan Santha; Song, Hyun-Jin; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Lithium ion has been increasingly recognized in a wide range of industrial applications. In this work, we studied on the adsorption of Li+ in the artificial seawater with high selectivity using methyl-crown ether (AC-SBA-15) and aza-crown ether (HMC-SBA-15) moieties-functionalized mesoporous silica materials. First, methyl-crown ether and aza-crown ether moieties-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were synthesized via two-step post-synthesis process using a grafting method. The functionalized materials were employed to the metal ion adsorption from aqueous solution (artificial seawater) containing Li+, Co2+, Cr3+ and Hg2+. The prepared hybrid material showed high selectivity for Li+ ion in the artificial seawater at pH 8.0. The absorbed amount of Li+ was 73 times higher than Cr3+ for aza-crown ether containing AC-SBA-15 as an absorbent. The absorbed amount of Co2+ (4.5 x 10(-5) mol/g), Cr3+ (1.5 x 10(-5) mol/g) and Hg2+ (2.25 x 10(-4) mol/g) were remarkably lower than the case of Li+. On the other hand, the absorbed amount of various metal ions of HMC-SBA-15 with amine groups in alky chains and crown ether moieties were 1.1 x 10(-3) mol/g for Li+, 5.0 x 10(-5) mol/g for Co2+, 2.9 x 10(-4) mol/g for Cr3+, 2.8 x 10(-4) mol/g for Hg2+ mol/g, respectively.

  15. Damage Level Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Building Based on Earthquake Time History Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanita Reni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong motion earthquake could cause the building damage in case of the building not considered in the earthquake design of the building. The study aims to predict the damage-level of building due to earthquake using Artificial Neural Networks method. The building model is a reinforced concrete building with ten floors and height between floors is 3.6 m. The model building received a load of the earthquake based on nine earthquake time history records. Each time history scaled to 0,5g, 0,75g, and 1,0g. The Artificial Neural Networks are designed in 4 architectural models using the MATLAB program. Model 1 used the displacement, velocity, and acceleration as input and Model 2 used the displacement only as the input. Model 3 used the velocity as input, and Model 4 used the acceleration just as input. The output of the Neural Networks is the damage level of the building with the category of Safe (1, Immediate Occupancy (2, Life Safety (3 or in a condition of Collapse Prevention (4. According to the results, Neural Network models have the prediction rate of the damage level between 85%-95%. Therefore, one of the solutions for analyzing the structural responses and the damage level promptly and efficiently when the earthquake occurred is by using Artificial Neural Network

  16. Daily water level forecasting using wavelet decomposition and artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin; Kim, Sungwon; Kisi, Ozgur; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable water level forecasting for reservoir inflow is essential for reservoir operation. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply two hybrid models for daily water level forecasting and investigate their accuracy. These two hybrid models are wavelet-based artificial neural network (WANN) and wavelet-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (WANFIS). Wavelet decomposition is employed to decompose an input time series into approximation and detail components. The decomposed time series are used as inputs to artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for WANN and WANFIS models, respectively. Based on statistical performance indexes, the WANN and WANFIS models are found to produce better efficiency than the ANN and ANFIS models. WANFIS7-sym10 yields the best performance among all other models. It is found that wavelet decomposition improves the accuracy of ANN and ANFIS. This study evaluates the accuracy of the WANN and WANFIS models for different mother wavelets, including Daubechies, Symmlet and Coiflet wavelets. It is found that the model performance is dependent on input sets and mother wavelets, and the wavelet decomposition using mother wavelet, db10, can further improve the efficiency of ANN and ANFIS models. Results obtained from this study indicate that the conjunction of wavelet decomposition and artificial intelligence models can be a useful tool for accurate forecasting daily water level and can yield better efficiency than the conventional forecasting models.

  17. Light-Triggered Soft Artificial Muscles: Molecular-Level Amplification of Actuation Control Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Michael P M; Baker, Anna B; Iredale, Robert J; Naficy, Sina; Bond, Ian P; Faul, Charl F J; Rossiter, Jonathan M; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Weaver, Paul M

    2017-08-23

    The principle of control signal amplification is found in all actuation systems, from engineered devices through to the operation of biological muscles. However, current engineering approaches require the use of hard and bulky external switches or valves, incompatible with both the properties of emerging soft artificial muscle technology and those of the bioinspired robotic systems they enable. To address this deficiency a biomimetic molecular-level approach is developed that employs light, with its excellent spatial and temporal control properties, to actuate soft, pH-responsive hydrogel artificial muscles. Although this actuation is triggered by light, it is largely powered by the resulting excitation and runaway chemical reaction of a light-sensitive acid autocatalytic solution in which the actuator is immersed. This process produces actuation strains of up to 45% and a three-fold chemical amplification of the controlling light-trigger, realising a new strategy for the creation of highly functional soft actuating systems.

  18. Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Consciousness and the Intermediate Level Fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Manzotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been considerable interest and effort to the possibility to design and implement conscious robots, i.e., the chance that robots may have subjective experiences. Typical approaches as the global workspace, information integration, enaction, cognitive mechanisms, embodiment, i.e., the Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Consciousness, henceforth, GOFAC, share the same conceptual framework. In this paper, we discuss GOFAC's basic tenets and their implication for AI and Robotics. In particular, we point out the intermediate level fallacy as the central issue affecting GOFAC. Finally, we outline a possible alternative conceptual framework toward robot consciousness.

  19. Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion Potential and Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The electrical resistance and potential…

  20. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  1. Determination of Na+ and K+ ions in the high-level liquid waste by ion chromatography (IC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianzhong; Ma Guilan

    1992-01-01

    The determination of Na + and k + ions in the high-level liquid waste is investigated using ion chromatography. In order to protect the low capacity ion exchange resin in single column IC and remove the transition metal as well as other heavy metal ions that are contained in liquid waste, the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin is used. Those impurity metal ions are strongly absorbed by EDTA chelating resin and 100% of Na + and K + ions in the solution are eluted. The ability of the decontamination of EDTA chelating resin is satisfactory. The sample of the high-level liquid waste is diluted appropriately, then an aliquot of the sample is passed through the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin, the eluate is analysed by single column ion chromatography. The precision of this method is better than 5% for the determination of Na + and K + ions (at μg· ml -1 level)

  2. A new vibrational level of the H2+ molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, J.; Lazauskas, R.; Delande, D.; Hilico, L.; Kilic, S.; Hilico, L.; Kilic, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new vibrational level of the molecular ion H 2 + with binding energy of 1.09 x 10 -9 a.u. ∼ 30 neV below the first dissociation limit is predicted, using highly accurate numerical non-relativistic quantum calculations, which go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is the first-excited vibrational level v=1 of the 2pσ u electronic state, antisymmetric with respect to the exchange of the two protons, with orbital angular momentum L=0. It manifests itself as a huge p - H scattering length of a = 750 ± 5 Bohr radii. (authors)

  3. Application of Artificial Neural Network into the Water Level Modeling and Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzenna Sztobryn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The dangerous sea and river water level increase does not only destroy the human lives, but also generate the severe flooding in coastal areas. The rapidly changes in the direction and velocity of wind and associated with them sea level changes could be the severe threat for navigation, especially on the fairways of small fishery harbors located in the river mouth. There is the area of activity of two external forcing: storm surges and flood wave. The aim of the work was the description of an application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN methodology into the water level forecast in the case study field in Swibno harbor located is located at 938.7 km of the Wisla River and at a distance of about 3 km up the mouth (Gulf of Gdansk - Baltic Sea.

  4. Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy treated by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition in artificial physiological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the good biocompatibility and tensile yield strength, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to investigate the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy treated by aluminum, zirconium, and titanium plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) at 10 kV in artificial physiological fluids. The surface layers show a characteristic intermixed layer and the outer surface are mainly composed of aluminum, zirconium or titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. Comparing the three sets of samples, aluminum PIII and D significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP

  5. The Effects of Magnesium Ions on the Enzymatic Synthesis of Ligand-Bearing Artificial DNA by Template-Independent Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takezawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A metal-mediated base pair, composed of two ligand-bearing nucleotides and a bridging metal ion, is one of the most promising components for developing DNA-based functional molecules. We have recently reported an enzymatic method to synthesize hydroxypyridone (H-type ligand-bearing artificial DNA strands. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT, a template-independent DNA polymerase, was found to oligomerize H nucleotides to afford ligand-bearing DNAs, which were subsequently hybridized through copper-mediated base pairing (H–CuII–H. In this study, we investigated the effects of a metal cofactor, MgII ion, on the TdT-catalyzed polymerization of H nucleotides. At a high MgII concentration (10 mM, the reaction was halted after several H nucleotides were appended. In contrast, at lower MgII concentrations, H nucleotides were further appended to the H-tailed product to afford longer ligand-bearing DNA strands. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that the binding affinity of TdT to the H-tailed DNAs depends on the MgII concentration. In the presence of excess MgII ions, TdT did not bind to the H-tailed strands; thus, further elongation was impeded. This is possibly because the interaction with MgII ions caused folding of the H-tailed strands into unfavorable secondary structures. This finding provides an insight into the enzymatic synthesis of longer ligand-bearing DNA strands.

  6. Artificial intelligence and regression analysis for Cd(II) ion biosorption from aqueous solution by Gossypium barbadense waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Nagy, Heba; Helmi, Shacker

    2018-02-01

    In this study, batch biosorption experiments were conducted to determine the removal efficiency of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solutions by Gossypium barbadense waste. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) connected with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The sorption mechanism was described by complexation/chelation of Cd 2+ with the functional groups of O-H, C=O, -COO-, and C-O, as well as, cation-exchange with Mg 2+ and K + . At initial Cd(II) ion concentration (C o ), 50 mg/L, the adsorption equilibrium of 89.2% was achieved after 15 min under the optimum experimental factors of pH 6.0, biosorbent dosage 10 g/L, and particle diameter 0.125-0.25 mm. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted well to the sorption data, suggesting the co-existence of monolayer coverage along with heterogenous surface biosorption. Artificial neural network (ANN) with a structure of 5-10-1 was performed to predict the Cd(II) ion removal efficiency. The ANN model provided high fit (R 2 0.923) to the experimental data and indicated that C o was the most influential input. A pure-quadratic model was developed to determine the effects of experimental factors on Cd(II) ion removal efficiency, which indicated the limiting nature of pH and biosorbent dosage on Cd(II) adsorption. Based on the regression model (R 2 0.873), the optimum experimental factors were pH 7.61, biosorbent dosage 24.74 g/L, particle size 0.125-0.25 mm, and adsorption time 109.77 min, achieving Cd 2+ removal of almost 100% at C o 50 mg/L.

  7. Prostate cancer outcome and tissue levels of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; MacIas, V.; Gao, W.; Liang, W.-M.; Beam, C.; Gray, Marion A.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThere are several studies examining prostate cancer and exposure to cadmium, iron, selenium, and zinc. Less data are available on the possible influence of these metal ions on prostate cancer outcome. This study measured levels of these ions in prostatectomy samples in order to examine possible associations between metal concentrations and disease outcome.METHODSWe obtained formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of prostatectomy samples of 40 patients with PSA recurrence, matched 1:1 (for year of surgery, race, age, Gleason grading, and pathology TNM classification) with tissue blocks from 40 patients without recurrence (n = 80). Case–control pairs were compared for the levels of metals in areas adjacent to tumors. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantification of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Se.RESULTSPatients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence of disease had 12% lower median iron (95 µg/g vs. 111 µg/g; P = 0.04) and 21% lower zinc (279 µg/g vs. 346 µg/g; P = 0.04) concentrations in the normal-appearing tissue immediately adjacent to cancer areas. Differences in cadmium (0.489 µg/g vs. 0.439 µg/g; 4% higher) and selenium (1.68 µg/g vs. 1.58 µg/g; 5% higher) levels were not statistically significant in recurrence cases, when compared to non-recurrences (P = 0.40 and 0.21, respectively).CONCLUSIONSThere is an association between low zinc and low iron prostate tissue levels and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Whether these novel findings are a cause or effect of more aggressive tumors, or whether low zinc and iron prostatic levels raise implications for therapy, remains to be investigated. 

  8. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: II. Ion irradiated Au-Si Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Here we introduce a new technique called scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS) for the spatial analysis of electrically active defects in devices. In the first part of this paper, a simple theory behind SIDLTS was introduced and factors determining its sensitivity and resolution were discussed. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique on MeV boron implantation induced defects in an Au-Si Schottky junction. SIDLTS measurements are compared with capacitance DLTS measurements over the temperature range, 100-300 K. SIDLTS analyses indicate the presence of two levels, one of which was positively identified as the E c - 0.23 eV divacancy level. The high sensitivity of SIDLTS is verified and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in light of non-exponential components in the charge transient response. Reasons for several undetected levels are also discussed

  9. Artificial ion tracks in volcanic dark mica simulating natural radiation damage: A scanning force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, M.; Glasmacher, U.A.; Moine, B.; Mueller, C.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new dating technique uses alpha-recoil tracks (ART), formed by the natural α-decay of U, Th and their daughter products, to determine the formation age of Quaternary volcanic rocks ( 6 a). Visualization of etched ART by scanning force microscopy (SFM) enables to access track densities beyond 10 8 cm -2 and thus extend the new ART-dating technique to an age range >10 6 a. In order to simulate natural radiation damage, samples of phlogopite, originating from Quaternary and Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Eifel (Germany) and Kerguelen Islands (Indian Ocean) were irradiated with U, Ni (11.4 MeV/u), Xe, Cr, Ne (1.4 MeV/u) and Bi (200 keV) ions. After irradiation and etching with HF at various etching times, phlogopite surfaces were visualized by SFM. Hexagonal etch pits are typical of U, Xe and Cr ion tracks, but the etch pits of Ni, Ne and Bi ion tracks are triangular. Surfaces irradiated with U, Xe, Cr and Ni ions do not show any significant difference between etch pit density and irradiation fluence, whereas the Ne-irradiated surface show ∼14 times less etch pit density. The etching rate v H (parallel to cleavage) depends on the chemical composition of the phlogopite. The etching rate v T ' (along the track) increases with energy loss

  10. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  11. In-flight calibration of satellite ion composition data using artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemark, J.

    1995-11-01

    The scope of this report is to evaluate some of the cognitive analyzing techniques that are available and that might be useful for calibration, validation and data analysis of a satellite measurement system. As an example, these cognitive techniques are used to perform a post launch calibration of the three-dimensional ion composition, TICS, on the Freja satellite. 17 refs, 28 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Etching behaviour of alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica studied via artificial ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, M.; Glasmacher, U.A.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-recoil tracks (ARTs) created by the α-decay of U, Th, and their daughter nuclei, are used by a new dating method to determine the formation age of dark mica bearing Quaternary and Neogene volcanic rocks and the cooling age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks [Chem. Geol. 166 (2000) 127, Science 155 (1967) 1103]. The age equation combines the volumetric density of ARTs with the U and Th contents. Etching latent ARTs (diameter 30-100 nm) in the mica mineral phlogopite by HF and measuring the areal density of triangular etch pits by optical and scanning force microscopy (SFM) leads to a linear growth of ART areal density versus etching time. The ART volume density is a function of the slope of the areal density and the etching rate (v eff ). Therefore, the determination of v eff is essential for the calculation of an age value. To determine the etching parameters such as etching efficiency and v eff , phlogopite samples were irradiated with 80 keV Au ions. Irradiated surfaces were etched with 4% HF at 23±2 deg. C during successive time intervals and after each interval studied with SFM. The etching rate v eff was determined by different techniques. To evaluate the threshold of etchability, the energy losses of the Au ions and α-recoil nuclei in phlogopite were calculated with the SRIM00 code. The etching efficiency of the Au ion tracks was then used to predict the corresponding etching efficiency of the natural radioactive nuclei

  13. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva)

    OpenAIRE

    Nolista Indah Rasyid; Pinandi Sri Pudyani; JCP Heryumani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires ...

  14. The relationship between diver experience levels and perceptions of attractiveness of artificial reefs - examination of a potential management tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Kirkbride-Smith

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are increasingly used worldwide as a method for managing recreational diving since they have the potential to satisfy both conservation goals and economic interests. In order to help maximize their utility, further information is needed to drive the design of stimulating resources for scuba divers. We used a questionnaire survey to explore divers' perceptions of artificial reefs in Barbados. In addition, we examined reef resource substitution behaviour among scuba divers. Divers expressed a clear preference for large shipwrecks or sunken vessels that provided a themed diving experience. Motives for diving on artificial reefs were varied, but were dominated by the chance of viewing concentrated marine life, increased photographic opportunities, and the guarantee of a 'good dive'. Satisfaction with artificial reef diving was high amongst novices and declined with increasing experience. Experienced divers had an overwhelming preference for natural reefs. As a management strategy, our results emphasize the capacity of well designed artificial reefs to contribute towards the management of coral reef diving sites and highlight a number of important areas for future research. Suggested work should validate the present findings in different marine tourism settings and ascertain support of artificial reefs in relationship to level of diver specialization.

  15. Sea-level rise and refuge habitats for tidal marsh species: can artificial islands save the California Ridgway's rail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Casazza, Michael L.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Holyoak, Marcel; Strong, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial species living in intertidal habitats experience refuge limitation during periods of tidal inundation, which may be exacerbated by seasonal variation in vegetation structure, tidal cycles, and land-use change. Sea-level rise projections indicate the severity of refuge limitation may increase. Artificial habitats that provide escape cover during tidal inundation have been proposed as a temporary solution to alleviate these limitations. We tested for evidence of refuge habitat limitation in a population of endangered California Ridgway's rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter California rail) through use of artificial floating island habitats provided during two winters. Previous studies demonstrated that California rail mortality was especially high during the winter and periods of increased tidal inundation, suggesting that tidal refuge habitat is critical to survival. In our study, California rail regularly used artificial islands during higher tides and daylight hours. When tide levels inundated the marsh plain, use of artificial islands was at least 300 times more frequent than would be expected if California rails used artificial habitats proportional to their availability (0.016%). Probability of use varied among islands, and low levels of use were observed at night. These patterns may result from anti-predator behaviors and heterogeneity in either rail density or availability of natural refuges. Endemic saltmarsh species are increasingly at risk from habitat change resulting from sea-level rise and development of adjacent uplands. Escape cover during tidal inundation may need to be supplemented if species are to survive. Artificial habitats may provide effective short-term mitigation for habitat change and sea-level rise in tidal marsh environments, particularly for conservation-reliant species such as California rails.

  16. Negative chlorine ion chemistry in the upper stratosphere and its application to an artificially created dense electron cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Prasad

    >, instead of reacting with O. It must be emphasized that the present study is speculative at this time, because none of the relevant reactions have been investigated in the laboratory as yet. Nevertheless, it is very safe to say that the scheme of ozone preservation by electron scavenging of the upper stratospheric Cl is much less certain than implied in the studies reported by its original proponents, because those studies neglected the photodetachment from Cl- and made the highly unlikely assumption that the Cl-·H2O anion neither photodissociates nor reacts any further. The situation at the lower altitudes could be even more complex due to the formation of large cluster ions and the ion-induced aerosol formation. The lower atmospheric situation, therefore, requires much more study. The uncertainties in the scavenging scheme due to the electrostatic repulsion in the cloud should also be addressed. Despite the uncertainties about its environmental engineering usefulness, the emerging technology for artificial creation of plasmas, with any desired density and charge in the stratosphere, could have significant pure scientific values in the studies of stratospheric ion chemistry and ion-induced aerosol formation. Such studies have perennially suffered from the extremely low densities of the naturally occurring plasma.

  17. Negative chlorine ion chemistry in the upper stratosphere and its application to an artificially created dense electron cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Prasad

    1995-03-01

    much less certain than implied in the studies reported by its original proponents, because those studies neglected the photodetachment from Cl- and made the highly unlikely assumption that the Cl-·H2O anion neither photodissociates nor reacts any further. The situation at the lower altitudes could be even more complex due to the formation of large cluster ions and the ion-induced aerosol formation. The lower atmospheric situation, therefore, requires much more study. The uncertainties in the scavenging scheme due to the electrostatic repulsion in the cloud should also be addressed. Despite the uncertainties about its environmental engineering usefulness, the emerging technology for artificial creation of plasmas, with any desired density and charge in the stratosphere, could have significant pure scientific values in the studies of stratospheric ion chemistry and ion-induced aerosol formation. Such studies have perennially suffered from the extremely low densities of the naturally occurring plasma.

  18. Ion permeability of artificial membranes evaluated by diffusion potential and electrical resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-12-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and n-decane. The electrical resistance and potential difference across these membranes can be easily measured using a low-cost volt-ohm meter and home-made Ag/AgCl electrodes. The advantage of the model is the lack of ionic selectivity of the membrane, which can be modified by the introduction of different ionophores to the organic liquid mixture. A membrane treated with the mixture containing valinomycin generates voltages from -53 to -25 mV in the presence of a 10-fold KCl gradient (in to out) and from -79 to -53 mV in the presence of a bi-ionic KCl/NaCl gradient (in to out). This latter bi-ionic gradient potential reverses to a value from +9 to +20 mV when monensin is present in the organic liquid mixture. Thus, the model can be build stepwise, i.e., all factors leading to the development of diffusion potentials can be introduced sequentially, helping students to understand the quantitative relationships of ionic gradients and differential membrane permeability in the generation of cell electrical signals.

  19. Multi-Level Interval Estimation for Locating damage in Structures by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Danguang; Gao Yanhua; Song Junlei

    2010-01-01

    A new analysis technique, called multi-level interval estimation method, is developed for locating damage in structures. In this method, the artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis method is combined with the statistics theory to estimate the range of damage location. The ANN is multilayer perceptron trained by back-propagation. Natural frequencies and modal shape at a few selected points are used as input to identify the location and severity of damage. Considering the large-scale structures which have lots of elements, multi-level interval estimation method is developed to reduce the estimation range of damage location step-by-step. Every step, estimation range of damage location is obtained from the output of ANN by using the method of interval estimation. The next ANN training cases are selected from the estimation range after linear transform, and the output of new ANN estimation range of damage location will gained a reduced estimation range. Two numerical example analyses on 10-bar truss and 100-bar truss are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Classification of a Driver's cognitive workload levels using artificial neural network on ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjolleng, Amir; Jung, Kihyo; Hong, Wongi; Lee, Wonsup; Lee, Baekhee; You, Heecheon; Son, Joonwoo; Park, Seikwon

    2017-03-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated. To compensate for individual differences in heart response during the driving tasks, a three-step data processing procedure was performed to ECG signals of each participant: (1) selection of two most sensitive ECG measures, (2) definition of three (low, medium, and high) cognitive workload levels, and (3) normalization of the selected ECG measures. An ANN model was constructed using a feed-forward network and scaled conjugate gradient as a back-propagation learning rule. The accuracy of the ANN classification model was found satisfactory for learning data (95%) and testing data (82%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated serum estradiol levels in artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer cycles negatively impact ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rani; Jindal, Sangita; Feil, Heather; Buyuk, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels during artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OP/LB). A historical cohort study was conducted in an academic setting in order to correlate peak and average estradiol levels with ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates for all autologous artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles performed from 1/2011 to 12/2014. Average and peak E 2 levels from 110 autologous artificial FET cycles from 95 patients were analyzed. Average E 2 levels were significantly lower in cycles resulting in OP/LB compared to those that did not (234.1 ± 16.6 pg/ml vs. 315 ± 24.8 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.04). Although peak E 2 levels were not significantly different between cycles resulting in OP/LB compared with those that did not (366.9 ± 27.7 pg/ml vs. 459.1 ± 32.3 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.19), correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) downward trend in OP/LB rates with increasing peak E 2 levels. This study suggests that elevated E 2 levels in artificial autologous FET cycles are associated with lower OP/LB rates. Estradiol levels should be monitored during artificial FET cycles.

  2. Forecasting of Groundwater Level using Artificial Neural Network by incorporating river recharge and river bank infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Shamsuddin Mohd Khairul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater tables forecasting during implemented river bank infiltration (RBI method is important to identify adequate storage of groundwater aquifer for water supply purposes. This study illustrates the development and application of artificial neural networks (ANNs to predict groundwater tables in two vertical wells located in confined aquifer adjacent to the Langat River. ANN model was used in this study is based on the long period forecasting of daily groundwater tables. ANN models were carried out to predict groundwater tables for 1 day ahead at two different geological materials. The input to the ANN models consider of daily rainfall, river stage, water level, stream flow rate, temperature and groundwater level. Two different type of ANNs structure were used to predict the fluctuation of groundwater tables and compared the best forecasting values. The performance of different models structure of the ANN is used to identify the fluctuation of the groundwater table and provide acceptable predictions. Dynamics prediction and time series of the system can be implemented in two possible ways of modelling. The coefficient correlation (R, Mean Square Error (MSE, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and coefficient determination (R2 were chosen as the selection criteria of the best model. The statistical values for DW1 are 0.8649, 0.0356, 0.01, and 0.748 respectively. While for DW2 the statistical values are 0.7392, 0.0781, 0.0139, and 0.546 respectively. Based on these results, it clearly shows that accurate predictions can be achieved with time series 1-day ahead of forecasting groundwater table and the interaction between river and aquifer can be examine. The findings of the study can be used to assist policy marker to manage groundwater resources by using RBI method.

  3. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  4. Atmospheric ions and probable indirect biological effect of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is discussed of the health consequences of low radiation doses (of less than 0.01 Gy). Owing to natural radioactivity and cosmic radiation, ions are formed in the atmosphere which may thus indirectly mediate the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism. The rate of ion formation is approximately 6.1 ion pairs/cm 3 .s and their number will not exceed 10 3 ions/cm 3 . In an environment where artificial radioactive sources are used, the ion concentration may reach up to 10 5 ions/cm 3 . The effect of ions on man may be divided into several types: 1. effect on mental state (behaviour, fatigue, headaches); 2. effect on the cardiovascular system; 3. effect on the bronchial system;and 4. effect on physiological processes, e.g., secretion by endocrine glands. It is not yet known whether the biological effect of small (fast) ions is a function of their electric charge only or of their kinetic energy as well. The view is discussed that low radiation doses through indirect effects have favourable and beneficial influence on the human organism. (M.D.)

  5. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharani, Pedram; Suffoletto, Brian; Chung, Tammy; Karimi, Hassan A

    2017-12-13

    Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of "just-in-time" injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70%) of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN) was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  6. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Gharani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of “just-in-time” injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN, we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70% of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  7. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Choudhury, Snehashis; Zachman, Michael J.; Wei, Shuya; Zhang, Kaihang; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode

  8. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  9. A model to predict the level of artificial radionuclides in environmental materials in the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The NRPB SEVERN compartment model, of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary, has been developed for used in predicting environmental concentrations of artificial radionuclides present in the estuary. A comparison between predicted and measured values of salinity and environmental 137 Cs concentrations has demonstrated the overall validity of the model. SEVERN has been used to assess the radiological impact of radionuclides present in the estuary which result from low-level routine discharges from the nuclear power industry. (author)

  10. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  11. The Prediction of the Risk Level of Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis through Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agharezaei, Laleh; Agharezaei, Zhila; Nemati, Ali; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz; Keynia, Farshid; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Iranpour, Abedin; Agharezaei, Moslem

    2016-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of mortality among hospitalized patients and yet it is preventable through detecting the precipitating factors and a prompt diagnosis by specialists. The present study has been carried out in order to assist specialists in the diagnosis and prediction of the risk level of pulmonary embolism in patients, by means of artificial neural network. A number of 31 risk factors have been used in this study in order to evaluate the conditions of 294 patients hospitalized in 3 educational hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Two types of artificial neural networks, namely Feed-Forward Back Propagation and Elman Back Propagation, were compared in this study. Through an optimized artificial neural network model, an accuracy and risk level index of 93.23 percent was achieved and, subsequently, the results have been compared with those obtained from the perfusion scan of the patients. 86.61 percent of high risk patients diagnosed through perfusion scan diagnostic method were also diagnosed correctly through the method proposed in the present study. The results of this study can be a good resource for physicians, medical assistants, and healthcare staff to diagnose high risk patients more precisely and prevent the mortalities. Additionally, expenses and other unnecessary diagnostic methods such as perfusion scans can be efficiently reduced.

  12. Modulation of the sound press level by the treatment of polymer diaphragms through ion implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Sunmog; Park, Jaewon; Lee, Hojae

    2010-01-01

    We present two different surface modification treatments, an ion implantation, and an ion beam mixing, and show that the surface modifications caused by these treatments are useful tools to modulate the sound press level. The ion implantations on various polymer diaphragms cause an increase in the resonant frequency so that the sound press level is lowered at low frequencies. On the contrary, a Cu or Fe 2 O 3 coating by using an ion beam mixing method causes a decrease in the resonant frequency, resulting in a high sound press level at low frequencies. We discuss the physical reasons for the change in the sound press level due to the ion-implantation methods.

  13. Regression model, artificial neural network, and cost estimation for biosorption of Ni(II)-ions from aqueous solutions by Potamogeton pectinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Adel, Samar; Helmi, Shacker

    2018-03-21

    This study investigated the application of Potamogeton pectinatus for Ni(II)-ions biosorption from aqueous solutions. FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups of -OH, C-H, -C = O, and -COO- could form an organometallic complex with Ni(II)-ions on the biomaterial surface. SEM/EDX analysis indicated that the voids on the biosorbent surface were blocked due to Ni(II)-ions uptake via an ion exchange mechanism. For Ni(II)-ions of 50 mg/L, the adsorption efficiency recorded 63.4% at pH: 5, biosorbent dosage: 10 g/L, and particle-diameter: 0.125-0.25 mm within 180 minutes. A quadratic model depicted that the plot of removal efficiency against pH or contact time caused quadratic-linear concave up curves, whereas the curve of initial Ni(II)-ions was quadratic-linear convex down. Artificial neural network with a structure of 5 - 6 - 1 was able to predict the adsorption efficiency (R 2 : 0.967). The relative importance of inputs was: initial Ni(II)-ions > pH > contact time > biosorbent dosage > particle-size. Freundlich isotherm described well the adsorption mechanism (R 2 : 0.974), which indicated a multilayer adsorption onto energetically heterogeneous surfaces. The net cost of using P. pectinatus for the removal of Ni(II)-ions (4.25 ± 1.26 mg/L) from real industrial effluents within 30 minutes was 3.4 $USD/m 3 .

  14. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Michelle Manfrini [UNIFESP; Turcatto, Aline Patricia; Pereira, Rogerio Aparecido; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Goncalves, Lionel Segui; Almeida, Joyce Mayra Volpini de; Ellis, J. D.; De Jong, David

    2013-01-01

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in s...

  15. Scanning ion images; analysis of pharmaceutical drugs at organelle levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras-Regard, E.; Mony, M.-C.

    1995-05-01

    With the ion analyser IMS 4F used in microprobe mode, it is possible to obtain images of fields of 10 × 10 [mu]m2, corresponding to an effective magnification of 7000 with lateral resolution of 250 nm, technical characteristics that are appropriate for the size of cell organelles. It is possible to characterize organelles by their relative CN-, P- and S- intensities when the tissues are prepared by freeze fixation and freeze substitution. The recognition of organelles enables correlation of the tissue distribution of ebselen, a pharmaceutical drug containing selenium. The various metabolites characterized in plasma, bile and urine during biotransformation of ebselen all contain selenium, so the presence of the drug and its metabolites can be followed by images of Se. We were also able to detect the endogenous content of Se in tissue, due to the increased sensitivity of ion analysis in microprobe mode. Our results show a natural occurrence of Se in the border corresponding to the basal lamina of cells of proximal but not distal tubules of the kidney. After treatment of rats with ebselen, an additional site of Se is found in the lysosomes. We suggest that in addition to direct elimination of ebselen and its metabolites by glomerular filtration and urinary elimination, a second process of elimination may occur: Se compounds reaching the epithelial cells via the basal lamina accumulate in lysosomes prior to excretion into the tubular fluid. The technical developments of using the IMS 4F instrument in the microprobe mode and the improvement in preparation of samples by freeze fixation and substitution further extend the limit of ion analysis in biology. Direct imaging of trace elements and molecules marked with a tracer make it possible to determine their targets by comparison with images of subcellular structures. This is a promising advance in the study of pathways of compounds within tissues, cells and the whole organism.

  16. Applications of network analysis for adaptive management of artificial drainage systems in landscapes vulnerable to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Benjamin; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe vulnerability of coastal landscapes to sea level rise is compounded by the existence of extensive artificial drainage networks initially built to lower water tables for agriculture, forestry, and human settlements. These drainage networks are found in landscapes with little topographic relief where channel flow is characterized by bi-directional movement across multiple time-scales and related to precipitation, wind, and tidal patterns. The current configuration of many artificial drainage networks exacerbates impacts associated with sea level rise such as salt-intrusion and increased flooding. This suggests that in the short-term, drainage networks might be managed to mitigate sea level rise related impacts. The challenge, however, is that hydrologic processes in regions where channel flow direction is weakly related to slope and topography require extensive parameterization for numerical models which is limited where network size is on the order of a hundred or more kilometers in total length. Here we present an application of graph theoretic algorithms to efficiently investigate network properties relevant to the management of a large artificial drainage system in coastal North Carolina, USA. We created a digital network model representing the observation network topology and four types of drainage features (canal, collector and field ditches, and streams). We applied betweenness-centrality concepts (using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm) to determine major hydrologic flowpaths based off of hydraulic resistance. Following this, we identified sub-networks that could be managed independently using a community structure and modularity approach. Lastly, a betweenness-centrality algorithm was applied to identify major shoreline entry points to the network that disproportionately control water movement in and out of the network. We demonstrate that graph theory can be applied to solving management and monitoring problems associated with sea level rise

  17. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolista Indah Rasyid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires were used in this study, each of which weighed 0.12 grams. The wires were immersed for 1, 7, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days in artificial saliva with a normal pH. The release of ions in saliva was examined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The result indicated that the release of nickel ions on special type of Australian wire was larger than that on stainless steel wire (p<0.005, there were differences in the release of the amount of nickel ions on special type of Australia in different immersion time, and there was a correlation between the types of wire and immersion time. Nickel ions released from the special type of Australian wire detected on the 7th day of immersion and reached its peak on the 35th day, while from stainless steel wire were detected on the 49th day of immersion. The released of chromium ions from the special type of Australian wire and stainless steel wire were not detected until the 49th day of immersion. Conclusion: The release of nickel ions were highest on the 35th day of immersion in special type of Australian wire and they were detected on the 49th day in stainless steel wire. The release of chromium ions were not detected until 49th day of immersion in special type of Australian and stainless steel wire.Latar belakang: Perawatan ortodonti cekat memerlukan beberapa macam kawat untuk menghasilkan kekuatan biomekanika yang sesuai dalam menggerakkan gigi. Pemakaian kawat ortodonti di dalam mulut dapat bereaksi dengan

  18. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > ∼11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH ∼13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was ∼12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Saint, A; Moloney, G M; Legge, G F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Saint, A.; Moloney, G.M.; Legge, G.F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The most serious contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and certain inorganic ion-exchange material have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 even in the presence of high cesium and moderate potassium concentrations. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal from solutions with high alkali metal concentrations, especially at high pH. These separations are so efficient that one or two stages of simple, batch separation can yield large DFs (∼10 4 ) while still generating small volumes of solid waste

  2. Comparison of Groundwater Level Models Based on Artificial Neural Networks and ANFIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurovic, Nevenka; Domazet, Milka; Stricevic, Ruzica; Pocuca, Vesna; Spalevic, Velibor; Pivic, Radmila; Gregoric, Enika; Domazet, Uros

    2015-01-01

    Water table forecasting plays an important role in the management of groundwater resources in agricultural regions where there are drainage systems in river valleys. The results presented in this paper pertain to an area along the left bank of the Danube River, in the Province of Vojvodina, which is the northern part of Serbia. Two soft computing techniques were used in this research: an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model for one-month water table forecasts at several wells located at different distances from the river. The results suggest that both these techniques represent useful tools for modeling hydrological processes in agriculture, with similar computing and memory capabilities, such that they constitute an exceptionally good numerical framework for generating high-quality models.

  3. Comparison of Groundwater Level Models Based on Artificial Neural Networks and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Djurovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table forecasting plays an important role in the management of groundwater resources in agricultural regions where there are drainage systems in river valleys. The results presented in this paper pertain to an area along the left bank of the Danube River, in the Province of Vojvodina, which is the northern part of Serbia. Two soft computing techniques were used in this research: an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS and an artificial neural network (ANN model for one-month water table forecasts at several wells located at different distances from the river. The results suggest that both these techniques represent useful tools for modeling hydrological processes in agriculture, with similar computing and memory capabilities, such that they constitute an exceptionally good numerical framework for generating high-quality models.

  4. STAND-LEVEL PROGNOSIS OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Luiza Marques da Silva Binoti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to train, implement and evaluate the efficiency of artificial neural networks (ANN to perform production prognosis of even-aged stands of eucalyptus clones. The data used were from plantations located in southern Bahia, totaling about 2,000 acres of forest. Numeric variables, such as age, basal area, volume and categorical variables, such as soil class texture, spacing, land relief, project and clone were used. The data were randomly divided into two groups: training (80% and generalization (20%. Three types of networks were trained: perceptron, multilayer perceptron networks and radial basis function. The RNA that showed the best performance in training and generalization were selected to perform the prognosis with data from the first forest inventory. We conclude that the RNA had satisfactory results, showing the potential and applicability of the technique in solving measurement and forest management problems.

  5. Performance of Nellore males under different artificial shading levels in the feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Alves da Costa Ferro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of artificial shading on weight gain and meat quality of male Nellore cattle in an intensive production system. The experiment was conducted in the experimental feedlot of the Course of Animal Science at Universidade Estadual de Goiás, from July to October 2014. Forty-eight male Nellore cattle with an average initial weight of 310 kg were kept in double 24-m2 stalls, in a total of 24 stalls. Of these, six were in the open air; six were covered with black shade netting of 30% light interception; six with black shade netting 50%; and six with black shade netting 80%, providing 6 m2 of shade per stall. The ration supplied to the animals and the orts left in the trough were weighed daily to determine intake, and the temperature-humidity index (THI was measured twice weekly. Animals were weighed for the first time at the start of the experiment, and then another three times until the end, which was followed by the slaughter and assessments of performance and meat quality. A difference (p 0.05 was observed for feed intake, initial weight, final weight, total weight gain, average daily weight gain, carcass yield, marbling, texture, fatness, backfat thickness, loin-eye area, color, thigh length and circumference, leg length and circumference, or carcass length between the animals on the different treatments. The use of artificial shading does not have a significant effect on performance or meat quality of feedlot Nellore cattle when the ambient temperature is within the thermal comfort zone.

  6. Noise and vibration levels in artificial polar bear dens as related to selected petroleum exploration and developmental activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, A.S.; Lentfer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration and development are occurring in various locations in the Arctic, where there are important denning sites for polar bears. Petroleum activities usually coincide with winter denning activities by bears, who may abandon dens if subject to prolonged annoyance. A study was carried out to measure noise and vibration levels in artificial polar bear dens at Prudhoe's Bar, Alaska, resulting from seismic testing, drilling and transport. A microphone and an accelerometer were frozen to the floor of the dens, with leads passed through a consolidated snow filled entrance to a truck, tent or helicopter. Tests were carried out on land, sea ice, and next to a drilling tower on an artificial island, which was also used to measure noise levels resulting from a helicopter taking off. It was concluded that the dry and wind-beaten arctic snow muffles both sound and vibration extremely well, and it is unlikely that polar bears in their dens will be disturbed by the type of petroleum-related activities measured, provided they do not take place within 100 m of the dens. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Spectrum and energy levels of kryptonlike ion Nb VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, J.; Ekberg, J.O.

    1993-01-01

    The spectrum of five-times ionized niobium, Nb, VI, was observed from 238 to 2700 angstrom with sliding spark discharges on 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs. Experimental energies were determined for all levels of the 4s 2 4p 6 , 4s 2 4p 6 , 4s 2 4p 5 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5g, 6s, and 4s4p 6 4d configurations as well as some levels of 4p 5 6g. A total of 291 lines were classified as transitions between 88 observed levels. A previous analysis of this spectrum was found to be totally erroneous. Large hyperfine splittings were found for several levels of the 4p 5 5s and 5p configurations. The observed configurations were theoretically interpreted by means of Hartree-Fock calculations and least squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels. A revised value of the ionization energy was obtained from the 4p 5 5g and 6g configurations

  8. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

    The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

  9. Predicting the Water Level Fluctuation in an Alpine Lake Using Physically Based, Artificial Neural Network, and Time Series Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of water level fluctuation is important in lake management due to its significant impacts in various aspects. This study utilizes four model approaches to predict water levels in the Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL in Taiwan: a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an artificial neural network (ANN model (back propagation neural network, BPNN, a time series forecasting (autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs, ARMAX model, and a combined hydrodynamic and ANN model. Particularly, the black-box ANN model and physically based hydrodynamic model are coupled to more accurately predict water level fluctuation. Hourly water level data (a total of 7296 observations was collected for model calibration (training and validation. Three statistical indicators (mean absolute error, root mean square error, and coefficient of correlation were adopted to evaluate model performances. Overall, the results demonstrate that the hydrodynamic model can satisfactorily predict hourly water level changes during the calibration stage but not for the validation stage. The ANN and ARMAX models better predict the water level than the hydrodynamic model does. Meanwhile, the results from an ANN model are superior to those by the ARMAX model in both training and validation phases. The novel proposed concept using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in conjunction with an ANN model has clearly shown the improved prediction accuracy for the water level fluctuation.

  10. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  11. Energy-level scheme and transition probabilities of Si-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical energy levels and transition probabilities are presented for 27 low-lying levels of silicon-like ions from Z = 15 to Z = 106. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock technique is used to calculate energy levels and wave functions. The Breit interaction and Lamb shift contributions are calculated perturbatively as corrections to the Dirac-Fock energy. The M1 and E2 transitions between the first nine levels and the E1 transitions between excited and the ground levels are presented

  12. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and biodiversity levels: ecological role of constructed wetlands and artificial ponds in a natural park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sartori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Constructed wetlands play an important role in water supply, floodwater retention and nutrient removal, at the same time allowing the restoration of lost habitat and the preservation of biodiversity. There is little knowledge about the biodiversity that can be found in these artificial environments along time, especially at the invertebrate community level. Macroinvertebrate assemblages, water chemistry, morphology, and environmental characteristics of natural ponds, artificial pools and constructed wetlands in Parco Pineta (Northern Italy were studied to evaluate the effects of local factors on macroinvertebrate communities. The objective was to verify if each ecosystem could equally contribute to local biodiversity, regardless of its natural or artificial origin. Principal Components Analysis showed that ponds were divided into clusters, based on their morphology and their water quality, independently from their origin. The composition of macroinvertebrate communities was similar among natural wetlands and ponds artificially created to provide new habitats in the park, while it was different among natural wetlands and constructed wetlands created for wastewater treatment purposes. Biodiversity of natural ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluated using taxa richness, Shannon index, and Pielou index, was comparable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted differences in macroinvertebrate community composition and pointed out the relationships among macroinvertebrates and various environmental variables: habitat heterogeneity resulted as the most relevant factor that influences taxa richness. Water quality also affects the macroinvertebrate community structure. We determined that constructed wetlands with higher pollutant concentrations show different assemblage compositions but comparable overall macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Constructed wetlands became valuable ecological elements

  13. Comparison of hybrid spectral-decomposition artificial neural network models for understanding climatic forcing of groundwater levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrokwah, K.; O'Reilly, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is an important resource that is extracted every day because of its invaluable use for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The need for sustaining groundwater resources is clearly indicated by declining water levels and has led to modeling and forecasting accurate groundwater levels. In this study, spectral decomposition of climatic forcing time series was used to develop hybrid wavelet analysis (WA) and moving window average (MWA) artificial neural network (ANN) models. These techniques are explored by modeling historical groundwater levels in order to provide understanding of potential causes of the observed groundwater-level fluctuations. Selection of the appropriate decomposition level for WA and window size for MWA helps in understanding the important time scales of climatic forcing, such as rainfall, that influence water levels. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to decompose the input time-series data into various levels of approximate and details wavelet coefficients, whilst MWA acts as a low-pass signal-filtering technique for removing high-frequency signals from the input data. The variables used to develop and validate the models were daily average rainfall measurements from five National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA) weather stations and daily water-level measurements from two wells recorded from 1978 to 2008 in central Florida, USA. Using different decomposition levels and different window sizes, several WA-ANN and MWA-ANN models for simulating the water levels were created and their relative performances compared against each other. The WA-ANN models performed better than the corresponding MWA-ANN models; also higher decomposition levels of the input signal by the DWT gave the best results. The results obtained show the applicability and feasibility of hybrid WA-ANN and MWA-ANN models for simulating daily water levels using only climatic forcing time series as model inputs.

  14. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pretty

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention. Keywords: forestry, detritivores, old-growth conifers, river management, woody debris

  15. Cross-B convection of artificially created, negative-ion clouds and plasma depressions: Low-speed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    A negative-ion, positive-ion plasma produced by the release of an electron attachment chemical into the F region becomes electrically polarized by the collisions with neutrals moving across magnetic field lines. The resulting electric field causes E x B drift of the two ion species and the residual electrons. The cross-field flow of the modified ionosphere is computed using a two-dimensional numerical simulation which includes electron attachment and mutual neutralization chemistry, self-consistent electric fields, and three-species plasma transport. The velocity of the plasma is initially in the direction of the neutral wind because the negative-ion cloud is a Pedersen conductivity enhancement. As the positive and negative ions react, the Pedersen conductivity becomes depressed below the ambient value and the velocity of the plasma reverses direction. A plasma hole remains after the positive and negative ions have mutually neutralized. The E x B gradient drift instability produces irregularities on the upwind edge of the hole. These processes may be observed experimentally with optical and backscatter-radar diagnostics

  16. Computerized detection of multiple sclerosis candidate regions based on a level set method using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwazuru, Junpei; Magome, Taiki; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yamashita, Yasuo; Oki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Kakeda, Shingo; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Yamamoto et al. developed the system for computer-aided detection of multiple sclerosis (MS) candidate regions. In a level set method in their proposed method, they employed the constant threshold value for the edge indicator function related to a speed function of the level set method. However, it would be appropriate to adjust the threshold value to each MS candidate region, because the edge magnitudes in MS candidates differ from each other. Our purpose of this study was to develop a computerized detection of MS candidate regions in MR images based on a level set method using an artificial neural network (ANN). To adjust the threshold value for the edge indicator function in the level set method to each true positive (TP) and false positive (FP) region, we constructed the ANN. The ANN could provide the suitable threshold value for each candidate region in the proposed level set method so that TP regions can be segmented and FP regions can be removed. Our proposed method detected MS regions at a sensitivity of 82.1% with 0.204 FPs per slice and similarity index of MS candidate regions was 0.717 on average. (author)

  17. Advanced Quadrupole Ion Trap Instrumentation for Low Level Vehicle Emissions Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amendable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methy-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. All of the ions with potential to serve as parent ions in a tandem mass spectrometry experiment were found to yield parent-to-product conversion efficiencies greater than 75%. The flexibility afforded to the ion trap by use of tailored wave-forms applied to the end-caps allows parallel monitoring schemes to be devised that provide many of the advantages of tandem mass spectrometry without major loss in measurement rate. A large loss in measurement rate would ordinarily result from the use of conventional tandem mass spectrometry experiments carried out in series for a large number of targeted components. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of

  18. Energy levels and transition probabilities for Fe XXV ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrington, P.H.; Kingston, A.E.; Boone, A.W. [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-14

    The energy levels of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s2l and 1s3l states of helium-like iron Fe XXV have been calculated using two sets of configuration-interaction wavefunctions. One set of wavefunctions was generated using the fully relativistic GRASP code and the other was obtained using CIV3, in which relativistic effects are introduced using the Breit-Pauli approximation. For transitions from the ground state to the n=2 and 3 states and for transitions between the n=2 and 3 states, the calculated excitation energies obtained by these two independent methods are in very good agreement and there is good agreement between these results and recent theoretical and experimental results. However, there is considerable disagreement between the various excitation energies for the transitions among the n=2 and also among the n=3 states. The two sets of wavefunctions are also used to calculate the E1, E2, M1 and M2 transition probabilities between all of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s2l and 1s3l states of helium-like iron Fe XXV. The results from the two calculations are found to be similar and to compare very well with other recent results for {delta}n=1 or 2 transitions. For {delta}n=0 transitions the agreement is much less satisfactory; this is mainly due to differences in the excitation energies. (author)

  19. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA. The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm. The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode. Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm 2 . Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student′s t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant

  20. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Atri, Faezeh; Yazdani, Mohammad Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM) previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA). The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm). The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode). Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm(2). Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student's t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. The mean OTM were 5.68 ± 1.21 mm in the control

  1. Modeling level change in Lake Urmia using hybrid artificial intelligence approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbati, M.; Ahmadieh Khanesar, M.; Shahzadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of water level fluctuations in lakes for protecting them regarding the importance of these water complexes in national and regional scales has found a special place among countries in recent years. The importance of the prediction of water level balance in Lake Urmia is necessary due to several-meter fluctuations in the last decade which help the prevention from possible future losses. For this purpose, in this paper, the performance of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for predicting the lake water level balance has been studied. In addition, for the training of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and hybrid backpropagation-recursive least square method algorithm have been used. Moreover, a hybrid method based on particle swarm optimization and recursive least square (PSO-RLS) training algorithm for the training of ANFIS structure is introduced. In order to have a more fare comparison, hybrid particle swarm optimization and gradient descent are also applied. The models have been trained, tested, and validated based on lake level data between 1991 and 2014. For performance evaluation, a comparison is made between these methods. Numerical results obtained show that the proposed methods with a reasonable error have a good performance in water level balance prediction. It is also clear that with continuing the current trend, Lake Urmia will experience more drop in the water level balance in the upcoming years.

  2. An Artificial Neural Network Compensated Output Feedback Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs could be beneficial in providing electricity power safely and also be viable for applications such as seawater desalination and heat production. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR has been seen as one of the best candidates for building SMR-based nuclear power plants. Since the MHTGR dynamics display high nonlinearity and parameter uncertainty, it is necessary to develop a nonlinear adaptive power-level control law which is not only beneficial to the safe, stable, efficient and autonomous operation of the MHTGR, but also easy to implement practically. In this paper, based on the concept of shifted-ectropy and the physically-based control design approach, it is proved theoretically that the simple proportional-differential (PD output-feedback power-level control can provide asymptotic closed-loop stability. Then, based on the strong approximation capability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP artificial neural network (ANN, a compensator is established to suppress the negative influence caused by system parameter uncertainty. It is also proved that the MLP-compensated PD power-level control law constituted by an experientially-tuned PD regulator and this MLP-based compensator can guarantee bounded closed-loop stability. Numerical simulation results not only verify the theoretical results, but also illustrate the high performance of this MLP-compensated PD power-level controller in suppressing the oscillation of process variables caused by system parameter uncertainty.

  3. Effects of epidermal growth factor in artificial tear on vitamin C levels of corneal wounded eye tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, B; Kaplan, B; Bilgihan, K; Budak, M T

    2001-04-01

    To investigate the effect of artificial tear (AT) solution and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment on the cornea and aqueous humour ascorbic acid (AA) levels of full-thickness corneal wounded eyes. The effect of EGF on the AA levels of aqueous humour and corneal wound tissue was determined in full-thickness corneal wounded rabbit eyes on the seventh post-operative day. There were three groups: untreated controls, AT-treated controls and an EGF+AT-treated experimental group (n = 6 in each group). Corneal wounded eyes were topically treated with 5 microl AT or 5 microl EGF in AT (1 mg/l EGF in AT prepaaration which contained 3.0% carbopol 940) twice daily for 6 days after operation. The wound strengths were also measured on the seventh post-operative day as a measure of wound healing. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U-test by Statview program. The wound strengths of corneas, and AA levels of wound tissues and aqueous humour, increased significantly following AT and EGF treatment (p < 0.05). In the corneal wounded eye, aqueous humour serves as a source of vitamin C and there may be a relation between EGF treatment in AT and AA levels of corneal wounded eye tissues.

  4. Development of a technique for level measurement in pressure vessels using thermal probes and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir Maximo

    2008-01-01

    A technique for level measurement in pressure vessels was developed using thermal probes with internal cooling and artificial neural networks (ANN's). This new concept of thermal probes was experimentally tested in an experimental facility (BETSNI) with two test sections, ST1 and ST2. Two different thermal probes were designed and constructed: concentric tubes probe and U tube probe. A data acquisition system (DAS) was assembled to record the experimental data during the tests. Steady state and transient level tests were carried out and the experimental data obtained were used as learning and recall data sets in the ANN's program RETRO-05 that simulate a multilayer perceptron with backpropagation. The results of the analysis show that the technique can be applied for level measurements in pressure vessel. The technique is applied for a less input temperature data than the initially designed to the probes. The technique is robust and can be used in case of lack of some temperature data. Experimental data available in literature from electrically heated thermal probe were also used in the ANN's analysis producing good results. The results of the ANN's analysis show that the technique can be improved and applied to level measurements in pressure vessels. (author)

  5. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  6. A method of measurement of lifetimes of excited ion levels, using orientation transfer by Penning collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, J.; Barrat, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for measuring the lifetimes of ionic excited levels is described. This method uses the transfer of coherence in a Penning collision using metastable optically oriented He 2 3 S 1 atoms. If R.F. transitions are induced in the (2 3 S 1 )He level, a transverse component of the magnetic moment of this level is created, which precesses coherently at the angular frequency ω of the R.F. field. The helium transverse orientation is partially transferred to the ions produced by Penning collisions. After the collision, the orientation transferred precesses around the external magnetic field at the Larmor frequency ω 0 ' of the ion excited level. The degree of orientation of the excited ion level depends, in the stationary state, on the average phase shift, during the lifetime tau prime of this level, between the Larmor precession at angular frequency ω 0 ' and the forced precession of helium (at angular frequency ω). The orientation of the ions is monitored by the modulation of the light emitted during their radiative decay. It is possible to determine the lifetime tau prime by measuring the degree of modulation of the reemitted light as a function of ω [fr

  7. Particle swarm optimization based artificial neural network model for forecasting groundwater level in Udupi district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balavalikar, Supreetha; Nayak, Prabhakar; Shenoy, Narayan; Nayak, Krishnamurthy

    2018-04-01

    The decline in groundwater is a global problem due to increase in population, industries, and environmental aspects such as increase in temperature, decrease in overall rainfall, loss of forests etc. In Udupi district, India, the water source fully depends on the River Swarna for drinking and agriculture purposes. Since the water storage in Bajae dam is declining day-by-day and the people of Udupi district are under immense pressure due to scarcity of drinking water, alternatively depend on ground water. As the groundwater is being heavily used for drinking and agricultural purposes, there is a decline in its water table. Therefore, the groundwater resources must be identified and preserved for human survival. This research proposes a data driven approach for forecasting the groundwater level. The monthly variations in groundwater level and rainfall data in three observation wells located in Brahmavar, Kundapur and Hebri were investigated and the scenarios were examined for 2000-2013. The focus of this research work is to develop an ANN based groundwater level forecasting model and compare with hybrid ANN-PSO forecasting model. The model parameters are tested using different combinations of the data. The results reveal that PSO-ANN based hybrid model gives a better prediction accuracy, than ANN alone.

  8. The levels of the first excited configuration of one-electron ions in intensive alternating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchitskaya, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic generalization of the quasi-energy method is applied for the calculation of the influence of spatjally-homogeneous electric field with the periodic time dependence on the energy levels of the first excited configuration of one-electron multiply charged ions. The dependence is found of the corresponding quasi-energy levels on the amplitude and frequency of intensive external field which wholly mixes the levels of fine structure

  9. Control of fixed-wing UAV at levelling phase using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfeddine, Daher

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the share of fly-by-wire and software controlled UAV is explained by the need to release the human-operator and the desire to reduce the degree of influence of the human factor errors that account for 26% of aircraft accidents. An important reason for the introduction of new control algorithms is also the high level of UAV failures due loss of communication channels and possible hacking. This accounts for 17% of the total number of accidents. The comparison with manned flights shows that the frequency of accidents of unmanned flights is 27,000 times higher. This means that the UAV has 1611 failures per million flight hours and only 0.06 failures at the same time for the manned flight. In view of that, this paper studies the flight autonomy of fixed-wing UAV at the levelling phase. Landing parameters of the UAV are described. They will be used to setup a control scheme for an autopilot based on fuzzy logic algorithm.

  10. Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase-Protected LixSi Nanoparticles: An Efficient and Stable Prelithiation Reagent for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Lu, Zhenda; Wang, Haotian; Liu, Wei; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2015-07-08

    Prelithiation is an important strategy to compensate for lithium loss in lithium-ion batteries, particularly during the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) from reduced electrolytes in the first charging cycle. We recently demonstrated that LixSi nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by thermal alloying can serve as a high-capacity prelithiation reagent, although their chemical stability in the battery processing environment remained to be improved. Here we successfully developed a surface modification method to enhance the stability of LixSi NPs by exploiting the reduction of 1-fluorodecane on the LixSi surface to form a continuous and dense coating through a reaction process similar to SEI formation. The coating, consisting of LiF and lithium alkyl carbonate with long hydrophobic carbon chains, serves as an effective passivation layer in the ambient environment. Remarkably, artificial-SEI-protected LixSi NPs show a high prelithiation capacity of 2100 mA h g(-1) with negligible capacity decay in dry air after 5 days and maintain a high capacity of 1600 mA h g(-1) in humid air (∼10% relative humidity). Silicon, tin, and graphite were successfully prelithiated with these NPs to eliminate the irreversible first-cycle capacity loss. The use of prelithiation reagents offers a new approach to realize next-generation high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that

  12. Sample Entropy Analysis of EEG Signals via Artificial Neural Networks to Model Patients’ Consciousness Level Based on Anesthesiologists Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. A. Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals, as it can express the human brain’s activities and reflect awareness, have been widely used in many research and medical equipment to build a noninvasive monitoring index to the depth of anesthesia (DOA. Bispectral (BIS index monitor is one of the famous and important indicators for anesthesiologists primarily using EEG signals when assessing the DOA. In this study, an attempt is made to build a new indicator using EEG signals to provide a more valuable reference to the DOA for clinical researchers. The EEG signals are collected from patients under anesthetic surgery which are filtered using multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD method and analyzed using sample entropy (SampEn analysis. The calculated signals from SampEn are utilized to train an artificial neural network (ANN model through using expert assessment of consciousness level (EACL which is assessed by experienced anesthesiologists as the target to train, validate, and test the ANN. The results that are achieved using the proposed system are compared to BIS index. The proposed system results show that it is not only having similar characteristic to BIS index but also more close to experienced anesthesiologists which illustrates the consciousness level and reflects the DOA successfully.

  13. Pixel-Level Deep Segmentation: Artificial Intelligence Quantifies Muscle on Computed Tomography for Body Morphometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkwang; Troschel, Fabian M; Tajmir, Shahein; Fuchs, Georg; Mario, Julia; Fintelmann, Florian J; Do, Synho

    2017-08-01

    Pretreatment risk stratification is key for personalized medicine. While many physicians rely on an "eyeball test" to assess whether patients will tolerate major surgery or chemotherapy, "eyeballing" is inherently subjective and difficult to quantify. The concept of morphometric age derived from cross-sectional imaging has been found to correlate well with outcomes such as length of stay, morbidity, and mortality. However, the determination of the morphometric age is time intensive and requires highly trained experts. In this study, we propose a fully automated deep learning system for the segmentation of skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) on an axial computed tomography image taken at the third lumbar vertebra. We utilized a fully automated deep segmentation model derived from an extended implementation of a fully convolutional network with weight initialization of an ImageNet pre-trained model, followed by post processing to eliminate intramuscular fat for a more accurate analysis. This experiment was conducted by varying window level (WL), window width (WW), and bit resolutions in order to better understand the effects of the parameters on the model performance. Our best model, fine-tuned on 250 training images and ground truth labels, achieves 0.93 ± 0.02 Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and 3.68 ± 2.29% difference between predicted and ground truth muscle CSA on 150 held-out test cases. Ultimately, the fully automated segmentation system can be embedded into the clinical environment to accelerate the quantification of muscle and expanded to volume analysis of 3D datasets.

  14. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of low-energy ion-irradiated silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkovsky, Vladimir; Privitera, V.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

     During electron-gun deposition of metal layers on semiconductors, the semiconductor is bombarded with low-energy metal ions creating defects in the outermost surface layer. For many years, it has been a puzzle why deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra of the as-deposited, electron-gun evapor...

  15. The present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides content in mosses, lichens and needles of Siberia areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovenko, V.D.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Shcherbov, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate the present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides activity in lichen-moss cover and needles in the Siberia region. During the expeditionary activities (1995-2004) the Lichen cover mosses and needles were sampled in the Ust'-Ordinsky and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous regions, Altai area, Republic of Altai, Novosibirsk Region, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region. The identical species of lichen, mosses. needles were collected from Siberia (lichens - Cladonia, Evernia, Usnea, Parmeli; mosses - Polytrichum, Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum; needles - Pinaceae). It was collected 6 and more lichen species from each of 18 sample sites, more than 3 Moss species from 7 sample sites, and in place of coniferous trees joint growth (a pine, a cedar, a fir, a fur-tree and a larch). The needles were selected from all trees and thus were divided into one-year-old and many-year old. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Trace Elements Geochemistry and Ecogeochemistry of the UIGGM, Novosibirsk, using special sample preparation and analysis techniques. The content of 137 Cs were determined by gamma-spectrometry (analyst Stepin A.S.), 90 Sr by beta-radiometry with a radiochemical sample preparation (analyst Makeover I.V.). The data reported are evidence that a present-day level of radioactive contamination in moss-lichen cover and needles of Siberia areas corresponds to this of global background, expect for northern area of Siberia (YNAD) for which hyperactivity are determined for the each of three components. Radiocesium concentration in one-year old needles reflects a level of atmospheric intake only for accidents, for other cases the condition of current needles reflects basically radionuclide level established as the result of dynamic balance between root intake and annual biogenic abscission of needles. (author)

  16. Plant growth and development vs. high and low levels of plant-beneficial heavy metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namira Arif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals (HMs exists in the environment in both forms as essential and non-essential. These HM ions enter in soil biota from various sources like natural and anthropogenic. Essential HMs such as cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn plays a beneficial role in plant growth and development. At optimum level these beneficial elements improves the plant’s nutritional level and also several mechanisms essential for the normal growth and better yield of plants. The range of their optimality for land plants is varied. Plant uptake heavy metals as a soluble component or solubilized them by root exudates. While their presence in excess become toxic for plants that switches the plant’s ability to uptake and accumulate other nonessential elements. The increased amount of HMs within the plant tissue displays direct and indirect toxic impacts. Such direct effects are the generation of oxidative stress which further aggravates inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures. Although, indirect possession is the substitution of essential nutrients at plant’s cation exchange sites. These ions readily influence role of various enzymes and proteins, arrest metabolism, and reveal phytotoxicity. On account of recent advancements on beneficial HMs ions Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn in soil-plant system, the present paper: overview the sources of HMs in soils and their uptake and transportation mechanism, here we have discussed the role of metal transporters in transporting the essential metal ions from soil to plants. The role played by Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn at both low and high level on the plant growth and development and the mechanism to alleviate metal toxicity at high level have been also discussed. At the end, on concluding the article we have also discussed the future perspective in respect to beneficial HM ions interaction with plant at both levels.

  17. The covalent effect on the energy levels of d3 ions in tetragonal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong-Yang; Du, Mao-Lu

    2015-01-01

    For d 3 ions in covalent compounds with tetragonal symmetry, this paper presents a complete energy matrix, in which the different covalence of t 2 and e orbitals is considered not only in the electrostatic repulsions part of energy matrix elements but also in the crystal-field potential part of energy matrix elements. With taking and no taking the crystal field parameter B 00 0 into account, the effect of covalence on the energy levels of d 3 ions system were investigated, respectively. The investigation shows that it is very necessary for considering the different covalence of t 2 and e orbitals in both electrostatic repulsions part and crystal-field potential part when the optical properties of d 3 ions in strong covalent compounds with tetragonal symmetry is investigated. On the other hand, the crystal field parameter B 00 0 has a significant effect on the energy levels, and should be considered in investigations of d 3 ions in strong covalent compounds with tetragonal symmetry. Application to calculating the energy levels for Co 2+ in CdGa 2 Se 4 , the calculated results are in agreement with the experiment data

  18. Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, L; Shelmerdine, H; Hughes, M P; Coley, H M; Huebner, Y; Labeed, F H

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)-the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields-has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K + and Ca 2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl - were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function. (note)

  19. Effect of phosphate ion on filtration characteristics of solids generated in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of phosphate ion on the filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste was experimentally examined. Addition of phosphate ion into the simulated HLLW induced the formation of phosphate such as zirconium phosphate and phosphomolybdic acid. The filtration rate of zirconium phosphate abruptly dropped in the midst of filtration because of a gel-cake formation on the filter surface. The denitration of the simulated HLLW contained zirconium phosphate improved the filterability of this gelatinous solid. The filtration rates of denitrated HLLW decreased with increase of the phosphate ion concentration, since the solids formed by denitration had irregular particle size and configuration in the simulated HLLW with phosphate ion. To increase the filtration rate of denitrated HLLW, a solid suspension filtration tester was designed. The solid-suspension accelerated the filtration rate only in the simulated HLLW with more than 1500 ppm phosphate ion concentration. Under this condition, the simple agitation can easily suspend the constituent solids of filter cake in the solution and a much higher filtration rate can be obtained because the filter cake is continuously swept from the filter surface by rotation of propellers. (authors)

  20. Sol - gel inorganic ion exchangers for conditioning of medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, G.; Traverso, D.M.; Gerontopoulos, P.; Fava, R.

    1988-01-01

    Decontamination of high-level liquid wastes and medium activity wastes streams by inorganic ion exchange combined with the conversion of the spent inorganic ion exchange material to waste ceramics presents a considerable potential for utilisation in waste conditioning. Ceramic waste forms are found superior to other candidate waste immobilisation forms but practical implementation is hampered because of the complexity of the related fabrication technology. This report shows the possibility of improving this situation by resorting to sol gel techniques earlier developed for preparation of nuclear fuel ceramics. The principal findings are: - superior quality ion exchange xerogel titanates in the form of mechanically resistant, size controlled microspheres can be prepared using a simple sol-gel technique; - the titanate particles can be also used as precursors in Evaporative Deposition on Xerogel Particles (EDXP) a new waste solidification process based on physical impregnation of the xerogel material with the waste liquid followed by evaporation; - waste loaded ion exchange microspheres can be converted to leach resistant ceramics by firing and/or cold pressing and sintering at 900 0 -1100 0 C; - sol-gel inorganic ion exchange and EDXP may find useful application in conditioning MAW streams. 44 figs., 43 refs

  1. Correlation, Breit and quantum electrodynamics effects on energy level and transition properties of W54+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X.; Sun, R.; Dong, C.; Koike, F.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    The electron correlation effects and Breit interaction as well as Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) effects were expected to have important contribution to the energy level and transition properties of heavy highly charged ions. The study of W 54+ ion provide necessary reference data for the fusion plasma physics as tungsten was chosen to be used as the armour material of the divertor of the ITER project. The ground states [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 3d 2 and first excited states [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 3d 3 of W 54+ ion have been studied by using Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock method with the implementation of Grasp2K package. A restricted active space method was employed to investigate the correlation contribution from different models. The Breit interaction and QED effects were taken into account in the relativistic configuration interaction calculation with the converged wavefunction. It is found that the correlation contribution from 3s and 3p orbital have important contribution to the energy level, transition wavelength and probability of the ground and the first excited state of W 54+ ion. (authors)

  2. Monitoring of fluoride and iodide levels in drinking water using ion selective electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Viqar-Un-Nisa; Hussain, M.; Tanwir, R.; Qureshi, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Fluoride and iodide, the most important constituents of drinking water are essential as well as toxic depending on their levels. For their analysis in water mostly ion-selective electrodes, spectrophotometry, titrimetry and coulometry etc; have been used and literature has been briefly reviewed. Ion-selective electrodes offer an efficient method for the measurement of the two halides and were mostly used during this work. Fabrication of these electrodes is briefly described. Comparison of results obtained by ion selective electrode and coulometry is given. Recoveries of the added fluoride ions from the samples were good. A large number of water samples from Rawalpindi-Islamabad area were analyzed for fluoride and iodide. Levels of fluoride and iodide from two main water reservoirs of Rawalpindi and Islamabad are reported before and after treatment. Both surface and ground water samples were analyzed and results are compared and discussed. Some samples from northern areas were also analyzed for iodide and fluoride and compared. Intake of fluoride and iodide from water of different areas is also compared. Water samples, which caused bone deformation in certain areas in Punjab due to excess fluoride, were also analyzed for fluoride and results are presented. (author)

  3. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  4. Fe- and Cu-complex formation with artificial ligands investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS: Implications for natural metal-organic complex studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Waska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has been increasingly used to complement the bulk determination of metal-ligand equilibria, for example via competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV. However, ESI-MS speciation analyses may be impacted by instrumental artefacts such as reduction reactions, fragmentation, and adduct formation at the ESI source, changes in the ionization efficiencies of the detected species in relation to sample matrix, and peak overlaps in response to increasing sample complexity. In our study, equilibria of the known artificial ligands citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NN, and salicylaldoxime (SA with iron (Fe and copper (Cu were investigated by ultra-high resolution ESI-MS, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, under a variety of sample matrix and ionization settings. The acquired mass spectra were compared with metal-ligand equilibrium data from the literature as well as an adapted speciation model. Overall, the mass spectra produced representative species mentioned in previous reports and predicted by the speciation calculations, such as Fe(Cit, Cu(Cit2, Fe(EDTA, Cu(EDTA, Fe(NN3, and Cu(SA2. The analyses furthermore revealed new species which had been hypothesized but not measured directly using other methods, for example ternary complexes of citrate with Fe and Cu, Cu(SA monomers, and the dimer Fe(SA2. Finally, parallel measurements of a Cu+SA calibration series and a Cu+SA+EDTA competition series indicated that FT-ICR-MS can produce linear responses and low detection limits analogous to those of ACSV. We propose that ultra-high resolution FT-ICR-MS can be used as a representative tool to study interactions of trace metals with artificial as well as natural, unknown ligands at the molecular level.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  6. Effects of collisions on level populations and dielectronic recombination rates of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.L.; Davis, J.

    1978-01-01

    A generalization of previously reported statistical theories is developed for determining the excited-level populations and the ionization-recombination balance of multiply charged atomic ions in an optically thin high-temperature plasma. Account is taken of the most important collisional and radiative processes involving bound and autoionizing levels in three consecutive ionization stages. We obtain a set of rate equations for the population densities of the low-lying levels which contains effective excitation, ionization, and recombination rates describing indirect transitions through the more highly excited bound and autoionizing levels. The familiar corona-model equations for the ground-state populations are recovered by making the assumption that all excited states decay by only spontaneous radiative or autoionization processes. When collisional processes become efficient in depopulating the highly excited levels important in dielectronic recombination, the effective rate of recombination must be described by a collisional-dielectronic recombination coefficient. Results of calculations are presented for the collisional-dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for recombination of Fe +8 --Fe +13 ions. At an electron density of 10 16 cm -3 , dielectronic recombination is still the dominant recombination process. However, the collisional-dielectronic recombination rate coefficients are found to be reduced by about an order of magnitude from their corona-model values due to the effects of multiple-collisional excitations on the populations of the highly excited bound levels of the recombined ion. The dielectronic recombination rates into these highly excited levels are found to be enhanced by the effects of collisionally induced angular momentum redistribution on the populations of the autoionizing levels

  7. Excited-level lifetimes and hyperfine-structure measurements on ions using collinear laser--ion-beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J.; Church, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mean lifetimes τ of the Ca II 4p 2 P 1/2 and 4p 2 P 3/2 levels, and the 35 Cl II 4p' 1 F 3 level, have been measured by a variant of the collinear laser--ion-beam lifetime technique applied previously to the Ar II 4p' 2 F 7/2 o level [Jian Jin and D. A. Church, Phys. Rev. A 47, 132 (1993)]. The present results are τ(Ca II, 4p 2 P 1/2 )=7.098(0.020) ns, τ(Ca II, 4p 2 P 3/2 )=6.924(0.019) ns, and τ(Cl II, 4p' 1 F 3 ) =11.17(0.06) ns. The experimental lifetimes of these, plus the Ar II 4p' 2 F 7/2 level, are compared with available recent many-electron calculations. Typically 1%--3% differences between measurement and ab initio theory are found, while certain semiempirical calculations are in better agreement with experiment. Data for other precise lifetime measurements on alkali-metal systems are compared with recent ab initio and semiempirical calculations to provide perspective on the Ca II results. The hyperfine structure of the 35 Cl II 3d' 1 G 4 --4p' 1 F 3 transition was also measured and analyzed in the course of the measurements, with the resulting hyperfine-structure constants: A( 1 F 3 )=301.9(0.5) MHz, B( 1 F 3 )=-6.7(0.8) MHz, A( 1 G 4 )=205.1(0.5) MHz, and B( 1 G 4 )=-3.9(2.4) MHz

  8. Low-level rf system for the AGS Light Ion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, V.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.S.; Frankel, R.; Otis, A.; Pope, D.; Pritsker, M.; Raka, E.; Warkentien, R.

    1987-01-01

    The new low level rf system for the light ion acceleration program features direct digital control of a phase continuous rf synthesizer clocked by finite changes in the B field. The system, its operation and testing are described. The system covers the complete rf frequency range and switches over from single cavity acceleration to multiple cavity acceleration with no beam loss. It also switches from the programmed drive to the normal bootstrap system

  9. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  10. Damage related deep electron levels in ion implanted GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, D.W.E.; Peaker, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the deep electron levels in semi-insulating GaAs implanted with either 78 Se + or 29 Si + ions and rendered n-type by subsequent annealing without encapsulation in partial pressures of arsenic or arsine. Three implantation related deep states were detected with concentration profiles approximating to the type of Gaussian distributions expected for point defects related to ion implantation damage. Further heat treatment of the samples at 500 0 C in a gas ambient of U 2 /H 2 substantially reduced concentration of these deep levels. Two of these states were thought to be related to displacements of the substrate atoms. The third, at Esubc -0.67 eV, was found in only 78 Se + ion implanted GaAs substrates and was thought to be a defect involving both Se and As atoms, rather than intrinsic lattice disorder. It is proposed that the annealing rate of these implantation related deep levels depends crucially on the in-diffusion of arsenic vacancies during heat treatments. (author)

  11. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on deep levels in Au /n-Si (100) Schottky diode studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Katharria, Y. S.; Kumar, Sugam; Kanjilal, D.

    2007-12-01

    In situ deep level transient spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the influence of 100MeV Si7+ ion irradiation on the deep levels present in Au/n-Si (100) Schottky structure in a wide fluence range from 5×109to1×1012ions cm-2. The swift heavy ion irradiation introduces a deep level at Ec-0.32eV. It is found that initially, trap level concentration of the energy level at Ec-0.40eV increases with irradiation up to a fluence value of 1×1010cm-2 while the deep level concentration decreases as irradiation fluence increases beyond the fluence value of 5×1010cm-2. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of energy transfer mechanism of high energy ions in material.

  12. A study of ion implanted gallium arsenide using deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, N.G.

    1981-03-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of deep energy levels in ion implanted gallium arsenide (GaAs) using deep level transient spectroscopy (D.L.T.S.). The D.L.T.S. technique is used to characterise deep levels in terms of their activation energies and capture cross-sections and to determine their concentration profiles. The main objective is to characterise the effects on deep levels, of ion implantation and the related annealing processes. In the majority of cases assessment is carried out using Schottky barrier diodes. Low doses of selenium ions 1 to 3 x 10 12 cm -2 are implanted into vapour phase epitaxial (V.P.E.) GaAs and the effects of post-implantation thermal and pulsed laser annealing are compared. The process of oxygen implantation with doses in the range 1 x 10 12 to 5 x 10 13 cm -2 followed by thermal annealing at about 750 deg C, introduces a deep level at 0.79 eV from the conduction band. Oxygen implantation, at doses of 5 x 10 13 cm -2 , into V.P.E. GaAs produces a significant increase in the concentration of the A-centre (0.83 eV). High doses of zinc (10 15 cm -2 ) are implanted into n-type V.P.E. GaAs to form shallow p-type layers. The D.L.T.S. system described in the text is used to measure levels in the range 0.16 to 1.1 eV (for GaAs) with a sensitivity of the order 1:10 3 . (U.K.)

  13. Mass-produced lonophore-based fluorescent microspheres for trace level determination of lead ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telting-Diaz, Martin; Bakker, Eric

    2002-10-15

    The development and characterization of small, uniform, and mass-produced plasticized PVC-based sensing microspheres in view of rapid trace level analysis of lead ions is reported. Micrometer-sized particles obtained via an automated casting process were rendered selective for lead ions by doping them with highly selective components in a manner analogous to traditional optode sensing films. Single particles that contained the lipophilic ionophore N,N,N',N'-tetradodecyl-3-6-dioxaoctane-1-thio-8-oxodiamide (ETH 5493), the chromoionophore ETH 5418 together with a lipophilized indocarbocyanine derivative as internal reference dye (DiIC18), and lipophilic ion-exchanger sites sodium tetrakis[3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl]borate, yielded measurable lead responses at the low nanomolar level in pH buffered solutions. The detection limit for single particles was 3 x 10(-9) M at pH 5.7. The microspheres were fabricated via a reproducible formation of polymer droplets within a flowing aqueous phase followed by collection of spherical particles of approximately 13 microm in size. The particles were immobilized and assayed individually in a microflow cell via fluorescence microscopy. Selectivity patterns found were in agreement with those reported earlier for the lead-selective ligand ETH 5493, and all response functions were fully described by theory. In contrast to optode films that necessitated very long equilibration times and large sample volumes in diluted samples of analyte, particles exhibited extremely enhanced equilibrium response times. Thus, for lead sample concentrations at and above 5 x 10(-8) M, response times were approximately 3 min, whereas at the detection limit, complete equilibrium was recorded after just 15 min, with required sample volumes on the order of 1 mL This new class of microspheres appears to be suitable for rapid and sensitive ion detection at trace levels in environmental and biological applications.

  14. Counterstreaming ions as evidence of magnetic reconnection in the recovery phase of substorms at the kinetic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Tsugunobu; Nakamura, Masao; Shinohara, Iku; Fujimoto, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Mukai, Toshifumi

    2002-01-01

    Counterstreaming ions embedded in hot isotropic ions are found at the front of fast earthward plasma flows in the recovery phase of substorms in the Earth's magnetotail. The counterstreaming ions are present only when the northward component of the magnetic field increases in the equatorial plane. Hybrid simulations of magnetic reconnection have been carried out. It is found that counterstreaming ions form in the leading edge of jetting plasmas produced with magnetic reconnection, where the magnetic field lines pile up due to the pre-existing stationary plasmas. These counterstreaming ions originate from cold ions on the northern and southern tail lobe field lines, and earthward transport of the reconnected field lines makes these cold ions flow into the equatorial plane. The present observations provide strong evidence of magnetic reconnection in the recovery phase of substorms at the kinetic level

  15. PIXE Analysis of Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Skye; Chalise, Sajju; Porat, Zachary; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been debate regarding the use of the crumb rubber infill in artificial turf on high school and college campuses due to the potential presence of heavy metals and carcinogenic chemicals. We performed Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of artificial turf infill and blade samples collected from high school and college campuses around the Capital District of NYS to search for potentially toxic substances. Crumb rubber pellets were made by mixing 1g of rubber infill and 1g of epoxy. The pellets and the turf blades were bombarded with 2.2 MeV proton beams from a 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory and x-ray energy spectra were collected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. We analyzed the spectra using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. The turf infill showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The highest concentration of Br in the crumb rubber was 1500 +/-100 ppm while the highest detectable amount of Pb concentration was 110 +/-20 ppm. The artificial turf blades showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, and Zn with only the yellow blade showing concentrations of V and Bi.

  16. Influence of dense plasma on the energy levels and transition properties in highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin; Hu, Hong-Wei; Ma, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Guo, Xue-Ling; Li, Shuang; Zhu, Bo-Hong; Huang, Lian; Wang, Kai

    2018-03-01

    The studies of the influence of plasma environments on the level structures and transition properties for highly charged ions are presented. For the relativistic treatment, we implemented the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method incorporating the ion sphere (IS) model potential, in which the plasma screening is taken into account as a modified interaction potential between the electron and the nucleus. For the nonrelativistic treatment, analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation with two types of the IS screened potential are proposed. The Ritz variation method is used with hydrogenic wave function as a trial wave function that contains two unknown variational parameters. Bound energies are derived from an energy equation, and the variational parameters are obtained from the minimisation condition of the expectation value of the energy. Numerical results for hydrogen-like ions in dense plasmas are presented as examples. A detailed analysis of the influence of relativistic effects on the energy levels and transition properties is also reported. Our results are compared with available results in the literature showing a good quantitative agreement.

  17. Energy levels of 4f3 in the Nd3+ free ion from emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, Jean-Francois; Meftah, Ali; Bachelier, Annik; Sinzelle, Jocelyne; Tchang-Brillet, Wan-Ue Lydia; Champion, Norbert; Spector, Nissan; Sugar, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The emission spectrum of neodymium produced by vacuum spark sources was observed in the vacuum ultraviolet on two normal-incidence spectrographs. In an initial result, more than 550 lines have been identified as transitions from 85 4f 2 5d levels to 37 levels of the 4f 3 ground configuration in the free ion Nd 3+ . The levels 4f 34 F 3/2 and 4 I 11/2 , responsible for the well-known 1064 nm laser line, have respective positions of 11 698.57 ±0.1 cm -1 and 1897.07 ±0.1 cm -1 above the ground level 4 I 9/2 . The newly found levels of 4f 3 constitute the first isolated 4f N configuration (N > 2) and therefore enable checks of effective parameters that represent far configuration interaction. Slater parameters F k (4f, 4f) derived from Nd 3+ :LaCl 3 are 3% to 5% smaller than in the free ion. (letter to the editor)

  18. Line radiation of multicharged ions with the Fermi-Dirac level distribution of electrons at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    Line radiation of multicharged ions with the Fermi-Dirac electron distribution by levels in the range of plasma temperatures, when electron movement may be considered quasiclassical, while potential, in which they move, is the Coulomb one, is considered. The spectrum and intensity of ion radiation are calculated. Within high plasma densities the radiation intensity per one ion proved to be independent of density and proportional to T 2 [ru

  19. Setup for in situ deep level transient spectroscopy of semiconductors during swift heavy ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Sugam; Katharria, Y S; Safvan, C P; Kanjilal, D

    2008-05-01

    A computerized system for in situ deep level characterization during irradiation in semiconductors has been set up and tested in the beam line for materials science studies of the 15 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. This is a new facility for in situ irradiation-induced deep level studies, available in the beam line of an accelerator laboratory. It is based on the well-known deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. High versatility for data manipulation is achieved through multifunction data acquisition card and LABVIEW. In situ DLTS studies of deep levels produced by impact of 100 MeV Si ions on Aun-Si(100) Schottky barrier diode are presented to illustrate performance of the automated DLTS facility in the beam line.

  20. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  1. New digital low-level rf system for heavy-ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Klingbeil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR project, several new synchrotrons and storage rings will be built. The existing heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 has to be upgraded to serve as an injector for the FAIR accelerators. All this imposes new requirements on the low-level rf (LLRF systems. These requirements include fast ramping modes, arbitrary ion species, and complex beam manipulations such as dual-harmonic operation, bunch merging/splitting, barrier bucket operation, or bunch compression. In order to fulfill these tasks, a completely new and unique system architecture has been developed since 2002, and the system is now used in SIS18 operation. The presentation of this novel system architecture is the purpose of this paper. We first describe the requirements and the design of the LLRF system. Afterwards, some key components and key interfaces of the system are summarized followed by a discussion of technological aspects. Finally, we present some beam experiment results that were obtained using the new LLRF system.

  2. Development of a parallel plate ion chamber for radiation protection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Landi, Mauricio; Moralles, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    A new parallel plate vented ion chamber is proposed in this paper. The application of this chamber was primarily intended to the measurement of stray radiation in interventional procedures, but the energy response of about 2.6%, which was obtained in the first prototype, on the range from 40 to 150 kV using ISO 4037-1 narrow qualities, provided the possibility of a wide modality application on radiation protection. Primary studies with Maxwell 2D electromagnetic field simulator revealed an optimized model regarding effective volume and saturation voltage levels, which conferred to the ion chamber a dual entrance window feature. The development of this ion chamber has the main contribution of Monte Carlo calculations as a support tool to the establishment of the effective volume of the chamber and determination of the best materials for housing mounting and conductive elements, such as guard rings, electrode, and windows. Even the composition of the conductive layers, which would be neglected due to their very small thicknesses (about 35 μm), had important influence on the results and could be better understood with Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System (MCNP) simulations. (author)

  3. Mapping the subcellular distribution of biomolecules at the ultrastructural level by ion microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, P; Escaig, F; Dantin, F; Zhang, L

    1996-05-01

    Analytical ion microscopy, a method proposed and developed in 1960 by Casting and Slodzian at the Orsay University (France), makes it possible to obtain easily and rapidly analytical images representing the distribution in a tissue section of elements or isotopes (beginning from the three isotopes of hydrogen until to transuranic elements), even when these elements or isotopes are at a trace concentration of 1 ppm or less. This method has been applied to study the subcellular distribution of different varieties of biomolecules. The subcellular location of these molecules can be easily determined when the molecules contain in their structures a specific atom such as fluorine, iodine, bromine or platinum, what is the case of many pharmaceutical drugs. In this situation, the distribution of these specific atoms can be considered as representative of the distribution of the corresponding molecule. In other cases, the molecules must be labelled with an isotope which may be either radioactive or stable. Recent developments in ion microscopy allow the obtention of their chemical images at ultra structural level. In this paper we present the results obtained with the prototype of a new Scanning Ion Microscope used for the study of the intracellular distribution of different varieties of molecules: glucocorticoids, estrogens, pharmaceutical drugs and pyrimidine analogues.

  4. Ion distributions in RC at different energy levels retrieved from TWINS ENA images by voxel CT tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. Y.; McComas, David; Xu, Liang; Goldstein, Jerry; Yan, Wei-Nan

    2012-07-01

    Distributions of energetic ions in the RC regions in different energy levels are retrieved by using 3-D voxel CT inversion method from ENA measurements onboard TWINS constellation during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. It is assumed that the ion flux distribution in the RC is anisotropic in regard to pitch angle which complies with the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment as ion moving in the dipole magnetic mirror field. A semi-empirical model of the RC ion distribution in the magnetic equator is quoted to form the ion flux distribution shape at off-equatorial latitudes by mapping. For the concerned time interval, the two satellites of the TWINS flying in double Molnia orbits were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging from about 1 to 100 keV. The retrieved ion distributions show that in total the main part of the RC is located in the region with L value larger than 4, tending to increase at larger L. It reveals that there are two distinct dominant energy bands at which the ion fluxes are significantly larger magnitude than at other energy levels, one is at lower level around 2 keV and the other at higher level of 30-100 keV. Furthermore, it is very interesting that the peak fluxes of the RC ions at the two energy bands occurred in different magnetic local time, low energy ions appear preferentially in after midnight, while the higher energy ions mainly distributed around midnight and pre-midnight. This new profile is worthy of further study and needs to be demonstrated by more cases.

  5. Ischemia - reperfusion induced changes in levels of ion transport proteins in gerbil brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehotsky, J.; Racay, P.; Kaplan, P.; Mezesova, V.; Raeymaekers, L.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative Western blotting was used to asses the levels of ion transport proteins in gerbil brain in control and in animals after ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). The gene products of plasma membrane Ca 2+ pump (PMCA) were detected in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. However, they showed a distinct distribution pattern. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins 3 ) receptor and reticular Ca 2+ pump are the most abundant in cerebellum and hippocampus. The IRI leads to a selective decrease in content of PMCA and InsP 3 receptor I isoforms. The levels of α 3 isoform of Na + pump and reticular proteins: Ca 2+ pump and calreticulin remained constant. InsP 3 receptor and organellar Ca 2+ (SERCA) are the most abundant in cerebellum and hippocampus. Ischemia and reperfusion up to 10 days leads to a signal decrease of PMCA immuno-signal. We suppose that alteration of number of ion transport proteins, can contribute to changes which participate or follow the delayed death of neurons in hippocampus. (authors)

  6. Utilizing an Artificial Outcrop to Scaffold Learning Between Laboratory and Field Experiences in a College-Level Introductory Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meredith

    Geologic field trips are among the most beneficial learning experiences for students as they engage the topic of geology, but they are also difficult environments to maximize learning. This action research study explored one facet of the problems associated with teaching geology in the field by attempting to improve the transition of undergraduate students from a traditional laboratory setting to an authentic field environment. Utilizing an artificial outcrop, called the GeoScene, during an introductory college-level non-majors geology course, the transition was studied. The GeoScene was utilized in this study as an intermediary between laboratory and authentic field based experiences, allowing students to apply traditional laboratory learning in an outdoor environment. The GeoScene represented a faux field environment; outside, more complex and tangible than a laboratory, but also simplified geologically and located safely within the confines of an educational setting. This exploratory study employed a mixed-methods action research design. The action research design allowed for systematic inquiry by the teacher/researcher into how the students learned. The mixed-methods approach garnered several types of qualitative and quantitative data to explore phenomena and support conclusions. Several types of data were collected and analyzed, including: visual recordings of the intervention, interviews, analytic memos, student reflections, field practical exams, and a pre/post knowledge and skills survey, to determine whether the intervention affected student comprehension and interpretation of geologic phenomena in an authentic field environment, and if so, how. Students enrolled in two different sections of the same laboratory course, sharing a common lecture, participated in laboratory exercises implementing experiential learning and constructivist pedagogies that focused on learning the basic geological skills necessary for work in a field environment. These laboratory

  7. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  8. Energy-level splitting of multicharged ions due to interaction with own radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.; Kalashnikov, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    The overlapping of the energy levels of He-like uranium states with identical principal quantum numbers is investigated. Results are presented of a numerical calculation of the states produced as a result of mixing of the 2s 1/2 8p 1/2 and 2p 1/2 8p 1/2 states and of the respective spectral lines. It is shown that the interaction between the ion and its own radiation field splits each of the overlapping energy levels into several sublevels. The sublevels are isolated from each to other such an extent that interference effects become insignificant. The shapes of the spectral lines differ pronouncedly from the Lorentz shape and many of the line are anomaously narrow

  9. The effect of platform switching on the levels of metal ion release from different implant–abutment couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeah, Ghada O; Knowles, Jonathan C; Petridis, Haralampos

    2016-01-01

    The improved peri-implant bone response demonstrated by platform switching may be the result of reduced amounts of metal ions released to the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of metal ions released from platform-matched and platform-switched implant–abutment couples as a result of accelerated corrosion. Thirty-six titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt–chrome alloy abutments were coupled with titanium cylinders forming either platform-switched or platform-matched groups (n=6). In addition, 18 unconnected samples served as controls. The specimens were subjected to accelerated corrosion by static immersion in 1% lactic acid for 1 week. The amount of metal ions ion of each test tube was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray analyses were performed pre- and post-immersion to assess corrosion at the interface. The platform-matched groups demonstrated higher ion release for vanadium, aluminium, cobalt, chrome, and molybdenum compared with the platform-switched groups (Pabutment size or connection (Pabutment platform surfaces. In conclusion, implant–abutment couples underwent an active corrosion process resulting in metal ions release into the surrounding environment. The highest amount of metal ions released was recorded for the platform-matched groups, suggesting that platform-switching concept has a positive effect in reducing the levels of metal ion release from the implant–abutment couples. PMID:27357323

  10. High-level damage saturation below amorphisation in ion implanted β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, Elke, E-mail: elke.wendler@uni-jena.de; Treiber, Enrico; Baldauf, Julia; Wolf, Steffen; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-07-15

    Ion implantation induced effects were studied in single crystalline 〈0 1 0〉 oriented bulk β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at room temperature using P, Ar and Sn ions with ion fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 11} up to 2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS) using He ions of various ion energies was applied for damage analysis. Clear damage peaks are visible in the RBS spectra. The concentration of displaced lattice atoms in the maximum of the distribution (as deduced from the channelling spectra) increases with increasing ion fluence up to a saturation value of about 90%. Once this level is reached, further implantation only leads to a broadening of the distribution, while the concentration remains at 90%. The ion fluence dependence of maximum damage concentration is represented by a common model assuming two types of defects: point defects (which can recombine with those already existing from previous ion impacts) and non-recombinable damage clusters. The damage produced dominantly consists of randomly displaced lattice atoms, which indicates point defects and point defect complexes. For higher damage levels also a contribution of correlated displaced lattice atoms can be identified. This suggests that the damage clusters are not amorphous. A possible explanation of the observed results could be the formation of another phase of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  11. The Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Some Plasma Ions Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia H. Sahib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low level laser therapy (LLLT has variousapplications in clinical pathology.It has been found to be efficient in acceleration of wound healing, enhanced remodeling and bone repair, regeneration of neural cells following injury, pain attenuation, endorphin release stimulation and modulation of immune system. The possible intracellular sequence of events after treatment with LLLT, include induction of oxidative phosphorylation with increased enzymatic activity, increased expression of certain cytosolic enzymes and enhanced activity of intracellular organelles. A broad range of eukaryotic proteins require posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or signal peptide cleavage to display full functional activity. Eukaryotic cell-free expression systems provide the possibility to synthesize eukaryotic proteins with posttranslational modifications and are especially useful forexpression and analysis of human proteins with native structure and function.The stimulated mechanism involves protein- to-protein interaction, where two or more proteins bind together to facilitate molecular processes, including modification of proteins by members of small ubiquitin- related modifier proteins (SUMOand also protein phosphorylation and tyrosination. The consequence of laser application in treatment, can be seen as influencing the transmission of intracellular signals via an integrated and rapid modulation of ion channels, achieved through both direct action on photo-acceptors (such as cytochrome c-oxidase and through indirect modulation via enzymes,including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, tyrosine kinases and tyrosine kinasereceptors. This exogenous action then facilitates an existing photonic biomodulation mechanism with the body, and initiates ion channel modulation both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS. Evidence indicates that the ion channel modulation functions predominately through the potassium channels, including

  12. Effects of carbonate and sulphate ions in synthetic groundwater on high-level waste glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, H.

    1990-01-01

    This laboratory experiment aims to examine the effects of rare earth carbonate and sulphate ions, that are naturally present in underground water, have on glass used to store high-level radioactive waste for disposal underground. Borosilicate glass (or HLW glass) is stored under observation on the land surface for several decades before being buried deep below ground in geological disposal sites. Two types of precipitation occur during leaching from the glass, immediate formation of a hydrated surface layer and slow precipitation from concentration in the leachates. This slow process of some elements precipitating onto the glass surface or into the leachates is examined in this experiment using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Carbonates from rare-earth elements are found in the synthetic groundwater used. It is shown that carbonate and sulphate ions will affect leaching and will occur in geological disposal sites. Other particles were also observed to precipitate using SEM-EDX. (author)

  13. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  14. Relativistic MR–MP Energy Levels for L-shell Ions of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Juan A.; Lopez-Dauphin, Nahyr A.; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Level energies are reported for Si V, Si VI, Si VII, Si VIII, Si IX, Si X, Si XI, and Si XII. The energies have been calculated with the relativistic Multi-Reference Møller–Plesset Perturbation Theory method and include valence and K-vacancy states with nl up to 5f. The accuracy of the calculated level energies is established by comparison with the recommended data listed in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) online database. The average deviation of valence level energies ranges from 0.20 eV in Si V to 0.04 eV in Si XII. For K-vacancy states, the available values recommended in the NIST database are limited to Si XII and Si XIII. The average energy deviation is below 0.3 eV for K-vacancy states. The extensive and accurate data set presented here greatly augments the amount of available reference level energies. We expect our data to ease the line identification of L-shell ions of Si in celestial sources and laboratory-generated plasmas, and to serve as energy references in the absence of more accurate laboratory measurements.

  15. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  16. Hyperfine structure of the S levels of the muonic helium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    Corrections of the α 5 and α 6 orders to the energy spectrum of the hyperfine splitting of the 1S and 2S levels of the muonic helium ion are calculated with the inclusion of the electron vacuum polarization effects, nuclear-structure corrections, and recoil effects. The values ΔE hfs (1S) = -1334.56 meV and ΔE hfs (2S) = -166.62 meV obtained for hyperfine splitting values can be considered as reliable estimates for comparison with experimental data. The hyperfine structure interval Δ 12 = 8ΔE hfs (2S) - ΔE hfs (1S) = 1.64 meV can be used to verify QED predictions

  17. Energy levels of the single excited states in NaI and Na-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbini, T.M.; Wahby, A.S.

    1987-08-01

    Energy levels of the single excited 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ns( 2 S), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 mp( 2 P), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 md( 2 D) and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 nf( 2 F); n=4-7, m=3-6 states for NaI and Na-like ions are calculated using the one configuration Hartree-Fock method. Good agreement is obtained between our results for the higher members of the NaI sequence and previous data from photo-absorption and beam foil experiments. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  18. Treatment of low-activity-level process wastewaters by Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.; Watson, J.S.; Robinson, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses application of the Thomas model for predicting breakthrough curves from ion exchange column tests, methods for scale-up of experimental small-scaled ion exchange columns to industrial scale columns, and methods for predicting effluent compositions in a continuous countercurrent ion exchange system. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  20. ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the theoretical level has an effect on the results about the .... the intensities of the vibration in IR spectra Ai, obtained using these four theoretical ...... GAMES version. 7.0, http://classic.chem.msu.su/gran/gamess/index.html.

  1. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  2. Effect of Li level, artificial aging, and TiB2 reinforcement on the modulus of Weldalite (tm) 049

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic Young's Modulus (E) was determined for (1) alloys 049(1.3)(heat 072), (2) 049(1.9), and (3) 049(1.3) TiB2 in the T3 temper and after aging at 160 C were made on a single 0.953 cm (0.375 in) cube to reduce scatter from microstructural inhomogeneities. Both shear and transverse wave velocities were measured for the L, LT, and ST directions by a pulse echo technique. These velocities were then used to calculate modulus. The change is shown in E with aging time at 160 C (320 F) for the three alloys. It is clear from the plots that aging has a minor, but measurable, influence on the E of alloys 049(1.3) and 049(1.9): E decreases by -2.5 pct. for 2 and 3 during the initial stages of artificial aging. This decrease in E generally follows the strength reversion. On further aging beyond the reversion well, E increases and then decreases again as the alloy overage. The slightly higher modulus in the T8 than in the T3 temper is consistent with the presence of the high modulus T sub 1 phase in the T8 temper. A similar change in E was observed on aging for the TiB2 reinforced variant that also follows the aging curve.

  3. Enhanced quantum sensing with multi-level structures of trapped ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aharon, N.; Drewsen, Michael; Retzker, A.

    2017-01-01

    , robustness to both external and controller noise is achieved. We consider trapped-ion based implementation via the dipole transitions, which is relevant for several types of ions, such as the $^{40}{\\rm{Ca}}^{+}$, $^{88}{\\rm{Sr}}^{+}$, and the $^{138}{\\rm{Ba}}^{+}$ ions. Taking experimental errors...... of magnitude of the sensitivity. In addition, we present a microwave based sensing scheme that is suitable for ions with a hyperfine structure, such as the $^{9}{\\rm{Be}}^{+}$,$^{25}{\\rm{Mg}}^{+}$,$^{43}{\\rm{Ca}}^{+}$,$^{87}{\\rm{Sr}}^{+}$,$^{137}{\\rm{Ba}}^{+}$,$^{111}{\\rm{Cd}}^{+}$,$^{171}{\\rm...

  4. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  5. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  6. Biomechanics of Hybrid Anterior Cervical Fusion and Artificial Disc Replacement in 3-Level Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Pu, Ting; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal surgical approach for cervical disk disease remains controversial, especially for multilevel cervical disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the cervical spine after 3-level hybrid surgery compared with 3-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated under displacement-input protocol. After intact testing, a simulated hybrid construct or fusion construct was created between C3 to C6 and tested in the following 3 conditions: 3-level disc plate disc (3DPD), 3-level plate disc plate (3PDP), and 3-level plate (3P). Results Compared to intact, almost 65~80% of motion was successfully restricted at C3-C6 fusion levels (p0.05). 3PDP construct resulted in significant decrease of ROM at C3-C6 levels less than 3P (pbiomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing motion. PMID:26529430

  7. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  8. Information entropy of a time-dependent three-level trapped ion interacting with a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2005-01-01

    Trapped and laser-cooled ions are increasingly used for a variety of modern high-precision experiments, frequency standard applications and quantum information processing. Therefore, in this communication we present a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of information entropy arising in the time evolution of an ion interacting with a laser field. A general analytic approach is proposed for a three-level trapped-ion system in the presence of the time-dependent couplings. By working out an exact analytic solution, we conclusively analyse the general properties of the von Neumann entropy and quantum information entropy. It is shown that the information entropy is affected strongly by the time-dependent coupling and exhibits long time periodic oscillations. This feature attributed to the fact that in the time-dependent region Rabi oscillation is time dependent. Using parameters corresponding to a specific three-level ionic system, a single beryllium ion in a RF-(Paul) trap, we obtain illustrative examples of some novel aspects of this system in the dynamical evolution. Our results establish an explicit relation between the exact information entropy and the entanglement between the multi-level ion and the laser field. We show that different nonclassical effects arise in the dynamics of the ionic population inversion, depending on the initial states of the vibrational motion/field and on the values of Lamb-Dicke parameter η

  9. Development of composite ion exchanger for separation of cesium from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Varshney, L.

    2010-01-01

    137 Cs (t 1/2 = 30 years) is one of the major radioisotope present in high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Separation of 137 Cs from HLLW results in reduction of personal radiation exposure during the conditioning, transportation, storage and disposal. In addition, 137 Cs has enormous application as a radiation source in food preservation, sterilization of medical products, brachytherapy, blood irradiation, hygienization of sewage sludge etc. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), an inorganic ion exchanger, has high selectivity and high exchange capacity for Cs. It exits as microcrystalline powder which is not amenable for column operation. ALIX is a composite material in which AMP is physically blended with inert polymeric substrate to improve its column property, exchange kinetics and increase its mechanical strength. The observed excellent properties of the composite are attributed to its engineered structure which is formed during its production. SEM analysis of ALIX shows that AMP crystals embedded in the cavities are not covered by the polymer which greatly enhances its availability for cesium exchange. The highly porous structure of the composite having 49% void volume facilitates faster kinetics of exchange of Cs from the aqueous phase and increased rate of reaction with alkali required during its dissolution

  10. Conjugated polymer energy level shifts in lithium-ion battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Charles Kiseok; Eckstein, Brian J; Tam, Teck Lip Dexter; Trahey, Lynn; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-11-12

    The ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of widely used conjugated polymers are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in conventional electrochemical and lithium-ion battery media, and also by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in vacuo. By comparing the data obtained in the different systems, it is found that the IPs of the conjugated polymer films determined by conventional CV (IPC) can be correlated with UPS-measured HOMO energy levels (EH,UPS) by the relationship EH,UPS = (1.14 ± 0.23) × qIPC + (4.62 ± 0.10) eV, where q is the electron charge. It is also found that the EAs of the conjugated polymer films measured via CV in conventional (EAC) and Li(+) battery (EAB) media can be linearly correlated by the relationship EAB = (1.07 ± 0.13) × EAC + (2.84 ± 0.22) V. The slopes and intercepts of these equations can be correlated with the dielectric constants of the polymer film environments and the redox potentials of the reference electrodes, as modified by the surrounding electrolyte, respectively.

  11. Level population measurements on analyte atom and ion excited states in the inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Z.H.; Blades, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    During the past decade a number of publications dealing with fundamental studies of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of many of these investigations has been to understand the nature of the interaction between the plasma gas and the analyte. The general conclusion drawn from these studies has been that the ICP is very close to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), but that some deviations from LTE do occur. Recent studies by the authors' have been directed towards the measurement of analyte atom and ion excited state level populations with the objective of obtaining a better understanding of both ionization and excitation in the ICP discharge and the extent to which such processes contribute to a non-equilibrium state. Further discussion is drawn from similar measurements made on elements with low ionization potentials, such as Barium, as well as on elements such as Iron in the presence of Easily Ionizable Elements (EIE's). The spatial and power dependences of such measurements are also discussed

  12. Fluoride Ion Regeneration of Cyclosarin (GF) From Rat Blood Following Whole-Body Exposure to Lethal Levels of GF Vapor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakubowski, E. M; Anthony, J. S; Mioduszewski, R. J; Manthei, J. H; Burnett, D. C; Way, R. A; Gaviola, B. I; Scotto, J. A; Muse, W. T; Whalley, C. E

    2003-01-01

    .... Levels of exposure ranged from 2 mg/m3 for 240 min to 41.9 mg/m3 for 10 min. The GF biomarker found in rat plasma and red blood cell samples was regenerated GF, which is the product of adding fluoride ion at pH 4 to the post exposure samples...

  13. The comparison of naturally weathered oil and artificially photo-degraded oil at the molecular level by a combination of SARA fractionation and FT-ICR MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Ananna; Cho, Yunju; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Weathered oils from the Hebei Spirit oil spill and photo degraded oils are compared. • We investigate changes of polar species at the molecular level by 15T FT-ICR MS. • Significant reduction of sulfur class compounds in saturates fraction is observed. • The relative abundance of protonated compounds (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increase after degradation. • Changes of polar compounds occurred by natural and photo degradation are similar. -- Abstract: Two sets of oil samples, one obtained from different weathering stages of the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill site and the other prepared by an in vitro photo-degradation experiment, were analyzed and compared at the molecular level by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). For a more detailed comparison at the molecular level, the oil samples were separated into saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene (SARA) fractions before MS analysis. Gravimetric analysis of the SARA fractions revealed a decreased weight percentage of the aromatic fraction and an increased resin fraction in both sets of samples. Molecular-level investigations of the SARA fractions showed a significant reduction in the S 1 class in the saturate fraction and increase of S 1 O 1 class compounds with high DBE values in resin fraction. Levels of N 1 and N 1 O 1 class compounds resulting in protonated ions (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increased after degradation compared to compounds generating molecular ions (presumably non-basic nitrogen compounds). This study revealed changes occurring in heteroatom polar species of crude oils such as sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds that have not been easily detected with conventional GC based techniques

  14. Level-Ground Walking for 3D Quasi-Passive Walker with Flat Feet - Lateral-plane Input using McKibben-Type Artificial Muscle -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.

  15. Determination of relative populations of the magnetic sub-levels of the 4 1D level of HeI excited by heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, M.; Zgainski, A.; Gaillard, M.; Nouh, M.; Lombardi, M.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical study of the depolarization of a transition, emitted from an excited atomic level J = 2, by a static electric field leads to the development of a new experimental method and the measurement of the relative population of the Zeeman sub-levels. This method is applied to the study of the 4 1 D level of HeI excited by several heavy ions (Li + , Ne + , Na + and Mg + ) at intermediate energy between 6 and 40 keV. From the obtained results, we derive informations on the target excitation phenomena: in particular present evidence for a long-range interaction, due to the ion charge, in the output channel of the collision [fr

  16. Level of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones in blood of patients with stomach neoplasm in complex treatment using artificial hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen'kovich, G.A.; Tsyrus', T.P.; Ermilova, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that performing of hyperglycemia courses results in some breakage of tissue tolerance to glucose, decrease of active plase of secreted insulin. No other functional violations were revealed in pancreas. Insulin-producing function of pancreas is reserved. Glucagon and gastrin level considerably decreases at the end of each course of hyperglycemia. Somatostation level in the blood of the examined patients doesn't differ and was in the limits of physiological standard. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  18. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, Leticia; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Pinloche, Eric; Denman, Stuart E; Newbold, C Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001). Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28). Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  19. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Abecia

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART while the other remained with the mother (NAT. Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001. Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28. Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  20. The effects of artificial recharge on groundwater levels and water quality in the west hydrogeologic unit of the Warren subbasin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Everett, Rhett; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Between the late 1940s and 1994, groundwater levels in the Warren subbasin, California, declined by as much as 300 feet because pumping exceeded sparse natural recharge. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, implemented an artificial-recharge program in early 1995 using imported water from the California State Water Project. Subsequently, the water table rose by as much as 250 feet; however, a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the rising water table entrained high-nitrate septic effluent, which caused nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations in some wells to increase to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.. A new artificial-recharge site (site 3) was constructed in 2006 and this study, which started in 2004, was done to address concerns about the possible migration of nitrates in the unsaturated zone. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the hydraulic, chemical, and microbiological properties of the unsaturated zone; (2) monitor changes in water levels and water quality in response to the artificial-recharge program at site 3; (3) determine if nitrates from septic effluent infiltrated through the unsaturated zone to the water table; (4) determine the potential for nitrates within the unsaturated zone to mobilize and contaminate the groundwater as the water table rises in response to artificial recharge; and (5) determine the presence and amount of dissolved organic carbon because of its potential to react with disinfection byproducts during the treatment of water for public use. Two monitoring sites were installed and instrumented with heat-dissipation probes, advanced tensiometers, suction-cup lysimeters, and wells so that the arrival and effects of recharging water from the State Water Project through the 250 to 425 foot-thick unsaturated zone and groundwater system could be closely observed. Monitoring site YVUZ-1 was located between two

  1. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  2. STUDIES ON DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ZINC IONS IN THE PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The zinc is one of the most important microelements. Element this conditions has corrected the functioning the nervous system of, immunological, sense of taste and smell. It the weakness of activity was manifested was the shortage of zinc and children’s motive development. The aim of this study was samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living on Malopolska Region, Silesia and village (made up the area of reference of Southern Poland. We investigated population 95 children, in this 40 girls (42% and 55 boys (58% in age from 2 till 15 years (average 6,8 years. The content of zinc was determined by ICP – AES method. Average the content of zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in whole studied children’s population carried out 74,51 µg/g. The statistical differences were not affirmed among average (the average geometrical content of ions of zinc in studied come from girls – 73,15 µg/g and the boys – 75,49 µg/g. The differences between sex appear, in case of ranges of changes, at boys range this it is clearly larger (55,86–97,59 µg/g in comparison to girls (58,34–88,68 µg/g how also near comparison of content answering 95 percentylowi (the incidental resulting with large environmental exposition contents it in the pharyngeal boys’ tonsils is larger – (87,73 µg/g in comparison to young girls (81,98 µg/g. It was established, on basis of report of changes quotient content zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in function of changes of content zinc in air dust, the physiological quantities of zinc in pharyngeal tonsil on level 42 µg/g.

  3. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  4. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  5. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  6. Comparison of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae in muscles with low-level infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Artificial digestion method is widely used for the detection of Trichinella larvae (mainly the mature larvae, e.g., encapsulated larvae in encapsulated Trichinella) in meat. The previous studies demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae (PEL) at 14-18 days postinfection (dpi) had the infectivity to new hosts. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the detection methods of PEL in meat. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in meat, and to test the factors affecting the sensitivity of the two methods. Forty-five male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 mice per group), and each group of mice was orally inoculated with 20, 10, or 5 muscle larvae of T. spiralis, respectively. All infected mice were slaughtered at 18 dpi, and the muscles were minced. The digestion method that was recommended by International Commission on Trichinellosis and Baermann's method were used to detect the PEL in the infected mice. The detection rate of PEL in both mice infected with 20 muscle larvae by digestion and Baermann's method was 100% (15/15); the detection rates of PEL in mice infected with 10 larvae by the two methods just mentioned were 93.33% (14/15) and 100% (15/15), respectively; when the mice infected with 5 larvae were tested, the different detection rate of PEL was achieved by using digestion method (63.33%) and Baermann's method (100%). Additionally, the number of PEL collected from the mice infected with 20, 10, or 5 larvae by Baermann's method was greater than that by digestion methods. The mortality of PEL increased along with the prolongation of digestion duration, because the PEL were not resistant to enzymatic digestion. The results revealed that the Baermann's method is superior to the digestion methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in muscle samples with low-level infections.

  7. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  8. Prolonging coherence in trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study pulse sequences that dynamically decouple 9Be+ ions from their decohering environment. The noise environment the ions see is artificially synthesized to emulate a variety of physical systems. By incorporating measurement feedback...

  9. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  10. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, titanium molybdenum alloy, and ion-implanted titanium molybdenum alloy archwires in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venith Jojee Pulikkottil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (1 To evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different orthodontic archwires and to determine the effect of 0.5% NaF (simulating high fluoride-containing toothpaste of about 2250 ppm on corrosion resistance of these archwires. (2 To assess whether surface roughness (Ra is the primary factor influencing the corrosion resistance of these archwires. Materials and Methods: Four different archwires (stainless steel [SS], nickel-titanium [NiTi], titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], and ion-implanted TMA were considered for this study. Surface characteristics were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance of four different archwires in artificial saliva with NaF concentrations of 0% and 0.5%. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: The potentiostatic study reveals that the corrosion resistance of low-friction TMA (L-TMA > TMA > NiTi > SS. AFM analysis showed the surface Ra of TMA > NiTi > L-TMA > SS. This indicates that the chemical composition of the wire is the primary influential factor to have high corrosion resistance and surface Ra is only secondary. The corrosion resistance of all wires had reduced significantly in 0.5% acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva due to formation of fluoride complex compound. Conclusion: The presence of 0.5% NaF in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the orthodontic archwires. Therefore, complete removal of residual high-fluorinated toothpastes from the crevice between archwire and bracket during tooth brushing is mandatory.

  11. An Amperometric Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase for the Determination of Low Level of Ammonium Ion in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric electrochemical biosensor has been developed for ammonium (NH4+ ion detection by immobilising alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH enzyme in a photocurable methacrylic membrane made up of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE. The current detected was based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH that is proportional to the consumption of NH4+ ion whilst enzymatic amination of AlaDH and pyruvate is taking place. The biosensor was operated amperometrically at a potential of +0.6 V and optimum pH 7. The NH4+ biosensor demonstrated linear response to NH4+ ion concentration in the range of 0.03–1.02 mg/L with a limit of detection (LOD of 8.52 μg/L. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of NH4+ ion in river water samples without any pretreatment. The levels of possible interferents in the waters were negligible to cause any interference on the proposed method. The analytical performance of the biosensor was comparable to the colorimetric method using Nesslerisation but with much lower detection limit and linear response range at ppb level.

  12. InN: Fermi level stabilization by low-energy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.F.J.; Veal, T.D.; McConville, C.F.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    The near-surface electronic properties of InN have been investigated with high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy. Low-energy (∝400 eV) nitrogen ion bombardment followed by low temperature annealing (<300 C) was found to dramatically increase the n-type conductivity of InN, close to the surface. This is explained in terms of the formation of amphoteric defects from the ion bombardment and annealing combined with the band structure of InN. Low-energy ion bombardment and annealing is shown to result in a damage-induced, donor-like defect-profile instead of the expected electron accumulation for InN. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Rapid determination of trace level copper in tea infusion samples by solid contact ion selective electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Birinci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new solid contact copper selective electrode with a poly (vinyl chloride (PVC membrane consisting of o-xylylenebis(N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate as ionophore has been prepared. The main novelties of constructed ion selective electrode concept are the enhanced robustness, cheapness, and fastness due to the use of solid contacts. The electrode exhibits a rapid (< 10 seconds and near-Nernstian response to Cu2+ activity from 10−1 to 10−6 mol/L at the pH range of 4.0–6.0. No serious interference from common ions was found. The electrode characterizes by high potential stability, reproducibility, and full repeatability. The electrode was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Cu(II ions with EDTA and for the direct assay of tea infusion samples by means of the calibration graph technique. The results compared favorably with those obtained by the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS.

  14. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  16. What Are Normal Metal Ion Levels After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Serologic Analysis of Four Bearing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Brian T; Ortiz, Philippe A; Boles, John W; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    The recent experiences with adverse local tissue reactions have highlighted the need to establish what are normal serum levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) after hip arthroplasty. Serum Co, Cr, and Ti levels were measured in 80 nonconsecutive patients with well-functioning unilateral total hip arthroplasty and compared among 4 bearing surfaces: ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC); ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP); metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), and dual mobility (DM). The preoperative and most recent University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were compared among the different bearing surfaces. No significant difference was found among serum Co and Cr levels between the 4 bearing surface groups (P = .0609 and P = .1577). Secondary analysis comparing metal and ceramic femoral heads demonstrated that the metal group (MoP, modular dual mobility (Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ) [metal]) had significant higher serum Co levels compared with the ceramic group (CoC, CoP, MDM [ceramic]) (1.05 mg/L ± 1.25 vs 0.59 mg/L ± 0.24; P = .0411). Spearman coefficient identified no correlation between metal ion levels and patient-reported outcome scores. No serum metal ion level differences were found among well-functioning total hip arthroplasty with modern bearing couples. Significantly higher serum Co levels were seen when comparing metal vs ceramic femoral heads in this study and warrants further investigation. Metal ion levels did not correlate with patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  18. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowicz, Michelle; Garcia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia) for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologi...

  19. Pre-Fukushima levels of artificial radionuclides activities in maritime samples from King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobiech-Matura, K. [European Commision DG-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, Geel (Belgium); Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, W.E. Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ustrzycka 10/12, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Different maritime samples were collected at King George Island during Polish scientific expeditions in years 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. They originated mainly from Admiralty Bay region. Activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238,239+240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am were measured using γ-, β- and α-spectrometry. Our measurements allow estimating the state of radioactive pollution of Antarctic environment directly before the Fukushima accident. Examined samples included different elements of Antarctic marine environment: macro-algae (e.g. Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Ascoseira mirabilis), fishes(e.g. Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus), birds (e.g. Pygoscelis adeliae, P. papua), and crustaceans (e.g. Euphausia superba, Waldeckia obesa). Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs vary from <0.3 to 21.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg d.w. In comparison with results obtained for samples of animals and macro-algae previously [1,2] our results are similar or lower. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu range from <0.2 to 455 ± 56 mBq/kg d.w. and comparing to previous results [1,2] they were similar or lower. For maritime animals from Terra Nova Bay [3] results are also similar or lower than obtained in present project. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}Pu in samples varied from <0.2 to 79 ± 22 mBq/kg d.w. In comparison to results presented in [1,2,3] our values are similar or higher. Activity concentrations obtained for {sup 90}Sr varied from <1.5 to 73 ± 24 Bq/kg d.w. and are similar or lower then values given in [2,3]. Activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am varied from <9.4 to 29.8 ± 9.3 mBq/kg d.w. and they are similar or higher than values obtained in [3] and similar to that from [1]. Obtained results show that levels of radioactive contamination were very low and in many cases lower than the detection limit. Planned further investigation will allow estimating the environmental condition after the Fukushima accident. (authors)

  20. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  1. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  2. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  3. Multi-criteria decision making development of ion chromatographic method for determination of inorganic anions in oilfield waters based on artificial neural networks retention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Stefica Cerjan; Bolanča, Tomislav; Luša, Melita; Ukić, Sime; Rogošić, Marko

    2012-02-24

    This paper describes the development of ad hoc methodology for determination of inorganic anions in oilfield water, since their composition often significantly differs from the average (concentration of components and/or matrix). Therefore, fast and reliable method development has to be performed in order to ensure the monitoring of desired properties under new conditions. The method development was based on computer assisted multi-criteria decision making strategy. The used criteria were: maximal value of objective functions used, maximal robustness of the separation method, minimal analysis time, and maximal retention distance between two nearest components. Artificial neural networks were used for modeling of anion retention. The reliability of developed method was extensively tested by the validation of performance characteristics. Based on validation results, the developed method shows satisfactory performance characteristics, proving the successful application of computer assisted methodology in the described case study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic properties and energy levels of Yb{sup 3+} ion in huntite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakhovskii, A.V. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: malakha@iph.krasn.ru; Sukhachev, A.L. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Gnatchenko, S.L.; Kachur, I.S.; Piryatinskaya, V.G. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Temerov, V.L.; Krylov, A.S.; Edelman, I.S. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-12

    Temperature dependence of Yb{sup 3+} optical absorption spectrum has been studied in crystals Yb{sub x}Tm{sub 1-x}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (x = 0.1, 0.2 and 1) in the temperature range 1.7-293 K. The spectra of the crystals appeared to be practically identical for the studied ytterbium concentrations. Raman scattering spectrum of YbAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} crystal has been measured. Group theory analysis of the optical absorption spectra is made, and new energy structure of the ground and excited states of Yb{sup 3+} ion, based on the experimental data obtained, is presented. Transformation of the local environment of Yb{sup 3+} ion depending on temperature has been found out. Spectrum of luminescence has been calculated from the absorption spectrum by reciprocity method with the use of the proposed energy structure.

  5. Artificial neural network modelling of biological oxygen demand in rivers at the national level with input selection based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljić, Aleksandra; Antanasijević, Davor; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana; Pocajt, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the most significant water quality parameter and indicates water pollution with respect to the present biodegradable organic matter content. European countries are therefore obliged to report annual BOD values to Eurostat; however, BOD data at the national level is only available for 28 of 35 listed European countries for the period prior to 2008, among which 46% of data is missing. This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network model for the forecasting of annual BOD values at the national level, using widely available sustainability and economical/industrial parameters as inputs. The initial general regression neural network (GRNN) model was trained, validated and tested utilizing 20 inputs. The number of inputs was reduced to 15 using the Monte Carlo simulation technique as the input selection method. The best results were achieved with the GRNN model utilizing 25% less inputs than the initial model and a comparison with a multiple linear regression model trained and tested using the same input variables using multiple statistical performance indicators confirmed the advantage of the GRNN model. Sensitivity analysis has shown that inputs with the greatest effect on the GRNN model were (in descending order) precipitation, rural population with access to improved water sources, treatment capacity of wastewater treatment plants (urban) and treatment of municipal waste, with the last two having an equal effect. Finally, it was concluded that the developed GRNN model can be useful as a tool to support the decision-making process on sustainable development at a regional, national and international level.

  6. Development of a single ion micro-irradiation facility for experimental radiobiology at cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberet, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    A micro-irradiation device has been developed for radiobiology applications at the scale of the cell. This device is based on an upgrade of an existing micro-beam line that was already able to deliver a 1 to 3 MeV proton or alpha beam of low intensity and whose space resolution is lower than 1 micrometer in vacuum. The important part of this work has been the development of an irradiation stage designed to fit on the micro-probe and able to deliver ions in the air with an absolute accuracy of a few micrometers. A program has been set up to monitor the complete irradiation line in testing and in automatic irradiation operating phases. Simulation tools based on Monte-Carlo calculations have been validated through comparisons with experimental data particularly in the field of spatial resolution and of the number of ions delivered. The promising results show the possibility in a near future to use this tool to study the response of cells to very low irradiation doses down to the extreme limit of one ion per cell

  7. Treatment of low-activity-level process wastewaters by continuous countercurrent ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.; Watson, J.S.; Robinson, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A mobile pilot-scale continuous countercurrent ion-exchange (CCIX) system is being operated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the treatment of wastewaters that contain predominantly calcium sodium, and magnesium bicarbonates and are slightly contaminated with 90 Sr and 137 Cs radioisotopes. A demonstration study is being conducted to evaluate the near-steady-state performance and feasibility of a pilot-scale CCIX column for the selective removal of strontium from wastewater. Test results show that the process removes strontium sufficiently from the wastewater to permit discharge while significantly reducing the volume of secondary waste generation. CCIX has the potential for effective use in several applications; however, it has not been frequently utilized by industries to date. The CCIX system could offer an economical alternative for decontamination of wastewaters containing trace amounts of contaminants prior to discharge into the environment. This paper discusses (a) application of the Thomas model for predicting breakthrough curves from ion exchange column tests, (b) methods for scaleup of experimental small-scale ion-exchange columns to industrial-scale columns, and (c) methods for predicting effluent compositions in a CCIX system. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Collision strengths and oscillator strengths for excitation to the n = 3 and 4 levels of neon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Sampson, D.H.; Clark, R.E.H.; Mann, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Collision strengths are given for the 88 possible fine-structure transitions between the ground level and the n = 3 and 4 levels in 20 neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 18 ≤Z≤74. The results are given for the nine impact-electron energies in threshold units X = 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.9, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0. In addition, electric dipole oscillator strengths obtained by various methods are given. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  9. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions (Kr XXXII XXVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Lawson, K. D.

    2008-05-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions, Kr XXXIII-XXVIII. For the calculations, the fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Kr XXXII, Kr XXXI, Kr XXX, Kr XXIX, and Kr XXVIII, respectively, belonging to the n ⩽ 3 configurations. Comparisons are made with earlier available theoretical and experimental results, and some discrepancies have been noted and explained.

  10. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  11. High-Level Heteroatom Doped Two-Dimensional Carbon Architectures for Highly Efficient Lithium-Ion Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, high-level heteroatom doped two-dimensional hierarchical carbon architectures (H-2D-HCA are developed for highly efficient Li-ion storage applications. The achieved H-2D-HCA possesses a hierarchical 2D morphology consisting of tiny carbon nanosheets vertically grown on carbon nanoplates and containing a hierarchical porosity with multiscale pore size. More importantly, the H-2D-HCA shows abundant heteroatom functionality, with sulfur (S doping of 0.9% and nitrogen (N doping of as high as 15.5%, in which the electrochemically active N accounts for 84% of total N heteroatoms. In addition, the H-2D-HCA also has an expanded interlayer distance of 0.368 nm. When used as lithium-ion battery anodes, it shows excellent Li-ion storage performance. Even at a high current density of 5 A g−1, it still delivers a high discharge capacity of 329 mA h g−1 after 1,000 cycles. First principle calculations verifies that such unique microstructure characteristics and high-level heteroatom doping nature can enhance Li adsorption stability, electronic conductivity and Li diffusion mobility of carbon nanomaterials. Therefore, the H-2D-HCA could be promising candidates for next-generation LIB anodes.

  12. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF EXTRACTING SURFACE WATER QUALITY LEVELS (SWQLs USING REMOTE SENSING AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE STUDY IN THE SAINT JOHN RIVER, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharaf El Din

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair and 59 (Marginal for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  13. Improving the Accuracy of Extracting Surface Water Quality Levels (SWQLs) Using Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network: a Case Study in the Saint John River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-09-01

    Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs) always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI) can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair) and 59 (Marginal) for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  14. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  15. In vivo biochemistry: quantifying ion and metabolite levels in individual cells or cultures of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Clara; Ewald, Jennifer C; Lanquar, Viviane; Jones, Alexander M; Frommer, Wolf B

    2011-08-15

    Over the past decade, we have learned that cellular processes, including signalling and metabolism, are highly compartmentalized, and that relevant changes in metabolic state can occur at sub-second timescales. Moreover, we have learned that individual cells in populations, or as part of a tissue, exist in different states. If we want to understand metabolic processes and signalling better, it will be necessary to measure biochemical and biophysical responses of individual cells with high temporal and spatial resolution. Fluorescence imaging has revolutionized all aspects of biology since it has the potential to provide information on the cellular and subcellular distribution of ions and metabolites with sub-second time resolution. In the present review we summarize recent progress in quantifying ions and metabolites in populations of yeast cells as well as in individual yeast cells with the help of quantitative fluorescent indicators, namely FRET metabolite sensors. We discuss the opportunities and potential pitfalls and the controls that help preclude misinterpretation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  16. Systemic levels of metallic ions released from orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Liliane Siqueira; Serra, Glaucio Guimarães; Albuquerque Palermo, Elisabete Fernandes; Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Müller, Carlos Alberto; Meyers, Marc André; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2009-04-01

    Orthodontic mini-implants are a potential source of metallic ions to the human body because of the corrosion of titanium (Ti) alloy in body fluids. The purpose of this study was to gauge the concentration of Ti, aluminum (Al), and vanadium (V), as a function of time, in the kidneys, livers, and lungs of rabbits that had Ti-6Al-4V alloy orthodontic mini-implants placed in their tibia. Twenty-three New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Four orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the left proximal tibia of 18 rabbits. Five control rabbits had no orthodontic mini-implants. After 1, 4, and 12 weeks, the rabbits were killed, and the selected tissues were extracted and prepared for analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Low amounts of Ti, Al, and V were detectable in the 1-week, 4-weeks, and 12-weeks groups, confirming that release of these metals from the mini-implants occurs, with diffusion and accumulation in remote organs. Despite the tendency of ion release when using the Ti alloy as orthodontic mini-implants, the amounts of metals detected were significantly below the average intake of these elements through food and drink and did not reach toxic concentrations.

  17. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy Rydberg behaviour in high vibrational levels of some ion-pair states of the halogens and inter-halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Robert J.; Lawley, Kenneth P.; Ridley, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I 2 , Cl 2 , ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect δ(E b ) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of δ(E b ), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ∼18 000-20 000 cm −1 below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of δ(E b ) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions

  19. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  20. The co-evolution of microstructure features in self-ion irradiated HT9 at very high damage levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getto, E., E-mail: getto@usna.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, 21402 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Vancoevering, G.; Was, G.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Understanding the void swelling and phase evolution of reactor structural materials at very high damage levels is essential to maintaining safety and longevity of components in Gen IV fast reactors. A combination of ion irradiation and modeling was utilized to understand the microstructure evolution of ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 at high dpa. Self-ion irradiation experiments were performed on alloy HT9 to determine the co-evolution of voids, dislocations and precipitates up to 650 dpa at 460 °C. Modeling of microstructure evolution was conducted using the modified Radiation Induced Microstructure Evolution (RIME) model, which utilizes a mean field rate theory approach with grouped cluster dynamics. Irradiations were performed with 5 MeV raster-scanned Fe{sup 2+} ions on samples pre-implanted with 10 atom parts per million He. The swelling, dislocation and precipitate evolution at very high dpa was determined using Analytical Electron Microscopy in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) mode. Experimental results were then interpreted using the RIME model. A microstructure consisting only of dislocations and voids is insufficient to account for the swelling evolution observed experimentally at high damage levels in a complicated microstructure such as irradiated alloy HT9. G phase was found to have a minimal effect on either void or dislocation evolution. M{sub 2}X played two roles; a variable biased sink for defects, and as a vehicle for removal of carbon from solution, thus promoting void growth. When accounting for all microstructure interactions, swelling at high damage levels is a dynamic process that continues to respond to other changes in the microstructure as long as they occur.

  1. Fluorescence-based high-throughput functional profiling of ligand-gated ion channels at the level of single cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Talwar

    Full Text Available Ion channels are involved in many physiological processes and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Their functional properties vary according to their subunit composition, which in turn varies in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and as a consequence of pathophysiological events. Understanding this diversity requires functional analysis of ion channel properties in large numbers of individual cells. Functional characterisation of ligand-gated channels involves quantitating agonist and drug dose-response relationships using electrophysiological or fluorescence-based techniques. Electrophysiology is limited by low throughput and high-throughput fluorescence-based functional evaluation generally does not enable the characterization of the functional properties of each individual cell. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay that characterizes functional channel properties at single cell resolution in high throughput mode. It is based on progressive receptor activation and iterative fluorescence imaging and delivers >100 dose-responses in a single well of a 384-well plate, using α1-3 homomeric and αβ heteromeric glycine receptor (GlyR chloride channels as a model system. We applied this assay with transiently transfected HEK293 cells co-expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein and different GlyR subunit combinations. Glycine EC50 values of different GlyR isoforms were highly correlated with published electrophysiological data and confirm previously reported pharmacological profiles for the GlyR inhibitors, picrotoxin, strychnine and lindane. We show that inter and intra well variability is low and that clustering of functional phenotypes permits identification of drugs with subunit-specific pharmacological profiles. As this method dramatically improves the efficiency with which ion channel populations can be characterized in the context of cellular heterogeneity, it should facilitate systems-level

  2. Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of charge traps introduced into silicon by channeling ion implantation of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.; Lay, M.; Deenapanray, P.N.K.; Jagadish, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The operating conditions of a silicon-based quantum computer are expected to place stringent requirements on the quality of the material and the processes used to make it. In the Special Research Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, ion implantation is one of the principle processing techniques under investigation for forming an ordered array of phosphorus atoms. This technique introduces defect centres in silicon which act as charge traps. Charge traps are expected to be detrimental to operation of the device. These defect centres, their dependence on ion implantation and thermal annealing conditions are being quantified using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). Since the aspect ratio of the masks required for the top-down fabrication process restrict the incident ions to a range of angles in which they may undergo channeling implantation in the silicon substrate, we have examined the effect of channeling implantation on the nature and quantity of the charge traps produced. This is the first time that DLTS studies have been performed for channeling implantation of a dopant species in silicon. DLTS is well-suited to the dose regime of ∼10 11 P/cm 3 required for the quantum computer, however, a standard DLTS measurement is unable to probe the shallow depth range of ∼ 20 nm required for the P atoms (∼ 10-15 keV implantation energy). Our aim has therefore been to perform P implants in the appropriate dose regime but using higher implantation energies, ∼ 75-450 keV, where DLTS can directly identify and profile the charge traps induced by the implantation step and monitor their annealing characteristics during subsequent processing. To map the behaviour observed in this energy regime onto the low energy range required for the quantum computer we are comparing the DLTS results to damage profiles predicted by the Monte Carlo code Crystal Trim which is used in the semiconductor industry to simulate ion implantation processes in crystalline

  3. Damage structure in Nimonic PE16 alloy ion bombarded to high doses and gas levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, K.; Packan, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Nimonic PE16 alloy in solution-treated-and-aged condition was bombarded simultaneously with nickel ions and α and deuteron beams at 625 0 C to doses of 80 to 313 dpa at He/dpa = 10 and D/dpa = 25. Microstructural changes consisted of the introduction of dislocations and of cavities, and the redistribuion of γ' precipitates to these defects. Cavitational swelling remained below 1%. Cavities were represented by several distinct size classes, the smaller ones believed to be gas bubbles, and some larger ones associated with preferred growth of precipitate. Formation of bubbles at grain boundaries, and large cavities at incoherent twins intensified the possibility of mechanical separation of interfaces under high-gas irradiation conditions

  4. {gamma}-radiation of excited nuclear discrete levels in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Chikin, K.A. [Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2002-06-01

    A new process of a nuclear excitation to discrete states in peripheral heavy ion collisions is studied. High-energy photons are emitted by the exited nuclei with energies up to a few tens of GeV at angles of a few hundred microradians with respect to the beam direction. We show that a two-stage process, where an electron-positron pair is produced by virtual photons emitted by nuclei and then the electron or positron excites the nucleus, has a large cross-section. It is equal to about 5 b for CaCa collisions. On the one hand, it produces a significant {gamma}-rays background in the nuclear fragmentation region but, on the other hand, it could be used for monitoring the nuclear beam intensity at the LHC. These secondary nuclear photons could be a good signal for triggering peripheral nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  5. γ-radiation of excited nuclear discrete levels in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, V. L.; Chikin, K. A.

    A new process of a nuclear excitation to discrete states in peripheral heavy ion collisions is studied. High-energy photons are emitted by the exited nuclei with energies up to a few tens of GeV at angles of a few hundred microradians with respect to the beam direction. We show that a two-stage process, where an electron-positron pair is produced by virtual photons emitted by nuclei and then the electron or positron excites the nucleus, has a large cross-section. It is equal to about 5 b for CaCa collisions. On the one hand, it produces a significant γ-rays background in the nuclear fragmentation region but, on the other hand, it could be used for monitoring the nuclear beam intensity at the LHC. These secondary nuclear photons could be a good signal for triggering peripheral nuclear collisions.

  6. γ-radiation of excited nuclear discrete levels in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Chikin, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new process of a nuclear excitation to discrete states in peripheral heavy ion collisions is studied. High-energy photons are emitted by the exited nuclei with energies up to a few tens of GeV at angles of a few hundred microradians with respect to the beam direction. We show that a two-stage process, where an electron-positron pair is produced by virtual photons emitted by nuclei and then the electron or positron excites the nucleus, has a large cross-section. It is equal to about 5 b for CaCa collisions. On the one hand, it produces a significant γ-rays background in the nuclear fragmentation region but, on the other hand, it could be used for monitoring the nuclear beam intensity at the LHC. These secondary nuclear photons could be a good signal for triggering peripheral nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  7. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  8. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  9. Study of hydrogen consumption reaction catalyzed by Pd ions in the simulated high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the safety for storage of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) in tanks is one of the most important safety issues in a reprocessing plant since almost all radioactive materials under processing are collected in these tanks. Accordingly the behavior of radiolytically formed hydrogen (H 2 ) in these tanks is one of key issues and has been studied by several researchers because it might cause an explosion. They reported that not all of H 2 formed in HLLW comes out in the gas phase because H 2 is consumed by some un-clarified secondary reaction which may be caused by the irradiation and/or by the catalytic effect of certain fission product (FP) in HLLW. In order to clarify such effect, we carried out the experiments using the simulated high level liquid waste (SHLLW) with and without palladium (Pd) group ions under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that H 2 consumption reaction is not caused by radiation as was understood so far but is caused by a catalytic effect of Pd ion in SHLLW. That is, H 2 is reacting with HNO 3 and forming H 2 O and NOx. Using the catalytic reaction rate constant measured in the experiments, the analysis showed that the H 2 concentration in the gas phase of an HLLW tank does not reach its explosion limit of 4% even if the sweeping air stops for a long time. (authors)

  10. IFE chamber dry wall materials response to pulsed X-rays and ions at power-plant level fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, T.J. E-mail: tjrenk@sandia.gov; Olson, C.L.; Tanaka, T.J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Rochau, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Golovkin, I.E.; Thompson, M.O.; Knowles, T.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Tillack, M.S

    2003-04-01

    We have begun a collaborative investigation of the response of candidate first-wall inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor chamber drywall materials to X-rays on the Z facility, and to ions on RHEPP-1, both located at Sandia National Laboratories. Dose levels are comparable to those anticipated in future direct-drive reactors. Due to the 5-10 Hz repetition rate expected in such reactors, per-pulse effects such as material removal must be negligible. The primary wall materials investigated here are graphite and tungsten in various forms. After exposure on either RHEPP or Z, materials were analyzed for roughening and/or material removal (ablation) as a function of dose. Graphite is observed to undergo significant ablation/sublimation in response to ion exposure at the 3-4 J/cm{sup 2} level, significantly below doses expected in future dry-wall power plants. Evidence of thermomechanical stresses resulting in material loss occurs for both graphite and tungsten, and is probably related to the pulsed nature of the energy delivery. These effects are not seen in typical magnetic fusion energy (MFE) conditions where these same kinds of materials are used. Results are presented for thresholds below which no roughening or ablation occurs. Use of graphite in a 'velvet' two-dimensional form may mitigate the effects seen with the flat material, and alloying tungsten with rhenium may reduce its roughening due to the increased ductility of the alloy.

  11. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, Ted [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Whitacre, Jay [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weber, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Eshoo, Michael [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Noland, James [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blackwood, David [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Campbell, Williams [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sheen, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spears, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Smith, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy's Smart Grid Demonstration Program Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion's low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles.

  12. Theoretical analysis of the multiple resonances for many-level spin systems. The four-level spin system of s electron ions subjected to strong microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, F.F.; Marica, F.

    1994-01-01

    The analytic steady state solutions of master equation for the density matrix of a multilevel spin system in dilute paramagnetic crystals at high temperature, subjected to strong microwave fields, are discussed. These solutions enable to obtain the populations of the levels, and the microwave powers absorbed or emitted by the crystal, in the presence of one, two or more microwave fields. A detailed theoretical study of the maser effects for s electron ions with nuclear spin one-half is carried out. In the case of three frequency correlated strong fields, when 'the spectroscopic' bridge conditions are fulfilled, sensitive detections, or high efficient generations of microwaves of frequency higher than those of the pumping fields are predicted. (author) 16 figs., 16 refs

  13. Atomic structure calculation of energy levels and oscillator strengths in Ti ion, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keishi

    1983-10-01

    Energy levels and oscillator strengths are calculated for 3s-3p and 3p-3d transition arrays in Ti X, isoelectronic to Al I. The energy levels are obtained by the Slater-Condon theory of atomic structure, including explicitly the strong configuration interactions. The results are presented both in numerical tables and in diagrams. In the tables, the observed data are included for comparison, where available. The calculated weighted oscillator strengths (gf-value) are also displayed in figures, where the weighted oscillator strengths are plotted as a function of wavelength. (author)

  14. Spectrum and energy levels of the sodiumlike ion Sr/sup 27+/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, J.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of Sr/sup 27+/ was observed with a laser-produced plasma and a 2.2-m grazing-incidence spectrograph in the region 12--160 A-circle. From the identification of 37 lines, a system of 27 energy levels of the type 2p 6 nl was determined. The level system includes the configurations ns(n = 3-5), np(n = 3-6), nd(n = 3-7), nf(n = 4-6), and 5g. The ionization energy is determined as 11 188200 +- 1000 cm/sup -1/ (1387.16 +- 0.12 eV)

  15. Controlled ultrafast transfer and stability degree of generalized coherent states of a kicked two-level ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Kong, Chao; Hai, Wenhua

    2018-06-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of a two-level ion trapped in the Lamb-Dicke regime of a δ -kicked optical lattice, based on the exact generalized coherent states rotated by a π / 2 pulse of Ramsey type experiment. The spatiotemporal evolutions of the spin-motion entangled states in different parameter regions are illustrated, and the parameter regions of different degrees of quantum stability described by the quantum fidelity are found. Time evolutions of the probability for the ion being in different pseudospin states reveal that the ultrafast entanglement generation and population transfers of the system can be analytically controlled by managing the laser pulses. The probability in an initially disentangled state shows periodic collapses (entanglement) and revivals (de-entanglement). Reduction of the stability degree results in enlarging the period of de-entanglement, while the instability and potential chaos will cause the sustained entanglement. The results could be justified experimentally in the existing setups and may be useful in engineering quantum dynamics for quantum information processing.

  16. Measurements on low level plutonium sources using Rad Elec Electret Ion Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskas, D.; Teagarden, J.; Wilkes, E.

    1998-01-01

    This is a technique for measuring gross alpha particle emission from interior contaminated surfaces. The technique utilizes electret ionization chambers (EICs), which consist of a charged Teflon plate (the electret) and an electrically-conductive plastic chamber of 145 ml volume. To measure very low levels of alpha contamination, the EIC is left in place on the surface to be measured for about 48 hours. The change in the surface charge of the electret is a measure of the ionization during the measurement period. The rate of change of the charge is converted into an activity using an appropriate calibration factor. This system has the ability to make accurate gross alpha contamination measurements while being subject to a high airborne radon concentration, such as might occur in certain buildings or during an atmospheric inversion. Previous studies of the effectiveness of these EIC's focused on levels of alpha contamination much higher than is allowed for unrestricted release of material at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This study evaluated the performance of EIC's at levels from 100 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per 100 cm 2 to below 20 dpm per 100 cm 2 (all measurements are referenced to a 4π geometry). The EIC's were found to be within 5% accuracy, as compared to a gas flow proportional counter calibrated with a NIST-traceable source. Test results indicate that the EIC, left in place for 48 hours, can detect alpha contamination as low as 6.4 ± 3.0 dpm/100 cm 2 to a 95% confidence level

  17. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Roya, E-mail: r_sedghi@sbu.ac.ir; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO{sub 2}/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples.

  18. Artificial Neural Network forecasting of storm surge water levels at major estuarine ports to supplement national tide-surge models and improve port resilience planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jon; Mawdsley, Robert; Fujiyama, Taku; Achuthan, Kamal

    2017-04-01

    Effective prediction of tidal storm surge is of considerable importance for operators of major ports, since much of their infrastructure is necessarily located close to sea level. Storm surge inundation can damage critical elements of this infrastructure and significantly disrupt port operations and downstream supply chains. The risk of surge inundation is typically approached using extreme value analysis, while short-term forecasting generally relies on coastal shelf-scale tide and surge models. However, extreme value analysis does not provide information on the duration of a surge event and can be sensitive to the assumptions made and the historic data available. Also, whilst regional tide and surge models perform well along open coasts, their fairly coarse spatial resolution means that they do not always provide accurate predictions for estuarine ports. As part of a NERC Environmental Risks to Infrastructure Innovation Programme project, we have developed a tool that is specifically designed to forecast the North Sea storm surges on major ports along the east coast of the UK. Of particular interest is the Port of Immingham, Humber estuary, which handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK including major flows of coal and biomass for power generation. A tidal surge in December 2013, with an estimated return period of 760 years, partly flooded the port, damaged infrastructure and disrupted operations for several weeks. This and other recent surge events highlight the need for additional tools to supplement the national UK Storm Tide Warning Service. Port operators are also keen to have access to less computationally expensive forecasting tools for scenario planning and to improve their resilience to actual events. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of machine learning methods based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to generate accurate short-term forecasts of extreme water levels at estuarine North Sea ports such as Immingham. An ANN is

  19. Energy level properties of 4p64d3, 4p64d24f, and 4p54d4 configurations of the W35+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectroscopic parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was used to derive spectral data for the multicharged tungsten ion W 35+ . The configuration interaction method was applied to include the electron-correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit–Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock radial orbitals. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes τ, and Lande g-factors have been calculated for the 4p 6 4d 3 , 4p 6 4d 2 4f, and 4p 5 4d 4 configurations of the W 35+ ion

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies of the energy level structure of multiply charged many-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfors, A.

    1991-01-01

    Magnesiumlike and aluminumlike spectra of the elements calcium - germanium have been obtained through the use of laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and a 3 m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph. The spectral analyses were mainly based on isoelectronic regularities. Intermediate ionization stages of cerium (Ce V) and silicon (SI VI) have also been studied. The light sources in these cases were a sliding spark and a modified version of the LPP. The Eagle spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaitherburg, Maryland was used to record the cerium spectrum. Ab initio calculations and least-squares fits of the Slater energy parameters to the experimental energy levels are reported for all investigated spectra. Theoretical predictions of oscillator strengths for Y III and Zr III in the region 1150-3200 AA are presented. The oscillator strengths are needed for abundance determinations of Y 2+ and Zr 2+ in chemically peculiar stars, Cp stars. (65 refs.)

  1. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We found that collectors can be adapted to accept large surface (diameter 47 mm) cartridges containing a strongly acidic resin (Dowex AG 88) which is able to quantitatively extract radioactivity from rainwater, even during heavy rainfall. The resin can then be measured by γ-spectrometry. The detection limit is 0.1 Bq per sample of resin (80 g) for 137 Cs. Natural 7 Be and 210 Pb can also be measured and the activity ratio of both radionuclides is comparable with those obtained through iron hydroxide precipitation and air filter measurements. Occasionally 22 Na has also been measured above the detection limit. A comparison between the evaporation method and the resin method demonstrated that 2/3 of 7 Be can be lost during the evaporation process. The resin method is simple and highly efficient at extracting radioactivity. Because of these great advantages, we anticipate it could replace former rainwater determination methods. Moreover, it does not necessitate the transportation of large rainwater volumes to the laboratory

  2. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  3. Is Intelligence Artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of intelligence is directed primarily at the level of human beings. This paper attempts to give a more unifying definition that can be applied to the natural world in general. The definition would be used more to verify a degree of intelligence, not to quantify it and might help when making judgements on the matter. A version of an accepted test for AI is then put forward as the 'acid test' for Artificial Intelligence itself. It might be what a free-thinking program or robot...

  4. Nanostructuring of Mo/Si multilayers by means of reactive ion etching using a three-level mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreeskornfeld, L.; Haindl, G.; Kleineberg, U.; Heinzmann, U.; Shi, F.; Volland, B.; Rangelow, I.W.; Majkova, E.; Luby, S.; Kostic,; Matay, L.; Hrkut, P.; Hudek, P.; Lee, H.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Mo/Si multilayer reflectors have been gaining industry interest as a promising choice for the next generation extreme ultraviolet mask material for printing sub 70 nm feature size devices. A reactive ion etching system with optimized hardware using CHF 3 /Ar process regime shows the capability for highly anisotropic etching of sub congruent with 400 nm feature sizes in Mo/Si test multilayers with ten periods and a bilayer thickness of 7.8 nm which were prepared by e-beam evaporation. A three-level-mask technique consisting of a top resist mask layer poly-methyl-meth-acrylate, a middle hard amorphous Si mask layer and a bottom-level polyimide layer is used to create the etch mask. The etch characteristics of the polyimide film is shown to be one of the major factors determining the success of the described multilayer etching process. The developed etching technology demonstrates superior process performance without facets, excellent uniformity and good profile control. No contamination, degeneration or defect generation in the unetched multilayer structure could be detected. This non-conventional process results in minimum deposition during the etching thus eliminating the need for a dry or wet cleaning. Sidewall angles in Mo/Si multilayers of 85 deg. , without undercut, bowing and ripples resulting in smooth sidewalls are achieved

  5. Innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transport technology (2). CFD-simulated and experimental ion transport efficiencies for uranium-attached pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Aoyama, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    An innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection has been developed. This apparatus measures an ion current resulting from air ionization by alpha particles. Ions generated in the measurement chamber of about 1 m 3 in volume are transported by airflow to a sensor and measured. This paper presents computational estimation of ion transport efficiencies for two pipes with different lengths, the inner surfaces of which were covered with a thin layer of uranium. These ion transport efficiencies were compared with those experimentally obtained for the purpose of our model validation. Good agreement was observed between transport efficiencies from simulations and those experimentally estimated. Dependence of the transport efficiencies on the region of uranium coating was also examined, based on which anticipated errors arising from unclear positions of contamination are also discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of glass composition on the relaxation of the 4Isub(13/2) level of erbium ions in borate and silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of glass nerwork formers and glass modifiers on radiative transition probabilities and quantum efficiencies of the 4 Isub(13/2) level of Er +3 ions in ternary borate and silicate glasses was studied by both absorption and emission spectroscopy. It was found that the transition probabilities may be widely varied by changes glass network former and alkali ion substitution. The role of multiphonon emission and O-H vibration in the relaxation of the 4 Isub(13/2) level is discussed. (author)

  7. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  8. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  9. High accuracy results for the energy levels of the molecular ions H+2, D+2 and HD+, up to J = 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karr, J Ph; Hilico, L

    2006-01-01

    We present a nonrelativistic calculation of the rotation-vibration levels of the molecular ions H + 2 , D + 2 and HD + , relying on the diagonalization of the exact three-body Hamiltonian in a variational basis. The J = 2 levels are obtained with a very high accuracy of 10 -14 au (for most levels) representing an improvement by five orders of magnitude over previous calculations. The accuracy is also improved for the J = 1 levels of H + 2 and D + 2 with respect to earlier works. Moreover, we have computed the sensitivities of the energy levels with respect to the mass ratios, allowing these levels to be used for metrological purposes

  10. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluta, Iulia; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco, E-mail: fnori@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Remarkable progress towards realizing quantum computation has been achieved using natural and artificial atoms as qubits. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of different types of qubits. On the one hand, natural atoms (such as neutral atoms and ions) have long coherence times, and could be stored in large arrays, providing ideal 'quantum memories'. On the other hand, artificial atoms (such as superconducting circuits or semiconductor quantum dots) have the advantage of custom-designed features and could be used as 'quantum processing units'. Natural and artificial atoms can be coupled with each other and can also be interfaced with photons for long-distance communications. Hybrid devices made of natural/artificial atoms and photons may provide the next-generation design for quantum computers.

  11. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  12. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  13. The populations of excited levels of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions in plasmas traversed by neutral hydrogen beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, J.; Summers, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the populations of levels of impurity ions in a spartially homogeneous plasma containing primarily thermal electrons and protons and monoenergetic neutral hydrogen atoms. Of special concern is the role of recombination which may include the radiative, three-body and dielectronic process together with charge exchange capture from neutral hydrogen beams. The influence of these primary processes on the population is modified by radiative transitions and redistributive transitions due to collisions with electrons and protons in the plasma. The behaviour of the populations of the ions C 5+ , C 4+ and Ar 16+ with variation of plasma parameters is explored in the present work. A bundled principal quantum level picture and a more elaborate LS resolved picture are used which allow investigation of the expected spectral emission and its sensitivity to uncertainty in the primary rates. The variation of the impurity ion spectrum in transiently recombining or ionising conditions is also considered. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical energy level spectra and transition data for 4p64d, 4p64f and 4p54d2 configurations of W37+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

    2012-01-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectral parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was applied to determine atomic data for tungsten ions. The correlation effects were included by adopting the configuration interaction method. The Breit–Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock radial orbitals was employed to take into account relativistic effects. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes, Lande factors g were calculated for the 4p 6 4d, 4p 6 4f and 4p 5 4d 2 configurations of W 37+ ion. The atomic data, namely, the transition wavelengths, spontaneous emission rates and oscillator strengths for the electric dipole, electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole transitions among and within the levels of these configurations are tabulated.

  15. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2012-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are authorised food additives in the European Union (EU). The safety of these sweeteners has been evaluated in accordance with internationally agreed principles for the safety evaluation of food additives. In the EU, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Food...... (SCF) was the scientific guarantor for the safety of food additives until March 2003. Since then this has been taken over by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), notably its Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS Panel). Based on the large number...... of toxicological studies that are requested for the safety evaluation of food additives, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is identified for the most sensitive effect in the most sensitive animal species. A safety factor of 100 is normally applied to the NOAEL in order to establish an acceptable daily...

  16. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  17. Quantification of trace level of fluoride content in uranium oxide produced by deconversion of HEX gas by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, E.K.; Padmakumar, P.R.; Shanmugavelu, P.; Sudhakar, T.M.; Bhowmik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride content in nuclear fuel is detrimental due to its corrosion behavior with cladding material. It is essential to monitor and control the fluoride concentration in nuclear material at various processing stages. Deconversion of upgraded HEX gas is carried out to produce uranium oxide. The performance of the deconversion process of HEX gas is evaluated for which trace level of fluoride concentration accompanying uranium oxide is considered as a marker. An analytical method has been developed for testing the uranium oxide produced from deconversion process of HEX gas. The method involves sample pretreatment followed by analysis using ion chromatography. The test method was validated for its performance using in house synthetic uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) standard solutions prepared with different level of fluoride content. The results are in agreement with the expected values with the recovery in the range of 80-95%. This method has been successfully implemented for routine analysis of samples at our lab. Since UO 2 F 2 reference material is not available to validate this method, in house UO 2 F 2 standards were prepared from U 3 O 8 prepared from nuclear grade uranyl nitrate solution. UO 2 F 2 standards were prepared by converting U 3 O 8 to UO 2 F 2 by the addition of HF followed by H 2 O 2 at 200°C on a hot plate. The entire yellow colored UO 2 F 2 was dissolved in nano pure water and recrystallised several times to ensure that all free HF is removed. The crystals dried in air oven at 120° for three hours. Samples containing 1000 mg kg -1 fluoride prepared from this UO 2 F 2 , and subsequently from this sample containing 5 mg kg -1 to 35 mg kg -1 fluoride samples were prepared and analysed against fluoride CRM and the fluoride concentration obtained was analysed

  18. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  19. Development of an ion-exchange process for removing cesium from high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, P.K.; Wallace, R.M.; Whitehurst, D.A.; Steed, J.M.

    1979-11-01

    Methods to determine resin characteristics, i.e., cesium equilibria and diffusion rates, were developed. These parameters can now guide resin selection and aid in interpreting column performance. The K/sub D/ cesium ion concentration relation gives evidence of three different types of ion exchange sites. The countercurrent load/elution/regeneration cycle for the removal of cesium by ion exchange repeatedly reached the goal decontamination factor (DF) of 10,000 at throughputs up to 60 column volumes. Resin backwashing appears feasible, but further development of column geometry will be required. The proposed ammonium elutriant is satisfactory. Regeneration end-point can be controlled by electrical conductivity monitoring

  20. Joint influence of temperature and ions of metals on level of activity alkaline phosphatase the mucous membrane of intestines beluga, the starlet and their hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Bednyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In work joint influence of ions of bivalent metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and temperatures on level of activity alkaline phosphatase mucous membrane beluga, starlet and their hybrid is shown. Dependence of response of enzyme on action of ions of metals according to their position in a periodic table of chemical elements is shown. The given dependence remains and at temperature change incubation, only at low temperatures the activating effect of metals being in the period beginning is maximum, and at high, is maximum inhibiting effect of metals being in the period end.

  1. Artificial tongue based on metal-biomolecule coordination polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ran, Xiang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-02-25

    We construct an array-based recognition system (the so-called artificial tongue) through the self-assembly of nucleotides, dyes and lanthanide ions. Metal ions are selected as model analytes for verifying its discrimination ability. The work provides valuable insights into the application and development of biomolecule-based materials.

  2. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  3. Distinguishing Petroleum (Crude Oil and Fuel) From Smoke Exposure within Populations Based on the Relative Blood Levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEX), Styrene and 2,5-Dimethylfuran by Pattern Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D M; Reese, C M; Thornburg, L G; Sanchez, E; Rafson, J P; Blount, B C; Ruhl, J R E; De Jesús, V R

    2018-01-02

    Studies of exposure to petroleum (crude oil/fuel) often involve monitoring benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and styrene (BTEXS) because of their toxicity and gas-phase prevalence, where exposure is typically by inhalation. However, BTEXS levels in the general U.S. population are primarily from exposure to tobacco smoke, where smokers have blood levels on average up to eight times higher than nonsmokers. This work describes a method using partition theory and artificial neural network (ANN) pattern recognition to classify exposure source based on relative BTEXS and 2,5-dimethylfuran blood levels. A method using surrogate signatures to train the ANN was validated by comparing blood levels among cigarette smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BTEXS and 2,5-dimethylfuran signatures derived from the smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes. Classification agreement for an ANN model trained with relative VOC levels was up to 99.8% for nonsmokers and 100.0% for smokers. As such, because there is limited blood level data on individuals exposed to crude oil/fuel, only surrogate signatures derived from crude oil and fuel were used for training the ANN. For the 2007-2008 NHANES data, the ANN model assigned 7 out of 1998 specimens (0.35%) and for the 2013-2014 NHANES data 12 out of 2906 specimens (0.41%) to the crude oil/fuel signature category.

  4. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  5. A DISTRIBUTED SMART HOME ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    A majority of the research performed today explore artificial intelligence in smart homes by using a centralized approach where a smart home server performs the necessary calculations. This approach has some disadvantages that can be overcome by shifting focus to a distributed approach where...... the artificial intelligence system is implemented as distributed as agents running parts of the artificial intelligence system. This paper presents a distributed smart home architecture that distributes artificial intelligence in smart homes and discusses the pros and cons of such a concept. The presented...... distributed model is a layered model. Each layer offers a different complexity level of the embedded distributed artificial intelligence. At the lowest layer smart objects exists, they are small cheap embedded microcontroller based smart devices that are powered by batteries. The next layer contains a more...

  6. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; Motl, A.; John, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO 4 -PAN absorber

  7. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Atomic and molecular physics - Ions in solids - Laser systems. Courses, corrected exercises and problems Level M1/M2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, Georgette-Laura; Moncorge, Richard; Chesnel, Jean-Yves; Adoui, Lamri; Lelievre, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes the table of contents and a brief presentation of a course book for students in atomic and molecular physics. After some generalities on energy quantification and on photon momentum / Compton Effect, the different chapters address topics like hydrogen and helium atoms, alkalis, alkaline-earth, atoms with several valence electrons, the atom-radiation interaction, molecule and ion spectroscopy in solids, and the most significant laser systems using an active media based on atoms, ions or molecules in a diluted environment. Each chapter contains exercises and problems

  10. Detector Characterization Report, Response Related to Linear Movement and Radiation Levels for an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)-Developed Ion Chamber and a Commercial Ion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent activities regarding the safeguarding of radioactive material have indicated there is a need to use radiation sensors to monitor intentional or unintentional material movement. Existing radiation detection systems were not typically designed for this type of operation since most of their use accounted for monitoring material while the material is stationary. To ensure that a radiation monitoring system is capable of detecting the movement of radioactive material, a series of tests were needed. These tests would need to be performed in known radiological conditions, under controlled environmental conditions, and at known movement speeds. The Radiation Effects Facility (REF), located at the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, provided the necessary capabilities to perform these tests. This report provides a compilation of the results from a characterization of two different sensors--a simple, air ionization chamber-based sensor developed at ORNL that consists of an ion chamber connected to a separate amplifier, and an Eberline model RO-7-LD. The RO-7-LD is also an air ionization chamber-based sensor, but the electronics are in the same physical package

  11. Energy-Crossing and Its Effect on Lifetime of the 4s24p 2P3/2 Level for Highly Charged Ga-Like Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jian-Zhong; Zhang Deng-Hong; Chang Zhi-Wei; Shi Ying-Long; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The multi-configuration Dirac—Fock method is employed to calculate the energy levels and transition probabilities for the electric dipole allowed (E1) and forbidden (M1, E2) lines for the 4s 2 4p, 4s4p 2 and 4s 2 4d configurations of highly charged Ga-like ions from Z = 68–95. The lifetimes of the 4s 2 4p 2 P 3/2 level of the ground configuration are also derived. Based on our calculations, it is found that the energy level of the 4s 2 4p 2 P 3/2 is higher than that of the 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 for the high-Z Ga-like ions with Z ≥ 74, so as to generate an energy crossing at Z = 74. The effect of the energy crossing is important to the calculation of the 4s 2 4p 2 P 3/2 level lifetime for Ga-like ions with Z ≥ 74. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin, E-mail: chenzb008@qq.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Ma, Kun [School of Information Engineering, Huangshan University, Huangshan 245041 (China); Wang, Hong-Jian [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Design and Control of Manufacturing Equipment, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 40067 (China); Wang, Kai, E-mail: wangkai@hbu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, The College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Liu, Xiao-Bin [Department of Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001 (China); Zeng, Jiao-Long [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Detailed calculations using the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock (MCDF) method are carried out for the lowest 64 fine-structure levels of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s3p{sup 2}3d, 3s{sup 2}3d{sup 2}, and 3p{sup 4} configurations in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI. Energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, line strengths, and radiative electric dipole transition rates are given for all ions. A parallel calculation using the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) method is also carried out to assess the present energy levels accuracy. Comparisons are performed between these two sets of energy levels, as well as with other available results, showing that they are in good agreement with each other within 0.5%. These high accuracy results can be used to the modeling and the interpretation of astrophysical objects and fusion plasmas. - Highlights: • Energy levels and E1 transition rates of Si-like ions are presented. • Breit interaction and Quantum Electrodynamics effects are discussed. • Present results should be useful in the astrophysical application and plasma modeling.

  13. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  14. The co-evolution of microstructure features in self-ion irradiated HT9 at very high damage levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getto, Elizabeth Margaret

    The objective of this study was to understand the co-evolution of microstructure features in self-ion irradiated HT9 at very high damage levels. HT9 (heat 84425) was pre-implanted with 10 atom parts per million helium and then irradiated with 5 MeV Fe++ in the temperature range of 440-480°C to 188 dpa. A damage dependence study from 75 to 650 dpa was performed at the peak swelling temperature of 460°C. The swelling, dislocation and precipitate evolution was determined using Analytic Electron Microscopes in both Conventional Transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) modes. Void swelling reached a nominally linear rate of 0.03%/dpa from 188 to 650 dpa at 460°C. G phase precipitates were observed by 75 dpa and grew linearly up to 650 dpa. M 2X was observed by 250 dpa and peaked in volume fraction at 450 dpa. Dislocation loop evolution was observed up to 650 dpa including a step change in diameter between 375 and 450 dpa; which correlated with nucleation and growth of M2X. The experimental results were interpreted using a rate theory model, the Radiation Induced Microstructure Evolution (RIME), in the damage range from 188 to 650 dpa. A simple system of voids and dislocations was modeled in which the dislocations measured from experiment were used as input, or the dislocations were allowed to evolve dynamically, resulting in swelling that was overestimated by 63% relative to that observed experimentally. G phase had limited effect on the void or dislocation behavior. The behavior of M2X within the microstructure was characterized as a direct effect as a coherent sink, and as an indirect effect in consuming carbon from the matrix, which had the largest impact on both void and dislocation behavior. A slowly monotonically increasing swelling rate was observed both experimentally and computationally, with swelling rates of ˜0.025%/dpa and ˜0.036%/dpa before and after 450 dpa. The agreement in void behavior between

  15. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  16. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  17. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  18. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  19. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  20. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  1. Density-dependent lines of one- and two-electron ions in diagnostics of laboratory plasma. I. The rates of collision relaxation of excited levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelko, V P; Skobelev, I Yu; Vinogradov, A V [Lebedev Physical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-01-01

    Plasma devices with inertial plasma confinement such as laser produced plasmas, exploding wires, plasma focus, etc., which have been rapidly developed during recent years., appear to be very intensive sources of spectral line radiation in far UV and X-ray regions. Analysis of this radiation provides a good tool for plasma diagnostics with very high electron densities up to 10/sup 22/cm/sup -3/. In this work, consisting of two parts, the authors consider the mechanism of the formation of spectral lines in hot and dense plasma. The key point for density diagnostics is the fact that for some ion levels the rate of collisional relaxation has the same order of magnitude as the radiative decay. Thus the intensities of spectral lines arising from these levels show a strong dependence on electron density which makes diagnostics possible. In this paper, emphasis is laid on the calculation of rates of transition between close ion levels induced by electron or ion impact, which usually gives the main contribution to the collisional relaxation constants. The influence of plasma polarization effects on the collision frequency in a dense plasma is also considered.

  2. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  3. Element-specific and site-specific ion desorption from adsorbed molecules by deep core-level photoexcitation at the K-edges

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Y H

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews our recent works on the ion desorption from adsorbed and condensed molecules at low temperature following the core-level photoexcitations using synchrotron soft x-rays. The systems investigated here are adsorbed molecules with relatively heavy molecular weight containing third-row elements such as Si, P, S, and Cl. Compared with molecules composed of second-row elements, the highly element-specific and site-specific fragment-ion desorption were observed when we tune the photon energy at the dipole-allowed 1s -> sigma sup * (3p sup *) resonance. On the basis of the resonance Auger decay spectra around the 1s ionization thresholds, the observed highly specific ion desorption is interpreted by the localization of the excited electrons (here we call as 'spectator electrons') in the antibonding sigma sup * orbital. In order to separate the direct photo-induced process from the indirect processes triggered by the secondary electrons, the photon-stimulated ion desorption was also investigated in...

  4. Behavior acquisition in artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Thurau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Computational skill acquisition in robots and simulated agents has been a topic of increasing popularity throughout the last years. Despite impressive progress, autonomous behavior at a level of animals and humans are not yet replicated by machines. Especially when a complex environment demands versatile, goal-oriented behavior, current artificial systems show shortcomings. Consider for instance modern 3D computer games. Despite their key role for more emersive game experience, surprisingly l...

  5. Development of a single ion micro-irradiation facility for experimental radiobiology at cell level; Developpement d'une ligne d'irradiation microfaisceau en mode ion par ion pour la radiobiologie experimentale a l'echelle cellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberet, Ph

    2003-10-01

    A micro-irradiation device has been developed for radiobiology applications at the scale of the cell. This device is based on an upgrade of an existing micro-beam line that was already able to deliver a 1 to 3 MeV proton or alpha beam of low intensity and whose space resolution is lower than 1 micrometer in vacuum. The important part of this work has been the development of an irradiation stage designed to fit on the micro-probe and able to deliver ions in the air with an absolute accuracy of a few micrometers. A program has been set up to monitor the complete irradiation line in testing and in automatic irradiation operating phases. Simulation tools based on Monte-Carlo calculations have been validated through comparisons with experimental data particularly in the field of spatial resolution and of the number of ions delivered. The promising results show the possibility in a near future to use this tool to study the response of cells to very low irradiation doses down to the extreme limit of one ion per cell.

  6. Artificial intelligence in power system optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2013-01-01

    With the considerable increase of AI applications, AI is being increasingly used to solve optimization problems in engineering. In the past two decades, the applications of artificial intelligence in power systems have attracted much research. This book covers the current level of applications of artificial intelligence to the optimization problems in power systems. This book serves as a textbook for graduate students in electric power system management and is also be useful for those who are interested in using artificial intelligence in power system optimization.

  7. Crystal-field analysis for RE3+ ions in laser materials: II. Absorption spectra and energy levels calculations for Nd3+ ions doped into SrLaGa3O7 and BaLaGa3O7 crystals and Tm3+ ions in SrGdGa3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gnutek, P.; Rudowicz, C.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper we report a detailed analysis of spectroscopic data obtained from low temperature absorption spectra, which enabled assignment of energy levels, and subsequently their analysis in terms of the free-ion and crystal field (CF) parameters. Highlights: → Polarized absorption spectra measured for Nd 3+ and Tm 3+ ions in ABC 3 O 7 crystals. → Energy levels analyzed in terms of the free-ion and crystal-field (CF) parameters. → The combined ADS/SPM procedure have been successfully applied. → The B-bar k parameters and the power law exponents t k of SPM model are determined. → The energies of levels are important for evaluation of the emission cross-section. - Abstract: Low temperature polarized absorption spectra are analyzed to achieve assignments of energy levels for Nd 3+ and Tm 3+ ions at monoclinic C s site symmetry in ABC 3 O 7 crystals. Based on the concept of average optical center, the experimental energy levels for single crystals of SrLaGa 3 O 7 :Nd 3+ (SLG:Nd), BaLaGa 3 O 7 :Nd 3+ (BLG:Nd), and SrGdGa 3 O 7 :Tm 3+ (SGG:Tm) were analyzed in terms of the free-ion parameters and the crystal field (CF) ones, B kq . Assignments of the energy levels resolved in the spectra were done in stages applying the ascent/descent in symmetry method in CF analysis. The actual monoclinic C s site symmetry at the metal centers in ABC 3 O 7 crystals and the approximated orthorhombic C 2v and tetragonal C 4v symmetry were considered. The starting values of B kq 's for SLG:Nd and BLG:Nd crystals were obtained from superposition model (SPM) analysis. The final fitted crystal field parameters show high compatibility with the existing data for structurally similar ion-host systems. The obtained values of the intrinsic parameters provide basis for SPM analysis of CF parameters for rare earth ions in other similar systems, especially those exhibiting low-symmetry sites. The SPM parameters derived for SLG:Nd are used for simulation and

  8. Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography 2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headcut and channel extension in response to an abrupt base level change in 2004 of approximately 1m was studied in a 1.29 ha semiarid headwater drainage on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona, USA. Field observations and time-lapse photography were coupled with hy...

  9. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, F.; Van Der Straeten, D.; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2018), s. 809-818 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-10948S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Calcium * Ethylene * Silver ions * Tobacco BY-2 cells * Transmembrane transport Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  10. Determination of deep-level impurities and their effects on the small-single and LF noise properties of ion-implanted GaAs MESFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Kim, B.; Ghosh, P.K.; Das, M.B.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park

    1982-01-01

    A large number of deep levels, with energies ranging from Esub(c)-0.19eV to Esub(c)-0.9eV, have been identified and characterized using ion-implanted MESFET's on undoped and Cr-doped LEC-grown semi-insulating GaAs substrates. Measurement techniques used include deep level transient (DLTS) and steady state spectroscopic (DLSS) methods. Large capture cross-section values are obtained for levels below Esub(c)-0.5eV, possibly due to high electric field. Spectral densities of LF noise with distinct bulges have been shown to be related to deep levels. In some samples, natural deep level related oscillations have been observed and their ionization energies have been determined. (author)

  11. Anti-Stokes emissions and determination of Stark sub-level diagram of Er3+ ions in KY3F10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulma, E; Diaf, M; Jouart, J P; Bouffard, M; Doualan, J L; Moncorge, R

    2006-01-01

    We are interested, in this work, in determining the Stark sub-level of Er 3+ ions doping a KY 3 F 10 single crystal with a molar concentration of 1%. We have used a new method of measurement of energies of the ground level and emitting levels from excitation and anti-Stokes emission spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature. This technique is based on a spectral analysis of the anti-Stokes emissions recorded after selective excitation with a red dye tunable laser. Thus, we could determine the Stark sub-levels of the ground and the principal emitting levels in the infrared, visible and near-UV ranges with a very good precision

  12. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions (Xe L-XLVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.; Lawson, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions, Xe L-XLVI. For the calculations, a fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole, electric quadrupole, magnetic dipole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Xe L, Xe XLIX, Xe XLVIII, Xe XLVII, and Xe XLVI, respectively, belonging to the n ≤ 3 configurations.

  13. Artificial reef evaluation capabilities of Florida counties

    OpenAIRE

    Halusky, Joseph G.; Antonini, Gustavo A.; Seaman, William

    1993-01-01

    Florida's coastal county artificial reef sampling and data management programs are surveyed in this report. The survey describes the county level capability for artificial reef documentation and performance assessment based on their needs, interests, organizational structure and "in-situ" data collection and data management techniques. The. primary purpose of this study is to describe what staffing, training, techniques, organizational procedures and equipment are used by the c...

  14. Artificial hammerhead ribozymes: engineering and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobjeva, M A; Davydova, A S; Venyaminova, Aliya G

    2011-01-01

    The properties of hammerhead ribozymes are described. Various hammerhead ribozyme constructs for target RNA cleavage were considered. Approaches to enhancement of the stability of artificial ribozymes in biological media and to regulation of the catalytic activity of hammerhead ribozymes using effector molecules are described. The effect of ribozymes on extended structured natural RNAs is discussed. Applications of artificial hammerhead ribozymes as inhibitors of gene expression at matrix RNA level were considered.

  15. Experimental determination of the energy levels of the antimony atom (Sb II), ions of the antimony (Sb II, Sb III), mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcimowicz, B.

    1993-01-01

    The thesis concerns establishing the energy scheme of the electronic levels, obtained from the analysis of the investigated spectra of antimony atom and ions (Sb I, Sb II, Sb III) and higher ionized mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X) atoms. The experimental studies were performed with optical spectroscopy methods. The spectra of the elements under study obtained in the spectral range from visible (680 nm) to vacuum UV (40 nm) were analysed. The classification and spectroscopic designation of the experimentally established 169 energy levels were obtained on the basis of the performed calculations and the fine structure analysis. The following configurations were considered: 5s 2 5p 2 ns, 5s 2 5p 2 n'd, 5s5p 4 of the antimony atom, 5s 2 5pns, 5s 2 5pn'd, 5s5p 3 of the ion Sb II, 5s 2 ns, 5s 2 n'd, 5s5p 2 of the on Sb III, 5d 8 6p of the ion Hg IV 4d 9 5s and 4d 9 5p Cs X. A reclassification was performed and some changes were introduced to the existing energy level scheme of the antimony atom, with the use of the information obtained from the absorption spectrum taken in the VUV region by the ''flash pyrolysis'' technique. The measurements of the hyperfine splittings in 19 spectral lines belonging to the antimony atom and ions additionally confirmed the assumed classification of the levels involved in these lines. The energy level scheme, obtained for Sb III, was compared to the other ones in the isoelectronic sequence starting with In I. On the basis of the analysis of the Hg IV spectrum it was proved that ground configuration of the three times ionized mercury atom is 5d 9 not 5d 8 6s as assumed until now. The fine structure, established from the analysis of the spectra of the elements under study was examined in multiconfiguration approximation. As a result of the performed calculations the fine structure parameters and wavefunctions were determined for the levels whose energy values were experimentally established in the thesis. (author). 140 refs, 22 figs, 17

  16. Artificial reefs and reef restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Matthew W.; Roseman, Edward; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the published literature to provide an inventory of Laurentian Great Lakes artificial reef projects and their purposes. We also sought to characterize physical and biological monitoring for artificial reef projects in the Great Lakes and determine the success of artificial reefs in meeting project objectives. We found records of 6 artificial reefs in Lake Erie, 8 in Lake Michigan, 3 in Lakes Huron and Ontario, and 2 in Lake Superior. We found 9 reefs in Great Lakes connecting channels and 6 reefs in Great Lakes tributaries. Objectives of artificial reef creation have included reducing impacts of currents and waves, providing safe harbors, improving sport-fishing opportunities, and enhancing/restoring fish spawning habitats. Most reefs in the lakes themselves were incidental (not created purposely for fish habitat) or built to improve local sport fishing, whereas reefs in tributaries and connecting channels were more frequently built to benefit fish spawning. Levels of assessment of reef performance varied; but long-term monitoring was uncommon as was assessment of physical attributes. Artificial reefs were often successful at attracting recreational species and spawning fish; however, population-level benefits of artificial reefs are unclear. Stressors such as sedimentation and bio-fouling can limit the effectiveness of artificial reefs as spawning enhancement tools. Our investigation underscores the need to develop standard protocols for monitoring the biological and physical attributes of artificial structures. Further, long-term monitoring is needed to assess the benefits of artificial reefs to fish populations and inform future artificial reef projects.

  17. Radiation from autoionising levels correlated with single excited states of highly charged ions in dense cold plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Lazzaro, P.D.; Letardi, T.; Vigli-Papadaki, K.; Notolla, N. [ENEA, Dipt. Innovazione, Settore Fisica Applicata, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Grilli, A. [INFN Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palladino, L.; Reale, A. [Dipt. di Fisica e INFN g.s. INGS, Univ. de L. Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Scafati, A.; Reale, L. [Inst. Sup. Di Sanita, Roma e INFN sez Sanita, Rome (Italy); Auguste, T.; D' Olivera, P.; Hulin, S.; Monot, P. [Commissariat A L' Energie Atomique - Centre D' Etudes de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Zigler, A.; Fraenkel, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The interaction of heavy ion beams and laser light with matter is of central importance for the inertial fusion and X-ray laser research. Recently developed techniques in X-ray spectroscopy have provided extremely unusual emission spectra near the target even in traditional experiments. It will be shown that reasonable interpretation and diagnostic can be achieved only incorporating new concepts in the dielectronic satellite line formation. Theoretical models are developed which provide good agreement with experimental results. Charge exchange processes are proposed for the formation of hollow atoms. (orig.)

  18. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  19. Effect of Li level, artificial aging, and TiB2 reinforcement on the fracture toughness of Weldalite (tm) 049-type alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Plane strain fracture toughness (K sub IC) was evaluated for Weldalite (tm) 049 with and without TiB2 reinforcement. For the nonreinforced variant, changes in toughness were measured for various aging conditions and lithium levels. Toughness testing was carried out on fatigue precracked compact tension (CT) specimens at 24 C, as per ASTM standard E-399. Toughness was measured as a function of aging time at 160 C for the two Weldalite 049(1.3) heats. The composition of these heats differed only in that 0.03 wt pct. Ti was added to one as an additional grain refiner. Both heats showed a decrease in toughness with increasing aging time, although toughness values for one were significantly higher than for the other. This greater toughness may be due to a subtle change in the grain size resulting for the presence of Ti or, alternatively, to differences in texture or substructure formed during extrusion.

  20. Chernobyl, 30 years after? Analysis of levels of artificial radioactivity of soils in the Alps in 2015. Analyses and comments report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougier, G.; Bernollin, A.; Barbey, P.; Boilley, D.; Josset, M.; Paris, A.; Dunand, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents radioactivity measurements performed in soil samplings (70 square centimetres, 15 to 20 cm deep core sampling) in several sites located in the French Alps, more particularly in the Hautes-Alpes district (col de Rabou in the Devoluy massif, both sides of the col de la Pisse in the Champsaur, near Gap, Grand Morgon, col de Chorges, col d'Izoard), in the Drome district (different places about Lus-la-Croix-Haute), in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence district (col de Fontbelle, col de Restefond), in the Savoy district (col du Galibier, Mont-Cenis), and in the Alpes Maritimes district (Le Boreon). It appears that some high levels of caesium-137 contamination are mainly due to Chernobyl, and, to lesser extent, to French nuclear tests. Associated exposure doses are assessed

  1. Determination of 4f energy levels for trivalent lanthanide ions in YAlO{sub 3} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yuhei; Ueda, Kazushige, E-mail: kueda@che.kyutech.ac.jp

    2016-09-01

    A simple method to analyze 4f energy levels of trivalent lanthanide (Ln) ions was demonstrated by conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements using Ln ions doped YAlO{sub 3} sintered polycrystalline samples. Although XPS peaks derived from Ln 4f states overlapped with the host's valence band consisting of O 2p states, the difference XPS spectra between Ln doped and non-doped samples showed only the Ln 4f peaks due to the large difference of photoionization cross sections between Ln 4f and O 2p orbitals. The difference spectra showing Ln 4f states were aligned at the valence band maximum (VBM) making use of the peaks of Al 2p inner shells, and the Ln{sup 3+} 4f energy levels referred to the VBM were determined from the Ln{sup 3+} 4f peak energies. The Ln{sup 3+} 4f energy levels obtained by this simple method were in good agreement with those previously obtained by resonant ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements using single crystal samples. - Highlights: • Lanthanide (Ln) 4f energy in YAlO{sub 3} was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The method used differences in photoionization probability between Ln 4f and O 2p. • Ln 4f states were obtained by difference spectra between Ln- and non-doped samples. • Obtained 4f energy levels agreed with those reported by a sophisticated method.

  2. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  3. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid wastes using composite ion-exchange resins based on polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lekshmi, R.; Mani, A.G.S.; Sinha, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Composite ion-exchange resins were prepared by coating copper-ferrocyanide (CFC) and hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) powders on polyurethane (PU) foam. Polyvinyl acetate/Acetone was used as a binder. The foam was loaded with about five times its weight with CFC and HMO powders. The distribution coefficients of CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foam for cesium and strontium respectively were estimated. Under similar conditions the HMO-PU foam showed higher capacity as well as better kinetics for removal of strontium than CFC-PU foam for Cs. The pilot plant scale studies were conducted using a mixed composite ion-exchange resin bed. About 1000 bed volumes could be passed before attaining a DF of 10 from an initial value of 60-80. The spent resin was digested in alkaline KMnO 4 and the digested liquid was fixed in cement matrix. The matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength and leach resistance. (author)

  4. Artificial organs 2010: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2011-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2010 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2011, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2012, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2013, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  8. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Perkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

  9. Changes in transcript levels of starch hydrolysis genes and raising citric acid production via carbon ion irradiation mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to accumulate citric acid for the hydrolysis of starchy materials. To improve citric acid productivity, heavy ion beam mutagenesis was utilized to produce mutant A.niger strains with enhanced production of citric acid in this work. It was demonstrated that a mutant HW2 with high concentration of citric acid was isolated after carbon ion irradiation with the energy of 80Mev/μ, which was obvious increase higher than the original strain from liquefied corn starch as a feedstock. More importantly, with the evidence from the expression profiles of key genes and enzyme activity involved in the starch hydrolysis process between original strain and various phenotype mutants, our results confirmed that different transcript levels of key genes involving in starch hydrolysis process between original strain and mutants could be a significant contributor to different citric acid concentration in A.niger, such as, amyR and glaA, which therefore opened a new avenue for constructing genetically engineered A.niger mutants for high-yield citric acid accumulation in the future. As such, this work demonstrated that heavy ion beam mutagenesis presented an efficient alternative strategy to be developed to generate various phenotype microbe species mutants for functional genes research.

  10. Changes in transcript levels of starch hydrolysis genes and raising citric acid production via carbon ion irradiation mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Li, Wenjian; Chen, Hao; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuyang; Chen, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to accumulate citric acid for the hydrolysis of starchy materials. To improve citric acid productivity, heavy ion beam mutagenesis was utilized to produce mutant A.niger strains with enhanced production of citric acid in this work. It was demonstrated that a mutant HW2 with high concentration of citric acid was isolated after carbon ion irradiation with the energy of 80Mev/μ, which was obvious increase higher than the original strain from liquefied corn starch as a feedstock. More importantly, with the evidence from the expression profiles of key genes and enzyme activity involved in the starch hydrolysis process between original strain and various phenotype mutants, our results confirmed that different transcript levels of key genes involving in starch hydrolysis process between original strain and mutants could be a significant contributor to different citric acid concentration in A.niger, such as, amyR and glaA, which therefore opened a new avenue for constructing genetically engineered A.niger mutants for high-yield citric acid accumulation in the future. As such, this work demonstrated that heavy ion beam mutagenesis presented an efficient alternative strategy to be developed to generate various phenotype microbe species mutants for functional genes research.

  11. Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

  12. Changes in transcript levels of starch hydrolysis genes and raising citric acid production via carbon ion irradiation mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjian; Chen, Hao; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuyang; Chen, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to accumulate citric acid for the hydrolysis of starchy materials. To improve citric acid productivity, heavy ion beam mutagenesis was utilized to produce mutant A.niger strains with enhanced production of citric acid in this work. It was demonstrated that a mutant HW2 with high concentration of citric acid was isolated after carbon ion irradiation with the energy of 80Mev/μ, which was obvious increase higher than the original strain from liquefied corn starch as a feedstock. More importantly, with the evidence from the expression profiles of key genes and enzyme activity involved in the starch hydrolysis process between original strain and various phenotype mutants, our results confirmed that different transcript levels of key genes involving in starch hydrolysis process between original strain and mutants could be a significant contributor to different citric acid concentration in A.niger, such as, amyR and glaA, which therefore opened a new avenue for constructing genetically engineered A.niger mutants for high-yield citric acid accumulation in the future. As such, this work demonstrated that heavy ion beam mutagenesis presented an efficient alternative strategy to be developed to generate various phenotype microbe species mutants for functional genes research. PMID:28650980

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined, even unpredictable conduct, 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision, 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes, 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity, 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like human beings. The human moral code is irremediably imperfect: it is a morality of preference, of accountability (not of responsibility and a morality of non-liberty, which cannot be remedied by the invention of ethical systems, by the circulation of ideal values and by ethical (even computing education. But such an imperfect morality needs perfect instruments for its implementation: applications of special logic fields; efficient psychological (theoretical and technical attainments to endow the machine not just with intelligence, but with conscience and even spirit; comprehensive technical

  14. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  15. Cost Utility Analysis of the Cervical Artificial Disc vs Fusion for the Treatment of 2-Level Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease: 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Yang, Zhuo; Nunley, Pierce; Stone, Marcus B; Lee, Darrin; Kim, Kee D

    2016-07-01

    The cervical total disc replacement (cTDR) was developed to treat cervical degenerative disc disease while preserving motion. Cost-effectiveness of this intervention was established by looking at 2-year follow-up, and this update reevaluates our analysis over 5 years. Data were derived from a randomized trial of 330 patients. Data from the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey were transformed into utilities by using the SF-6D algorithm. Costs were calculated by extracting diagnosis-related group codes and then applying 2014 Medicare reimbursement rates. A Markov model evaluated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for both treatment groups. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the stability of the model. The model adopted both societal and health system perspectives and applied a 3% annual discount rate. The cTDR costs $1687 more than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) over 5 years. In contrast, cTDR had $34 377 less productivity loss compared with ACDF. There was a significant difference in the return-to-work rate (81.6% compared with 65.4% for cTDR and ACDF, respectively; P = .029). From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) for cTDR was -$165 103 per QALY. From a health system perspective, the ICER for cTDR was $8518 per QALY. In the sensitivity analysis, the ICER for cTDR remained below the US willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per QALY in all scenarios (-$225 816 per QALY to $22 071 per QALY). This study is the first to report the comparative cost-effectiveness of cTDR vs ACDF for 2-level degenerative disc disease at 5 years. The authors conclude that, because of the negative ICER, cTDR is the dominant modality. ACDF, anterior cervical discectomy and fusionAWP, average wholesale priceCE, cost-effectivenessCEA, cost-effectiveness analysisCPT, Current Procedural TerminologycTDR, cervical total disc replacementCUA, cost-utility analysisDDD, degenerative disc disease

  16. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  17. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  18. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  19. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  20. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  1. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  2. Electrical conductivity of In2O3 and Ga2O3 after low temperature ion irradiation; implications for instrinsic defect formation and charge neutrality level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, L; Bhoodoo, C; von Wenckstern, H; Grundmann, M

    2017-12-13

    The evolution of sheet resistance of n-type In 2 O 3 and Ga 2 O 3 exposed to bombardment with MeV 12 C and 28 Si ions at 35 K is studied in situ. While the sheet resistance of Ga 2 O 3 increased by more than eight orders of magnitude as a result of ion irradiation, In 2 O 3 showed a more complex defect evolution and became more conductive when irradiated at the highest doses. Heating up to room temperature reduced the sheet resistivity somewhat, but Ga 2 O 3 remained highly resistive, while In 2 O 3 showed a lower resistance than as deposited samples. Thermal admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy did not reveal new defect levels for irradiation up to [Formula: see text] cm -2 . A model where larger defect complexes preferentially produce donor like defects in In 2 O 3 is proposed, and may reveal a microscopic view of a charge neutrality level within the conduction band, as previously proposed.

  3. Electrical conductivity of In2O3 and Ga2O3 after low temperature ion irradiation; implications for instrinsic defect formation and charge neutrality level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, L.; Bhoodoo, C.; von Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of sheet resistance of n-type In2O3 and Ga2O3 exposed to bombardment with MeV 12C and 28Si ions at 35 K is studied in situ. While the sheet resistance of Ga2O3 increased by more than eight orders of magnitude as a result of ion irradiation, In2O3 showed a more complex defect evolution and became more conductive when irradiated at the highest doses. Heating up to room temperature reduced the sheet resistivity somewhat, but Ga2O3 remained highly resistive, while In2O3 showed a lower resistance than as deposited samples. Thermal admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy did not reveal new defect levels for irradiation up to 2 × 1012 cm-2. A model where larger defect complexes preferentially produce donor like defects in In2O3 is proposed, and may reveal a microscopic view of a charge neutrality level within the conduction band, as previously proposed.

  4. Investigation of electron and ion flows in the microsecond plasma opening switch on the terawatt power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrikov, A.N.; Bugaev, S.P.; Volkov, A.M.; Kim, A.A.; Kovalchuk, B.M.; Kokshener, V.M.; Yakovlev, V.A.; Bystritskii, V.M.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Krasik, Ya.E.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an investigation of ion and electron flows in the coaxial microsecond plasma opening switch (POS) at generator GIT-4 are given. The 1 mks front duration POS with outer and inner electrodes of 210 mm and 75 mm diameters respectively switched 1 MA pulse during 0.1 mks to the short circuited coaxial line with the same diameters and 120 cm of length. The polarity of the inner electrode was negative. The plasma of the POS was injected from outer electrode by 32 plasma guns of capillary type. The typical POS voltage was 0.9-1.2 MV. The calculated energy losses in the POS during the switching phase reached (0.1-0.15) MJ. The calorimetric measurements of the energy dissipated on both electrodes gave the same value. The location and distribution of the head absorbed along the POS electrodes were determined

  5. Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hayato; Ichimura, Kouichi

    2007-01-01

    Coherent population transfer in a laser-driven four-level system in a tripod configuration is experimentally investigated with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal (Pr 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 ). The population transfers observed here indicate that a main process inducing them is not optical pumping, which is an incoherent process inducing population transfer. Moreover, numerical simulation, which well reproduces the experimental results, also shows that the process inducing the observed population transfers is similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) in the sense that this process possesses characteristic features of STIRAP

  6. Relaxation of helium levels excited by heavy ion impact: III.- Orientation by anisotropic relaxation of excited atoms in previously aligned states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoun, E.; Lombardi, M.; Carre, M.; Gaillard, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    In the last paper of this series devoted to relaxation phenomena in a low pressure cell of helium excited by an accelerated ion beam, experimental evidence is given for a new mechanism of transfer between alignment and orientation through anisotropic relaxation of initially aligned excited states. The theory predicting this effect is briefly outlined and then description is given of the exact experimental conditions to detect the circularly polarized component of the light emitted by the target excited in the 4 1 D level of He I by Na + impact [fr

  7. Multiphysics Based Thermal Modeling of a Pouch Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for the Development of Pack Level Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    The research is focused on the development of a three-dimensional cell level multiphysics battery thermal model. The primary aim is to represent the cooling mechanism inside the unit cell battery pack. It is accomplished through the coupling of heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD......) physics. A lumped value of heat generation (HG) inside the battery cell is used. It stems from isothermal calorimeter experiment. HG depends on current rate and the corresponding operating temperature. It is demonstrated that the developed model provides a deeper understanding of the thermal spatio......-temporal behavior of Li-ion battery in different operating conditions....

  8. Detrimental Effects of Helium Ion Irradiation on Cognitive Performance and Cortical Levels of MAP-2 in B6D2F1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Jacob; Torres, Eileen Ruth S; Akinyeke, Tunde; Lee, Joanne; Weber Boutros, Sydney J; Turker, Mitchell S; Kronenberg, Amy

    2018-04-20

    The space radiation environment includes helium (⁴He) ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to ⁴He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation with ⁴He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET) = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy). Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not. In the passive avoidance test, mice received a slight foot shock in a dark compartment, and latency to re-enter that compartment was assessed 24 h later. Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 42 cGy showed a higher latency on Day 2 than Day 1, but the latency to enter the dark compartment in mice irradiated with 168 cGy was comparable on both days. ⁴He ion irradiation, at 42 and 168 cGy, reduced the levels of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) in the cortex. There was an effect of radiation on apolipoprotein E (apoE) levels in the hippocampus and cortex, with higher apoE levels in mice irradiated at 42 cGy than 168 cGy and a trend towards higher apoE levels in mice irradiated at 21 than 168 cGy. In addition, in the hippocampus, there was a trend towards a negative correlation between MAP-2 and apoE levels. While reduced levels of MAP-2 in the cortex might have contributed to the altered performance in the passive avoidance test, it does not seem sufficient to do so. The higher hippocampal and cortical apoE levels in mice irradiated at 42 than 168 cGy might have served as a compensatory protective response preserving their passive avoidance memory. Thus, there were no alterations in behavioral performance in the open filed or depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, while cognitive impairments were seen in the object recognition and passive avoidance tests, but not in the contextual or cued fear

  9. Detrimental Effects of Helium Ion Irradiation on Cognitive Performance and Cortical Levels of MAP-2 in B6D2F1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Raber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The space radiation environment includes helium (4He ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to 4He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1 mice three months following irradiation with 4He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy. Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not. In the passive avoidance test, mice received a slight foot shock in a dark compartment, and latency to re-enter that compartment was assessed 24 h later. Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 42 cGy showed a higher latency on Day 2 than Day 1, but the latency to enter the dark compartment in mice irradiated with 168 cGy was comparable on both days. 4He ion irradiation, at 42 and 168 cGy, reduced the levels of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2 in the cortex. There was an effect of radiation on apolipoprotein E (apoE levels in the hippocampus and cortex, with higher apoE levels in mice irradiated at 42 cGy than 168 cGy and a trend towards higher apoE levels in mice irradiated at 21 than 168 cGy. In addition, in the hippocampus, there was a trend towards a negative correlation between MAP-2 and apoE levels. While reduced levels of MAP-2 in the cortex might have contributed to the altered performance in the passive avoidance test, it does not seem sufficient to do so. The higher hippocampal and cortical apoE levels in mice irradiated at 42 than 168 cGy might have served as a compensatory protective response preserving their passive avoidance memory. Thus, there were no alterations in behavioral performance in the open filed or depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, while cognitive impairments were seen in the object recognition and passive avoidance tests, but not in the contextual or cued

  10. Erosion protection conferred by whole human saliva, dialysed saliva, and artificial saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T.; Kozik, J.; Lussi, A.; Carvalho, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW). Enamel specimens underwent four cycles of immersion in either HS, AS, HS/AS, HS/DW, or a humid chamber (Ctrl), followed by erosion with citric acid. During the cycling process, the surface hardness and the calcium released from the surface of the specimens were measured. The different kinds of saliva provided different levels of protection, HS/DW exhibiting significantly better protection than all the other groups (p < 0.0001). Different components of saliva, therefore, have different effects on the protective properties of the pellicle and the right proportions of these components in saliva are critical for the ability to form a protective pellicle.

  11. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  12. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity is generated by the sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin used in water purification systems of nuclear power plants. We studied cement-like solidification process for this type waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Our solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste when the Ba/SO 4 molar ratio > 1. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid wastes containing Ba S O 4 precipitate. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% and the pH of pore water of the solid waste is 11.5 or less. Therefore, we think that our solidification process is one of the best methods for treating liquid waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. (author)

  13. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Artificial Organs 2013: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2013 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level". Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide so meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  15. Artificial Organs 2017: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2018-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. Peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 12th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Undar, Artificial Oxygen Carriers edited by Drs. Akira Kawaguchi and Jan Simoni, the 24th Congress of the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support edited by Dr. Toru Masuzawa, Challenges in the Field of Biomedical Devices: A Multidisciplinary Perspective edited by Dr. Vincenzo Piemonte and colleagues and Functional Electrical Stimulation edited by Dr. Winfried Mayr and colleagues. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. © 2018 International Center for

  16. DEVELOPING A HUMAN CONTROLLED MODEL FOR SAFE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Utku

    2018-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is known as one of the most effective research field of nowadays and the future. But rapid rise of Artificial Intelligence and its potential to solve all real world problems autonomously, it has caused also several anxieties. Some scientists think that intelligent systems can reach to a level, which is dangerous for the humankind so because of that some precautions should be taken. So, many sub-research fields like Machine Ethics or Artificial Intelligence Safety have ...

  17. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Hongmei; Sugiyama, Yuko; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ( 129 I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios ( 2 or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on 129 I migration. Highlights: ► IO 3 − reduced by lignin-, tannin-like compounds/carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules ► Condensed aromatic and lignin-like compounds generated after iodate-iodination ► Aliphatic and less aromatic compounds formed after iodide-iodination ► Organo-iodine identified as unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein ► Organo-iodine with low O/C ratios imply less environmental mobility

  18. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  19. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  1. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  2. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  3. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  5. Study of the Effect of Sulfide Ions on the Corrosion Resistance of Copper for Use in Containers for High Level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbal Espinoza, Andrea Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    The work 'Study of sulfide ion on Resisting Copper Corrosion' is part of the project 'Study of Copper Corrosion in Underground Water Solution in Reducer Conditions', which the Department of Nuclear Materials, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission is carrying out. These activities are important because of this metal's potential applications for handling and controlling contaminating wastes that are a product of using nuclear energy in electric generation. Copper has important mechanical properties and is also resistant to disintegration in corrosive environments, which is an important condition for its use in manufacturing of high level radioactive waste containers. This work is based on a study of cyclic volta metric curves, anodic and cathodic polarization and potentiostatic measurements, with which the potential range, sweep speed system, electrochemical reactions involved and corrosion speed could be defined. The microstructural characterization of the films was done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition and surface contamination of the film were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy induced by X- rays (XPS), and the crystalline structure by X- ray Diffraction (XRD). Some noticeable results, such as low potentials (less than .7 V, in cathode direction) and high concentrations of sulfur make the formation of copper sulfides (I) and (II) possible; unlike the potential over .6 V, in anodic direction, where copper oxides (I) and (II) are formed, but they are inhibited by high sulfur concentrations. The morphological study of the copper surface has shown that the film that forms is more abundant and granular at higher cathodic potentials, forming small pits on the surface. The effect of the presence of sulfur ions is minimal, and the metal's deterioration is inhibited by other ions in the groundwater. The corrosion rate is greater as the sulfur concentration rises, and a time period of 20,000 years can be predicted for the total corrosion of

  6. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  7. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  8. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  9. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  10. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  11. Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Level Monitoring of Radionuclides and Metal Ions in Water without Consumable Reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    A sensor technique is described that captures analyte species on a preconcentrating minicolumn containing a selective solid phase sorbent. In this approach, the sample is pumped through the column until the sorbent phase is fully equilibrated with the sample concentration, and the exit concentration equals the inlet concentration. On-column detection of the captured analytes using radiometric and spectroscopic methods are demonstrated. In trace level detection applications, this sensor provides a steady state signal that is proportional to sample analyte concentration and is reversible. The method is demonstrated for the detection of Tc-99 using anion exchange beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; Sr-90 using SuperLig 620 beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; and hexavalent chromium detection using anion exchange beads with spectroscopic detection. Theory has been developed to describe the signal at equilibration, and to describe analyte uptake as a function of volume and concentration, using parameters and concepts from frontal chromatography. It is shown that experimental sensor behavior closely matches theoretical predictions and that effective sensors can be prepared using low plate number columns. This sensor modality has many desirable characteristics for in situ sensors for trace-level contaminant long-term monitoring where the use of consumable reagents for sensor regeneration would be undesirable. Initial experiments in groundwater matrixes demonstrated the detection of Tc-99 at drinking water level standards (activity of 0.033 Bq/mL) and detection of hexavalent chromium to levels below drinking water standards of 50 ppb

  12. Stability Test of Partially Purified Bromelain from Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) Core Extract in Artificial Stomach Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiasih, S.; Adimas, A. Ch. D.; Dzikria, V.; Hudiyono, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and purify bromelain from pineapple core (Ananascomosus (L.) Merr) accompanied by a stability test of its enzyme activity in artificial gastric juice. Purification steps start with fractionation by a precipitation method were carried out stepwise using several concentration of ammonium sulfate salt, followed by dialysis prosess and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column. Each step of purification produced an increasing specific activity in enzyme fraction, starting with crude extract, respectively: 0.276 U/mg; 14.591 U/mg; and 16.05 U/mg. Bromelain fraction with the highest level of purity was obtained in 50-80% ammonium sulphate fraction after dialyzed in the amount of 58.15 times compared to the crude extract. Further purification of the enzyme by DEAE-cellulose column produced bromelain which had a purity level 160-fold compared to crude enzyme. The result of bromelain stability test in artificial stomach juice by milk clotting units assay bromelain fraction have proteolytic activity in clotting milk substrate. Exposing bromelain fraction in artificial stomach juice which gave the highest core bromelain proteolytic activity was achieved at estimated volume of 0.4-0.5 mL. Exposure in a period of reaction time to artificial stomach juice that contained pepsin showed relatively stable proteolytic activity in the first 4 hours.

  13. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen66@tamu.edu [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Chen, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Sugiyama, Yuko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); University of Hyogo, 1-1-12, Shinzaike-honcho, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Yeager, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Roberts, Kimberly A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Hatcher, Patrick G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Santschi, Peter H. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ({sup 129}I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios (< 0.2 or < 0.4) and yet some degree of un-saturation close to that of lignin, have multiple important environmental implications concerning possibly less sterically-hindered aromatic ring system for iodine to get access to and a lower hydrophilicity of the molecules thus to retard their migration in the natural aquatic systems. Lastly, ∼ 69% of the identified organo-iodine species contains nitrogen, which is presumably present as -NH{sub 2} or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on {sup 129}I migration. Highlights: ► IO{sub 3}{sup

  14. Ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, Erhard; Melchert, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Collisions between ions belong to the elementary processes occurring in all types of plasmas. In this article we give a short overview about collisions involving one-electron systems. For collisions involving multiply-charged ions we limit the discussion to one specific quasi-one-electron system. (author)

  15. Trace-level mercury ion (Hg2+) analysis in aqueous sample based on solid-phase extraction followed by microfluidic immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Terakado, Shingo; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Matsue, Tomokazu; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-01-02

    Mercury is considered the most important heavy-metal pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Monitoring widespread ionic mercury (Hg(2+)) contamination requires high-throughput and cost-effective methods to screen large numbers of environmental samples. In this study, we developed a simple and sensitive analysis for Hg(2+) in environmental aqueous samples by combining a microfluidic immunoassay and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Using a microfluidic platform, an ultrasensitive Hg(2+) immunoassay, which yields results within only 10 min and with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.13 μg/L, was developed. To allow application of the developed immunoassay to actual environmental aqueous samples, we developed an ion-exchange resin (IER)-based SPE for selective Hg(2+) extraction from an ion mixture. When using optimized SPE conditions, followed by the microfluidic immunoassay, the LOD of the assay was 0.83 μg/L, which satisfied the guideline values for drinking water suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2 μg/L; total mercury), and the World Health Organisation (WHO) (6 μg/L; inorganic mercury). Actual water samples, including tap water, mineral water, and river water, which had been spiked with trace levels of Hg(2+), were well-analyzed by SPE, followed by microfluidic Hg(2+) immunoassay, and the results agreed with those obtained from reduction vaporizing-atomic adsorption spectroscopy.

  16. Synergistic influence of phosphorylation and metal ions on tau oligomer formation and coaggregation with α-synuclein at the single molecule level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nübling Georg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibrillar amyloid-like deposits and co-deposits of tau and α-synuclein are found in several common neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence indicates that small oligomers are the most relevant toxic aggregate species. While tau fibril formation is well-characterized, factors influencing tau oligomerization and molecular interactions of tau and α-synuclein are not well understood. Results We used a novel approach applying confocal single-particle fluorescence to investigate the influence of tau phosphorylation and metal ions on tau oligomer formation and its coaggregation with α-synuclein at the level of individual oligomers. We show that Al3+ at physiologically relevant concentrations and tau phosphorylation by GSK-3β exert synergistic effects on the formation of a distinct SDS-resistant tau oligomer species even at nanomolar protein concentration. Moreover, tau phosphorylation and Al3+ as well as Fe3+ enhanced both formation of mixed oligomers and recruitment of α-synuclein in pre-formed tau oligomers. Conclusions Our findings provide a new perspective on interactions of tau phosphorylation, metal ions, and the formation of potentially toxic oligomer species, and elucidate molecular crosstalks between different aggregation pathways involved in neurodegeneration.

  17. Influence of Cadmium(II Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h.

  18. Dirac-Fock calculation of oscillator strengths and lifetimes of levels for ions of potassium isoelectronic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilitis, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillator forces, f, of 4s-4p, 4p-5s, 3d-4p and 3d-4f transitions for 13 terms of the potassium isoelectric line (from K to U 73+ ) are calculated by the Dirac-Fock method. Nonmonotonous change in values f along the isoelectric line is detected in some cases. Radiation life times of levels 4p 1/2 , 4p 3/2 and 5s 1/2 are also calculated. Similar values, which can be approximated by formula τ≅ 5x10 -8 Z ef -3 .3 , where Z ef - the effective charge, are obtained for life times of these levels. Values obtained for f and τ are compared with data of other authors

  19. DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED BY STAINLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The study indicated that the reused wires released more ions than new ones at all time points. ... recycled brackets released more ions than the new ones, reduction of the pH of artificial saliva resulted in ... Nickel(II) and vanadium(V) reduce.

  20. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  1. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  2. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  3. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  4. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  5. Optical bands and energy levels of Nd{sup 3+} ion in the YAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} nonlinear laser crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaque, D.; Capmany, J.; Garcia Sole, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luo, Z.D. [Fujian Institute of Research on The Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    1997-11-03

    In this paper the polarized optical spectra (absorption and fluorescence) of the Nd{sup 3+} ion in the YAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} nonlinear crystal have been systematically investigated at low (10 K) and room temperature. Most energy levels of Nd{sup 3+} in this crystal (103) have been identified and conveniently labelled with their crystal field quantum numbers, {mu}=1/2 and {mu}=3/2. The radiative emitting states have been identified. Analysing the optical absorption spectra with the anisotropic Judd-Ofelt theory, the radiative lifetimes and branching ratios from the metastable state {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} have been calculated. Then, relevant spectroscopic parameters (quantum efficiency and emission cross sections) for laser applications have been estimated. Infrared to visible up-conversion is reported for the first time in this host crystal. (author)

  6. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  7. Level energies, lifetimes and radiative rates in the 4p44d configurations of bromine-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Aggarwal, Sunny; Mohan, Man

    2013-09-01

    Energy levels, lifetimes and wavefunction compositions have been computed for all levels of odd parity 4s24p5 ground configuration as well as 4s4p6 and 4s24p44d even parity excited configurations in Br-like Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII and Mo VIII. Transition probabilities, oscillator strengths and line strengths for the electric dipole (E1) transition from the 4s24p5 configuration have been obtained using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach. Correlations within the n = 4 complex, Breit and quantum electrodynamics effects have been included. We make a detailed comparison of our results with those of other numerical methods and experiments to assess the quality of our results. Good agreement is observed between our results and those obtained using different approaches confirm the quality of our results. Further, we have also predicted new atomic data that were not available so far and are yet to be observed.

  8. Challenge in manufacturing electrolyte solutions for lithium and lithium ion batteries quality control and minimizing contamination level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, U.; Oesten, R.; Jungnitz, M.

    The quality of electrolytes for lithium batteries are a major topic in science and battery industries. The solvents and lithium salts should be of highest purity. Therefore, during preparation and handling of electrolyte solutions, the contamination level has to be minimized and the quality during packaging, storage and transportation has to be guaranteed. Especially, protic impurities are found to be very critical for LiPF 6-based electrolytes. The influence of water is reported to be tremendous. But also other protic impurities like alcohols are considered to play an important role in the electrolyte quality. The reaction of the protic impurities with LiPF 6 leads to the formation of HF which further reacts with cathode active materials (e.g., spinel) and the passivating films of the cathode and anode. For a better understanding of the protic impurities and their role in the electrolyte quality a systematic investigation of different impurities was carried out. Electrolytes were doped with different protic compounds. Then the electrolyte was analyzed for protic impurities and HF in dependence of time. First results showing the relation between protic impurities and HF are presented and discussed. In addition, different packaging materials for the electrolyte solutions were investigated. Storage tests were carried out at different temperatures and in different atmospheres. Results on contamination levels, influence of packaging, high temperature storage and handling are addressed.

  9. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  10. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  11. Determination of trace level anions in reactor cooling water by ion chromatography using a resin of low capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, IC has been found to be one of the most versatile and efficient analytical technique because of its ability to provide a fast and sensitive analysis of anions. In this work, a separater column packed with a resin of very low capacity was used with a concentration column for the determination of low level of anions present as traces in reactor cooling water. The results of retention times and detection limits were determined using 2.4 mM Na2CO3 / 3mM NaHCO3 mixture as eluent. The interferences of cations and anions such as (Ca)2+, (UO2)2+, (SO4)2+, have been investigated

  12. Development of Low Level RF Control Systems for Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerators, Electron Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Kolesov, Sergej; Pekeler, Michael; Piel, Christian; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001 ACCEL Instruments is supplying low level RF control systems together with turn key cavity systems. The early LLRF systems used the well established technology based on discrete analogue amplitude and phase detectors and modulators. Today analogue LLRF systems can make use of advanced vector demodulators and modulators combined with a fast computer controlled analogue feed back loop. Feed forward control is implemented to operate the RF cavity in an open loop mode or to compensate for predictable perturbations. The paper will introduce the general design philosophy and show how it can be adapted to different tasks as controlling a synchrotron booster nc RF system at 500 MHz, or superconducting storage ring RF cavities, as well as a linear accelerator at 176 MHz formed by a chain of individually driven and controlled superconducting λ/2 cavities.

  13. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  14. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  15. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of low levels arsenic species in beverages after ion-pairing vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction with acridine red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    A new, low-cost, micellar-sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic (As) species in beverage samples. Vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction (VA-CPE) was used for the efficient pre-concentration of As(V) in the selected samples. The method is based on selective and sensitive ion-pairing of As(V) with acridine red (ARH(+)) in the presence of pyrogallol and sequential extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-45 at pH 6.0. Under the optimised conditions, the calibration curve was highly linear in the range of 0.8-280 µg l(-1) for As(V). The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.25 and 0.83 µg l(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace As in the pre-treated and digested samples under microwave and ultrasonic power. As(V) and total As levels in the samples were spectrophotometrically determined after pre-concentration with VA-CPE at 494 nm before and after oxidation with acidic KMnO4. The As(III) levels were calculated from the difference between As(V) and total As levels. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs) where the measured values for As were statistically within the 95% confidence limit for the certified values.

  17. Artificial intelligence and process management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epton, J.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques derived from work in artificial intelligence over the past few decades are beginning to change the approach in applying computers to process management. To explore this new approach and gain real practical experience of its potential a programme of experimental applications was initiated by Sira in collaboration with the process industry. This programme encompassed a family of experimental applications ranging from process monitoring, through supervisory control and troubleshooting to planning and scheduling. The experience gained has led to a number of conclusions regarding the present level of maturity of the technology, the potential for further developments and the measures required to secure the levels of system integrity necessary in on-line applications to critical processes. (author)

  18. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  19. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    After billions of years of evolution, nature developed inventions that work, which are appropriate for the intended tasks and that last. The evolution of nature led to the introduction of highly effective and power efficient biological mechanisms that are scalable from micron to many meters in size. Imitating these mechanisms offers enormous potentials for the improvement of our life and the tools we use. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature and we are increasingly reaching levels of advancement where it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. Some of the biomimetic technologies that have emerged include artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision to which significant advances in materials science, mechanics, electronics, and computer science have contributed greatly. One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their operation mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the state-of-the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  20. Artificial Atoms: from Quantum Physics to Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this workshop is to survey the most recent advances of technologies enabling single atom- and artificial atom-based devices. These include the assembly of artificial molecular structures with magnetic dipole and optical interactions between engineered atoms embedded in solid-state lattices. The ability to control single atoms in diamond or similar solids under ambient operating conditions opens new perspectives for technologies based on nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. The scope of the workshop is extended towards the physics of strong coupling between atoms and radiation field modes. Beyond the traditional atom-cavity systems, artificial dipoles coupled to microwave radiation in circuit quantum electrodynamics is considered. All these technologies mutually influence each other in developing novel devices for sensing at the quantum level and for quantum information processing.

  1. Development of an improved ion-exchange process for removing cesium and strontium from high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.M.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Processes are being developed to solidify and isolate the biologically hazardous radionuclides from approximately 23 million gallons of alkaline high-level waste accumulated at the Savannah River Plant. The waste consists mainly of a liquid supernate, a damp salt cake, and a gelatinous, insoluble sludge. The reference solidification process involves separation of the water soluble fraction (supernate) from the insoluble fraction, removal of cesium and traces of strontium from the supernate, incorporation of the sludge and the radionuclides from the supernate in glass, and incorporation of the residual salt in concrete. A new process, now being developed, involves sorbing cesium on phenolic resins that contain no strongly acidic sulfonate groups. These resins can then be eluted with formic acid which is not possible with Duolite ARC-359. Duolite CS-100, a phenol-carboxylate resin, was chosen for further development because of its greater breakthrough capacity and because it also sorbs strontium to some extent. Strontium sorption by CS-100 was not sufficient to eliminate the need for Amberlite IRC-718. However, the latter resin can also be eluted with formic acid because its functional groups are weakly acidic. Formic acid elution permits several options to be considered. The preferred option consists simply of mixing the eluate with sludge prior to calcination. Sodium formate, which is formed when the resins in the sodium form are eluted, decomposes rapidly between 450 0 C and 500 0 C and will be destroyed in either the calciner or the melter. The resulting sodium oxide would be incorporated into glass. The principal advantage of the new process is the elimination of a number of process steps

  2. A genetic-neural artificial intelligence approach to resins optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Denise C.; Barros, Marcio P.; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a preliminary study about the viability and adequacy of a new methodology for the definition of one of the main properties of ion exchange resins used for isotopic separation. Basically, the main problem is the definition of pelicule diameter in case of pelicular ion exchange resins, in order to achieve the best performance in the shortest time. In order to achieve this, a methodology was developed, based in two classic techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI). At first, an artificial neural network (NN) was trained to map the existing relations between the nucleus radius and the resin's efficiency associated with the exchange time. Later on, a genetic algorithm (GA) was developed in order to find the best pelicule dimension. Preliminary results seem to confirm the potential of the method, and this can be used in any chemical process employing ion exchange resins. (author)

  3. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  4. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  5. EXPERIMENTAL EFFECTS OF CONDUCTIVITY AND MAJOR IONS ON STREAM PERIPHYTON - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study examined if specific conductivities comprised of different ions associated with resource extraction affected stream periphyton assemblages, which are important sources of primary production. Sixteen artificial streams were dosed with two ion recipes intended to mimic so...

  6. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  7. Artificial structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Flandern, T.

    2002-05-01

    Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

  8. Artificial intelligence in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Mariella; Grech, Victor E.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of artificial intelligence programs are already available as consultants to physicians, and these help in medical diagnostics and treatment. At the time of writing, extant programs constitute “weak” AI—lacking in consciousness and intentionality. With AI currently making rapid progress in all domains, including those of healthcare, physicians face possible competitors—or worse, claims that doctors may become obsolete. We will explore the development of AI and robotics in medicin...

  9. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  10. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  11. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  12. Antithrombotic artificial organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, T; Fukada, E; Saegusa, M; Hasegawa, T

    1971-07-12

    A new antithrombotic material useful for making artificial organs (artificial blood vessel, artificial heart, etc.) can be prepared by graft-polymerizing an acrylic ester (methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, etc.) with a synthetic fiber (teflon, etc.). The graft-polymerization can be carried out by means of gamma radiation with cobalt 60 (dose rate 2.6x10/sup 3/ r/min., total dose 8x10/sup 4/ to 3.5x10/sup 5/ r). A graft ratio of 5 to 80% is attainable. In one example, a tubular sample made of teflon fiber having an inner diameter of 5 to 10 mm was immersed into methyl methacrylate in an ampoule in the absence of air and exposed to cobalt 60 gamma ray at the dose rate of 3.18x10/sup 3/ rad/min. After extraction with acetone, the sample was dried. The total dose was 3.5x10/sup 5/ rad and the graft ratio was ca. 25%. The sample was transplanted to vena cava of dog. No formation of thrombus was observed by autopsy (4 months after the transplantation). In control (teflon tube not graft-polymerized) thrombus was observed by autopsy 7 days after the transplantation.

  13. A genetic-neural artificial intelligence approach to resins optimization; Uma metodologia baseada em inteligencia artificial para otimizacao de resinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Denise C.; Barros, Marcio P.; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br; mbarros@ien.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work presents a preliminary study about the viability and adequacy of a new methodology for the definition of one of the main properties of ion exchange resins used for isotopic separation. Basically, the main problem is the definition of pelicule diameter in case of pelicular ion exchange resins, in order to achieve the best performance in the shortest time. In order to achieve this, a methodology was developed, based in two classic techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI). At first, an artificial neural network (NN) was trained to map the existing relations between the nucleus radius and the resin's efficiency associated with the exchange time. Later on, a genetic algorithm (GA) was developed in order to find the best pelicule dimension. Preliminary results seem to confirm the potential of the method, and this can be used in any chemical process employing ion exchange resins. (author)

  14. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Yang, Xinrui; Yang, Zhen; Ran, Juntao; Zhang, Qiuning; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits radioresistance to conventional rays, due to its DNA damage repair systems. NSCLC may potentially be sensitized to radiation treatment by reducing those factors that continuously enhance the repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 and lung cancer A549 cells were treated with NU7026 and CGK733, which are inhibitors of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), respectively, followed by exposure to X-rays and carbon ion irradiation. The cytotoxic activity, cell survival rate, DNA damage repair ability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate of the treated cells were analyzed with MTT assay, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively. The transcription and translation levels of the ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs genes were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results indicated that the radiosensitivity and DNA repair ability of A549 cells were reduced, and the percentages of apoptotic cells and those arrested at the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle were significantly increased, following ionizing radiation with inhibitor-pretreatment. The expression levels of ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs and phosphorylated histone H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were all upregulated at the transcriptional or translational level in A549 cells treated with carbon ion irradiation, compared with the control and X-rays-treated cells. In addition, the treatment with 5-50 µM NU7026 or CGK733 did not produce any obvious cytotoxicity in MRC-5 cells, and the effect of the DNA-PKcs-inhibitor on enhancing the radiosensitivity of A549 cells was stronger than that observed for the ATM and ATR-inhibitor. These findings demonstrated a minor role for ATM and ATR in radiation-induced cell death, since the upregulation of

  15. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    We studied cement-like solidification process for low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete of the planned repository, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of the pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Therefore, the present solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid waste containing BaSO 4 precipitate. We show the range of appropriate Ba/SO 4 molar ratio is from 1.1 to 1.5 in the present solidification process by leaching tests for some kinds of solid waste samples. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% at a typical CIS condition, i.e. Ba/SO 4 molar ratio=1.3, reaction temperature=60 deg C, and time=3 hr. (author)

  16. Determination of Pb2+ metal ion level in liquid waste from adsorption process by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Hidayah, AN

    2018-03-01

    This research are to find out the influence of adsorbent composition between rice husk and water hyacinth in decreasing of Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste; the optimumcomposition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on Pb2+ ion adsorption; and theeffectivenessof SPS as a method to determine the decreasing level of Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal in µg/L level. Rice husk and water hyacinth carbonization using muffle furnace at 350°C for 1 hour. Rice husk charcoal activation in a 2 N NaOH solution and water hyacinth charcoal activated in a 5 M HCl solution. Contacting the combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal with a Pb2+ solution with variation of mass composition, 1:0 ; 0:1 ; 1:1 ; 1:2 and 2:1. Analysis of the Pb2+ ion level using SPS method. Characterization of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal using the FTIR. The results showed that the combination adsorbent composition of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal have an impact on decreasing Pb2+ ion level. The optimum composition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on the adsorption Pb2+ ion is 1:2. SPS is an effective method to determine the decreasing Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste from the adsorption process by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth in µg/L, with Limit of Detection (LOD) was 0,06 µg/L.

  17. Electron-impact collision strengths for excitation of He-like ions from the levels with n = 1 and 2 to all singly excited levels with higher n less than or equal to 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.; Goett, S.J.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Intermediate-coupling collision strengths were calculated for all transitions of the kind 1s2p/sup 2S + 1/P/sub J/ - 1sn'l'/sup 2S' + 1/L'/sub J'/ with n' = 3,4 and 5 and l' greater than or equal to 1 (p, d, f, g) for 20 He-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 4 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 74. The method used is a Coulomb-Born-Exchange method especially well suited for calculating results from any members of an isoelectronic sequence simultaneously. The calculations were made for nine impact-electron energies in threshold units epsilon = 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.9, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0. The results are given in the form of fits to a simple function of epsilon that is readily integrated over a Maxwellian to obtain collision rates. The parameters required in obtaining collision strengths for the simpler transitions from the 1s2p levels to the 1sn's levels the 3 less than or equal to n' less than or equal to 5 and for the transitions from the ground level and the 1s2s levels to all singly excited levels with higher n values less than or equal to 5 are given, as well. Results for transitions between energy terms and their jj coupling analogs are also included. In addition, calculated values for the transition energies and the electric-dipole radiative line strengths are given for all transitions. 21 references, 11 tables

  18. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  19. An artificial neuro-anatomist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The fact that the human brain visual system is based on stereo-vision is a real handicap when analysing dense 3D representations of the human brain. The success of the methods of analysis based on the 3D proportional system has shown the advantage of using computer based system to interpret such complex images. The underlying strategy, however, is restricted to low level vision, which can not address any issue. Our approach advocates for the development of complete computer vision systems dedicated to the brain, which may be of great help for the future of neuroimaging. In our opinion, indeed, brain imaging is sufficiently focused to be a promising niche for the development of artificial intelligence. (N.C.)

  20. Statistically sound evaluation of trace element depth profiles by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, K.; Toussaint, U. von

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the underlying physics and statistical models that are used in the newly developed program NRADC for fully automated deconvolution of trace level impurity depth profiles from ion beam data. The program applies Bayesian statistics to find the most probable depth profile given ion beam data measured at different energies and angles for a single sample. Limiting the analysis to % level amounts of material allows one to linearize the forward calculation of ion beam data which greatly improves the computation speed. This allows for the first time to apply the maximum likelihood approach to both the fitting of the experimental data and the determination of confidence intervals of the depth profiles for real world applications. The different steps during the automated deconvolution will be exemplified by applying the program to artificial and real experimental data.

  1. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  2. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI provides machines with the ability to learn and respond the way humans do and is also referred to as machine learning. The step to building an AI system is to provide the data to learn from so that it can map relations between inputs and outputs and set up parameters such as “weights”/decision boundaries to predict responses for inputs in the future. Then, the model is tested on a second data set. This article outlines the promise this analytic approach has in medicine and cardiology.

  3. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  4. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  5. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  6. A Facile Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method for the Determination of Uranyl Ion at Low Levels by Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Marcela Zanetti; Pires, Igor Matheus Ruiz; Diniz, Kristiany Moreira; Segatelli, Mariana Gava; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    A facile and reliable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method associated with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the determination of U(VI) at low levels in water samples. It was based on preconcentration of 24.0 mL sample at pH 8.0 in the presence of 7.4 µmol L(-1) 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, 1.0 mL of methanol as disperser solvent and 1.0 mL of chloroform as extraction solvent. A high preconcentration factor was achieved (396 times), thus providing a wide analytical curve from 6.9 up to 75.9 µg L(-1) (r=0.9982) and limits of detection and quantification of 0.40 and 1.30 µg L(-1), respectively. When necessary, EDTA or KCN can be used to remove interferences of foreign ions. The method was applied to the analysis of real water samples, such as tap, mineral and lake waters with good recovery values.

  7. Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Bertilsson, Simon; Furlani, Maurizio; Albinsson, Ingvar; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2018-01-01

    Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

  8. Artificial Organs 2016: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadsell, Angela T; Malchesky, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2016 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We were pleased to publish our second Virtual Issue in April 2016 on "Tissue Engineering in Bone" by Professor Tsuyoshi Takato. Our first was published in 2011 titled "Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping" by Dr. Ashraf Khir. Other peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 11th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Ündar and selections from the 23rd Congress of the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps edited by Dr. Bojan Biocina. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and

  9. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  10. Artificial Photosynthesis: Beyond Mimicking Nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, Holger; Fujita, Etsuko; Sun, Licheng

    2017-01-01

    In this Editorial, Guest Editors Holger Dau, Etsuko Fujita, and Licheng Sun introduce the Special Issue of ChemSusChem on “Artificial Photosynthesis for Sustainable Fuels”. Here, they discuss the need for non-fossil based fuels, introduce both biological and artificial photosynthesis, and outline various important concepts in artificial photosynthesis, including molecular and solid-state catalysts for water oxidation and hydrogen evolution, catalytic CO 2 reduction, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  12. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Marwala, Tshilidzi; Hurwitz, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The advent of artificial intelligence has changed many disciplines such as engineering, social science and economics. Artificial intelligence is a computational technique which is inspired by natural intelligence such as the swarming of birds, the working of the brain and the pathfinding of the ants. These techniques have impact on economic theories. This book studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theories, a subject that has not been extensively studied. The theories that...

  14. Effect of climate conditions on the uptake and translocation of trace elements in plants an behavior of ions at cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Yanai, Masumi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation was performed in order to look at the effect of various climatic conditions on the uptake and translocation of radionuclides and trace elements in plants. So far we have investigated the following three items; the effect of climate conditions including Yamase (seasonal climatic condition of low temperature, low sunshine and high humidity.) on the elemental transfer factors in rice, the effect of light conditions on the metabolism of elements in plants, and the effect of environmental factors on elemental movement at a cell level, and searched for mutant plant strains to match the elemental requirement. Among these items this paper elaborates about the effect of light condition on the metabolism of elements in plants. Young radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown under various light conditions; white, blue+red and red fluorescent light. Under red light a marked spindly growth of the stem and petiole was observed. Adding blue light to red light reduced the growth to the level under control white light. The concentrations of elements, such as Fe, Cu and Zn, in the plants were affected by the light conditions. The effect of light condition on the spindly growth of hypocotyls with the plant was also studied with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), and the results showed that supplementation of blue light approximately 15% red light could control the growth. For a further investigation of the mechanism of these phenomena, several ion channel blockers and metabolic inhibitors were examined in hydroponic plants or protoplasts. The results suggested that both anion and cation channels were related to the elongation. (author)

  15. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  17. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  18. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  19. Artificial Intelligence In Automatic Target Recognizers: Technology And Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-12-01

    The recognition of targets in thermal imagery has been a problem exhaustively analyzed in its current localized dimension. This paper discusses the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to automatic target recognition, a concept capable of expanding current ATR efforts into a new globalized dimension. Deficiencies of current automatic target recognition systems are reviewed in terms of system shortcomings. Areas of artificial intelligence which show the most promise in improving ATR performance are analyzed, and a timeline is formed in light of how near (as well as far) term artificial intelligence applications may exist. Current research in the area of high level expert vision systems is reviewed and the possible utilization of artificial intelligence architectures to improve low level image processing functions is also discussed. Additional application areas of relevance to solving the problem of automatic target recognition utilizing both high and low level processing are also explored.

  20. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  1. Artificially injected charged particles as a tool for the measurement of the electric field in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirre, M.

    1982-01-01

    Two methods of measuring the parallel electric field in the magnetosphere using artificially injected charged particles are discussed. One method uses electrons to measure the parallel electric field in the vicinity of the spacecraft. It is shown that a very good accuracy can be achieved for such a measurement. The principle of this method is briefly reviewed, the minimum theoretical value measurable by the method is shown, and the limitations on it due to the spacecraft environment are discussed. Most important among the latter is the high level of turbulence about the spacecraft. The second method uses ions to measure the electric potential along the magnetic field lines if the associated parallel electric field is directed downward. For such a field at a lower altitude, Li ions are used to maximize the returning fluxes and to increase the probability of detection. Rockets are more suitable than satellites to make such measurements. 17 references

  2. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas.

  3. On-line ion exchange preconcentration in a sequential injection lab-on-valve microsystem incorporating a renewable column with ETAAS for the trace-level determination of bismuth in urine and river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    A sequential injection system for on-line ion-exchange separation and preconcentration of trace-level amounts of metal ions with ensuing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described. Based on the use of a renewable microcolumn incorporated within an integrated l.......3% for the determination of 2.0 mug/l Bi (n = 7). The procedure was validated by determination of bismuth in a certified reference material CRM 320 (river sediment), and by bismuth spike recoveries in two human urine samples....

  4. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Reis Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

    A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

  5. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  6. A programmable artificial retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, T.M.; Zavidovique, B.Y.; Devos, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm 2 CMOS 2-μm circuit are presented

  7. Artificial intelligence in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Parmar, Chintan; Quackenbush, John; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-05-17

    Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics. In this Opinion article, we establish a general understanding of AI methods, particularly those pertaining to image-based tasks. We explore how these methods could impact multiple facets of radiology, with a general focus on applications in oncology, and demonstrate ways in which these methods are advancing the field. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing clinical implementation and provide our perspective on how the domain could be advanced.

  8. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  9. Artificial resuspension studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.M.; Marchall, K.B.; Thomas, K.A.; Tracy, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial resuspension studies on a range of Taranaki and other major trial site soils were performed by use of a mechanical dust-raising apparatus. A cascade impactor was used to analyse airborne dust in terms of mass and 241 Am activities for particle sizes less than 7 μm. Plutonium and americium activities were found to be enhanced in the respirable fraction. Reported enhancement factors (defined as the ratio of activity concentration of the respirable fraction to that of the total soil) ranged from 3.7 to 32.5 for Taranaki soils with an average value of 6 appearing reasonable for general application in outer (plume) areas. Values close to unity were measured at major trial sites , One Tree and Tadje. Results of some experiments where uncontamined dust was raised by activities such as walking and driving over dusty ground are also presented. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Artificial Intelligence and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution. Mirror neurons are an important paradigm in neuroscience research. Moreover, the paradigm shift proposed here - 'hall of mirror neurons' - is a potentially further productive research tactic. These concepts further expand AI and brain research.

  11. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  12. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  13. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  14. Artificial organs 2014: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2014 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An experimental biomimetic platform for artificial olfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Di Natale

    Full Text Available Artificial olfactory systems have been studied for the last two decades mainly from the point of view of the features of olfactory neuron receptor fields. Other fundamental olfaction properties have only been episodically considered in artificial systems. As a result, current artificial olfactory systems are mostly intended as instruments and are of poor benefit for biologists who may need tools to model and test olfactory models. Herewith, we show how a simple experimental approach can be used to account for several phenomena observed in olfaction. An artificial epithelium is formed as a disordered distributed layer of broadly selective color indicators dispersed in a transparent polymer layer. The whole epithelium is probed with colored light, imaged with a digital camera and the olfactory response upon exposure to an odor is the change of the multispectral image. The pixels are treated as olfactory receptor neurons, whose optical properties are used to build a convergence classifier into a number of mathematically defined artificial glomeruli. A non-homogenous exposure of the test structure to the odours gives rise to a time and spatial dependence of the response of the different glomeruli strikingly similar to patterns observed in the olfactory bulb. The model seems to mimic both the formation of glomeruli, the zonal nature of olfactory epithelium, and the spatio-temporal signal patterns at the glomeruli level. This platform is able to provide a readily available test vehicle for chemists developing optical indicators for chemical sensing purposes and for biologists to test models of olfactory system organization.

  16. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  17. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  18. The use of artificial wetlands to treat greenhouse effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque, Vicky; Dorais, Martine; Gravel, Valérie; Ménard, Claudine; Antoun, Hani; Rochette, Philippe; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Untreated greenhouse effluents or leak solution constitute a major environmental burden because their nitrate and phosphate concentrations may induce eutrophication. Artificial wetlands may offer a low cost alternative treatment of greenhouse effluents and consequently improve the sustainability of greenhouse growing systems. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the efficiency of different types of wetland to reduce ion content of greenhouse tomato effluent, and 2) improve the...

  19. Prediction of Availability Indicator of Water Pipes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Kutyłowska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of artificial neural networks application to the availability indicator prediction. The forecasted results indicate that artificial networks may be used to model the reliability level of the water supply systems. The network was trained using 147 and 173 operational data from one Polish medium-sized city (distribution pipes and house connections, respectively). 50% of all data was chosen for learning, 25% for testing and 25% for validation. In prognosis phase, t...

  20. Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    collect light energy and separate charge for developing new types of nanobiodevices to construct ”artificial leaf” from solar to fuel. or Concept of...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0054 Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production Mamoru Nango NAGOYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      30-06-2017 2

  1. Nanoscale spin sensing in artificial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson David

    2014-01-01

    The use of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond as a single spin sensor or magnetometer has attracted considerable interest in recent years because of its unique combination of sensitivity, nanoscale resolution, and optical initialisation and readout at room temperature. Nanodiamonds in particular hold great promise as an optical magnetometer probe for bio applications. In this work we employ nanodiamonds containing single NV spins to detect freely diffusing Mn2+ ions by detecting changes in the transverse relaxation time (T2) of the single spin probe. We also report the detection of gadolinium spin labels present in an artificial cell membrane by measuring changes in the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the probe. (author)

  2. Ion sources for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, Noriyuki

    1994-01-01

    Industrial applications of ion beams began in the 1970's with their application in fabrication of semiconductor devices. Since then, various improvements have been carried out for source lifetimes, current levels and diversification of ion species. Nowadays, ion beams are expected to be used for surface modification of materials as well as semiconductor fabrication. In this report, some of the typical ion sources are reviewed from the viewpoint of future industrial use. (author)

  3. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  4. Teachers and artificial intelligence. The Logo connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbler, J B

    1990-12-01

    This article describes a three-phase program for training special education teachers to teach Logo and artificial intelligence. Logo is derived from the LISP computer language and is relatively simple to learn and use, and it is argued that these factors make it an ideal tool for classroom experimentation in basic artificial intelligence concepts. The program trains teachers to develop simple demonstrations of artificial intelligence using Logo. The material that the teachers learn to teach is suitable as an advanced level topic for intermediate- through secondary-level students enrolled in computer competency or similar courses. The material emphasizes problem-solving and thinking skills using a nonverbal expressive medium (Logo), thus it is deemed especially appropriate for hearing-impaired children. It is also sufficiently challenging for academically talented children, whether hearing or deaf. Although the notion of teachers as programmers is controversial, Logo is relatively easy to learn, has direct implications for education, and has been found to be an excellent tool for empowerment-for both teachers and children.

  5. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  6. Artificial intelligence in robot control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korikov, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper analyzes modern concepts of artificial intelligence and known definitions of the term "level of intelligence". In robotics artificial intelligence system is defined as a system that works intelligently and optimally. The author proposes to use optimization methods for the design of intelligent robot control systems. The article provides the formalization of problems of robotic control system design, as a class of extremum problems with constraints. Solving these problems is rather complicated due to the high dimensionality, polymodality and a priori uncertainty. Decomposition of the extremum problems according to the method, suggested by the author, allows reducing them into a sequence of simpler problems, that can be successfully solved by modern computing technology. Several possible approaches to solving such problems are considered in the article.

  7. Accelerating artificial intelligence with reconfigurable computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw

    Reconfigurable computing is emerging as an important area of research in computer architectures and software systems. Many algorithms can be greatly accelerated by placing the computationally intense portions of an algorithm into reconfigurable hardware. Reconfigurable computing combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be changed over the lifetime of the system. Similar to an ASIC, reconfigurable systems provide a method to map circuits into hardware. Reconfigurable systems therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Such a field, where there is many different algorithms which can be accelerated, is an artificial intelligence. This paper presents example hardware implementations of Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Expert Systems.

  8. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  9. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-27

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  10. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Artificial radioelements; Radioelements artificiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1952-07-01

    This catalogs retails the list of the artificial radioelements obtained at the Zoe reactor. A certain number of methods of concentration and separation has been finalized. The targets are submitted to irradiation in a thermal neutron flux in order to get by neutron reaction the wanted radioelements. In the case of the reaction (n,p), the radioactive element separated chemically in order to produce some radioelements 'without trainer'. For the radioelements obtained from the reaction (n, {gamma}) one uses the effect of Szilard and Chalmers to separate the active and inactive atoms in order to increase the specific activity of the radioelement of interest. (M.B.) [French] Ce catalogue detaille la liste des radioelements artificiels obtenus a la Pile ZOE. un certain nombre de methodes de concentration et de separation ont ete mises au point. Les cibles sont soumis a irradiation dans un flux de neutron thermique en vue d'obtenir par reaction neutronique les radioelements desires. Dans le cas de la reaction (n,p), l'element radioactif est separe chimiquement afin de produire des radioelements ''sans entraineur''. Pour les radioelements issus de la reaction (n, {gamma}) on utilise l'Effet de Szilard et Chalmers pour separer les atomes actifs et inactifs afin d'augmenter l'activite specifique du radioelement d'interet. (M.B.)

  12. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  14. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  16. The influence of core-valence electron correlations on the convergence of energy levels and oscillator strengths of ions with an open 3d shell using Fe VIII as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiaolong; Jin Fengtao; Zhao Gang; Yuan Jianmin

    2003-01-01

    Accurate atomic data, such as fine structure energy levels and oscillator strengths of different ionization stages of iron ions, are important for astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, some important existing oscillator strengths for ions with an open 3d shell found in the literature might not be accurate enough for practical applications. As an example, the present paper checks the convergence behaviour of the energy levels and oscillator strengths of Fe VIII by systematically increasing the 3p n -3d n (n = 1, 2, 3 and 6) core-valence electron correlations using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method. The results show that one should at least include up to 3p 3 -3d 3 core-valence electron correlations to obtain converged results. Large differences are found between the present oscillator strengths and other theoretical results in the literature for some strong transitions

  17. Theoretical level energies and transition data for 4p64d4, 4p64d34f and 4p54d5 configurations of W34+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuškienė, R.; Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

    2017-05-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic approach developed specifically for the calculation of spectral parameters of highly charged ions was used to derive transition data for the tungsten ion W34+. The configuration interaction method was applied to include electron correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation. The level energies, radiative lifetimes τ, Landé g-factors are determined for the ground configuration 4p64d4 and two excited configurations 4p64d34f and 4p54d5. The radiative transition wavelengths λ and emission transition probabilities A for the electric dipole, electric quadrupole, electric octupole, magnetic dipole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among the levels of these configurations are produced.

  18. Artificial UV sources in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppell, R.

    1993-01-01

    With rare exceptions, the sun is by far the most important source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This is the conclusion of a brief examination into use of artificial sources in New Zealand. (author). 1 tab

  19. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  20. Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark G; Lane, H. Chad; van Lent, Michael; Gomboc, Dave; Solomon, Steve; Rosenberg, Milton

    2006-01-01

    As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities...

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  2. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  4. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  5. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengzhen; Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applicati...

  6. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  7. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  8. Artificial limb representation in amputees

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heiligenberg, FMZ; Orlov, T; Macdonald, SN; Duff, EP; Henderson Slater, JDE; Beckmann, CF; Johansen-Berg, H; Culham, JC; Makin, TR

    2018-01-01

    The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral o...

  9. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  10. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  11. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...

  12. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  13. Crystal-field energy level analysis for Nd3+ ions at the low symmetry C1 site in [Nd(hfa)4(H2O)](N(C2H5)4) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew; Karbowiak, Miroslaw; Rudowicz, Czeslaw

    2008-01-01

    Optical absorption measurements of Nd 3+ ions in single crystals of [Nd(hfa) 4 (H 2 O)](N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ) (hfa = hexafluoroacetyloacetonate), denoted Nd(hfa) for short, have been carried out at 4.2 and 298 K. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P 2 1 /n). Each Nd ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that originate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate ligands and one oxygen atom from the water molecule. A total of 85 experimental crystal-field (CF) energy levels arising from the Nd 3+ (4f 3 ) electronic configuration were identified in the optical spectra and assigned. A three-step CF analysis was carried out in terms of a parametric Hamiltonian for the actual C 1 symmetry at the Nd 3+ ion sites. In the first step, a total of 27 CF parameters (CFPs) in the Wybourne notation B kq , admissible by group theory, were determined in a preliminary fitting constrained by the angular overlap model predictions. The resulting CFP set was reduced to 24 specific independent CFPs using appropriate standardization transformations. Optimizations of the second-rank CFPs and extended scanning of the parameter space were employed in the second step to improve reliability of the CFP sets, which is rather a difficult task in the case of no site symmetry. Finally, seven free-ion parameters and 24 CFPs were freely varied, yielding an rms deviation between the calculated energy levels and the 85 observed ones of 11.1 cm -1 . Our approach also allows prediction of the energy levels of Nd 3+ ions that are hidden in the spectral range overlapping with strong ligand absorption, which is essential for understanding the inter-ionic energy transfer. The orientation of the axis system associated with the fitted CF parameters w.r.t. the crystallographic axes is established. The procedure adopted in our calculations may be considered as a general framework for analysis of CF levels of lanthanide ions at low (triclinic) symmetry sites

  14. Crystal-field energy level analysis for Nd(3+) ions at the low symmetry C(1) site in [Nd(hfa)(4)(H(2)O)](N(C(2)H(5))(4)) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew; Karbowiak, Mirosław; Rudowicz, Czesław

    2008-09-24

    Optical absorption measurements of Nd(3+) ions in single crystals of [Nd(hfa)(4)(H(2)O)](N(C(2)H(5))(4)) (hfa = hexafluoroacetyloacetonate), denoted Nd(hfa) for short, have been carried out at 4.2 and 298 K. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P 2(1)/n). Each Nd ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that originate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate ligands and one oxygen atom from the water molecule. A total of 85 experimental crystal-field (CF) energy levels arising from the Nd(3+) (4f(3)) electronic configuration were identified in the optical spectra and assigned. A three-step CF analysis was carried out in terms of a parametric Hamiltonian for the actual C(1) symmetry at the Nd(3+) ion sites. In the first step, a total of 27 CF parameters (CFPs) in the Wybourne notation B(kq), admissible by group theory, were determined in a preliminary fitting constrained by the angular overlap model predictions. The resulting CFP set was reduced to 24 specific independent CFPs using appropriate standardization transformations. Optimizations of the second-rank CFPs and extended scanning of the parameter space were employed in the second step to improve reliability of the CFP sets, which is rather a difficult task in the case of no site symmetry. Finally, seven free-ion parameters and 24 CFPs were freely varied, yielding an rms deviation between the calculated energy levels and the 85 observed ones of 11.1 cm(-1). Our approach also allows prediction of the energy levels of Nd(3+) ions that are hidden in the spectral range overlapping with strong ligand absorption, which is essential for understanding the inter-ionic energy transfer. The orientation of the axis system associated with the fitted CF parameters w.r.t. the crystallographic axes is established. The procedure adopted in our calculations may be considered as a general framework for analysis of CF levels of lanthanide ions at low (triclinic) symmetry sites.

  15. Crystal-field energy level analysis for Nd3+ ions at the low symmetry C1 site in [Nd(hfa)4(H2O)](N(C2H5)4) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew; Karbowiak, Mirosław; Rudowicz, Czesław

    2008-09-01

    Optical absorption measurements of Nd3+ ions in single crystals of [Nd(hfa)4(H2O)](N(C2H5)4) (hfa = hexafluoroacetyloacetonate), denoted Nd(hfa) for short, have been carried out at 4.2 and 298 K. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P 21/n). Each Nd ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that originate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate ligands and one oxygen atom from the water molecule. A total of 85 experimental crystal-field (CF) energy levels arising from the Nd3+ (4f3) electronic configuration were identified in the optical spectra and assigned. A three-step CF analysis was carried out in terms of a parametric Hamiltonian for the actual C1 symmetry at the Nd3+ ion sites. In the first step, a total of 27 CF parameters (CFPs) in the Wybourne notation Bkq, admissible by group theory, were determined in a preliminary fitting constrained by the angular overlap model predictions. The resulting CFP set was reduced to 24 specific independent CFPs using appropriate standardization transformations. Optimizations of the second-rank CFPs and extended scanning of the parameter space were employed in the second step to improve reliability of the CFP sets, which is rather a difficult task in the case of no site symmetry. Finally, seven free-ion parameters and 24 CFPs were freely varied, yielding an rms deviation between the calculated energy levels and the 85 observed ones of 11.1 cm-1. Our approach also allows prediction of the energy levels of Nd3+ ions that are hidden in the spectral range overlapping with strong ligand absorption, which is essential for understanding the inter-ionic energy transfer. The orientation of the axis system associated with the fitted CF parameters w.r.t. the crystallographic axes is established. The procedure adopted in our calculations may be considered as a general framework for analysis of CF levels of lanthanide ions at low (triclinic) symmetry sites.

  16. Spectroscopic and first-principles calculation studies of the chemical forms of palladium ion in nitric acid solution for development of disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinta; Sato, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Tomoko; Nakaya, Masato; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori; Inaba, Yusuke; Takeshita, Kenji; Onoe, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the chemical forms of palladium (Pd) ion in nitric acid solution, using XAFS/UV-vis spectroscopic and first-principles methods in order to develop the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear liquid wastes (HLLW: radioactive metal ions in 2 M nitric acid solution). The results of theoretical calculations and XAFS/UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that Pd is a divalent ion and forms a square-planar complex structure coordinated with four nitrate ions, [Pd(NO3)4]2-, in nitric acid solution. This complex structure is also thermodynamically predicted to be most stable among complexes [Pd(H2O)x(NO3)4-x]x-2 (x = 0-4). Since the overall feature of UV-vis spectra of the Pd complex was independent of nitric acid concentration in the range 1-6 M, the structure of the Pd complex remains unchanged in this range. Furthermore, we examined the influence of γ-ray radiation on the [Pd(NO3)4]2- complex, using UV-vis spectroscopy, and found that UV-vis spectra seemed not to be changed even after 1.0 MGy irradiation. This implies that the Pd complex structure will be still stable in actual HLLW. These findings obtained above are useful information to develop the vitrification processes for disposal of HLLW.

  17. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  18. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru [National Research Inst. for Earth sceince and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  19. Capabilities of laser ablation mass spectrometry in the differentiation of natural and artificial opal gemstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Eric; Aubriet, Frédéric; Finqueneisel, Gisèle; Muller, Jean-François

    2003-12-01

    The potentialities of laser ablation coupled to ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry are evaluated to distinguish natural and artificial opals. The detection of specific species in both ion detection modes leads us to obtain relevant criteria of differentiation. In positive ions, species including hafnium and large amounts of zirconium atoms are found to be specific for artificial opal. In contrast, aluminum, titanium, iron, and rubidium are systematically detected in the study of natural opals. Moreover, some ions allow us to distinguish between natural opal from Australia and from Mexico. Australian gemstone includes specifically strontium, cesium, and barium. Moreover, it is also found that the yield of (H2O)0-1(SiO2)nX- (X- = O-, OH-, KO-, NaO-, SiO2-, AlO1-2-, FeO2-, ZrO2-, and ZrO3-) and (Al2O3)(SiO2)nAlO2- ions depends on the composition of the sample when opals are laser ablated. Ions, which include zirconium oxide species, are characteristics of artificial gem. In contrast, natural opals lead us, after laser ablation, to the production of ions including H2O, Al2O3 motifs and AlO-, KO-, NaO-, and FeO2- species.

  20. Artificial plasma jet in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerendel, G.; Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamics of an artificially injected plasma beam in the near-earth space are analyzed in terms of the beam structure, its propagation across the magnetic field, and the resulting wave phenomena (Porcupine Project, flight 4, March 31, 1979). Out of the four ejectable canisters attached to the main payload, two were instrumented by the U.S., one by the USSR (the Xenon plasma beam experiment), and one by West Germany (carrying a barium ion jet experiment). The propagation of the plasma seems to occur in three stages, with high-frequency broad-band oscillations mainly localized in the 'core' of the jet, while low-frequency oscillations were spatially separated from it. The generation region of LF oscillations was found to be much wider than the jet core. As a result of the interaction between the plasma beam and the ambient medium a heating of electrons, up to energies of about 20 eV, associated with LF noise was observed. The behavior of high-energy ions and the observed HF wave phenomena need further analysis

  1. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Artificial Neural Network Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodore Amissah OCRAN; CAO Junyi; CAO Binggang; SUN Xinghua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural network maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for solar electric vehicles. The MPPT is based on a highly efficient boost converter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power switch. The reference voltage for MPPT is obtained by artificial neural network (ANN) with gradient descent momentum algorithm. The tracking algorithm changes the duty-cycle of the converter so that the PV-module voltage equals the voltage corresponding to the MPPT at any given insolation, temperature, and load conditions. For fast response, the system is implemented using digital signal processor (DSP). The overall system stability is improved by including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which is also used to match the reference and battery voltage levels. The controller, based on the information supplied by the ANN, generates the boost converter duty-cycle. The energy obtained is used to charge the lithium ion battery stack for the solar vehicle. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient.

  3. Remineralization of artificial enamel lesions by theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, B T; Porteous, N; Ramalingam, K; Mensinkai, P K; Ccahuana Vasquez, R A; Sadeghpour, A; Nakamoto, T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the remineralization potential of theobromine in comparison to a standard NaF dentifrice. Three tooth blocks were produced from each of 30 teeth. Caries-like lesion was created on each block using acidified gel. A smaller block was cut from each block for baseline scanning electron microscopy imaging and electron-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis for surface Ca level. A tooth slice was cut from each lesion-bearing block for transverse microradiography (TMR) quantification of baseline mineral loss (Δz) and lesion depth (LD). Then baseline surface microhardness (SMH) of each lesion was measured. The three blocks from each tooth were assigned to three remineralizing agents: (1) artificial saliva; (2) artificial saliva with theobromine (0.0011 mol/l), and (3) NaF toothpaste slurry (0.0789 mol/l F). Remineralization was conducted using a pH cycling model with storage in artificial saliva. After a 28-day cycle, samples were analyzed using EDS, TMR, and SMH. Intragroup comparison of pre- and posttest data was performed using t tests (p theobromine (38 ± 32%) and toothpaste (29 ± 16%). With TMR (Δz/lD), theobromine and toothpaste exhibited significantly (p theobromine and toothpaste was not significantly different. With EDS, calcium deposition was significant in all groups, but not significantly different among the groups (theobromine 13 ± 8%, toothpaste 10 ± 5%, and artificial saliva 6 ± 8%). The present study demonstrated that theobromine in an apatite-forming medium can enhance the remineralization potential of the medium. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  5. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  6. Charge deep level transient spectroscopy study of 3 - 7 MeV/amu ion and fast neutron irradiation-induced changes in MOS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, J.; Skuratov, V.A.; Ziska, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in MOS capacitor structures irradiated with Bi (710 MeV), Kr (245 MeV), Ar (280, 155 MeV) ions and fast neutrons (E > 0.1 MeV) have been studied in view of Q-DLTS and C-V techniques. As was found, high energy ion and neutron irradiation enhance the induction of positive charge density in the oxide layer of MOS samples. The number of electrically active defects in this layer strongly decreases under dense electronic excitations. No dependence of vacancy-oxygen center concentration in silicon substrate normalized per number of displaced atoms by nuclear elastic collisions on projectile type have been observed

  7. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grün, Rebecca, E-mail: r.gruen@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390 (Germany); Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032 (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291, Germany and Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64289 (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration

  8. Study of electron and ion fluxes in a microsecond plasma switch during current switch phase at power level of 0,2TW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'in, P.S.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Karpov, V.B.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Lisitsin, I.V.; Sinebryukhov, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Results of experimental study of dynamics of electron and ion losses in a microsecond plasma switch (PS), carring the short-circuited inductance load and operating with open potential electrode, are presented. Investigations were carried out at 'DUBL' microsecond generator with stored energy of 56 kJ and 300 kA current amplitude in inductive storage. The investigations showed that primary channel of energy losses, limiting microsecond plasma switch impedance, are energy losses: they constitute 70% of all losses under inductive load and 30% during operation with an open cathode. It was shown that ion current in PS attains its peak value by the end of conductivity phase and it does not increase in switch phase. With an open cathode, PS impedance is defined by an electron beam, forming during current switch phase and propagating towards external electrode end. In this high-current electron beam H + ions, accelerated up to 3.5-4.2 MeV energy, and outcoming from PS plasma boundary, were detected

  9. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now, however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle. BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior of this fiber is similar to that of organic muscle. We made an artificial muscle like the latissimus dorsi using BioMetal fiber and tested whether we could use this new muscle as a cardiac supporting device. Testing one Biometal fiber showed the following performance: practical use maximal generative force was 30 g, exercise variation was 50%, and the standard driving current was 220 mA. We created a 4 x 12-cm tabular artificial muscle using 8 BioMetal fibers as a cardiac support device. We also made a simulation circuit composed of a 6 x 8-cm soft bag with unidirectional valves, reservoir, and connecting tube. The simulation circuit was filled with water and the soft bag was wrapped with the artificial muscle device. After powering the device electrically at 9 V with a current of 220 mA for each fiber, we measured the inside pressure and observed the movement of the artificial device. The artificial muscle contracted in 0.5 s for peak time and squeezed the soft bag. The peak pressure inside the soft bag was measured as 10 mmHg. Although further work will be needed to enhance the speed of deformability and movement simulating contraction, we conclude that artificial muscle may be potentially useful as a cardiac assistance device that can be developed for dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

  10. Multiple simultaneous fault diagnosis via hierarchical and single artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamloueyan, R.; Shahrokhi, M.; Bozorgmehri, R.

    2003-01-01

    Process fault diagnosis involves interpreting the current status of the plant given sensor reading and process knowledge. There has been considerable work done in this area with a variety of approaches being proposed for process fault diagnosis. Neural networks have been used to solve process fault diagnosis problems in chemical process, as they are well suited for recognizing multi-dimensional nonlinear patterns. In this work, the use of Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks in diagnosing the multi-faults of a chemical process are discussed and compared with that of Single Artificial Neural Networks. The lower efficiency of Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks , in comparison to Single Artificial Neural Networks, in process fault diagnosis is elaborated and analyzed. Also, the concept of a multi-level selection switch is presented and developed to improve the performance of hierarchical artificial neural networks. Simulation results indicate that application of multi-level selection switch increase the performance of the hierarchical artificial neural networks considerably

  11. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  12. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  13. Real-lime logical game with artificial intelligence using planning techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pilař, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to design and implement a logical game with artificial inteligence. In the game the player is trying to hold an opponent driven by artificial inteligence inside a given level for a given time by using various instruments. The artificial inteligence is implemented using planning. The work describes game principles, game design and subsequent implementation, including analysis of the chosen and alternative implementation options.

  14. No association between pseudotumors, high serum metal-ion levels and metal hypersensitivity in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 5-7-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mette Holm; Stilling, Maiken; Soballe, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    -ion concentrations were measured, metal allergy and atopic dermatitis were evaluated, and the questionnaires of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed. RESULTS: Pseudotumors were found in eight patients, but they were asymptomatic and their serum...... pseudotumor formation, serum metal-ion levels, metal patch test reactivity, and atopic dermatitis. However, clinicians should be aware of asymptomatic pseudotumors, and we advise further exploration into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pseudotumors.......OBJECTIVE: The relationship between metal wear debris, pseudotumor formation and metal hypersensitivity is complex and not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in a consecutive series of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty...

  15. [Artificial sweeteners and diabetes: friends or foes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Christel; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-06-03

    Sugary drinks consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thereby, artificial sweeteners (AS) consumption became increasingly popular and were introduced largely in our diet in order to reduce calorie intake and normalise blood glucose levels without altering our taste for "sweetness". However, the results of published studies on health outcomes secondary to AS intake, including type 2 diabetes risk, are inconsistent. The aim of this article is to focus on the role of AS in glucose homeostasis and diabetes onset.

  16. The role of automation and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappell, R. T.

    1983-07-01

    Consideration is given to emerging technologies that are not currently in common use, yet will be mature enough for implementation in a space station. Artificial intelligence (AI) will permit more autonomous operation and improve the man-machine interfaces. Technology goals include the development of expert systems, a natural language query system, automated planning systems, and AI image understanding systems. Intelligent robots and teleoperators will be needed, together with improved sensory systems for the robotics, housekeeping, vehicle control, and spacecraft housekeeping systems. Finally, NASA is developing the ROBSIM computer program to evaluate level of automation, perform parametric studies and error analyses, optimize trajectories and control systems, and assess AI technology.

  17. Fusion at counterstreaming ion beams - ion optic fusion (IOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryzinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The results of investigation are briefly reviewed in the field of ion optic fusion performed at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Swierk. The ion optic fusion concept is based on the possibility of obtaining fusion energy at highly ordered motion of ions in counterstreaming ion beams. For this purpose TW ion beams must be produced and focused. To produce dense and charge-neutralized ion beams the selective conductivity and ballistic focusing ideas were formulated and used in a series of RPI devices with low-pressure cylindrical discharge between grid-type electrodes. 100 kA, 30 keV deuteron beams were successfully produced and focused into the volume of 1 cm 3 , yielding 10 9 neutrons per 200 ns shot on a heavy ice target. Cylindrically convergent ion beams with magnetic anti-defocusing were proposed in order to reach a positive energy gain at reasonable energy level. (J.U.)

  18. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  19. Ion microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, J.N.; Long, J.V.P.

    1977-01-01

    An ion microprobe is described that has an ion extraction arrangement comprising two separate paths for ions and electrons diverging from a common point. A cone shaped or pyramidal guard electrode surrounds each path the apex angles being equal and coinciding with the said point. The guard electrodes are positioned to lie tangentially to each other and to a planar surface including the said point. An aperture is provided for the two paths at the apexes of both guard electrodes, and electrical connections between the guard electrodes enable the same potential to be applied to both guard electrodes. Means are provided for generating oppositely polarised electric fields within the guard electrodes, together with means for causing a focused ion beam to strike the common point without suffering astigmatism. The means for causing a focused ion beam to strike the said point includes an ion gun for directing an ion beam along one of the paths and means to provide an axial accelerating field there along. Optical viewing means are also provided. Existing designs enable only ions or electrons, but not both, to be extracted at any one time. (U.K.)

  20. A study of airborne radon levels in Paarl houses (South Africa) and associated source terms, using electret ion chambers and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7537 (South Africa)], E-mail: rlindsay@uwc.ac.za; Newman, R.T. [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Physics Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Speelman, W.J. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7537 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations were measured in Paarl homes by means of electret ion chambers. The concentrations varied between 28 and 465 Bq m{sup -3}. The average values (Bq m{sup -3}) found in houses on the west and east side of the Berg River, which bisects Paarl, were 132 ({+-}11) and 37 ({+-}3), respectively. Radiometric analyses of soils show that the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentration is three times higher on the west than on the east side of the Berg River.