WorldWideScience

Sample records for level 1b1 local

  1. Cytochrome P450 1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8577 Chiba (Japan); Yamano, Yuko; Kagawa, Jun [Tokyo Womens' Medical University, 8-1 Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666 Tokyo (Japan); Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Shujuan [Liaoning Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 42-1 Jixian Street, 110005 Shenyang (China); Hara, Kunio [Institute for Science of Labour, 2-8-14 Miyamae-ku, 216-8501 Kawasaki (Japan); Ichiba, Masayoshi; Zhang, Jiusong [Saga Medical School, 5-1 Nabeshima, Saga-shi, 849-8501 Saga (Japan); Liu, Tiefu; Li, Landi [Angang Public Health and Anti-epidemic Station Lishan District, 23 Shengoushi Yutian Street, 114034 Anshan (China); Takahashi, Ken [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, 807-8555 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2002-09-16

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is induced through the Ah receptor and is involved in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To determine the validity of a quantitative analysis of CYP1B1 mRNA in peripheral human blood cells for the estimation of PAH exposure, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used to measure the relative levels of CYP1B1 mRNA in 37 Chinese coke oven workers and 13 control workers. A large inter-individual difference in the levels was observed. The average level of the CYP1B1 mRNA in workers at the top work site, where the PAH exposure level from the coke ovens was highest, was significantly higher than in workers at the middle site (P<0.01) or the controls (P=0.02). A non-significant positive correlation was found between the CYP1B1 mRNA levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (R=0.22, P=0.13), and a significant correlation between these mRNA levels and urinary cotinine (R=0.33, P=0.02). It was interesting that a significant positive correlation between CYP1B1 mRNA and 1-hydroxypyrene was observed in subjects with the Leu/Leu type of CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism (R=0.33, P=0.02, n=38) and a non-significant correlation in subjects with the Leu/Val and Val/Val types (R=-0.36, P=0.25, n=12), although the number of subjects in this strata analysis was small. Our preliminary study suggests that PAH exposure in coke ovens and smoking maybe associated with CYP1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells although mRNA is generally unstable and could be expressed following exposure to other agents.

  2. Country-Level Population and Downscaled Projections Based on the SRES A1, B1, and A2 Scenarios, 1990-2100

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Country-Level Population and Downscaled Projections Based on Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1, B1, and A2 Scenarios, 1990-2100, were adopted in...

  3. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja

    2014-01-01

    these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk....... When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We...

  4. Mutations in ap1b1 cause mistargeting of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump in sensory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Clemens Grisham

    Full Text Available The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1 gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump (NKA was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na(+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells.

  5. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  6. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Metabolomic and Genome-wide Association Studies Reveal Potential Endogenous Biomarkers for OATP1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, S W; Giacomini, M M; Hsueh, C-H; Weitz, D; Liang, X; Goswami, S; Kinchen, J M; Coelho, A; Zur, A A; Mertsch, K; Brian, W; Kroetz, D L; Giacomini, K M

    2016-11-01

    Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major cause of drug toxicities. Using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the human metabolome, we identified 20 metabolites associated with genetic variants in organic anion transporter, OATP1B1 (P acids and fatty acid dicarboxylates were among the metabolites discovered using both GWAS and CSA administration. In vitro studies confirmed tetradecanedioate (TDA) and hexadecanedioate (HDA) were novel substrates of OATP1B1 as well as OAT1 and OAT3. This study highlights the use of multiple datasets for the discovery of endogenous metabolites that represent potential in vivo biomarkers for transporter-mediated DDIs. Future studies are needed to determine whether these metabolites can serve as qualified biomarkers for organic anion transporters. Quantitative relationships between metabolite levels and modulation of transporters should be established. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  9. No significant effect of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoqiang; Vakkilainen, Juha; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2011-11-01

    To investigate possible effects of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its metabolites in healthy volunteers. In a crossover study with two phases, 15 healthy volunteers with the SLCO1B1*1A/*1A genotype, seven with the *1B/*1B genotype, and five with the *15/*15 or *5/*15 genotype ingested placebo or a single 150-mg dose of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of bile acids and their biosynthesis marker were determined up to 24 h post-ingestion by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The SLCO1B1 genotype had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of UDCA. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence interval) of UDCA area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12)) in subjects with the SLCO1B1*1B/*1B genotype and in subjects with the SLCO1B1*15/*15 or *5/*15 genotype to the AUC(0-12) in subjects with the SLCO1B1*1A/*1A genotype were 1.07 (0.85, 1.35; P = 0.459) and 0.93 (0.75, 1.15; P = 0.563), respectively. In addition, following either placebo or UDCA administration, the SLCO1B1 polymorphism showed no association with the AUC(0-24) of the glycine and taurine conjugates of UDCA, with endogenous bile acids, or with the incremental AUC(0-24) of a bile acid synthesis marker. Compared with placebo, UDCA ingestion increased the AUC(0-24) of cholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid by 1.5-, 1.1-, 1.2-, and 1.2- fold (P acids.

  10. Contribution of CYP1B1 mutations and founder effect to primary congenital glaucoma in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Mejia-Lopez, Herlinda; Matías-Florentino, Margarita; Michel, Norma; Elizondo-Olascoaga, Celia; Korder-Ortega, Vincent; Casab-Rueda, Homero; Garcia-Ortiz, Jose Elias

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG)-causing CYP1B1 mutations varies importantly among distinct populations, ranging from 20% in Indonesians and Japanese to about 100% among the Saudi Arabians and Slovakian Gypsies. Thus, the molecular characterization of large groups of PCG from different ethnic backgrounds is important to establish the actual CYP1B1 contribution in specific populations. In this work, the molecular analysis of the CYP1B1 gene in a group of Mexican PCG patients is reported. Thirty unrelated Mexican patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for PCG were included. Two cases were familial and with proven consanguinity, originating from distinct regions of the country. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct automated sequencing of the CYP1B1 coding region was performed in each participating subject. An identical pathogenic CYP1B1 mutation was demonstrated in 2 unrelated PCG subjects. The mutation consisted of a homozygous G to A transition at nucleotide position 1505 in exon 3, which predicted a substitution of glutamic acid for lysine at residue 387 of the protein (E387K). In the remaining 28 PCG subjects, no deleterious mutations were identified. Both subjects with the E387K mutation shared a same haplotype for 5 CYP1B1 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms, indicating a common origin of the allele. Mexican patients with PCG are rarely (less than 10%) due to CYP1B1 mutations. Available data indicate that most of the non-Brazilian Latin American PCG patients investigated to date are not due to CYP1B1 defects. Populations with low incidence of CYP1B1 mutations are appropriate candidates for the identification of novel PCG-causing genes.

  11. CYP1B1 Mutations in Individuals With Primary Congenital Glaucoma and Residing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Redó-Riveiro, Alba; Sandfeld, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG OMIM 231300) can be caused by pathogenic sequence variations in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1). The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of sequence variations in CYP1B1 in a cohort of individuals with PCG residing...... mutations, 5 of which were novel. The frequency of CYP1B1 mutations in this cohort was comparable with other populations. We also detected an individual heterozygous for p.(Tyr81Asn) mutation, previously suggested to cause autosomal dominant primary open-angle glaucoma....

  12. CYP1B1 and myocilin gene mutations in Egyptian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahmoud R. Fassad

    2016-08-09

    Aug 9, 2016 ... Abstract Purpose: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) accounts for 26–29% of childhood ... Conclusion: The current study further endorses the role of CYP1B1 mutations in the etiology of ..... There is no conflict of interest.

  13. Cloning and tissue expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 and 1C1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) is widely used as an indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants. In the study, two full-length complementary DNAs encode for CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 were cloned from medaka liver exposed to 500 ppb β-naphthoflavone for 24 h. CYP1B1, having 1984 bp, contains an open reading ...

  14. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong HU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Mihwa Kwon,2 Yongnam Lee,3 Ji Seok Yoo,3 Dae Hee Shin,3 Im-Sook Song,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea; 3Central R&D Institute, Yungjin Pharm Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-270, Korea Abstract: We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3 and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km =41.5 µM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint =1.11 µL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 µL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 µ

  15. Genetic heterogeneity and minor CYP1B1 involvement in the molecular basis of primary congenital glaucoma in Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadorai, P; Cherninkova, S; Bouwer, S; Kamenarova, K; Angelicheva, D; Seeman, P; Hollingsworth, K; Mihaylova, V; Oscar, A; Dimitrova, G; Kaneva, R; Tournev, I; Kalaydjieva, L

    2008-07-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, with mutations in the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene detected in an average of approximately 50% of cases worldwide. The Roma/Gypsies are considered to be a rare example of a single founder CYP1B1 mutation, E387K (identified in the Slovak Roma), accounting for 100% of disease alleles. Contrary to this concept, unusual genetic heterogeneity was revealed in this study of 21 Gypsy PCG patients from Bulgaria and 715 controls from the general Gypsy population. In our small sample of affected subjects, we identified five different CYP1B1 mutations - four known (E229K, R368H, E387K and R390C) and one novel and potentially pathogenic (F445I), which together accounted for approximately 30% of disease alleles. E387K was rare in both the patient and the control group, indicating that its high frequency in the Slovak Roma is the product of local founder effect not representative of the overall molecular pattern of PCG in the Gypsy population. Data on other Mendelian disorders and on the population genetics of the Gypsies suggest that a true founder mutation is likely to exist and has remained undetected. Our analysis of another candidate gene, MYOC, and the GLC3B and GLC3C loci did not provide support for their involvement. The molecular basis of PCG in the Gypsies is thus unresolved, and diagnostic analyses should be extended beyond the E387K mutation.

  16. CYP1B1 and myocilin gene mutations in Egyptian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) accounts for 26–29% of childhood blindness in Egypt. The identification of disease causing mutations has not been extensively investigated. We aimed to examine the frequency of CYP1B1 and MYOC mutations in PCG Egyptian patients, and study a possible ...

  17. Molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 1B1 and effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMV

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... control, and the results revealed that there was a large increase in CYP1B1 mRNA in liver (22.8), intestine (2.0) ... to exhibit carcinogenicity in experimental ani-mals and humans .... Each PCR reaction consisted of 10 µl of SYBR® Premix Ex TaqTM II .... mainly result from incomplete combustion of organic.

  18. CYP1B1 and MYOC Mutations in Vietnamese Primary Congenital Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tan; Shei, William; Chau, Pham Thi Minh; Trang, Doan Le; Yong, Victor H K; Ng, Xiao Yu; Chen, Yue Ming; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2016-05-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, OMIM 231300), the most common glaucoma in infancy, is caused by developmental defects in the anterior chamber angle. The 3 implicated genes are cytochrome P450 family I subfamily B polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1), latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein 2 (LTBP2), and myocilin (MYOC). In this study, we sought to determine CYP1B1 and MYOC sequence variations in a Vietnamese cohort of index cases with PCG and their families. Thirty Vietnamese subjects with PCG and 120 normal Vietnamese subjects were recruited. PCG was defined by the presence of at least 2 of the following clinical manifestations: increased corneal diameter (>10 mm at birth), corneal edema, Haab's striae, optic disc changes, and absence of other ocular or systemic diseases associated with childhood glaucoma. The coding exons, intron and exon boundaries, and untranslated regions of CYP1B1 and MYOC genes were PCR amplified and subjected to bidirectional sequencing in all subjects. We identified 2 homozygous and 3 heterozygous CYP1B1 sequence alterations in our study subjects. Among the 5 mutations identified, 2 (p.H279L and p.L283F) were novel mutations, whereas 3 (p.A121_S122insDRPAFA, p.L107V, and p.V320L) had been previously reported in PCG cases. None of these mutations was observed in any of the 120 controls. Haplotypes generated with 6 non-disease-causing intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in CYP1B1 indicated that the most common haplotype in Vietnamese population is similar to that found in Chinese and Japanese. The genotype-phenotype correlation showed no significant difference between mutation and no-mutation groups for quantitative clinical features (presenting intraocular pressure, corneal diameter, number of surgeries performed, the cup-to-disc ratio) as well as for qualitative factors (bilateral cases, phenotype severity, and the prognosis) (P>0.05). Five out of 30 families with PCG (16.7%) had disease attributable to CYP1B1 alterations

  19. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul [Department of Food Science and Culinary, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression.

  20. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-01-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression

  1. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubicka, Joanna; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Kładny, Józef; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Kowalska, Elżbieta; Lubinski, Jan; Scott, Rodney J; Grabowska-Kłujszo, Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Cybulski, Cezary; Górski, Bohdan; Huzarski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations

  2. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in human lymphocytes as biomarker of exposure: effect of dioxin exposure and polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duursen, M. van; Sanderson, T.; Berg, M. van den [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    There are several known genetic polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes. A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the CYP1A1 gene (CYP1A1 MspI or CYP1A1 m1) is often studied in relation with breast or lung cancer, but little is known about the functional effect of this polymorphism. An amino acid substitution in codon 432 (Val to Leu) of the CYP1B1 gene is associated with a lower catalytic activity of the enzyme. However, the involvement of these polymorphisms on the inducibility of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression is unclear. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression levels can be determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This makes them potential candidates for use as biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds. Interindividual variations in mRNA expression patterns, catalytic activity and polymorphisms are very important factors when CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression patterns are used as biomarker of exposure, but little is known about it. Spencer et al. showed a concentration-dependent increase of CYP1B1 mRNA in lymphocytes upon exposure in vitro to 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD), the most potent dioxin. Yet, only a few studies describe the in vivo correlation between polymorphisms, mRNA expression level and exposure to environmental factors. In this study, we wanted to obtain a better insight in the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity in human lymphocytes. We determined the constitutive CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in lymphocytes of ten healthy volunteers and the variability in sensitivity toward enzyme induction by TCDD. Further, the CYP1A1 m1 and CYP1B1 Val432Leu polymorphisms were determined.

  3. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubicka Joanna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. Methods We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. Results The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Conclusion Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations.

  4. 2-Isobutyl-6-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17N3OS, the dihedral angle between the statistically planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 Å and the methyoxbenzene ring is 4.52 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into columns and stacked down the a axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.6053 (8 and 3.7088 (7 Å].

  5. Diagnostic serum glycosylation profile in patients with intellectual disability as a result of MAN1B1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Rymen, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation comprise a group of genetic defects with a high frequency of intellectual disability, caused by deficient glycosylation of proteins and lipids. The molecular basis of the majority of the congenital disorders of glycosylation type I subtypes, localized...... in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, has been solved. However, elucidation of causative genes for defective Golgi glycosylation (congenital disorders of glycosylation type II) remains challenging because of a lack of sufficiently specific diagnostic serum methods. In a single patient with intellectual...... disability, whole-exome sequencing revealed MAN1B1 as congenital disorder of glycosylation type II candidate gene. A novel mass spectrometry method was applied for high-resolution glycoprofiling of intact plasma transferrin. A highly characteristic glycosylation signature was observed with hybrid type N...

  6. Amino methylation of 2-R-6-R_1-imidazo-[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.K.; Rakhmonov, R.O.; Khodzhiboev, Yu.; Kukaniev, M.A.; Bandaev, S.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to amino methylation of 2-R-6-R_1-imidazo-[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazole. The reaction of new modifications of derivatives of imidazo-[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazoles-2-bromine-6-p-bromophenyl and 2-alkyl alkylene sulfonyl-6-phenyl imidazo--[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazole on Mannich with secondary and heterocyclic amines was studied.

  7. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on procarcinogen-bioactivating human CYP1 enzymes: Identification of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin as potent inhibitors of CYP1B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Thomas K.H.; Chen Jie; Yeung, Eugene Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts and some of its individual constituents on the catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. G. biloba extract of known abundance of terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation catalyzed by human recombinant CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2, and human liver microsomes, with apparent K i values of 2 ± 0.3, 5 ± 0.5, 16 ± 1.4, and 39 ± 1.2 μg/ml (mean ± SE), respectively. In each case, the mode of inhibition was of the mixed type. Bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamentin 3-O-rutinoside were not responsible for the inhibition of CYP1 enzymes by G. biloba extract, as determined by experiments with these individual chemicals at the levels present in the extract. In contrast, the aglycones of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamentin inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. Among the three flavonol aglycones, isorhamentin was the most potent in inhibiting CYP1B1 (apparent K i = 3 ± 0.1 nM), whereas quercetin was the least potent in inhibiting CYP1A2 (apparent K i 418 ± 50 nM). The mode of inhibition was competitive, noncompetitive, or mixed, depending on the enzyme and the flavonol. G. biloba extract also reduced benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, and the effect was greater with CYP1B1 than with CYP1A1 as the catalyst. Overall, our novel findings indicate that G. biloba extract and the flavonol aglycones isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin preferentially inhibit the in vitro catalytic activity of human CYP1B1

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-01-01

    The Indigenous Arctic population is of Asian descent, and their genetic background is different from the Caucasian populations. Relatively little is known about the specific genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the activation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and an elucidation of gene-environment interactions in relation to health risks is needed. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the genotype and allele frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836) and catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT Val158Met (rs4680) in Greenlandic Inuit (n=254) and Europeans (n=262) and explore the possible relation between the genotypes and serum levels of POPs. The genotype and allele frequency distributions of the three genetic polymorphisms differed significantly between the Inuit and Europeans. For Inuit, the genotype distribution was more similar to those reported for Asian populations. We observed a significant difference in serum polychlorinated biphenyl (CB-153) and the pesticide 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels between Inuit and Europeans, and for Inuit also associations between the POP levels and genotypes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies.

  9. Expression of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in human lung from smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, James H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Curriero, Frank C.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Strickland, Paul T.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 are known to bioactivate procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in cigarette smoke and are inducible via an Ah receptor-mediated mechanism. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in samples of lung from smokers (n = 18), non-smokers (n = 7), and ex-smokers (n = 7). Using immunoglobulin preparations of highly specific polyclonal antibodies and immunoblot analysis of microsomes from lung tissues, we determined the specific content for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. For CYP1A1, we found median expression levels of 15.5 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 6.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 19.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels of smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers was statistically significant. For CYP1B1, we found median expression levels of 1.8 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 1.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 4.4 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels between ex-smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant. These results suggest that levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 protein in lung tissues from smokers and ex-smokers are quantitatively greater than in non-smokers. By immunohistochemical analysis, we demonstrated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in normal human alveolar type I and II cells, ciliated columnar epithelial cells lining bronchoalveolar airways, and alveolar macrophages. These results confirm that CYP1A1 is expressed in normal human lung, appears to be induced in smokers, and show interindividual variation; the similar characteristics of CYP1B1 are demonstrated

  10. Liver X receptor α and farnesoid X receptor are major transcriptional regulators of OATP1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Böttcher, Kerstin; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kroemer, Heyo K; Schuetz, Erin G; Kim, Richard B

    2010-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is a liver-enriched transporter involved in the hepatocellular uptake of many endogenous molecules and several structurally divergent drugs in clinical use. Although OATP1B1 coding region polymorphisms are known to make an impact on substrate drug disposition in humans, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of this transporter. In this study, we note that messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of OATP1B1 in a large human liver bank exhibited marked interindividual variability that was not associated with coding region polymorphisms. Accordingly, we hypothesized that such variability in expression is reflective of nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional regulation of this transporter. We tested prototypical ligands for the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in a human hepatoma-derived cell line and noted induction of OATP1B1 mRNA when the cells were treated with LXRα or FXR ligands. To confirm a direct role for LXRα and FXR to OATP1B1 expression, we performed detailed promoter analysis and cell-based reporter gene assays resulting in the identification of two functional FXR response elements and one LXRα response element. The direct interaction between nuclear receptors with the identified response elements was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using isolated primary human hepatocytes, we show that LXRα or FXR agonists, but not PXR or CAR agonists, are capable of OATP1B1 induction. We note that OATP1B1 transcriptional regulation is under dual nuclear receptor control through the oxysterol sensing LXRα and the bile acid sensor FXR. Accordingly, the interplay between OATP1B1 and nuclear receptors may play an important and heretofore unrecognized role during cholestasis, drug-induced liver injury, and OATP1B1 induction-related drug interactions.

  11. Analysis of SLCO1B1 and APOE genetic polymorphisms in a large ethnic Hakka population in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Wu, Heming; Li, Bin; Li, Cunren; Liu, Zhidong; Yang, Min; Zhang, Qifeng; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Pingsen

    2018-02-09

    Statins are the most widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have a significant effect on the inhibition of cardiovascular disease. The efficacy and side effects of statins are associated with the polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 and APOE genes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the SLCO1B1 and APOE gene polymorphisms in the Hakka population of southern China. A total of 3249 subjects including 2019 males and 1230 females participated in this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-fluorescence probe technique for polymorphisms analysis and analyzed the genotypes frequencies of SLCO1B1 and APOE genes. The frequencies of SLCO1B1 521T>C between men and women were statistically significant (SLCO1B1 521TT, χ 2  = 8.431, P = .004; SLCO1B1 521TC, χ 2  = 7.436, P = .007). The frequencies of haplotypes *1b/*1b (40.07%) and *1a/*1b (32.56%) of SLCO1B1 gene accounted for 72.63%, followed by *1b/*15(14.40%), *1a/*1a (5.82%), *1a/*15 (5.57%), *15/*15 (1.45%), and *1a/*5 (0.12%). The frequencies of haplotypes *1a/*15 and *1b/*1b of SLCO1B1 gene between men and women were statistically significant (*1a/*15, χ 2  = 6.789, P = .009; *1b/*1b, χ 2  = 3.998, P = .004). In this study, genotype ɛ3/ɛ3 accounted for 69.04%, followed by ɛ3/ɛ4 (16.19%), ɛ2/ɛ3 (11.60%), ɛ2/ɛ4 (1.35%), ɛ4/ɛ4 (1.08%), and ɛ2/ɛ2 (0.74%) in all subjects, in which ɛ3 had the greatest allele frequency (82.93%), followed by ɛ4 (9.85%) and ɛ2 (7.22%). We found that 47 subjects carrying the SLCO1B1 521 (CC) polymorphism who had not any myopathy caused by statins. We analyzed the SLCO1B1 and APOE gene polymorphisms in the Hakka population of southern China. This study provides a reference for the individualized meditation for Hakka population in this area. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Information Systems Studies Security and Research (CISR)

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network is a cost effective, multi-level, easy to use office environment leveraging existing high assurance technology. The Department of Defense and U.S. Government have an identified need to securely share information classified at differing security levels. Because there exist no commercial solutions to this problem, NPS is developing a MLS LAN. The MLS LAN extends high assurance capabilities of an evaluated multi-level secure system to commercial personal com...

  13. Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Do, Minh Truong; Choi, Jae Ho; Won, Seong Su [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wonku [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul [Department of Food Science and Culinary, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor α (ERα), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ERα knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ERα-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ERα activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ERα phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • Leptin activated ERK and Akt kinases related to ERα phosphorylation. • Leptin induces phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167. • Leptin induces ERE-luciferase activity.

  14. Regorafenib is transported by the organic anion transporter 1B1 and the multidrug resistance protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Hiroki; Shibayama, Yoshihiko; Ogura, Jiro; Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Iseki, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Regorafenib is a small molecule inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, and has been shown to improve the outcomes of patients with advanced colorectal cancer and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The transport profiles of regorafenib by various transporters were evaluated. HEK293/organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) cells exhibited increased drug sensitivity to regorafenib. Regorafenib inhibited the uptake of 3H-estrone sulfate by HEK293/OATP1B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect its elimination by P-glycoproteins. The concentration of regorafenib was significantly lower in LLC-PK1/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) cells than in LLC-PK1 cells treated with the MRP2 inhibitor, MK571. MK571 abolished the inhibitory effects of regorafenib on intracellular accumulation in LLC-PK1/MRP2 cells. The uptake of regorafenib was significantly higher in HEK293/OATP1B1 cells than in OATP1B1-mock cells. Transport kinetics values were estimated to be Km=15.9 µM and Vmax=1.24 nmol/mg/min. No significant difference was observed in regorafenib concentrations between HEK293/OATP1B3 and OATP1B3-mock cells. These results indicated that regorafenib is a substrate for MRP2 and OATP1B1, and also suggest that the substrate preference of regorafenib may implicate the pharmacokinetic profiles of regorafenib.

  15. CYP1B1 genotype and risk of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and cancer in 50,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, D.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 enzymes metabolize tobacco-smoke polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. CYP1B1*3 (rs1056836 = Leu432Val = 4326C>G) and CYP1B1*4 (rs1800440 = Asn453Ser = 4390A>G) influence this metabolism. We, therefore, hypothesized that these two polymorphisms...... associate with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer overall, tobacco-related cancer, and female cancer, possibly dependent on tobacco exposure. METHOD: We genotyped 10 391 adults from...... the Copenhagen City Heart Study, who had been followed prospectively for more than 30 years. Significant results were retested cross-sectionally in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) with 37 178 participants, and in the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study with 2379 cases and 33 220 controls...

  16. Side effects of statins in patient with compensated hypothyroidism and SLCO1B1 *5 (c.521T>C polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid G. Strongin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess the influence of compensated hypothyroidism and SLCO1B1 *5 (c.521T>C gene polymorphism on the clinical and laboratory signs of the muscle damage during statin therapy. Methods: assessment of symptoms and markers of the muscle damage and SLCO1B1 *5 (c.521T>C genotyping were performed in 33 patients with primary hypothyroidism taking statins, in 31 patients taking statins without hypothyroidism and in 33 patients with primary hypothyroidism without statins taking. Results: muscle pain was observed more often in the group of the patients with compensated hypothyroidism on the background of statins taking compared with other groups (45,5, 16,1 and 30,3 %, respectively, p=0,048. Only in this group the pain was associated with increased levels of creatine- kinase (171,0±108,12 and 110,0±43,81U/L, in the presence and absence of the pain, p=0,049, LDH (369,5±66,22 and 305,6±41,98 U/L, р=0,007, myoglobin titer (90,7±109,89 and 41,1±28,56, р=0,005, and more frequent occurrence of TC and CC genotypes of SLCO1B1*5 (c.521T>C (68,4 и 28,6%, р=0,0027. Conclusions: the patients with compensated hypothyroidism have a higher risk of statin-induced myopathy increasing if the TC heterozygotes or CC homozygotes of SLCO1B1 *5 (c.521T>C gene are present, which requires thorough monitoring of clinical and biochemical muscle damage signs in case of its detection.

  17. Global and local level density models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Hilaire, S.; Goriely, S.

    2008-01-01

    Four different level density models, three phenomenological and one microscopic, are consistently parameterized using the same set of experimental observables. For each of the phenomenological models, the Constant Temperature Model, the Back-shifted Fermi gas Model and the Generalized Superfluid Model, a version without and with explicit collective enhancement is considered. Moreover, a recently published microscopic combinatorial model is compared with the phenomenological approaches and with the same set of experimental data. For each nuclide for which sufficient experimental data exists, a local level density parameterization is constructed for each model. Next, these local models have helped to construct global level density prescriptions, to be used for cases for which no experimental data exists. Altogether, this yields a collection of level density formulae and parameters that can be used with confidence in nuclear model calculations. To demonstrate this, a large-scale validation with experimental discrete level schemes and experimental cross sections and neutron emission spectra for various different reaction channels has been performed

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced CYP1B1 activity is suppressed by perillyl alcohol in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Nelson L.S.; Wang Huan; Wang Yun; Leung, H.Y.; Leung, Lai K.

    2006-01-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a dietary monoterpene with potential applications in chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Although clinical trials are under way, POH's physiological and pharmacological properties are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of POH on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced genotoxicity, and the related expression were examined in MCF-7 cells. Exposure to environmental toxicant increases the risk of cancer. Many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. CYP1A1 and 1B1 are enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Our data revealed that 0.5 μM of POH was effective in blocking DMBA-DNA binding. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay indicated that the administration of POH inhibited the DMBA-induced enzyme activity in MCF-7 cells. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that POH inhibited CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1 activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also demonstrated that the monoterpene reduced CYP1B1 mRNA abundance induced by DMBA. The present study illustrated that POH might inhibit and downregulate CYP1B1, which could protect against PAH-induced carcinogenesis

  19. CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms correlate with an increased risk of urinary bladder cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Abhishek, Amar; Gupta, Nishi; Rajender, Singh

    2016-04-01

    The urinary bladder is the target of several toxic compounds, which makes the bladder more prone to cancer. Cytochrome P450 1B1 enzyme is present in tumor tissues and metabolizes the polyaromatic carcinogens and activates several procarcinogens that cause DNA damage. We examined the functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene to study their association with the urinary bladder cancer. We recruited 234 cases of pure urothelial and 258 bladder cancer-free control samples from the individuals visiting the clinic for various investigations. We genotyped 4 CYP1B1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The genotype data were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Haplotypes were constructed to evaluate the joint effect of the 4 polymorphisms. Overall, 3 polymorphisms-rs10012, rs150799650, and rs1056827 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34, CI: 1.59-3.45, Pbladder cancer. Haplotype analysis suggested GTTC, GTTG, and ATGC to be the risk factors for bladder cancer. Overall, 3 polymorphisms, rs10012, rs1056827, and rs150799650 in the CYP1B1 gene correlate with urinary bladder cancer significantly in the Indo-European population of Uttar Pradesh, India. Further investigations in other populations are advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effect of the rs4149056 variant in SLCO1B1 on myopathy associated with simvastatin and atorvastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunham, L. R.; Lansberg, P. J.; Zhang, L.; Miao, F.; Carter, C.; Hovingh, G. K.; Visscher, H.; Jukema, J. W.; Stalenhoef, A. F.; Ross, C. J. D.; Carleton, B. C.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Hayden, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Statins reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in appropriately selected patients. However, statin-associated myopathy is a significant risk associated with these agents. Recently, variation in the SLCO1B1 gene was reported to predict simvastatin-associated myopathy. The aim of this study was

  1. Association between ABCG2 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and adverse drug reactions to regorafenib: a preliminary study
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akimitsu; Ando, Hitoshi; Ura, Takashi; Komori, Azusa; Hasegawa, Ayako; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Muro, Kei; Tajika, Masahiro; Kobara, Makiko; Matsuzaki, Masahide; Hashimoto, Naoya; Maeda, Mieko; Kojima, Yasushi; Aoki, Masahiro; Kondo, Eisaku; Mizutani, Akiyoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2017-05-01

    Due to the occurrence of severe adverse drug reactions to regorafenib, a drug used in cancer therapy, the identification of a predictive marker(s) is needed to increase the therapeutic applicability of this compound. We therefore investigated whether polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLCO1B genes are associated with adverse drug reactions to regorafenib. For these analyses, 37 Japanese cancer patients were treated with regorafenib, genotyped for polymorphisms in ABCG2 and SLCO1B, and evaluated for drug-related adverse drug reactions. There was no association between the ABCG2 421C>A variant and adverse drug reactions to regorafenib. After treatment, the incidences of increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as increased total bilirubin (grade ≥ 2) were 8%, 4%, and 12%, and 42%, 25%, and 25% among SLCO1B1*1b carriers and non-carriers, respectively. There were no significant associations between elevated ALT and bilirubin and the SLCO1B1*1b allele. However, there were significantly lower incidences of increased AST (8% vs. 42%) and anemia (16% vs. 50%) in SLCO1B1*1b carriers than in non-carriers. The absence of SLCO1B1*1b allele appears to be associated with the development of adverse drug reactions to regorafenib; however, further studies involving larger test groups and other populations are needed to confirm these findings.
.

  2. Cytochrome P450 1B1 and 2C9 genotypes and risk of ischemic vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize present knowledge of genetic variation in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes and risk of tobacco-related cancer, female cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic vascular disease. The CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 enzymes metabolize pol...

  3. Effects of gemfibrozil and atorvastatin on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide in relation to SLCO1B1 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, A; Backman, J T; Kurkinen, K J; Neuvonen, P J; Niemi, M

    2008-10-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 24 SLCO181-genotyped healthy volunteers were given daily doses of 1,200 mg gemfibrozil, 40 mg atorvastatin, or placebo, followed by 0.25 mg of repaglinide on day 3. The mean increase in the repaglinide area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) produced by gemfibrozil was larger in individuals with the SLCO1B1 c.521CC genotype (n = 6) than in those with the c.521TC (n = 6) and c.521TT (n = 12) genotypes, by factors of 1.56 (P = 0.004) and 1.54 (P = 0.002), respectively. Gemfibrozil prolonged the repaglinide elimination half-life 1.43 times more in the c.521 CC group than in the c.521TT group (P = 0.047), but no differences were seen in the effects on peak plasma concentration (C(max)). While on gemfibrozil, the minimum blood glucose concentration after repaglinide intake was 19% lower in the c.521CC participants than in the c.521TT participants (P = 0.009). In the c.521TT group, atorvastatin intake had the effect of increasing repaglinide Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) by41% (P = 0.001) and 18% (P = 0.033), respectively. In conclusion, the extent of gemfibrozil-repaglinide interaction depends on SLCO1B1 genotype. Atorvastatin raises plasma repaglinide concentrations, probably by inhibiting organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1).

  4. Selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors during organ culture of cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoel, N L; Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is thought to be involved in migraine headache and the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Previous data show that organ culture induces a phenotypic change in cerebral vessels. Therefore we investigated if these changes also applied for the vasoconstrictive 5-HT......(cultured) 6.8+/-0.4). The response was inhibited by the 5-HT(1B/1D) selective antagonist GR55562 (pEC50(fresh) 5.1+/-0.2 and pEC50(cultured) 6.0+/-0.3). The organ model might mimic the phenotypic changes during cerebrovascular diseases....... receptors. Rat cerebral arteries express 5-HT2 receptors. Using organ culture we observed a phenotypic change with a selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors. This was revealed by an increased sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist 5-CT after organ culture (pEC50(fresh) 5.6+/-0.2 and pEC50...

  5. Occurrence of CYP1B1 Mutations in Juvenile Open-Angle Glaucoma With Advanced Visual Field Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Hayes, Melanie; Zhou, Tiger; Siggs, Owen M; Ridge, Bronwyn; Awadalla, Mona S; Smith, James E H; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Elder, James E; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Healey, Paul R; Goldberg, Ivan; Morgan, William H; Landers, John; Dubowsky, Andrew; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-07-01

    Juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a severe neurodegenerative eye disorder in which most of the genetic contribution remains unexplained. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic CYP1B1 sequence variants in an Australian cohort of patients with JOAG and severe visual field loss. For this cohort study, we recruited 160 patients with JOAG classified as advanced (n = 118) and nonadvanced (n = 42) through the Australian and New Zealand Registry of Advanced Glaucoma from January 1, 2007, through April 1, 2014. Eighty individuals with no evidence of glaucoma served as a control group. We defined JOAG as diagnosis before age 40 years and advanced JOAG as visual field loss in 2 of the 4 central fixation squares on a reliable visual field test result. We performed direct sequencing of the entire coding region of CYP1B1. Data analysis was performed in October 2014. Identification and characterization of CYP1B1 sequence variants. We identified 7 different pathogenic variants among 8 of 118 patients with advanced JOAG (6.8%) but none among the patients with nonadvanced JOAG. Three patients were homozygous or compound heterozygous for CYP1B1 pathogenic variants, which provided a likely basis for their disease. Five patients were heterozygous. The allele frequency among the patients with advanced JOAG (11 in 236 [4.7%]) was higher than among our controls (1 in 160 [0.6%]; P = .02; odds ratio, 7.8 [95% CI, 0.02-1.0]) or among the control population from the Exome Aggregation Consortium database (2946 of 122 960 [2.4%]; P = .02; odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 0.3-0.9]). Individuals with CYP1B1 pathogenic variants, whether heterozygous or homozygous, had worse mean (SD) deviation on visual fields (-24.5 [5.1] [95% CI, -31.8 to -17.2] vs -15.6 [10.0] [95% CI, -17.1 to -13.6] dB; F1,126 = 5.90; P = .02; partial ηp2 = 0.05) and were younger at diagnosis (mean [SD] age, 23.1 [8.4] [95% CI, 17.2-29.1] vs 31.5 [8.0] [95% CI, 30.1-33.0] years; F1,122 = 7

  6. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms on TCDD-mediated CYP1B1 induction and IgM suppression by human B cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalova, Natalia, E-mail: kovalova@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Manzan, Maria, E-mail: ale.manzan@gmail.com [Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Crawford, Robert, E-mail: crawfo28@msu.edu [Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kaminski, Norbert, E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that most of the intraspecies variation in sensitivity to the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), including suppression of antibody responses, in murine models is due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. The underlying reason for variation in sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM responses among humans is not well understood, but is thought, in part, to be a result of different polymorphic forms of the AhR expressed by different individuals. In this study, the functional properties of six (P517S, R554K, V570I, V570I + P517S, R554K + V570I and P517S + R554K + V570I) human AhR variants were examined in the human B cell line, SKW 6.4. TCDD-induced Cyp1B1 and Cyp1A2 mRNA expression levels and Cyp1B1-regulated reporter gene activity, used for comparative purposes, were markedly lower in SKW cells containing the R554K SNP than in SKW-AHR{sup +} (control AhR) cells. Furthermore, all AhR variants were able to mediate TCDD-induced suppression of the IgM response; however, a combined P517S + R554K + V570I variant partially reduced sensitivity to TCDD-mediated suppression of IgM secretion. Collectively, our findings show that the R554K human AhR SNP alone altered sensitivity of human B cells to TCDD-mediated induction of Cyp1B1 and Cyp1A2. By contrast, attenuation of TCDD-induced IgM suppression required a combination of all three SNPs P517S, R554K, and V570I. - Highlights: • Mouse, rat and SKW-AHR{sup +} B cells have a similar window of sensitivity to TCDD. • R554K AhR SNP alters B cell sensitivity to TCDD-mediated Cyp1B1 and Cyp1A2 induction. • Combination of P517S, R554K, and V570I SNPs attenuates TCDD-induced IgM suppression.

  7. Furocoumarins from grapefruit juice and their effect on human CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1 isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girennavar, Basavaraj; Poulose, Shibu M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Bhat, Narayan G; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2006-04-15

    Bioactive compounds present in grapefruit juice are known to increase the bioavailability of certain medications by acting as potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors. An efficient technique has been developed for isolation and purification of three furocoumarins. The isolated compounds have been tested for the inhibition of human CYP 1B1 isoform using specific substrates. Grapefruit juice was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dried extract was loaded onto silica gel column chromatography. Further, column fractions were subjected to preparative HPLC to obtain three compounds. The purity of these compounds was analyzed by HPLC and structures were determined by NMR studies. The identified compounds, bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), and paradisin-A, were tested for their inhibitory effects on hydroxylase and O-dealkylase activities of human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1. Paradisin-A was found to be a potent CYP 3A4 inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.2 microM followed by DHB and bergamottin. All three compounds showed a substantial inhibitory effect on CYP 3A4 below 10 microM. Inhibitory effects on CYP 1B1 exhibited a greater variation due to the specificity of substrates. Paradisin A showed an IC50 of 3.56+/-0.12 microM for the ethoxy resorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity and 33.56+/-0.72 microM for the benzyloxy resorufin (BROD). DHB and bergamottin showed considerable variations for EROD and BROD activities with an IC50 of 7.17 microM and 13.86 microM, respectively.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent upregulation of Cyp1b1 by TCDD and diesel exhaust particles in rat brain microvessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Aude

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AhR activates the transcription of several target genes including CYP1B1. Recently, we showed CYP1B1 as the major cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme expressed in human brain microvessels. Here, we studied the effect of AhR activation by environmental pollutants on the expression of Cyp1b1 in rat brain microvessels. Methods Expression of AhR and Cyp1b1 was detected in isolated rat brain microvessels. AhR was immunovisualised in brain microvessel endothelial cells. The effect of AhR ligands on Cyp1b1 expression was studied using isolated brain microvessels after ex vivo and/or in vivo exposure to TCDD, heavy hydrocarbons containing diesel exhaust particles (DEP or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC. Results After ex vivo exposure to TCDD (a highly potent AhR ligand for 3 h, Cyp1b1 expression was significantly increased by 2.3-fold in brain microvessels. A single i.p. dose of TCDD also increased Cyp1b1 transcripts (22-fold and Cyp1b1 protein (2-fold in rat brain microvessels at 72 h after TCDD. Likewise, DEP treatment (in vivo and ex vivo strongly induced Cyp1b1 protein in brain microvessels. DEP-mediated Cyp1b1 induction was inhibited by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, or by an AhR antagonist. In contrast, a sub-chronic in vivo treatment with Δ9-THC once daily for 7 seven days had no effect on Cyp1b1 expression Conclusions Our results show that TCDD and DEP strongly induced Cyp1b1 in rat brain microvessels, likely through AhR activation.

  9. Franck-Condon factors perturbed by damped harmonic oscillators: Solvent enhanced X 1Ag ↔ A1B1u absorption and fluorescence spectra of perylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chen-Wen; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Lin, Sheng-Hsien; Yang, Ling; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Damped harmonic oscillators are utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors within displaced harmonic oscillator approximation. This is practically done by scaling unperturbed Hessian matrix that represents local modes of force constants for molecule in gaseous phase, and then by diagonalizing perturbed Hessian matrix it results in direct modification of Huang–Rhys factors which represent normal modes of solute molecule perturbed by solvent environment. Scaling parameters are empirically introduced for simulating absorption and fluorescence spectra of an isolated solute molecule in solution. The present method is especially useful for simulating vibronic spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in which hydrogen atom vibrations in solution can be scaled equally, namely the same scaling factor being applied to all hydrogen atoms in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The present method is demonstrated in simulating solvent enhanced X 1 A g ↔ A 1 B 1u absorption and fluorescence spectra of perylene (medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in benzene solution. It is found that one of six active normal modes v 10 is actually responsible to the solvent enhancement of spectra observed in experiment. Simulations from all functionals (TD) B3LYP, (TD) B3LYP35, (TD) B3LYP50, and (TD) B3LYP100 draw the same conclusion. Hence, the present method is able to adequately reproduce experimental absorption and fluorescence spectra in both gas and solution phases

  10. The enhanced atorvastatin hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats was partly attributed to the upregulated hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Ling, Zhaoli; Liu, Peihua; Wang, Fan; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Zhang, Mian; Li, Feng; Xie, Qiushi; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats. Expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 were increased in diabetic rats, which were highly correlated with hepatotoxicity. Antioxidants (glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine), Cyp3a inhibitor ketoconazole and SLCO1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil suppressed cytotoxicity and ROS formation in primary hepatocytes of diabetic rats. In HepG2 cells, up-regulations of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 potentiated hepatotoxicity and ROS generation, whereas knockdowns of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 as well as CYP3A4/SLCO1B1 inhibitions showed the opposite effects. Phenobarbital pretreatment was used to induce hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in rats. Phenobarbital aggravated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity, while decreased plasma exposure of atorvastatin. All these findings demonstrated that the upregulations of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in diabetic rats potentiated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity via increasing ROS formation. PMID:27624558

  11. Explaining Ethnic Variability of Transporter Substrate Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Asian and Caucasian Subjects with Allele Frequencies of OATP1B1 and BCRP: A Mechanistic Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Barton, Hugh A

    2018-04-01

    Ethnic variability in the pharmacokinetics of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 substrates has been observed, but its basis is unclear. A previous study hypothesizes that, without applying an intrinsic ethnic variability in transporter activity, allele frequencies of transporters cannot explain observed ethnic variability in pharmacokinetics. However, this hypothesis contradicts the data collected from compounds that are OATP1B1 substrates but not breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrates. The objective of this study is to evaluate a hypothesis that is physiologically reasonable and more consistent with clinical observations. We evaluated if allele frequencies of two transporters (OATP1B1 and BCRP) are key contributors to ethnic variability. In this hypothesis, the same genotype leads to the same activity independent of ethnicity, in contrast to the previous hypothesis of intrinsic ethnic variability in OATP1B1 activity. As a validation, we perform mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling for SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) and ABCG2 (encoding BCRP) genotyped pharmacokinetic data from 18 clinical studies with healthy Caucasian and/or Asian subjects. Simulations based on the current hypothesis reasonably describe SLCO1B1 and ABCG2 genotyped pharmacokinetic time course data for five transporter substrates (atorvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, repaglinide, and rosuvastatin) in Caucasian and Asian populations. This hypothesis covers the observations that can (e.g., ethnic differences in rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics) or cannot (e.g., lack of differences for pitavastatin pharmacokinetics) be explained by the previous hypothesis. It helps to characterize sources of ethnic variability and provides a foundation for predicting ethnic variability in transporter substrate pharmacokinetics.

  12. Planning Workshop on Local Level Poverty Monitoring System

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Md. Abdul Quader - Ranjan Kumar Guha

    decision making and incorporate these in preparing the development plans and programmes of the ... and highlight the usefulness of the information in local level planning. The aim ..... proper accounts of the cooperatives for its sustainability.

  13. Mapping SLCO1B1 Genetic Variation for Global Precision Medicine in Understudied Regions in Africa: A Focus on Zulu and Cape Admixed Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoosain, Nisreen; Pearce, Brendon; Jacobs, Clifford; Benjeddou, Mongi

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. President Barack Obama has announced, in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015, the Precision Medicine Initiative, a US$215-million program. For global precision medicine to become a reality, however, biological and environmental "variome" in previously understudied populations ought to be mapped and catalogued. Chief among the molecular targets that warrant global mapping is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), a hepatic uptake transporter predominantly expressed in the basolateral side of hepatocytes. Human OATP1B1 plays a crucial role in the transport of a wide variety of substrates. This includes endogenous compounds such as bile salts as well as medicines, including benzylpenicillin, methotrexate, pravastatin, and rifampicin, and natural toxins microcystin and phalloidin. Genetic variations observed in the SLCO1B1 gene have been associated with altered in vitro and in vivo OATP1B1 transport activity, and consequently influencing patients' response to medicines, toxins, and susceptibility to common complex diseases. Well-characterized haplotypes, *5 (RS4149056C) and *15 (RS4149056T), have been associated with a strikingly reduced uptake of multiple OATP1B1 substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, estradiol-17β-d-glucuronide, atorvastatin, cerivastatin, pravastatin, and rifampicin. In particular, RS4149056C is observed in 60% of the Cape admixed (CA) population and is associated with increased plasma concentrations of many statins as well as fexofenadine and repaglinide. We designed and optimized a SNaPshot minisequencing panel to characterize the variants of relevance for precision medicine in the clinic. We report here the first study on allele and genotype frequencies for 10 nonsynonymous, 4 synonymous, and 6 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 in the Zulu and CA populations of South Africa. These variants are further

  14. Association of CYP1B1 Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in the Han Population in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haiyan; Liu, Chunlian; Guo, Weidong; Peng, Liang; Chen, Yintao; Martin, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating possible associations between cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent. We set out to ascertain whether there might be an association between polymorphisms in exon 2 (codon 119, G→T) and exon 3 (codon 432, G→C) of CYP1B1 and breast cancer in a Chinese Han population in the rural region of Ningxia. Using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method and direct DNA sequencing, the presence or absence of the two CYP1B1 polymorphisms was investigated. Genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed in breast cancer cases (n = 152) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 156). The odds ratio (OR) of 119G→T or 432G→C in breast cancer cases and controls was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.28 to 8.28) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.04 to 7.51), respectively. In addition, the OR for people with both polymorphisms (119T and 432C) was 4.69 (95% CI: 1.97 to 11.19). Our results suggest that certain polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene might increase risk for breast cancer among Han Chinese, perhaps because they influence the efficiency of CYP1B1 bio-transformation of oestrogens or pro-carcinogens into DNA-reactive electrophiles that may act as cancer-initiating agents. PMID:20212917

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Plantaricin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains (IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Arief

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Indonesian lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2 were purified and characterized. Plantaricin W gene had been successfully amplified from all strains. This amplicon showed the expected 200 bp size of plantaricin W gene. This bacteriocins purified from L. plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2 were named plantaricin IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2. Purification by cation exchange chromatography increased the purity (fold and activity of plantaricins. Purity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was increased by 3.13 fold with specific activity 13.40 AU/mg. Plantaricin IIA-1B1 had 2.98 fold purity with specific activity 5.12 AU/mg, while purity of plantaricin IIA-2B2 was 1.37 fold with specific activity 7.70 AU/mg. All plantaricins could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricins could be digested by trypsin. Stability of plantaricins at 80 oC for 30 min and at 121 oC for 15 min were affected by type of plantaricin and species of pathogenic bacteria. Generally, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was better as antimicrobial agent than plantaricin IIA-1B1 and plantaricin IIA-2B2.

  16. Top-level design and local-level paralysis: Local politics in times of political centralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Ahlers, A.L.; Heilmann, S.; Stepan, M.

    2016-01-01

    China’s leadership under Xi has reinforced the party’s hierarchical command structures, demonstrated through its top-down campaigns, focusing on austerity, anti-corruption efforts and party discipline. It has reinvigorated sanctioning and incentive mechanisms for local cadres, with unknown effects

  17. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withey Laura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively. Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility.

  18. 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene induces apoptosis in RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells: Ligand-selective activation of cytochrome P450 1B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Gee [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin-Yong [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Eun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seunghoon [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Yong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Busan Medical Center, Busan 611-072 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Jo [Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun, E-mail: yhyoo@dau.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-04-15

    7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, exhibits mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and apoptogenic properties in various cell types. To achieve these functions effectively, DMBA is modified to its active form by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1). Exposure to DMBA causes cytotoxicity-mediated apoptosis in bone marrow B cells and ovarian cells. Although uterine endometrium constitutively expresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, their apoptotic role after exposure to DMBA remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we chose RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells as a model system for studying DMBA-induced cytotoxicity and cell death and hypothesized that exposure to DMBA causes apoptosis in this cell type following CYP1A1 and/or CYP1B1 activation. We showed that DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells is associated with activation of caspases. In addition, mitochondrial changes, including decrease in mitochondrial potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial pathway is involved in DMBA-induced apoptosis. Exposure to DMBA upregulated the expression of AhR, Arnt, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 significantly; this may be necessary for the conversion of DMBA to DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide (DMBA-DE). Although both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were significantly upregulated by DMBA, only CYP1B1 exhibited activity. Moreover, knockdown of CYP1B1 abolished DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells. Our data show that RL95-2 cells are susceptible to apoptosis by exposure to DMBA and that CYP1B1 plays a pivotal role in DMBA-induced apoptosis in this system. -- Highlights: ► Cytotoxicity-mediated apoptogenic action of DMBA in human endometrial cancer cells. ► Mitochondrial pathway in DMBA-induced apoptosis of RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells. ► Requirement of ligand-selective activation of CYP1B1 in DMBA-induced apoptosis.

  19. Localized-to-extended-states transition below the Fermi level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, M. A.; Pusep, Yu. A.

    2018-05-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence is employed to examine a transition from localized to extended electron states below the Fermi level in multiple narrow quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, where disorder was generated by interface roughness. Such a transition resembles the metal-insulator transition profoundly investigated by electric transport measurements. An important distinction distinguishes the localized-to-extended-states transition studied here: it takes place below the Fermi level in an electron system with a constant concentration, which implies unchanging Coulomb correlations. Moreover, for such a localized-to-extended-states transition the temperature is shown to be irrelevant. In the insulating regime the magnetic field was found to cause an additional momentum relaxation which considerably enhanced the recombination rate. Thus, we propose a method to explore the evolution of the localized electron states in a system with a fixed disorder and Coulomb interaction.

  20. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Fashion Models, and Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b1 and E-3 Visas in... occupations or certain fashion models from any country, the INA, as amended, provides as follows: (1... work in a “specialty occupation” or as a fashion model of distinguished merit and ability in the United...

  1. Generation of a human iPSC line from a patient with congenital glaucoma caused by mutation in CYP1B1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Bolinches-Amorós

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human iPSC cell line, GLC-FiPS4F1 (ESi047-A, derived from dermal fibroblast from the patient with congenital glaucoma caused by the mutation of the gene CYP1B1, was generated by non-integrative reprogramming technology using OCT3/4, SOX2, CMYC and KLF4 reprogramming factors.

  2. New selective and potent 5-HT1B/1D antagonists : Chemistry and pharmacological evaluation of N-piperazinylphenyl biphenylcarboxamides and biphenylsulfonamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Y; Bottcher, H; Harting, J; Greiner, H; van Amsterdam, C; Cremers, T; Sundell, S; Marz, J; Rautenberg, W; Wikstrom, H

    2000-01-01

    A series of new analogues of N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl] 2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (1; GR127935) as potent and selective 5-HT1B/1D antagonists were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically. Their receptor binding profiles were comparable

  3. Switching between global and local levels: the level repetition effect and its hemispheric asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéïta, Luc; Bedoin, Nathalie; Burack, Jacob A.; Lepore, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The global level of hierarchical stimuli (Navon’s stimuli) is typically processed quicker and better than the local level; further differential hemispheric dominance is described for local (left hemisphere, LH) and global (right hemisphere, RH) processing. However, neuroimaging and behavioral data indicate that stimulus category (letter or object) could modulate the hemispheric asymmetry for the local level processing. Besides, when the targets are unpredictably displayed at the global or local level, the participant has to switch between levels, and the magnitude of the switch cost increases with the number of repeated-level trials preceding the switch. The hemispheric asymmetries associated with level switching is an unresolved issue. LH areas may be involved in carrying over the target level information in case of level repetition. These areas may also largely participate in the processing of level-changed trials. Here we hypothesized that RH areas underly the inhibitory mechanism performed on the irrelevant level, as one of the components of the level switching process. In an experiment using a within-subject design, hierarchical stimuli were briefly presented either to the right or to the left visual field. 32 adults were instructed to identify the target at the global or local level. We assessed a possible RH dominance for the non-target level inhibition by varying the attentional demands through the manipulation of level repetitions (two or gour repeated-level trials before the switch). The behavioral data confirmed a LH specialization only for the local level processing of letter-based stimuli, and detrimental effect of increased level repetitions before a switch. Further, data provides evidence for a RH advantage in inhibiting the non-target level. Taken together, the data supports the notion of the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying level-switch effects. PMID:24723903

  4. Impacto dos polimorfismos genéticos SLCO1B1 sobre a hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal: revisão sistemática com metanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiebo Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se três variantes (388 G>A, 521 T>C, 463 C>A do membro 1B1 da família de transportadores de ânions orgânicos portadores de solutos (SLCO1B1 se associam à hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal. FONTE DE DADOS: Foi realizada busca na Infraestrutura do Conhecimento Nacional da China e em MEDLINE. A revisão sistemática com metanálise incluiu estudos genéticos que avaliaram a associação entre hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal e as variantes 388 G>A, 521 T>C, 463 C>A de SLCO1B1 entre janeiro de 1980 e dezembro de 2012. Foi realizada seleção e extração de dados por dois analistas, de forma independente. SUMÁRIO DOS ACHADOS: Foram incluídos dez artigos no estudo. Os resultados revelaram que SLCO1B1 388 G>A se associa a um aumento do risco de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal (ORC mostrou baixo risco de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal em recém-nascido chineses, e não foram encontradas associações importantes no Brasil nem em recém-nascidos caucasianos, asiáticos, tailandeses e malaios. Não houve diferenças significativas da SLCO1B1 463 C>A entre o grupo com hiperbilirrubinemia e o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou que a mutação 388 G>A do gene SLCO1B1 é fator de risco para desenvolver hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal em recém-nascidos chineses, mas não em populações caucasianas, tailandesas, brasileiras ou malaias; a mutação SLCO1B1 521 T>C fornece proteção de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal em recém-nascidos chineses, mas não nas populações caucasianas, tailandesas, brasileiras ou malaias.

  5. Quantifying and reporting greenhouse gas emissions at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities as global centers of consumption and production often are a significant and growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. At the same time, local authorities are increasingly taking action on climate change by focusing on reducing GHG emissions and efficiency improvement opportunities. To assess and reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission level from an urban area, it is necessary to identify all the activities and processes which generate these emissions. GHG inventory gives an opportunity to get wider knowledge for city’s community about spatial emission processes and emissions contribution of key sources categories at the local scale. Inventory is being used for decision-making purposes and strategic planning in emission reduction policy. The goal of this paper was to clarify the major methodological challenges of GHG monitoring at the urban level. The paper is based on the discussion of different methods and approaches to assessing GHG emissions at the local level. It is presented sectoral GHGs emission trends in selected urban areas and compared CO2 emission level in different countries and metropolises and variable European cities guidance. The study determines the inventory tools of GHGs emission taking into account the characteristics of main sources at local levels.

  6. QUESTION OF IMPROVEMENT OF BUDGET CONTROL AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Vatslavskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the current practice of budgetary control to develop its areas of improvement at the local level. The subject of the research is theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of budgetary control at the local level. The methodological basis of the study comprises research approaches, general theoretical principles of scientific knowledge, system of methods and techniques. The paper clarifies the nature of budgetary control at the local level. The main bodies that implement budget control, namely the State Audit Office, the Accounting Chamber, the State Treasury, the State Fiscal Service, financial and management departments are singled out. It is found that the leading part among all of the special budgetary control bodies in the rational and efficient use of local financial resources is performed by the State Audit Office. Analysis of the State Audit Office in three regions of Ukraine for the period 2013-2015 has been carried out. We distinguish two main types of violations that the State Audit Service reveals during its work at the local level: 1 shortfall in the financial resources of public enterprises, institutions and organizations; 2 violations that lead to illegal, non-target costs and shortages. It is proved that the efficiency of budgetary control is low. The paper states basic problems of budget control at the local level, namely, low income funds and reimbursements from violations revealed by regulatory agencies; insufficient work with the public to explain the problems of budget control and eliminate violations in the public sector; lack of a consolidated legal act, which would have regulated all the major components of budgetary control; insufficient use of controlling and auditing methods aimed at determining the effectiveness of budget funds; low preventive function on the part of budget control bodies. We offer ways to improve budget control at the local level through: standardization system of

  7. Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario D. C. Hirata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods: One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks. They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results: Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034. Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05. Conclusion: SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy.

  8. SLCO1B1*5 polymorphism (rs4149056) is associated with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Toralf; Kempert, Sarah; Gerber, Bernd; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Hartmann, Steffi; Koczan, Dirk

    2016-05-27

    Because inheritance is recognized as playing a role in age at menarche and natural menopause, the development of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) might depend on inherited genetic factors; however, studies that explore such a correlation are few and have received scant attention. Given the importance of this topic we conducted a comprehensive genotype study in young women (≤45 years) with early-stage breast cancer. Our approach tested the effect of variant polymorphisms in drug metabolism enzymes (DMEs) using a predesigned pharmacogenomics panel (TaqMan® OpenArray®, Life Technologies GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) in premenopausal women (n = 50). Patients received contemporary chemotherapy; in all cases a cyclophosphamide-based regimen with a dose of at least 500 mg/m(2) for six cycles. CIA was considered to be present in women with no resumption of menstrual bleeding within 12 months after completion of chemotherapy or goserelin. Twenty-six patients (52 %) showed CIA during follow-up whereas 24 women (48 %) remained premenopausal. Of all the DMEs studied, only the SLCO1B1*5 (rs4149056) genotype was associated with the development of CIA (P = 0.017). Of the 26 patients who were homozygous for the T/T allele SLCO1B1*5, 18 (69.2 %) developed CIA compared with 8 (30.8 %) of the 22 patients who were heterozygous (C/T allele). The association of heterozygous SLCO1B1*5 allele (OR 0.038; 95%CI: 0.05-0.92) with a lower risk of developing CIA remained significant in a binary logistic regression analysis that include age, SLCO1B1*5 allele variants, and goserelin therapy. Patient age and SLCO1B1*5 allele variants predict the likelihood of young women with breast cancer developing CIA.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  10. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollo, Leonardo L; Roberts, James A; Cocchi, Luca

    2017-10-15

    The human brain exhibits a distinct spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then systematically analyze a model of large-scale brain dynamics, assessing how localized changes in brain activity at the different sites affect whole-brain dynamics. We find that local stimulation induces changes in brain activity that can be summarized by relatively smooth tuning curves, which relate a region's effectiveness as a stimulation site to its position within the cortical hierarchy. Our results also support the notion that brain hubs, operating in a slower regime, are more resilient to focal perturbations and critically contribute to maintain stability in global brain dynamics. In contrast, perturbations of peripheral regions, characterized by faster activity, have greater impact on functional connectivity. As a parallel with this region-level result, we also find that peripheral systems such as the visual and sensorimotor networks were more affected by local perturbations than high-level systems such as the cingulo-opercular network. Our findings highlight the importance of a periphery-to-core hierarchy to determine the effect of local stimulation on the brain network. This study also provides novel resources to orient empirical work aiming at manipulating functional connectivity using non-invasive brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Local Sabahans’ Satisfaction with Level of Access to Mount Kinabalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the local Sabahans’ satisfaction with the level of access to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the number of complaints by local Sabahans regarding access and their perception of changes in accessibility to the mountain. Interviews with Sabah Parks and Sutera Sanctuary Lodges were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents to collect data. The results show that there were intense complaints regarding the climbing cost and extensive waiting time to secure a confirmed booking at the outset of price increases. However, the researchers could not locate any recently published complaints. Respondents who have previously climbed Mount Kinabalu perceive the mountain to be less accessible for local Sabahans now due to a less affordable cost and a longer waiting time. Those who have not climbed Mount Kinabalu also think the climbing cost has become less affordable for local Sabahans, but they do not perceive that to be causing the mountain less accessible for local Sabahans.

  12. Application of a fuzzy neural network model in predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-mediated perturbations of the Cyp1b1 transcriptional regulatory network in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Department of Statistics, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Baird, William M. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures with components that have diverse carcinogenic potencies and mostly unknown interactive effects. Non-additive PAH interactions have been observed in regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression in the CYP1 family. To better understand and predict biological effects of complex mixtures, such as environmental PAHs, an 11 gene input-1 gene output fuzzy neural network (FNN) was developed for predicting PAH-mediated perturbations of dermal Cyp1b1 transcription in mice. Input values were generalized using fuzzy logic into low, medium, and high fuzzy subsets, and sorted using k-means clustering to create Mamdani logic functions for predicting Cyp1b1 mRNA expression. Model testing was performed with data from microarray analysis of skin samples from FVB/N mice treated with toluene (vehicle control), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 1 of 3 combinations of diesel particulate extract (DPE), coal tar extract (CTE) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using leave-one-out cross-validation. Predictions were within 1 log{sub 2} fold change unit of microarray data, with the exception of the DBC treatment group, where the unexpected down-regulation of Cyp1b1 expression was predicted but did not reach statistical significance on the microarrays. Adding CTE to DPE was predicted to increase Cyp1b1 expression, whereas adding CSC to CTE and DPE was predicted to have no effect, in agreement with microarray results. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ahrr) was determined to be the most significant input variable for model predictions using back-propagation and normalization of FNN weights. - Highlights: ► Tested a model to predict PAH mixture-mediated changes in Cyp1b1 expression ► Quantitative predictions in agreement with microarrays for Cyp1b1 induction ► Unexpected difference in expression between DBC and other treatments predicted ► Model predictions

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: does the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism affect these drug interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Choon Ok Kim,1 Eun Sil Oh,2 Hohyun Kim,3 Min Soo Park1,4 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Medicine and Regulatory Sciences, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, 3Korea Medicine Research Institute, Inc., Seongnam, 4Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: To improve cardiovascular outcomes, dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes needs to be treated. Thus, these patients are likely to take glimepiride and rosuvastatin concomitantly. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK interactions between these two drugs in healthy males and to explore the effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on their interactions in two randomized, open-label crossover studies. Glimepiride was studied in part 1 and rosuvastatin in part 2. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to each part. All subjects (n=24 completed part 1, and 22 subjects completed part 2. A total of 38 subjects among the participants of the PK interaction studies were enrolled in the genotype study to analyze their SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms retrospectively (n=22 in part 1, n=16 in part 2. Comparison of the PK and safety of each drug alone with those of the drugs in combination showed that both glimepiride and rosuvastatin did not interact with each other and had tolerable safety profiles in all subjects. However, with regard to glimepiride PK, the SLCO1B1 521TC group had a significantly higher maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss and area under the plasma concentration–time curve during the dose interval at steady state (AUCt,ss for glimepiride in combination with rosuvastatin than those for glimepiride alone. However, other significant effects of the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 polymorphism on the interaction between the two drugs were not observed. In conclusion, there were no significant PK

  14. The crystal structure of 6-(4-chlorophenyl-2-(4-methylbenzylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole-5-carbaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sowmya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivative, C19H14ClN3OS, the 4-methylbenzyl and chlorophenyl rings are inclined to the planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole moiety (r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å by 64.5 (1 and 3.7 (1°, respectively. The molecular structure is primarily stabilized by a strong intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond, leading to the formation of a pseudo-seven-membered S(7 ring motif, and a short intramolecular C—H...N contact forming an S(5 ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of C—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked by C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, forming chains propagating along [110].

  15. MspI and PvuII polymorphisms in the Na,K-ATPase. beta. subunit gene ATP1B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, M.M.; Pugh, D.G.; Lane, L.K.; Lingrel, J.B. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-02-25

    ATP1B HH1.2 is a 1.2 kb HindIII fragment from the 3{prime} portion of the human Na,K-ATPase {beta} subunit gene, ATP1B1. MspI identifies a two allele polymorphism (M1: 6.7 kb, M2: 5.3 kb). PvuII also detects a two-allele polymorphism (P1: 5.1 kb, P2: 4.7 kb). ATP1B1 has been assigned to chromosome 1q by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Codominant segregation of the MspI RFLP was observed in one two-generation family (5 individuals). Codominant segregation of the PvuII RFLP was observed in a two-generation (8 individuals) and a three-generation (12 individuals) family.

  16. Induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 and formation of DNA adducts in C57BL/6, Balb/c, and F1 mice following in utero exposure to 3-methylcholanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mian; Nelson, Garret B.; Moore, Joseph E.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Dai, Jian; Manderville, Richard A.; Ross, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Mark Steven

    2005-01-01

    Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC). We thus determined if differences in metabolism, adduct formation, or adduct repair influence strain-specific responses to transplacental MC exposure in C57BL/6 (B6), Balb/c (BC), and reciprocal F1 crosses between these two strains of mice. The induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 in fetal lung and liver tissue was determined by quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR. MC treatment caused maximal induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 RNA 2-8 h after injection in both organs. RNA levels for both genes then declined in both fetal organs, but a small biphasic, secondary increase in Cyp1a1 was observed specifically in the fetal lung 24-48 h after MC exposure in all four strains. Cyp1a1 induction by MC at 4 h was 2-5 times greater in fetal liver (7000- to 16,000-fold) than fetal lung (2000- to 6000-fold). Cyp1b1 induction in both fetal lung and liver was similar and much lower than that observed for Cyp1a1, with induction ratios of 8- to 18-fold in fetal lung and 10- to 20-fold in fetal liver. The overall kinetics and patterns of induction were thus very similar across the four strains of mice. The only significant strain-specific effect appeared to be the relatively poor induction of Cyp1b1 in the parental strain of B6 mice, especially in fetal lung tissue. We also measured the levels of MC adducts and their disappearance from lung tissue by the P 32 post-labeling assay on gestation days 18 and 19 and postnatal days 1, 4, 11, and 18. Few differences were seen between the different strains of mice; the parental strain of B6 mice had nominally higher levels of DNA adducts 2 (gestation day 19) and 4 (postnatal day 1) days after injection, although this was not statistically significant

  17. APPLIED ASPECTS OF SLCO1B1 PHARMACOGENETIC TESTING FOR PREDICTING OF STATIN-INDUCED MYOPATHY AND PERSONALIZATION OF STATINS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sychev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical significance of the SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism (encoding an organic anion transport polipeptide in the development of statin induced myopathy is considered. Possible tactics of statin dose determination on the basis of pharmacogenetic testing is discussed. Indications for the use of this approach in clinical practice that should increase the efficacy and safety of the statin therapy are also considered.

  18. The Effectiveness of Social Media Implementation at Local Government Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira NICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the management of social me-dia at the local government level, the availability of opportunities for citizen dialogue on govern-ment websites, and the impact that social net-working applications have on e-government. The results of the current study converge with prior research on the growing awareness amongst government practitioners regarding the relevance of social media, the use of social media for feed-back on service quality, and privacy and security commitments in e-government. The literature on the use of information technology to transform government, the potential for online government information to contribute to citizen engagement, and the rapid growth in local government use of social media is relevant to this discussion.

  19. Water Security at Local Government Level: What do People Think?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Meissner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2853 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Meissner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Water Security at Local... Government Level: What do People Think? By Dr. Richard Meissner Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the Sustainable Water Seminar 2016, CSIR ICC, 2...

  20. Local order dependent impurity levels in alloy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris

    1981-01-01

    We develop a one band/may sites model for an isoelectronic impurity in a semiconductor alloy. The cluster-Bethe-lattice approximation is used to study the dependence of the impurity energy level upon the short range order (SRO) of the alloy. The Kikuchi parametrization is used to describe the latter. We take into account diagonal disorder only, with possible off-diagonal relaxation around the impurity site. All the inequivalent clusters of the impurity site and its first nearest neighbours are considered, thus including the important short range alloy potential fluctuations. Results are presented for the local density of impurity states, for different degrees of SRO in the alloy. (Author) [pt

  1. Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases SULT1B1 and SULT1C1 complexed with the cofactor product adenosine-3'- 5'-diphosphate (PAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrovski, Luidmila; Dong, Aiping; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N. (Toronto)

    2008-09-17

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), often referred as Phase II enzymes of chemical defense, are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfonate group from 3{prime}-phosphoadenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an acceptor group of substrates. This reaction modulates the activities of a large array of small endogenous and foreign chemicals including drugs, toxic compounds, steroid hormones, and neurotransmitters. In some cases, however, SULTs activate certain food and environmental compounds to mutagenenic and carcinogenic metabolites. Twelve human SULTs have been identified, which are partitioned into three families: SULT1, SULT2 and SULT4. The SULT1 family is further divided in four subfamilies, A, B, C, and E, and comprises eight members (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 1C1, 1C2, 1C3, and 1E1). Despite sequence and structural similarity among the SULTs, the family and subfamily members appear to have different biological function. SULT1 family shows substrate-binding specificity for simple phenols, estradiol, and thyroid hormones, as well as environmental xenobiotics and drugs. Human SULT1B1 is expressed in liver, colon, small intestine, and blood leukocytes, and shows substrate-binding specificity to thyroid hormones and benzylic alcohols. Human SULT1C1 is expressed in the adult stomach, kidney, and thyroid, as well as in fetal kidney and liver. SULT1C1 catalyzes the sulfonation of p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in vitro. However, the in vivo function of the enzyme remains unknown. We intend to solve the structures for all of the SULTs for which structural information is not yet available, and compare the structural and functional features of the entire SULT superfamily. Here we report the structures of two members of SULT1 family, SULT1B1 and SULT1C1, both in complex with the product of the PAPS cofactor, adenosine-3{prime}-5{prime}-diphosphate (PAP).

  2. Inflammatory mediators accelerate metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in rat alveolar type II cells: the role of enhanced cytochrome P450 1B1 expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmerdová, Lenka; Neča, J.; Svobodová, J.; Topinka, Jan; Schmuczerová, Jana; Kubík, A.; Machala, M.; Vondráček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 1 (2013), s. 30-38 ISSN 0300-483X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0142 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) MZE0002716202; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/1227 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : inflammation * CYP1B1 * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.745, year: 2013

  3. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    , experts are increasingly looking at its potential impacts on coasts to facilitate local adaptation planning. This is a more complex issue than one might think, because different stretches of coast can be affected in very different ways. First of all, the sea-level response to global warming will not be globally uniform, since factors like changes in ocean currents (Levermann et al 2005) and the changing gravitational pull of continental ice (Mitrovica et al 2001) affect the local rise. Secondly, superimposed on the climatic trend is natural variability in sea level, which regionally can be as large as the climatic signal on multi-decadal timescales. Over the past decades, sea level has dropped in sizable parts of the world ocean, although it has of course risen in global mean (IPCC 2007). Thirdly, local land uplift or subsidence affects the local sea-level change relative to the coast, both for natural reasons (post-glacial isostatic adjustment centred on regions that were covered by ice sheets during the last ice age) and artificial ones (e.g., extraction of water or oil as in the Gulf of Mexico). Finally, local vulnerability to sea-level rise depends on many factors. Two interesting new studies in this journal (Tebaldi et al 2012, Strauss et al 2012) make important steps towards understanding sea-level vulnerability along the coasts of the United States, with methods that could also be applied elsewhere. The first, by Strauss and colleagues, merges high-resolution topographic data and a newly available tidal model together with population and housing data in order to estimate what land area and population would be at risk given certain increments in sea level. The results are mapped and tabulated at county and city level. They reveal the 'hot spots' along the US coast where sea-level rise is of the highest concern because of large populations living near the high-tide line: New York City and Long Island; the New Jersey shore; the Norfolk, Virginia, area; near Charleston

  4. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs by nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various human tissue-derived cells: chemical-, cytochrome P450 isoform-, and cell-specific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwanari, M.; Nakajima, M.; Yokoi, T. [Div. of Drug Metabolism, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan); Kizu, R.; Hayakawa, K. [Lab. of Hygienic Chemistry, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and ambient air. NPAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to have mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine-disruptive effects. In the present study, the inducibility of the human cytochrome P450-1 (CYP1) family by NPAHs was compared with those produced by their parent PAHs and some reductive metabolites, amino-PAHs. Furthermore, to investigate the differences in the inducibility of the CYP1 family in human tissues, various human tissue-derived cell lines, namely HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), ACHN (renal carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), LS-180 (colon carcinoma), HT-1197 (bladder carcinoma), HeLa (cervix of uterus adenocarcinoma), OMC-3 (ovarian carcinoma), and NEC14 (testis embryonal carcinoma), were treated with NPAHs, PAHs, or amino-PAHs. The mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were determined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cell lines were classified into two groups: CYP1 inducible cell lines, comprising HepG2, MCF-7, LS-180, and OMC-3 cells, and CYP1 non-inducible cell lines, comprising ACHN, A549, HT-1197, HeLa, and NEC14 cells. In inducible cell lines, the induction profile of chemical specificity was similar for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, although the extent of induction differed among the cell lines and for the CYP isoforms. Pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1-aminopyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrenes slightly induced CYP1 mRNAs, but 1,3-dinitropyrene produced a 6-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. 2-Nitrofluoranthene and 3-nitrofluoranthene exhibited stronger inducibility than fluoranthene in the inducible cell lines. 6-Nitrochrysene induced CYP1 mRNAs to the same extent or more potently than chrysene. The induction potencies of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were weaker than those of their parents benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene, respectively. This

  5. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists in the isolated middle cerebral artery of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Løvland Hoel, Natalie; Nilsson, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    perfused. Luminally added 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), sumatriptan and rizatriptan induced maximal dilatations of 22 +/- 4, 10 +/- 2 and 13 +/- 5%, respectively, compared to the resting diameter. The relaxant effect of sumatriptan was blocked by the 5- HT(1B/1D) receptor selective antagonist GR 55562 (10......The vasomotor effects of triptans in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats were studied using the pressurised arteriography method and in vitro vessel baths. Using the arteriograph, MCAs from Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted on two glass micropipettes, pressurised to 85 mm Hg and luminally...... response to 5-HT and triptans. Using the vessel bath technique, MCA segments were mounted on two metal wires. The relaxant responses to sumatriptan could not be reproduced using this model; instead, weak contractile responses (6 +/- 3% of submaximal contractile capacity) were observed. The difference...

  6. Are There Dangerous Levels of Lead in Local Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, I.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to show that comparing random soil samples from areas in New Orleans; the Garden District will have the highest levels of lead in soil. My Independent variable was the soil samples collected from locations in the Garden District area of New Orleans, and other locations throughout New Orleans. The control was the soil samples collected from the local playground in the New Orleans area. My dependent variable was the lead soil test kit, using ppm (parts per million) of lead to show concentration. 400 ppm + in bare soil where children play is considered dangerous hazard levels. 1,000 + ppm in all other areas is considered dangerous hazard levels. The first step to my experiment, I collected soil samples from different locations throughout the Garden District area of New Orleans. The second step to my experiment, I conducted the lead soil testing in a controlled area at home in a well ventilated room, using all the necessary safety equipment needed, I began testing a 24 hour test period and a 48 hour test period. I then collected the data from both test. The results showed that soil samples from the Garden District area compared to the other sample locations had higher lead concentrations in the soil. This backed my hypothesis when comparing soil samples from areas in New Orleans, the Garden District will have the highest lead levels. In conclusion these experiments showed that with the soil samples collected, there were higher concentrations of lead in the soil from the Garden District area compared to the other areas where soil was collected. Reconstruction and renovations, from the devastation that Hurricane Katrina created, are evident of the lead in paint of older homes which now show the lead concentration in the soil. Lead is a lethal element if consumed or inhaled in high doses, which can damage key organs in our body, which can be deadly. Better awareness through social media, television, radio, doctors, studies, pamphlets

  7. Managing transition towards energy efficient housing at the local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    2010-01-01

    regulation in several European countries, the general picture remains that existing regimes in the building sector are withheld and that little innovation in terms of new radical energy efficient solutions is taking place. In order to dissolve such a deadlock in the building sector, there is a need to target...... the capability to coordinate and facilitate this complex transition process. The local scale of policy-formulation has been chosen in this paper in order to describe transition processes from the perspective of practitioners, who are hands on the specific building projects. The local scale provides an in......-depth study of how specific practitioners, such as local planning authorities, building firms, building developers, technical experts and suppliers, interact and coordinate their efforts in the local arena of a specific building project (within a more general framework). The focus on the local scale allows...

  8. Translating National Level Forest Service Goals to Local Level Land Management: Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, S.; Treasure, E.

    2017-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service has many national level policies related to multiple use management. However, translating national policy to stand level forest management can be difficult. As an example of how a national policy can be put into action, we examined three case studies in which a desired future condition is evaluated at the national, region and local scale. We chose to use carbon sequestration as the desired future condition because climate change has become a major area of concern during the last decade. Several studies have determined that the 193 million acres of US national forest land currently sequester 11% to 15% of the total carbon emitted as a nation. This paper provides a framework by which national scale strategies for maintaining or enhancing forest carbon sequestration is translated through regional considerations and local constraints in adaptive management practices. Although this framework used the carbon sequestration as a case study, this framework could be used with other national level priorities such as the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) or the Endangered Species Act (ESA).

  9. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  10. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  11. Comparison of genetic variations of the SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1 genes among five ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Suhg; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Na, Han Sung; Koh, In Song; Chung, Myeon Woo; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2015-11-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP; gene symbol, SLCO) transporters are generally involved in the uptake of multiple drugs and their metabolites at most epithelial barriers. The pattern of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these transporters may be determinants of interindividual variability in drug disposition and response. The objective of this study was to define the distribution of SNPs of three SLCO genes, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1, in a Korean population and other ethnic groups. The study was screened using the Illumina GoldenGate assay for genomic DNA from 450 interethnic subjects, including 11 pharmacogenetic core variants and 76 HapMap tagging SNPs. The genotype distribution of the Korean population was similar to East Asian populations, but significantly different from African American and European American cohorts. These interethnic differences will be useful information for prospective studies, including genetic association and pharmacogenetic studies of drug metabolism by SLCO families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Budgeting at Local Government Level: Preparation, Problems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Budgeting process is central to any administration be it local, state or federal public or private because control of the purse is perhaps the most effective tool of coordination. The scope and nature of the entire governmental operations is determined by the allocation of appropriation to the various programmes. In fact human ...

  13. Motivations for Local Climate Adaptation in Dutch Municipalities: Climate Change Impacts and the Role of Local-Level Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2009-01-01

    The local government level is considered to be crucial in preparing society for climate change impact. Yet little is known about why local authorities do or do not take action to adapt their community for climate change impacts. In order to implement effective adaptation policy, the motivations for

  14. Aflatoxin Levels in Locally Grown Maize from Makueni District, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Investigations were carried out to determine aflatoxin levels in household maize in Makueni District and to correlate aflatoxin levels to maize drying and storage practices. Also, aflatoxin exposure in villages that reported aflatoxicosis cases in 2005 was compared with that in villages that did not report cases to ...

  15. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found ...

  16. Climate change adapatation response at local government level

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The climate change response policy gives the mandate to all municipalities and other levels of government to develop and implement climate chnage adaptation response. The availability of appropriate information is essential for this process...

  17. Physicochemical Characteristics and Trace Metal Levels of Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Results from this study showed that the industrial and human activities in this study ... health hazard to their well water, and are therefore fit for their domestic activities. ... Bangladesh were natural levels of arsenic in ground ... This problem of.

  18. In Conversation: David Brooks on Water Scarcity and Local-level ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-26

    Nov 26, 2010 ... While sound water management requires action from all levels, ... Local management is certainly an essential component in managing the world's water crisis. ... case studies that show the promise of local water management.

  19. Differential involvement of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in human interferon-alpha-induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Luyong

    2010-01-01

    Although Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha, CAS 9008-11-1) is a powerful drug in treating several viral infections and certain tumors, a considerable amount of neuropsychiatric side-effects such as depression and anxiety are an unavoidable consequence. Combination with the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (CAS 56296-78-7) significantly improved the situation. However, the potential 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor-signals involved in the antidepressant effects are still unclear. The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor signals were analyzed by using the mouse forced swimming test (FST), a predictive test of antidepressant-like action. The present results indicated that (1) fluoxetine (administrated intragastrically, 30 mg/kg; not subactive dose: 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the forced swimming test; (2) 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands alone or in combination had no effects on IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the FST; (3) surprisingly, WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 634908-75-1) and 8-OH-DPAT(5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, CAS 78950-78-4) markedly enhanced the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine at the subactive dose (15 mg/kg, i. g.) on the IFN-alpha-treated mice in the FST. Further investigations showed that fluoxetine combined with WAY 100635 and 8-OH-DPAT failed to produce antidepressant effects in the FST. (4) Co-application of CGS 12066A (5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CAS 109028-09-3) or GR 127935 (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, CAS 148642-42-6) with fluoxetine had no synergistic effects on the IFN-alpha-induced increase of immobility time in FST. (5) Interestingly, co-administration of GR 127935, WAY 100635 and fluoxetine significantly reduced the IFN-alpha-induced increase in immobility time of FST, being more effective than co-administration of WAY 100635 and fluoxetine. All results suggest that (1) compared to

  20. SLCO1B1 and SLC19A1 gene variants and irinotecan-induced rapid response and survival: a prospective multicenter pharmacogenetics study of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huang

    Full Text Available Rapid response to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC patients (response within 12 weeks of chemotherapy may increase the chance of complete resection and improved survival. Few molecular markers predict irinotecan-induced rapid response and survival. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in solute carrier genes are reported to correlate with the variable pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and folate in cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the predictive role of 3 SNPs in mCRC patients treated with irinotecan and fluoropyrimidine-containing regimens.Three SNPs were selected and genotyped in 137 mCRC patients from a Chinese prospective multicenter trial (NCT01282658. The chi-squared test, univariate and multivariable logistic regression model, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate correlations between the genotypes and rapid response. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between genotypes and survival outcomes. Benjamini and Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction was used in multiple testing.Genotype GA/AA of SNP rs2306283 of the gene SLCO1B1 and genotype GG of SNP rs1051266 of the gene SLC19A1 were associated with a higher rapid response rate (odds ratio [OR] =3.583 and 3.521, 95%CI =1.301-9.871 and 1.271-9.804, p=0.011 and p=0.013, respectively. The response rate was 70% in patients with both genotypes, compared with only 19.7% in the remaining patients (OR = 9.489, 95%CI = 2.191-41.093, Fisher's exact test p=0.002. Their significances were all maintained even after multiple testing (all p c < 0.05. The rs2306283 GA/AA genotype was also an independent prognostic factor of longer progression-free survival (PFS (hazard ratio = 0.402, 95%CI = 0.171-0.945, p=0.037. None of the SNPs predicted overall survival.Polymorphisms of solute carriers' may be useful to predict rapid response to irinotecan plus fluoropyrimidine and PFS in m

  1. Establishment of local Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  2. GENERATION Y: INTERCONNECTED AT LOCAL LEVEL WITH ROMANIAN ENTREPRENEURIAL TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Georgiana CIOBANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is now recognized as the fundamental economic basis for development of the country. It is considered as an active, determinant and orientated factor of the development of national economy.International business circles approach entrepreneurship as the driving force, aspiring towards globalization, ensuring the flow of goods and services. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of Romanian entrepreneurial ecosystem as well as motivating and supporting Generation Y in developing entrepreneurial initiative. Small Businesses represent the future of Romania. Own business offers the opportunity to express abilities and talent, for the application of the professional experience, for personal development. The purpose of this scientific approach is to propose a comprehensive analysis through a questionnaire distributed to the representatives of Generation Y from “Stefan cel Mare” University of Suceava. The survey had 118 respondentsbetween 20-35 years old,students of local University,of which were validated only 100 questionnaires and followed the way the younger Generation Y, regards entrepreneurship as a possible launch rail, on the labor market or even more, if it has been involved in the development of business environment,supporting and generating start-ups and designing trends and policies to encourage the prospective young entrepreneurs.

  3. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  4. Local Level Perception of Corruption: An Anthropological Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewanta Kattel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying problem of corruption in Nepal at the micro level stems from the 'capture' of the sustainable number of the policies and implementing rules and regulations of the different laws by vested interests. The long standing collusion between political parties and government officials has resulted in a destructed economy that favors private economic interests over the broader public goods. The situation is compounded by the patterns of non transparent and illegitimate practice that sustain the culture of corruption. Sources of income for individual and employees are unregulated and often arbitrarily determined through the patronage system that is link to the culture of silence underpinning such patronage. The role of civil society is to controlling corruption by working at the grass roots political and bureaucratic, and legal judicial level. Key words: Civil society; problem; power; judicial; corruption DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2785 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 163-174

  5. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  6. Individuals with Asperger’s Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    OpenAIRE

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger’s disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger’s disorder and 11 age- and gendermatched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navontype hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger’s disorder exhibited difficulty in switchi...

  7. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  8. Fluoroscopy in paediatric fractures - Setting a local diagnostic reference level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, A.; McAuley, A.; McMurray, K.; Jain, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The ionizing radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulation 2000 has made it mandatory to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations. Objectives: We attempt to provide dose data for some common fluoroscopic procedures used in orthopaedic trauma that may be used as the basis for setting DRLs for paediatric patients. Materials and methods: The dose area product (DAP) in 865 paediatric trauma examinations was analysed. Median DAP values and screening times for each procedure type along with quartile values for each range are presented. Results: In the upper limb, elbow examinations had maximum exposure with a median DAP value of 1.21 cGy cm 2 . Median DAP values for forearm and wrist examinations were 0.708 and 0.538 cGy cm 2 , respectively. In lower limb, tibia and fibula examinations had a median DAP value of 3.23 cGy cm 2 followed by ankle examinations with a median DAP of 3.10 cGy cm 2 . The rounded third quartile DAP value for each distribution can be used as a provisional DRL for the specific procedure type. (authors)

  9. Age-Related Change in Shifting Attention between Global and Local Levels of Hierarchical Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Mariette; Burack, Jacob A.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was the developmental pattern of the ability to shift attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. Children aged 7 years and 11 years and 21-year-old adults were administered a task (two experiments) that allowed for the examination of 1) the direction of attention to global or local stimulus levels;…

  10. Negotiating rural tourism development at the local level : a case study in Pisece, Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbole, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the

  11. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    OpenAIRE

    Massey Peter D; Durrheim David N; Stephens Nicola; Christensen Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local ar...

  12. The Size of Local Government Administration at a Municipal Level as a Determinant of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusłan Harasym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This artcle’s aim is to examine a dependency between local government administraton at a municipal level and the level of local entrepreneurship. This paper atempts to answer the queston of whether the size of the local government administraton has features of stmulant or de-stmulant in the process of setng up a business. In other words, does the size of public administraton at a local level (municipal level have a positve or negatve impact on creatng new business enttes? This is important due to at least a couple of reasons. First of all, the current research achievements are not extensive, when it comes to the publicatons that link entrepreneurship and the size of local government administraton. Secondly, the problem of entrepreneurship determinants consttutes stll topical and not fully investgated (or explained aspects of local economy development. Thirdly and fnally, the authors of this artcle have proposed and copyrighted an approach to the quantfcaton of the size of local government administraton, modifying commonly used measures of local public administraton. Thus, this artcle fts not only into the explanaton of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its determinants, but also contributes to the development of knowledge about dependencies between the size of local selfgovernment and the entrepreneurship level. It expands the knowledge resource on analyzed dependencies and re-orients current approaches to similar research.

  13. Survey of familial glaucoma shows a high incidence of cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in non-consanguineous congenital forms in a Spanish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millá, Elena; Mañé, Begoña; Duch, Susana; Hernan, Imma; Borràs, Emma; Planas, Ester; Dias, Miguel de Sousa; Carballo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in a Spanish population with different clinical forms of familial glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods Index patients from 226 families participated in this study. Patients were diagnosed with familial glaucoma or OHT by complete ophthalmologic examination. Screening for MYOC mutations was performed in 207 index patients: 96 with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 21 with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), 18 with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), five with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), and 67 with other types of glaucoma. One hundred two of the families (including all those in whom a MYOC mutation was detected) were also screened for CYP1B1 mutations: 45 POAG, 25 PCG, 21 JOAG, four ARS, and seven others. Results We examined 292 individuals (patients and relatives) with a positive family history of glaucoma or OHT. We identified two novel MYOC variants, p.Lys39Arg and p.Glu218Lys, in two families with POAG, and six previously reported MYOC mutations in seven families with POAG (four), JOAG (one), PCG (one), and normotensive glaucoma (one). CYP1B1 mutations were found in 16 index patients with PCG (nine), POAG (three), JOAG (two), and ARS (two). Conclusions The high percentage (9/25=36%) of mutations in CYP1B1 found in non-consanguineous patients with congenital glaucoma mandates genetic testing. However, the percentage of mutations (9/207=4.4%) in MYOC associated with glaucoma is relatively low in our population. The variable phenotype expression of glaucoma, even in families, cannot be explained with a digenic mechanism between MYOC and CYP1B1. PMID:23922489

  14. TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner Calibrated Radiances L1B 1.5 hours V7 (TRMM_1B01) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) Level 1B Calibrated Radiance Product (1B01) contains calibrated radiances and auxiliary geolocation information from...

  15. Two-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Ping; Ge Qiang; Ruan Yu-Hua; Yu Ben-Li

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via probe absorption in a coherently driven four-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of 2D atom localization can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization

  16. Participation of the Neighborhood Representatives (Mukhtars into Managerial Activities in Local Level: Burdur Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa LAMBA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood representatives (mukhtars are the nearest administrative units to citizens in local level. It is required to take advantage of that the neighborhood representatives know their districts and residents better than central and local government authorities. In addition, it will be appropriate to the principles of subsidiarity and the European Charter of Local Self Government to determine problems and demands of neighborhoods by their representatives. It is necessary to maintain communication channels and keep close relations with neighborhood representatives by local governments to use that advantage efficiently. It is aimed in this study to determine the participation level of neighborhood representatives into managerial activities in local level. For that purpose, the neighborhood representatives in the center of Burdur province are included in the research. According to the findings, it has been determined that the neighborhood representatives have participated into various activities without experiencing any difficulty, and they have been informed about the services regarding to their neighborhoods, and they have kept close relationship with central and local administrations, and most of them could communicate with local authorities directly. Therefore, it has been concluded that the neighborhood representatives have been influential enough in decision-making mechanisms in local level in Burdur.

  17. Fact or fiction? An empirical analysis of cooperation between mass sport providers at the local level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Vos; Jeroen Scheerder

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores inter-organisational relationships, in terms of cooperation, between three main types of sport providers at the local level: voluntary sport clubs, for-profit fitness and health clubs, and local sports authorities. Both withinand cross-sector cooperation are analysed and related

  18. A local level set method based on a finite element method for unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Long Cu; Choi, Hyoung Gwon

    2016-01-01

    A local level set method for unstructured meshes has been implemented by using a finite element method. A least-square weighted residual method was employed for implicit discretization to solve the level set advection equation. By contrast, a direct re-initialization method, which is directly applicable to the local level set method for unstructured meshes, was adopted to re-correct the level set function to become a signed distance function after advection. The proposed algorithm was constructed such that the advection and direct reinitialization steps were conducted only for nodes inside the narrow band around the interface. Therefore, in the advection step, the Gauss–Seidel method was used to update the level set function using a node-by-node solution method. Some benchmark problems were solved by using the present local level set method. Numerical results have shown that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in terms of computational time

  19. A local level set method based on a finite element method for unstructured meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Long Cu; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A local level set method for unstructured meshes has been implemented by using a finite element method. A least-square weighted residual method was employed for implicit discretization to solve the level set advection equation. By contrast, a direct re-initialization method, which is directly applicable to the local level set method for unstructured meshes, was adopted to re-correct the level set function to become a signed distance function after advection. The proposed algorithm was constructed such that the advection and direct reinitialization steps were conducted only for nodes inside the narrow band around the interface. Therefore, in the advection step, the Gauss–Seidel method was used to update the level set function using a node-by-node solution method. Some benchmark problems were solved by using the present local level set method. Numerical results have shown that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in terms of computational time.

  20. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This ana...

  1. Scheme of 2-dimensional atom localization for a three-level atom via quantum coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Sajjad; Ahmed, Rizwan; Khan, M. Khalid

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization in a three-level atomic system. The scheme is based on quantum coherence via classical standing wave fields between the two excited levels. Our results show that conditional position probability is significantly phase dependent of the applied field and frequency detuning of spontaneously emitted photons. We obtain a single localization peak having probability close to unity by manipulating the control parameters. The effect of ato...

  2. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    (2001 power rural town councils on order, including the management of land use, land narrowed to only settlements. This led to the decline in land management activities performed. Also, due to lack of funding work on complex land use of rational use of land and their health are not implemented. This land use agricultural land use, which functioned until 1990 was destroyed, and new forms of the rational internal build area to date has not been established. According to Art. 130 Land Code of Ukraine emptive right to purchase agricultural land are citizens ofUkraine, permanently residing in the territory of the local council, where the sale of land, as well as relevant local authorities. However, the status of territory of the local council in land law is not defined. No separation of state and municipal property without development of land management projects within the areas of village councils to streamline land farms has created a number of problems of forecasting, planning and organization of rational use and protection of land at local and economic levels, and therefore financially stable communities. Thus, the importance and role of land management at the local level in the development of local communities land use at this stage of development of land relations is growing. But it needs to speed up recovery (existing before the adoption of the Land Code of Ukraine in 2001 the powers of local communities in the sphere of land relations.

  3. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Dani, E-mail: danib@techunix.technion.ac.il [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ayalon, Ofira [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Kan, Iddo [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  4. mRNA expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B, 1D, and 1F receptors and their role in controlling the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, Dipak V; Ploug, Kenneth B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Triptans, a family of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1B, 1D, and 1F receptor agonists, are used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. The site of action and subtypes of the 5-HT(1) receptor that mediate the antimigraine effect have still to be identified. This study investigated the mRNA expres......Triptans, a family of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1B, 1D, and 1F receptor agonists, are used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. The site of action and subtypes of the 5-HT(1) receptor that mediate the antimigraine effect have still to be identified. This study investigated the m......RNA expression of these receptors and the role of 5-HT(1) receptor subtypes in controlling the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat dura mater, trigeminal ganglion (TG), and trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). The mRNA for each receptor subtype was quantified by quantitative real...

  5. Protein kinase mediated upregulation of endothelin A, endothelin B and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D receptors during organ culture in rat basilar artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Svensson, Carl-Lennart; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2002-01-01

    with ET-1 (unspecific ET(A) and ET(B) agonist), S6c (specific ET(B) agonist) and 5-CT (5-HT(1) agonist). Levels of mRNA coding for the ET(A), ET(B), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors were analysed using real-time RT-PCR. 3. Classical PKC's are critically involved in the appearance of the ET(B) receptor; co....... 2. The effect of inhibiting protein kinases during organ culture with staurosporine (unspecific protein kinase inhibitor), RO 31-7549 (specific inhibitor of classical PKC's) and H 89 (specific inhibitor of PKA) was examined using in vitro pharmacological examination of cultured vessel segments......-culture with RO 31-7549 abolished the contractile response (6.9 +/- 1.8%) and reduced the ET(B) receptor mRNA by 44 +/- 4% as compared to the cultured control. Correlation between decreased ET(B) receptor mRNA and abolished contractile function indicates upstream involvement of PKC. 4. Inhibition of PKA generally...

  6. Theoretical Aspects of Optimizing the Allocation of Public Financial Resources at Local Level

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DOGARIU

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of financial resources at local, but also at central level, is an issue especially since in times of crisis, finding the optimum way to spend public funds concerns all authorities. This paper aims to identify the ways in which, by leaving from the division of powers based on the allocation of resources and tools available, the local authorities can identify an optimal level of public expenditure so as to achieve a maximum level of using them. Also, the paper seeks to identify t...

  7. Level set segmentation of medical images based on local region statistics and maximum a posteriori probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenchao; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao; Fan, Yangyu; Feng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a variational level set method for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different tissue in local regions are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. According to maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and Bayes' rule, we first derive a local objective function for image intensities in a neighborhood around each pixel. Then this local objective function is integrated with respect to the neighborhood center over the entire image domain to give a global criterion. In level set framework, this global criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved via a level set evolution process. Experimental results for synthetic and real images show desirable performances of our method.

  8. Local and Regional Partnerships in Natural Resource Management: The Challenge of Bridging Institutional Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Although collaboration and multi-stakeholder partnerships have become a common feature in natural resource management throughout the world, various problems are associated with attempts to up-scale community-based natural resource management from the local to the regional level. To analyze the reasons behind these problems, this article reports on two examples of collaboratives in Australia: local Landcare groups, and regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies. Recent government-induced changes have shifted the focus from local Landcare group action to strategic planning and implementation by regional NRM bodies. Two typologies of collaboratives are applied to analyze the characteristics of both these groups. The study uses data from 52 qualitative interviews with key informants at the local and regional level in Victoria and Tasmania, participant observation, as well as literature and document analysis. The article illustrates how the groups’ distinct characteristics can cause conflicts when the different types of collaboratives operate in parallel. In addition, the article reports how stakeholders perceive the level of community participation in decision-making processes. The key message is that the benefits of community participation and collaboration that arise at the local level can be lost when these approaches are up-scaled to the regional level unless there is an intermediary or ‘mediating structure’ to facilitate communication and create the link between different types of collaboratives.

  9. A Variational Level Set Approach Based on Local Entropy for Image Segmentation and Bias Field Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Jiang, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation has always been a considerable challenge in image analysis and understanding due to the intensity inhomogeneity, which is also commonly known as bias field. In this paper, we present a novel region-based approach based on local entropy for segmenting images and estimating the bias field simultaneously. Firstly, a local Gaussian distribution fitting (LGDF) energy function is defined as a weighted energy integral, where the weight is local entropy derived from a grey level distribution of local image. The means of this objective function have a multiplicative factor that estimates the bias field in the transformed domain. Then, the bias field prior is fully used. Therefore, our model can estimate the bias field more accurately. Finally, minimization of this energy function with a level set regularization term, image segmentation, and bias field estimation can be achieved. Experiments on images of various modalities demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method when compared with other state-of-the-art approaches.

  10. Atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission in a five-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Yu Benli; Zhu Jun; Cao Zhigang; Zhen Shenglai; Wu Xuqiang; Xu Feng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the one- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in a coherently driven five-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of atom localization behaviors can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. More importantly, the two-dimensional atom localization patterns reveal that the maximal probability of finding an atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the standing waves can reach unity when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization. - Highlights: ► One- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in five-level atoms are investigated. ► An assisting radio-frequency field is used to control the atom localization behaviors. ► High-precision and high-resolution two-dimensional atom localization can be realized in this scheme.

  11. Urbanization and health in China, thinking at the national, local and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhu; Song, Jinchao; Lin, Tao; Dixon, Jane; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Hong

    2016-03-08

    China has the biggest population in the world, and has been experiencing the largest migration in history, and its rapid urbanization has profound and lasting impacts on local and national public health. Under these conditions, a systems understanding on the correlation among urbanization, environmental change and public health and to devise solutions at national, local and individual levels are in urgent need. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of recent studies which have examined the relationship between urbanization, urban environmental changes and human health in China. Based on the review, coupled with a systems understanding, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for promoting the health and wellbeing of the whole nation at national, local, and individual levels. Urbanization and urban expansion result in urban environmental changes, as well as residents' lifestyle change, which can lead independently and synergistically to human health problems. China has undergone an epidemiological transition, shifting from infectious to chronic diseases in a much shorter time frame than many other countries. Environmental risk factors, particularly air and water pollution, are a major contributing source of morbidity and mortality in China. Furthermore, aging population, food support system, and disparity of public service between the migrant worker and local residents are important contributions to China's urban health. At the national level, the central government could improve current environmental policies, food safety laws, and make adjustments to the health care system and to demographic policy. At the local level, local government could incorporate healthy life considerations in urban planning procedures, make improvements to the local food supply, and enforce environmental monitoring and management. At the individual level, urban residents can be exposed to education regarding health behaviour choices while being encouraged to take

  12. Application of urban neighborhoods in understanding of local level electricity consumption patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Aggregated national or regional level electricity consumption data fail to capture the spatial variation in consumption, a function of location, climate, topography, and local economics. Spatial monitoring of electricity usage patterns helps to understand derivers of location specific consumption behavior and develop models to cater to the consumer needs, plan efficiency measures, identify settled areas lacking access, and allows for future planning through assessing requirements. Developed countries have started to deploy sensor systems such as smart meters to gather information on local level consumption patterns, but such infrastructure is virtually nonexistent in developing nations, resulting in serious dearth of reliable data for planners and policy makers. Remote sensing of artificial nighttime lights from human settlements have proven useful to study electricity consumptions from global to regional scales, however, local level studies remain scarce. Using the differences in spatial characteristics among different urban neighborhoods such as industrial, commercial and residential, observable through very high resolution day time satellite images (lights observations, which we use as a proxy for electricity consumption in the absence of ground level consumption data. The overall trends observed through this analysis provides useful explanations helping in understanding of broad electricity consumption patterns in urban areas lacking ground level observations. This study thus highlights possible application of remote sensing data driven methods in providing novel insights into local level socio-economic patterns that were hitherto undetected due to lack of ground data.

  13. Visual arts training is linked to flexible attention to local and global levels of visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-10-01

    Observational drawing skill has been shown to be associated with the ability to focus on local visual details. It is unclear whether superior performance in local processing is indicative of the ability to attend to, and flexibly switch between, local and global levels of visual stimuli. It is also unknown whether these attentional enhancements remain specific to observational drawing skill or are a product of a wide range of artistic activities. The current study aimed to address these questions by testing if flexible visual processing predicts artistic group membership and observational drawing skill in a sample of first-year bachelor's degree art students (n=23) and non-art students (n=23). A pattern of local and global visual processing enhancements was found in relation to artistic group membership and drawing skill, with local processing ability found to be specifically related to individual differences in drawing skill. Enhanced global processing and more fluent switching between local and global levels of hierarchical stimuli predicted both drawing skill and artistic group membership, suggesting that these are beneficial attentional mechanisms for art-making in a range of domains. These findings support a top-down attentional model of artistic expertise and shed light on the domain specific and domain-general attentional enhancements induced by proficiency in the visual arts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Local Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Level Determines Early Clinical Presentation of ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Taruya, Akira; Emori, Hiroki; Ozaki, Yuichi; Orii, Makoto; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Yamano, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ino, Yasushi; Kubo, Takashi; Hozumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasushi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Early clinical presentation of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction affects patient management. Although local inflammatory activities are involved in the onset of MI, little is known about their impact on early clinical presentation. This study aimed to investigate whether local inflammatory activities affect early clinical presentation. This study comprised 94 and 17 patients with MI (STEMI, 69; non-STEMI, 25) and stable angina pectoris, respectively. We simultaneously investigated the culprit lesion morphologies using optical coherence tomography and inflammatory activities assessed by shedding matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and myeloperoxidase into the coronary circulation before and after stenting. Prevalence of plaque rupture, thin-cap fibroatheroma, and lipid arc or macrophage count was higher in patients with STEMI and non-STEMI than in those with stable angina pectoris. Red thrombus was frequently observed in STEMI compared with others. Local MMP-9 levels were significantly higher than systemic levels (systemic, 42.0 [27.9-73.2] ng/mL versus prestent local, 69.1 [32.2-152.3] ng/mL versus poststent local, 68.0 [35.6-133.3] ng/mL; Pclinical presentation in patients with MI. Local inflammatory activity for atherosclerosis needs increased attention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  16. Three-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a cascade four-level atomic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For an atomic system with cascade four-level type, a useful scheme about three-dimensional (3D atom localization is proposed. In our scheme the atomic system is coherently controlled by using a radio-frequency field to couple with two-folded levels under the condition of the existence of probe absorption. Our results show that detecting precision of 3D atom localization may be obviously improved by properly adjusting the frequency detuning and strength of the radio-frequency driving field. So our scheme could be helpful to realize 3D atom localization with high-efficiency and high-precision . In the field of laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography, our studies provide potential applications.

  17. Three-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a cascade four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2018-03-01

    For an atomic system with cascade four-level type, a useful scheme about three-dimensional (3D) atom localization is proposed. In our scheme the atomic system is coherently controlled by using a radio-frequency field to couple with two-folded levels under the condition of the existence of probe absorption. Our results show that detecting precision of 3D atom localization may be obviously improved by properly adjusting the frequency detuning and strength of the radio-frequency driving field. So our scheme could be helpful to realize 3D atom localization with high-efficiency and high-precision . In the field of laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography, our studies provide potential applications.

  18. Linked expression of Ah receptor, ARNT, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 in rat mammary epithelia, in vitro, is each substantially elevated by specific extracellular matrix interactions that precede branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Michele Campaigne; Brake, Paul B; Pollenz, Richard S; Jefcoate, Colin R

    2004-11-01

    Cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1), the major constitutively expressed CYP in the rat mammary gland, is induced by Ah-receptor (AhR) ligands, while CYP1A1 is predominantly expressed only after induction. These CYPs contribute to carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). AhR, ARNT, and CYP1B1 were only weakly expressed, even after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induction, when rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) were cultured on plastic. RMEC cultured on the extracellular matrix (ECM), Matrigel, or on a floating gel of collagen I demonstrated branching morphogenesis and substantially increased basal CYP1B1 and induced CYP1A1 expression, in parallel with large increases in AhR and ARNT expression. Branching was more pronounced in the Wistar Kyoto than in the Wistar Furth rat strain. Although EGF enhanced branching, neither strain nor growth factor treatment substantially impacted CYP expression. Increased AhR and ARNT expression is observed within 24 h of dispersal on Matrigel, substantially prior to branch formation. Culture on thin layers of collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin, respectively, failed to reproduce the branching morphogenesis or increases in AhR, ARNT, or CYP expression. However, adherent, gelled collagen I recapitulated the increased protein expression, without supporting branching. This increased protein expression was closely paralleled by enhanced expression of beta-catenin and E-cadherin, components of cell-cell adhesion complexes. A synthetic peptide that selectively antagonizes integrin-ECM interactions reduced branch formation, without diminishing AhR, ARNT, and CYP expression. These data demonstrate that early ECM surface adhesion interactions mediate AhR and ARNT expression, which enhances CYP expression, independent of branching morphogenesis.

  19. The Use of Information by Policymakers at the Local Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Evelyn; DeMartini, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of decision making focuses on a study that was conducted to examine how policymakers at the local community level use social science information in making decisions. The use of social science information and other information sources in two communities examining health care issues is described. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  20. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions ...

  1. Localization of a two-level atom via the absorption spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Hu, Xiang-Ming

    2007-01-01

    We show that it is possible to localize a two-level atom as it passes through a standing-wave field by measuring the probe-field absorption. There is 50% detecting probability of the atom at the nodes of the standing-wave field in the subwavelength domain when the probe field is tuned resonant with the atomic transition

  2. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    As public health concerns for populations living, working and going to school near high-traffic roadways have increased, so have the need to identify and implement air pollution control strategies effective at the local level. While strategies implemented at the federal and stat...

  3. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, I; Stone, J; Mechelli, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Raffin, M; Allen, P; Fusar-Poli, P; Lythgoe, D; O'Gorman, R; Seal, M; McGuire, P

    2011-01-01

    In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis.

  4. Participation in development activities at the local level : case studies from a Sri Lankan village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study is a sociological analysis of popular participation in local level development activities in Tegashena village in the Matara District, Sri Lanka. Social, economic, political and administrative factors that influence this process are identified.

    The study discusses how the

  5. Modelling of local/global architectures for second level trigger at the LHC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, Z.; Iwanski, W.; Korecyl, K.; Strong, J.

    1994-01-01

    Different architectures of the second level triggering system for experiments on LHC have been simulated. The basic scheme was local/global system with distributed computing power. As a tool the authors have used the object-oriented MODSIM II language

  6. Achieving local support for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.; Seidler, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how Illinois is progressing toward the goal of having a new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility in operation by the federally mandated milestone of January 1, 1993. To accomplish this task, Illinois has adopted a voluntary siting process. The voluntary siting process will be successful by definition only if a high level of local support can be achieved and sustained. A strong public participation program in conjunction with a comprehensive information and education program is essential to fostering the necessary local support. Many other elements are also needed throughout this process. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) has found that making grants to local governments, awarding scholarships for area students, enacting a comprehensive system of legislation and regulations, explaining the site identification and characterization program, describing facility design features, practicing a strong policy of buying and hiring locally, maintaining good relationships with local news media and building trust through personal relationships have all greatly contributed to support for the LLW program in the potential host communities

  7. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  8. Local and systemic oxidative stress and glucocorticoid receptor levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mian; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yujie; Lu, Guifang; Huang, Xiaomei; Guan, Kaipan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To study local and systemic oxidative stress status in COPD patients, and to clarify the relationship between local and systemic oxidative stress. METHODS: Lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels in induced sputum and plasma, as well as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral blood leukocytes were examined in 43 acute exacerbation of COPD patients (group A), 35 patients with stable COPD (group B) and 28 healthy controls (14 smokers [group C]; 14 nonsmokers [group D]). RESULTS: MDA levels in induced sputum and plasma decreased progressively in groups A to D, with significant differences between any two groups (P<0.001). GSH, SOD and GSH-PX levels in both induced sputum and plasma increased progressively in groups A to D, with significant differences between any two groups (P<0.001). GR levels in peripheral blood leukocytes decreased progressively in groups D to A (all comparisons P<0.001). Pearson analysis revealed strong correlations between MDA, GSH, SOD and GSH-PX levels in plasma and induced sputum. The activity of SOD in plasma and sputum were both positively correlated with GR levels (partial correlation coefficients 0.522 and 0.574, respectively [P<0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress levels were elevated in COPD patients. There was a correlation between local and systemic oxidative status in COPD, and between decreased SOD activity and decreased GR levels in COPD patients. PMID:23457673

  9. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE

  10. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE.

  11. The Working Conditions of Elite Politicians and Administrators at the National and Local Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Holm Pedersen, Lene; Bhatti, Yosef

    between family and work, exposure to the media, and harassment/threats against the politicians or their families. More than 70% of the ministers and mayors answered the survey. The surveys were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 3 ministers, 4 mayors and 5 top-administrators concerning the same...... exposed to harassment. Comparing the national and the local level politicians at the national level work longer hours, but surprisingly the politicians at the local level are equally much exposed to face-to-face harassment, though less to harassment on the social media. In comparison to the top...... politicians, the top administrators are less exposed to harassment. The implications of these results for the power balance between top politicians and administrators are discussed....

  12. Management of Sustainable Energy Efficient Development at the Local Level: Stakeholder-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horban Vasylyna B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There presented a theoretical rationale for the expediency of using the stakeholder-oriented approach to improve the process of management of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level. The evolution of theories by scientific schools that studied the concepts of «stakeholders» and «interested parties» is analyzed and generalized. A classification of types of stakeholders in the context of eighteen typological features is suggested, which allows to more effectively align their interests and contributes to establishing constructive forms of cooperation in order to achieve efficient final results. An algorithm of interaction with interested parties in achieving the goals of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level is elaborated. Typical motivational interests of stakeholders at the local level in the field of sustainable energy efficient development (on the example of Ukraine are identified. Instruments of prioritization of stakeholders depending on the life cycle stages of energy efficiency projects are proposed. The results obtained in the course of the research can be used to develop local energy efficient programs, business plans and feasibility studies for energy efficient projects.

  13. Expression Levels and Localizations of DVL3 and sFRP3 in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kafka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of critical molecular components of Wnt signaling, sFRP3 and DVL3, were investigated in glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumors, with the aim to offer potential biomarkers. The protein expression levels and localizations in tumor tissue were revealed by immunohistochemistry and evaluated by the semiquantitative method and immunoreactivity score. Majority of glioblastomas had moderate expression levels for both DVL3 (52.4% and sFRP3 (52.3%. Strong expression levels were observed in 23.1% and 36.0% of samples, respectively. DVL3 was localized in cytoplasm in 97% of glioblastomas, of which 44% coexpressed the protein in the nucleus. sFRP3 subcellular distribution showed that it was localized in the cytoplasm in 94% of cases. Colocalization in the cytoplasm and nucleus was observed in 50% of samples. Wilcox test indicated that the domination of the strong signal is in connection with simultaneous localization of DVL3 protein in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Patients with strong expression of DVL3 will significantly more often have the protein in the nucleus (P=6.33×10−5. No significant correlation between the two proteins was established, nor were their signal strengths correlated with epidemiological parameters. Our study contributes to better understanding of glioblastoma molecular profile.

  14. Determinants of FDI Localization in China: A County-Level Analysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su; Angelino, Antonio; Yin, Haitao; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-08-30

    Foreign direct investments (FDIs) have been widely recognized as a crucial feature of the Chinese industrial development process. Over the past decades, China has been attracting huge amounts of inward FDIs as a consequence of both spontaneous market dynamics and place-based preferential policies at the sub-national level. However, the Chinese market exhibits large dissimilarities in terms of FDI localization across territories that are worth investigating at a more disaggregated level. In this regards, our study explores the determinants of attraction of inward FDIs in China, at the county level. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and attempts to assess whether factors related to location advantages, agglomeration dynamics, information cost effects and environmental regulation costs affect foreign firms' localization choices as well as invested amounts in that location. By means of discrete choice models, our paper confirms the findings of the prevalent literature about the positive effects of location advantages on pharmaceutical FDI attraction. Different from our expectations, a higher proportion of foreign enterprises do not stimulate significant effects on FDI localization, while preferential policies and sectoral agglomeration are positively correlated with the localization of pharmaceutical foreign firms. Finally, our results suggest that investing firms tend to avoid areas with strict environment regulation.

  15. A Novel Feature-Level Data Fusion Method for Indoor Autonomous Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel feature-level data fusion method for autonomous localization in an inactive multiple reference unknown indoor environment. Since monocular sensors cannot provide the depth information directly, the proposed method incorporates the edge information of images from a camera with homologous depth information received from an infrared sensor. Real-time experimental results demonstrate that the accuracies of position and orientation are greatly improved by using the proposed fusion method in an unknown complex indoor environment. Compared to monocular localization, the proposed method is found to have up to 70 percent improvement in accuracy.

  16. 2D atom localization in a four-level tripod system in laser fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Rozhdestvensky, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization in a four-level tripod system under an influence of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Position information of the atom is retained in the atomic internal states by an additional probe field either of a standing or of a running wave. It is shown that the localization factors depend crucially on the atom-field coupling that results in such spatial structures of populations as spikes, craters and waves. We demonstrate a high-preci...

  17. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin modulates estradiol-induced aldehydic DNA lesions in human breast cancer cells through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Fang, Ju-Pin; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2015-05-01

    Many genes responsible for the bioactivation of endogenous estrogen to reactive quinonoid metabolites, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, are well-known target genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The purpose of this research was to investigate the roles of TCDD-mediated altered gene expression in the induction of aldehydic DNA lesions (ADLs) by 17β-estradiol (E2) in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that increases in the number of oxidant-mediated ADLs, including abasic sites and aldehydic base/sugar lesions, were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to E2. The DNA-damaging effects of E2 in MDA-MB-231 cells were prevented by pretreatment of cells with TCDD. In contrast, we did not observe statistically significant increases in the number of ADLs in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. However, with TCDD pretreatment, an approximately twofold increase in the number of ADLs was detected in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. TCDD pretreatment induces disparity in the disposition of E2 to reactive quinonoid metabolites and the subsequent formation of oxidative DNA lesions through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

  18. Serum testosterone levels after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether serum total testosterone levels change after external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five men with clinically localized prostate cancer (T1-T3, N0/NX, M0) who underwent external beam radiation therapy without androgen ablation had pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment total serum testosterone levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Scattered doses to the testicles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry in 10 men. Results: Pretreatment serum testosterone levels ranged from 185 to 783 ng/dl, with a mean of 400 ng/dl and a median of 390 ng/dl. The coefficient of variation was 30%. Postradiation 3-month testosterone levels ranged from 163 ng/dl to 796 ng/dl, with mean and median values of 356 ng/dl and 327 ng/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 34%. The 3-month value was significantly lower than the pretreatment value (Wilcoxon paired p = 0.0001). The mean absolute fall was 94 ng/dl and the mean percentage fall was 9%. Although the fall in testosterone level was statistically significant, the difference was very small quantitatively. In contrast, serum prostate-specific antigen levels fell dramatically by 3 months after radiation. Testicular scattered doses ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 Gy, with a mean of 2.07 Gy for a prostatic tumor dose of 68 Gy. Conclusions: Although significant, the fall in serum testosterone level after radiation for localized prostate cancer was small and likely of no pathophysiologic consequence. It is unlikely that scattered testicular radiation plays any significant role in the genesis of this change in testosterone level, which most likely occurs as a nonspecific stress response

  19. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  20. Three-dimensional atom localization via electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Cao, Dewei; Yu, Benli

    2016-05-01

    We present a new scheme for three-dimensional (3D) atom localization in a three-level atomic system via measuring the absorption of a weak probe field. Owing to the space-dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the probe absorption. It is found that, by properly varying the parameters of the system, the probability of finding the atom in 3D space can be almost 100%. Our scheme opens a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 3D atom localization, which provides some potential applications in laser cooling or atom nano-lithography via atom localization.

  1. Relationship between local cerebral glucose uptakes, serum prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol levels changes during epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang; Mao Xianghui; Tang Ganghua; Zhao Jun; Sun Aijun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation of local cerebral FDG uptake value of glucose to the changes of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol levels in serum during epilepsy. Methods: 76 epileptic patients with solitary epileptic focus were examined by 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the FDG uptake value of epileptic foci were measured. Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels of the patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) before and after seizures. Results: During ictal studies, all patients showed increased FDG uptake of epileptic foci compared with that in interictal phase. The serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significant higher after seizures. The changes of hormone levels correlated significantly with the lengths of seizure free intervals (SFIs) and with the types of seizures. But the variations of hormone levels had no relation with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci. In patients with absentia seizures, no significant increase was observed in serum PRL and cortisol levels. The changes of GH were not related with the types of seizures. Also, it was found that changes of hormone levels had significant relations to the lengths of SFIs. Conclusions: Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significantly different before and after seizures. This study suggests that changes of postictal hormone levels correlated significantly with the types of seizures and lengths of SFIs, but the changes of hormone levels are not related with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci

  2. Modelling the Health Impact of an English Sugary Drinks Duty at National and Local Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Collins

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence associates excess refined sugar intakes with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Worryingly, the estimated volume of sugary drinks purchased in the UK has more than doubled between 1975 and 2007, from 510 ml to 1140 ml per person per week. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of a duty on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs at a local level in England, hypothesising that a duty could reduce obesity and related diseases.We modelled the potential impact of a 20% sugary drinks duty on local authorities in England between 2010 and 2030. We synthesised data obtained from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, drinks manufacturers, Office for National Statistics, and from previous studies. This produced a modelled population of 41 million adults in 326 lower tier local authorities in England. This analysis suggests that a 20% SSB duty could result in approximately 2,400 fewer diabetes cases, 1,700 fewer stroke and coronary heart disease cases, 400 fewer cancer cases, and gain some 41,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs per year across England. The duty might have the biggest impact in urban areas with young populations.This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting health benefits for a duty on sugary drinks. It might also usefully provide results at an area level to inform local price interventions in England.

  3. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  4. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  5. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  6. The Effect of Cigarette Taxation on Prices: An Empirical Analysis Using Local-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    index (COLI) and from the Tax Burden on Tobacco ( TBT ) to measure the relative effects of city, county and state excise cigarette taxation on cigarette...Researchers Association (ACCRA) cost of living index (COLI) and from the Tax Burden on Tobacco ( TBT ) to measure the relative effects of city, county and...Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In addition to the local-level data, we utilize the Tax Burden on Tobacco ( TBT ) dataset to analyze

  7. An approach to local diagnostic reference levels (DRL's) in the context of national and international DRL's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater focus on the management of patient doses. This effort has been driven by the realisation of both the increasing magnitude of patient doses and their variation both intra- and inter-nationally. Legislators and guidance-issuing bodies have developed the idea of 'Diagnostic Reference Levels' (DRL's). In particular, the European Union, in their Council Directive 97/43/Euratom, required Member States to develop DRL's. The UK Government, when consolidating this EU Directive into UK legislation, extended the concept of DRL's from a national to an employer level. However, the methodologies used for development of national and international DRL's do not translate to a local level and hence a new approach is required. This paper describes one particular approach made by a UK hospital to introduce 'Local DRL's' in such a manner as to aid the optimisation process. This approach utilises a dose index, based on the local patient population, which is monitored for trends. Any trend in patient dose triggers an investigation linked to the clinical audit system within the Clinical Radiology Department. It is the audit cycle that ensures a continuing move towards an optimised situation. Additional triggers may be employed such as large patient dose variations. (author)

  8. Performance of the Public Expenditure Management at Local Level in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to analyze the performance of the public expenditure management based on the decrease of the administrative costs. The paper is grounded on the following premises: (1 Romania as an EU Member State is under a continuous process to harmonize its legislation with the EU legislation. (2 The integration of Romania in EU in 2007 has determined a significant change in the administrative expenditure amount. (3 Strengthening local autonomy through the decentralization and the devolution processes emphasizes clearer the need for improving the performance of the expenditure management at local level. (4 Internal order, flows of communication and transfer, synergy of the governance system assume administrative expenditure that can be determined. (5 The performance of public organizations in managing local governance issues depends directly also on the administrative expenditure level**. [** Paper accepted to be presented at the Fourth TransAtlantic Dialogue “The Status of Inter-Governmental Relations and Multi-Level Governance in Europe and the US”, Workshop 5: “Performance measurement and accountability in IGR-MLG”.

  9. Neural Network with Local Memory for Nuclear Reactor Power Level Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluyol, Oender; Ragheb, Magdi; Tsoukalas, Lefteri

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is introduced for a neural network with local memory called a multilayered local output gamma feedback (LOGF) neural network within the paradigm of locally-recurrent globally-feedforward neural networks. It appears to be well-suited for the identification, prediction, and control tasks in highly dynamic systems; it allows for the presentation of different timescales through incorporation of a gamma memory. A learning algorithm based on the backpropagation-through-time approach is derived. The spatial and temporal weights of the network are iteratively optimized for a given problem using the derived learning algorithm. As a demonstration of the methodology, it is applied to the task of power level control of a nuclear reactor at different fuel cycle conditions. The results demonstrate that the LOGF neural network controller outperforms the classical as well as the state feedback-assisted classical controllers for reactor power level control by showing a better tracking of the demand power, improving the fuel and exit temperature responses, and by performing robustly in different fuel cycle and power level conditions

  10. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of evidence in 3 local level HEPA policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Juel Lau, Cathrine; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of relevant evidence for HEPA, resources as well as organizational structure, culture and capacity. Discussion: Our insight into the actual impact of research in HEPA policy making is still sketchy. However, projects such as REPOPA will help to further our understanding of how research and other kind...... activity (HEPA) policies in 7 countries. This presentation draws on the Danish results of the policy analyses. Focus is on the use and the type of research used in three local level HEPA policies in Denmark. Methods: Three municipal level policies were selected for further investigation. Document analysis...

  12. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  13. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  14. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  15. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB incidence state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19

  16. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Peter D; Durrheim, David N; Stephens, Nicola; Christensen, Amanda

    2013-01-22

    The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas' country of birth profiles. TB notification data for the three year period 2006-2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5-19 years age group. Analysing local area TB rates and possible

  17. Tidal marsh susceptibility to sea-level rise: importance of local-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing concern over sea-level rise impacts to coastal tidal marsh ecosystems has led to modeling efforts to anticipate outcomes for resource management decision making. Few studies on the Pacific coast of North America have modeled sea-level rise marsh susceptibility at a scale relevant to local wildlife populations and plant communities. Here, we use a novel approach in developing an empirical sea-level rise ecological response model that can be applied to key management questions. Calculated elevation change over 13 y for a 324-ha portion of San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA, was used to represent local accretion and subsidence processes. Next, we coupled detailed plant community and elevation surveys with measured rates of inundation frequency to model marsh state changes to 2100. By grouping plant communities into low, mid, and high marsh habitats, we were able to assess wildlife species vulnerability and to better understand outcomes for habitat resiliency. Starting study-site conditions were comprised of 78% (253-ha) high marsh, 7% (30-ha) mid marsh, and 4% (18-ha) low marsh habitats, dominated by pickleweed Sarcocornia pacifica and cordgrass Spartina spp. Only under the low sea-level rise scenario (44 cm by 2100) did our models show persistence of some marsh habitats to 2100, with the area dominated by low marsh habitats. Under mid (93 cm by 2100) and high sea-level rise scenarios (166 cm by 2100), most mid and high marsh habitat was lost by 2070, with only 15% (65 ha) remaining, and a complete loss of these habitats by 2080. Low marsh habitat increased temporarily under all three sea-level rise scenarios, with the peak (286 ha) in 2070, adding habitat for the endemic endangered California Ridgway’s rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus. Under mid and high sea-level rise scenarios, an almost complete conversion to mudflat occurred, with most of the area below mean sea level. Our modeling assumed no marsh migration upslope due to human

  18. TWO-DIMENSIONAL LOCALIZATION OF ATOMIC POPULATIONS IN FOUR-LEVEL QUANTUM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Efremova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of one aspect of fundamental problem of laser radiation interaction with the matter. This problem is spatial localization of atomic populations due to fields impact of few running waves. We are the first to propose in our work two–dimensional spatial localization of atomic populations in medium with tripod–like configuration of levels under the field influence of running waves only. Three running waves, propagating along one plane 120o angle-wise to each other, form the system of standing waves in this plane. Atomic populations can be localized in the field of these standing waves. Moreover, the degree of such localization can make up hundredth parts of the wavelength of the incident optical radiation. It is shown that an excitation of the central transition of the tripod-like system using a field of multidirectional linearly polarized running waves is the necessary condition of the population dependence from spatial coordinates in the XY – plane. The two–dimensional shapes that appear in this system can have very complicated structure such as “double – craters”.

  19. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, S.; Hughes, C.; D'Helft, C.I.; McGee, A.; Rainford, L.; Brennan, P.C.; McCrum-Gardner, E.; Winder, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information worldwide on radiation exposure in paediatric interventional cardiology. At present Nationally established Diagnostic Reference Levels exist for adult interventional cardiology procedures in the UK but little data is available for paediatrics. In addition, interventional cardiology has been identified as one the highest contributors to medical exposure to ionising radiation and children are more radiosensitive than adults. Objective: This study sought to determine current radiation dose levels in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) with a view to establishing local diagnostic reference levels (LDRL). Methods: Radiation dose and examination details were recorded for 354 paediatric patients examined by IC in a specialised paediatric centre in Europe. Radiation doses were recorded using a Dose Area Product meter along with examination details. Procedures were categorised as either diagnostic (A) or therapeutic (B). Data was further sub-divided into five age ranges; (1) newborn <1 year (2) 1 <5 years (3) 5 <10 years (4) 10 <15 years (5) 15 years and over. Proposed LDRL were calculated from the mean dose area product readings. Results: The mean patient age was 2.6 years (range 0.0 days–16 years) and weight was 14.9 kg (range 2.4–112 kg). LDRL for the five age groupings were calculated as 190, 421, 582, 1289 and 1776 cGycm² respectively. Conclusion: Local dose reference levels have been proposed for paediatric IC and can be used as a benchmark for other hospitals to compare against their own radiation doses

  20. Village-Level Identification of Nitrate Sources: Collaboration of Experts and Local Population in Benin, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, P.; Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Atoro, I.; Azonsi, F.

    2005-12-01

    Deteriorating groundwater quality, as represented by high nitrates, in the Colline province of Benin, West Africa was identified by the Benin national water agency, Direction Hydraulique. For unknown reasons the Colline province had consistently higher nitrate levels than any other region of the country. In an effort to address this water quality issue, a collaborative team was created that incorporated professionals from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin), the University of Notre Dame (USA), Direction l'Hydraulique (a government water agency in Benin), Centre Afrika Obota (an educational NGO in Benin), and the local population of the village of Adourekoman. The goals of the project were to: (i) identify the source of nitrates, (ii) test field techniques for long term, local monitoring, and (iii) identify possible solutions to the high levels of groundwater nitrates. In order to accomplish these goals, the following methods were utilized: regional sampling of groundwater quality, field methods that allowed the local population to regularly monitor village groundwater quality, isotopic analysis, and sociological methods of surveys, focus groups, and observations. It is through the combination of these multi-disciplinary methods that all three goals were successfully addressed leading to preliminary identification of the sources of nitrates in the village of Adourekoman, confirmation of utility of field techniques, and initial assessment of possible solutions to the contamination problem.

  1. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  2. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels greater that 4 pCi/L in the living space. Homes with elevated radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oad Ridge, Tennessee. (Author)

  3. METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPETITION’S LEVEL AMONG FITNESS CLUBS ON THE LOCAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Krasnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the author’s method of assessment of the level of competition among tness clubs on the local market in conditions of limited information about the economic performance of competitors. Reveals the mechanism of dening the boundaries of the local market of the tness club and determine its capacity and structure. Shows the author’s view of possible variants of structure of tness clubs’ market. Presents the coefcients for calculation the limit value of customers of tness clubs for different price market segments. The possibility of applying the proposed methodology is illustrated by the example of the tness club. Demonstrates the necessity of the described methodology for developing the ways of increasing the competitiveness of tness clubs based on price and non-price methods.

  4. Capacity-building activities for local leadership in Egypt from the local to the national and regional levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sioufi, M

    1996-03-01

    In order to make the Sustainable Ismailia Project institutionally sustainable, the National Project Manager identified the need to build the capacity of local leadership. The Training Section, in UNCHS, proposed a capacity-building program designed to respond to this demand focusing on the skill-training and attitude formation needed for effective local leadership. The proposed program is adapted from the "Training for Elected Leadership" series widely tested and used in many regions. It combines direct training for local officials from villages in Ismailia, and indirect training for trainers from the Ministry of Local Administration (MLA). After the course, the MLA trainers would design a training program which they will implement nationally. The Minister for Local Administration decided to finance the translation and production of the manuals, while the Governor of Ismailia offered to cover the trainees' expenses. The UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section would provide technical guidance and coordinate and implement the program. Once the Arabic version of the training materials would be available, UNCHS would use it regionally to reach out to other Arab States. This example illustrates how concerned stakeholders cooperate to address capacity-building needs. The UNCHS Training Section assumes the role of facilitator and acts as a catalyst for the formulation of such activities. The feeling of ownership of the locally produced/adapted training materials enhances the propensity of their effective and extensive use. This approach has succeeded across regions, cultures, and languages with out-reaching multiplier effects. full text

  5. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the 226 Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg -1 wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg -1 for tea dry leaves. The 226 Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary 226 Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comparative analysis of elements and models of implementation in local-level spatial plans in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local-level spatial plans is of paramount importance to the development of the local community. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of and offer further directions for research into the implementation of spatial plans by presenting the results of a study on models of implementation. The paper describes the basic theoretical postulates of a model for implementing spatial plans. A comparative analysis of the application of elements and models of implementation of plans in practice was conducted based on the spatial plans for the local municipalities of Arilje, Lazarevac and Sremska Mitrovica. The analysis includes four models of implementation: the strategy and policy of spatial development; spatial protection; the implementation of planning solutions of a technical nature; and the implementation of rules of use, arrangement and construction of spaces. The main results of the analysis are presented and used to give recommendations for improving the elements and models of implementation. Final deliberations show that models of implementation are generally used in practice and combined in spatial plans. Based on the analysis of how models of implementation are applied in practice, a general conclusion concerning the complex character of the local level of planning is presented and elaborated. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 36035: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social Aspects of Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts and Grant no. III 47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia

  7. Economic impact of the energy transition at the local level. Methodologies and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Christiane; Ustinskaya, Elina

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms that link the energy transition to the stimulation of the economy on the ground is indispensable in terms of more efficient targeting of local energy transition policies. Objective evidence of economic results is required, as is a better understanding of economic analysis methods, in order to equip local and regional authorities with the tools required to demonstrate the economic benefits for all the key players. With the 'Economic impact of the energy transition at a local level - Methodologies and case studies' study, Energy Cities illustrates numerous socio-economic aspects of the energy transition and confirms the local economic benefits, through the use of data. As with any complex, new and diffuse process, this field of research is still not fully understood. Appropriate, high-quality analysis at the local level has rarely been carried out to date and a critical assessment of the methods used is necessary. This study will fill a gap and provide suggestions on potential areas for further research in a range of fields which should be further explored and examined in collaboration with local authorities and voluntary partners. Methodology and results The first part of the study sets out the scope of the study and contains a general description of the impact observed and the potential outcome of transition policies in the main green growth sectors: eco-innovation, the energy performance of buildings, renewable energy, sustainable mobility, recycling and industrial ecology. The analysis then focuses on the feedback of six towns and regions with a policy of active sustainable development (building renovation, support for eco-industries, promotion of soft mobility etc.), presented from the point of view of the economic results observed and the evaluation methods used. The study comprises five European authorities - Brussels, Copenhagen, Hannover, Kirklees and the Greater Paris Region, and one North American authority - Nolan County

  8. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    , Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: effect of low levels. Environ Health Perspect 125:23-29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232.

  9. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2013-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  10. Addressing the social determinants of health at the local level: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, E; Helgesen, M K; Hagen, S; Torp, S

    2018-02-01

    The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach. The municipalities are regarded key in the implementation of the act. The SODEMIFA project aimed to study the development of the new public health policy, with a particular emphasis on its implementation in municipalities. In the SODEMIFA project, a mixed-methods approach was applied, and the data consisted of surveys as well as qualitative interviews. The informants were policymakers at the national and local level. Our findings indicate that the municipalities had a rather vague understanding of the concept of health inequalities, and even more so, the concept of the social gradient in health. The most common understanding was that policy to reduce social inequalities concerned disadvantaged groups. Accordingly, policies and measures would be directed at these groups, rather than addressing the social gradient. A movement towards an increased understanding and adoption of the new, comprehensive public health policy was observed. However, to continue this process, both local and national levels must stay committed to the principles of the act.

  11. Management of health and safety in the organization of worktime at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, H J; Bøggild, H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the consideration of health and safety issues in the local process of organizing worktime within the framework of regulations. The study encompassed all 7 hospitals in one region of Denmark. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with 2 representatives from the different parties involved (management, cooperation committees, health and safety committees from each hospital, and 2 local unions). Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to all 114 wards with day and night duty. The response rate was 84%. Data were collected on alterations in worktime schedules, responsibilities, reasons for the present design of schedules, and use of inspection reports. The organization of worktime takes place in single wards without external interference and without guidelines other than the minimum standards set in regulations. At the ward level, management and employees were united in a mutual desire for flexibility, despite the fact that regulations were not always followed. No interaction was found in the management of health and safety factors between the parties concerned at different levels. The demands for flexibility in combination with the absence of guidelines and the missing dynamics between the parties involved imply that the handling of health and safety issues in the organization of worktime may be accidental and unsystematic. In order to consider the health and safety of night and shift workers within the framework of regulations, a clarification of responsibilities, operational levels, and cooperation is required between the parties concerned.

  12. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  13. Local gray level S-curve transformation - A generalized contrast enhancement technique for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhamal, Akash; Talbar, Sanjay; Gajre, Suhas; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Kumar, Dileep

    2017-04-01

    Most medical images suffer from inadequate contrast and brightness, which leads to blurred or weak edges (low contrast) between adjacent tissues resulting in poor segmentation and errors in classification of tissues. Thus, contrast enhancement to improve visual information is extremely important in the development of computational approaches for obtaining quantitative measurements from medical images. In this research, a contrast enhancement algorithm that applies gray-level S-curve transformation technique locally in medical images obtained from various modalities is investigated. The S-curve transformation is an extended gray level transformation technique that results into a curve similar to a sigmoid function through a pixel to pixel transformation. This curve essentially increases the difference between minimum and maximum gray values and the image gradient, locally thereby, strengthening edges between adjacent tissues. The performance of the proposed technique is determined by measuring several parameters namely, edge content (improvement in image gradient), enhancement measure (degree of contrast enhancement), absolute mean brightness error (luminance distortion caused by the enhancement), and feature similarity index measure (preservation of the original image features). Based on medical image datasets comprising 1937 images from various modalities such as ultrasound, mammograms, fluorescent images, fundus, X-ray radiographs and MR images, it is found that the local gray-level S-curve transformation outperforms existing techniques in terms of improved contrast and brightness, resulting in clear and strong edges between adjacent tissues. The proposed technique can be used as a preprocessing tool for effective segmentation and classification of tissue structures in medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An analysis of gasoline demand elasticities at the national and local levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotte, Amado [Mexican Ministry of Communications and Transport, Mexico City (Mexico); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, E. J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The majority of evidence on gasoline demand elasticities is derived from models based on national data. Since the largest growth in population is now taking place in cities in the developing world it is important that we understand whether this national evidence is applicable to demand conditions at the local level. The aim of this paper is to estimate and compare gasoline per vehicle demand elasticities at the national and local levels in Mexico. National elasticities with respect to price, income, vehicle stock and metro fares are estimated using both a time series cointegration model and a panel GMM model for Mexican states. Estimates for Mexico City are derived by modifying national estimates according to mode shares as suggested by, and by estimating a panel Within Groups model with data aggregated by borough. Although all models agree on the sign of the elasticities the magnitudes differ greatly. Elasticities change over time and differ between the national and local levels, with smaller price responses in Mexico City. In general, price elasticities are smaller than those reported in the gasoline demand surveys, a pattern previously found in developing countries. The fact that income and vehicle stock elasticities increase over time may suggest that vehicles are being used more intensively in recent years and that Mexico City residents are purchasing larger vehicles. Elasticities with respect to metro fares are negligible, which suggests little substitution between modes. Finally, the fact that fuel efficiency elasticities are smaller than vehicle stock elasticities suggests that vehicle stock size, rather than its composition, has a larger impact on gasoline consumption in Mexico City. (author)

  15. An analysis of gasoline demand elasticities at the national and local levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotte, Amado; Noland, Robert B.; Graham, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of evidence on gasoline demand elasticities is derived from models based on national data. Since the largest growth in population is now taking place in cities in the developing world it is important that we understand whether this national evidence is applicable to demand conditions at the local level. The aim of this paper is to estimate and compare gasoline per vehicle demand elasticities at the national and local levels in Mexico. National elasticities with respect to price, income, vehicle stock and metro fares are estimated using both a time series cointegration model and a panel GMM model for Mexican states. Estimates for Mexico City are derived by modifying national estimates according to mode shares as suggested by, and by estimating a panel Within Groups model with data aggregated by borough. Although all models agree on the sign of the elasticities the magnitudes differ greatly. Elasticities change over time and differ between the national and local levels, with smaller price responses in Mexico City. In general, price elasticities are smaller than those reported in the gasoline demand surveys, a pattern previously found in developing countries. The fact that income and vehicle stock elasticities increase over time may suggest that vehicles are being used more intensively in recent years and that Mexico City residents are purchasing larger vehicles. Elasticities with respect to metro fares are negligible, which suggests little substitution between modes. Finally, the fact that fuel efficiency elasticities are smaller than vehicle stock elasticities suggests that vehicle stock size, rather than its composition, has a larger impact on gasoline consumption in Mexico City. (author)

  16. Attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affects rapid scene categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Johnson, Aaron P

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated how attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affected the selection of diagnostic spatial scale information used in scene categorization. We explored this issue by asking observers to classify hybrid images (i.e., images that contain low spatial frequency (LSF) content of one image, and high spatial frequency (HSF) content from a second image) immediately following global and local Navon tasks. Hybrid images can be classified according to either their LSF, or HSF content; thus, making them ideal for investigating diagnostic spatial scale preference. Although observers were sensitive to both spatial scales (Experiment 1), they overwhelmingly preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that LSF based hybrid categorization was faster following global Navon tasks, suggesting that LSF processing associated with global Navon tasks primed the selection of LSFs in hybrid images. In Experiment 4, replicating Experiment 3 but suppressing the LSF information in Navon letters by contrast balancing the stimuli examined this hypothesis. Similar to Experiment 3, observers preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content; however and in contrast, LSF based hybrid categorization was slower following global than local Navon tasks.

  17. Microtheories for Spatial Data Infrastructures - Accounting for Diversity of Local Conceptualizations at a Global Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duce, Stephanie; Janowicz, Krzysztof

    The categorization of our environment into feature types is an essential prerequisite for cartography, geographic information retrieval, routing applications, spatial decision support systems, and data sharing in general. However, there is no a priori conceptualization of the world and the creation of features and types is an act of cognition. Humans conceptualize their environment based on multiple criteria such as their cultural background, knowledge, motivation, and particularly by space and time. Sharing and making these conceptualizations explicit in a formal, unambiguous way is at the core of semantic interoperability. One way to cope with semantic heterogeneities is by standardization, i.e., by agreeing on a shared conceptualization. This bears the danger of losing local diversity. In contrast, this work proposes the use of microtheories for Spatial Data Infrastructures, such as INSPIRE, to account for the diversity of local conceptualizations while maintaining their semantic interoperability at a global level. We introduce a novel methodology to structure ontologies by spatial and temporal aspects, in our case administrative boundaries, which reflect variations in feature conceptualization. A local, bottom-up approach, based on non-standard inference, is used to compute global feature definitions which are neither too broad nor too specific. Using different conceptualizations of rivers and other geographic feature types, we demonstrate how the present approach can improve the INSPIRE data model and ease its adoption by European member states.

  18. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  19. Attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affects rapid scene categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Johnson, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated how attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affected the selection of diagnostic spatial scale information used in scene categorization. We explored this issue by asking observers to classify hybrid images (i.e., images that contain low spatial frequency (LSF) content of one image, and high spatial frequency (HSF) content from a second image) immediately following global and local Navon tasks. Hybrid images can be classified according to either their LSF, or HSF content; thus, making them ideal for investigating diagnostic spatial scale preference. Although observers were sensitive to both spatial scales (Experiment 1), they overwhelmingly preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that LSF based hybrid categorization was faster following global Navon tasks, suggesting that LSF processing associated with global Navon tasks primed the selection of LSFs in hybrid images. In Experiment 4, replicating Experiment 3 but suppressing the LSF information in Navon letters by contrast balancing the stimuli examined this hypothesis. Similar to Experiment 3, observers preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content; however and in contrast, LSF based hybrid categorization was slower following global than local Navon tasks. PMID:25520675

  20. On the local and regional influence on ground-level ozone concentrations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, K.L.; Wang, T.

    2003-01-01

    It is imperative to consider regional scale emissions and dynamic transport in managing ozone pollution in Hong Kong. - Hong Kong is a densely populated city situated in the fast developing Pearl River Delta of southern China. In this study, the recent data on ozone (O 3 ) and related air pollutants obtained at three sites in Hong Kong are analyzed to show the variations of O 3 in urban, sub-urban and rural areas and the possible regional influences. Highest monthly averaged O 3 was found at a northeastern rural site and lowest O 3 level was observed at an urban site. The levels of NO x , CO, SO 2 and PM 10 showed a different spatial pattern with the highest level in the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Analysis of chemical species ratios such as SO 2 /NO x and CO/NO x indicated that the sites were under the influences of local and regional emissions to varying extents reflecting the characteristics of emission sources surround the respective sites. Seasonal pattern of O 3 is examined. Low O 3 level was found in summer and elevated levels occurred in autumn and spring. The latter appears different from the previous result obtained in 1996 indicating a single maximum occurring in autumn. Principal component analysis was used to further elucidate the relationships of air pollutants at each site. As expected, the O 3 variation in the northeastern rural area was largely determined by regional chemical and transport processes, while the O 3 variability at the southwestern suburban and urban sites were more influenced by local emissions. Despite the large difference in O 3 levels across the sites, total potential ozone (O 3 +NO 2 ) showed little variability. Cases of high O 3 episodes were presented and elevated O 3 levels were formed under the influence of tropical cyclone bringing in conditions of intense sunlight, high temperature and light winds. Elevated O 3 levels were also found to correlate with enhanced ratio of SO 2 to NO x , suggesting influence of

  1. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  3. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  4. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  5. Cervical cerclage placement decreases local levels of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with cervical insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsanto, Stephany P; Daher, Silvia; Ono, Erika; Pendeloski, Karen Priscilla Tezotto; Trainá, Évelyn; Mattar, Rosiane; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2017-10-01

    Cervical insufficiency is characterized by premature, progressive dilation and shortening of the cervix during pregnancy. If left unattended, this can lead to the prolapse and rupture of the amniotic membrane, which usually results in midtrimester pregnancy loss or preterm birth. Previous studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha are up-regulated in normal parturition but are also associated with preterm birth. Studies evaluating such markers in patients with cervical insufficiency have evaluated only their diagnostic potential. Even fewer studies have studied them within the context of cerclage surgery. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of local and systemic inflammatory markers on the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency and the effect of cerclage surgery on the local immune microenvironment of women with cervical insufficiency. We recruited 28 pregnant women (12-20 weeks' gestation) diagnosed with insufficiency and referred for cerclage surgery and 19 gestational age-matched normal pregnant women as controls. Serum and cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected before and after cerclage surgery and during a routine checkup for normal women and analyzed using a targeted 13-plex proinflammatory cytokine assay. Before surgery, patients with cervical insufficiency had higher levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-12, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cervicovaginal fluid compared to controls, but after surgery, these differences disappeared. No differences were found in serum of insufficiency versus control women. In patients with insufficiency, the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interferon gamma in cervicovaginal fluid declined significantly after cerclage compared with before intervention, but these changes were not detected in serum

  6. Local, atomic-level elastic strain measurements of metallic glass thin films by electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebner, C. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sarkar, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Rajagopalan, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Rentenberger, C., E-mail: christian.rentenberger@univie.ac.at [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    A novel technique is used to measure the atomic-level elastic strain tensor of amorphous materials by tracking geometric changes of the first diffuse ring of selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAD). An automatic procedure, which includes locating the centre and fitting an ellipse to the diffuse ring with sub-pixel precision is developed for extracting the 2-dimensional strain tensor from the SAD patterns. Using this technique, atomic-level principal strains from micrometre-sized regions of freestanding amorphous Ti{sub 0.45}Al{sub 0.55} thin films were measured during in-situ TEM tensile deformation. The thin films were deformed using MEMS based testing stages that allow simultaneous measurement of the macroscopic stress and strain. The calculated atomic-level principal strains show a linear dependence on the applied stress, and good correspondence with the measured macroscopic strains. The calculated Poisson’s ratio of 0.23 is reasonable for brittle metallic glasses. The technique yields a strain accuracy of about 1×10{sup −4} and shows the potential to obtain localized strain profiles/maps of amorphous thin film samples. - Highlights: • A TEM method to measure elastic strain in metallic glass films is proposed. • Method is based on tracking geometric changes in TEM diffraction patterns. • An automatic procedure is developed for extracting the local strain tensor. • Atomic-level strain in amorphous TiAl film was analysed during in-situ deformation. • Capability of the method to obtain micrometer scale strain profiles/maps is shown.

  7. Structural and contextual dimensions of Iranian primary health care system at local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanganeh Baygi, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud; Jafari Sirizi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, family physician plan was established as the main strategy of health system in Iran, while organizational structure of the primary health care system has remained the same as thirty years ago. This study was performed to illustrate structural and contextual dimensions of organizational structure and relationship between them in Iranian primary health care system at local level. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2013, during which 121 questionnaires were distributed among senior and junior managers of city health centers at Medical Sciences universities in Iran. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts (CVI = 0.089 and CVR more than 0.85) and Cronbach α was utilized for reliability (α = 0.904). We used multistage sampling method in this study and analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using different tests. Local level of primary health care system in Iran had mechanical structure, but in contextual dimensions the results showed different types. There was a significant relationship between structural and contextual dimensions (r = 0.642, P value structural dimensions. Because of the changes in goals and strategies of Iranian health system in recent years, it is urgently recommended to reform the current structure to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the system.

  8. Intranet and village community: optimization of public service based on electronic government at the local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradana, G. W.; Fanida, E. H.; Niswah, F.

    2018-01-01

    The demand for good governance is directed towards the realization of efficiency, effectiveness, and clean government. The move is demonstrated through national and regional levels to develop and implement electronic government concepts. Through the development of electronic government is done structuring management systems and work processes in the government environment by optimizing the utilization of information technology. One of the real forms of electronic government (e-Gov) implementation at the local level is the Intranet Sub-District program in Sukodono Sub-District, Sidoarjo. Intranet Sub-District is an innovation whose purpose is to realize the availability of information on the utilization of management, distribution, and storage of official scripts, and also the optimal delivery of information and communication in the implementation of guidance and supervision of local administration. The type of this paper is descriptive with a qualitative approach and focus on the implementation of the Intranet District Program in Sukodono District, Sidoarjo. The findings of the study are the limited number of human resources who have mastered ICT, the uneven network, the adequacy of institutional needs and the existence of budget support from the authorized institution and the information system has not accommodated all the service needs.

  9. Local Self-Government in Central and Eastern Europe: a Strong and Independent Local-Level Management Tool or Just a Paper Tiger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset of the independence process in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries during the 1990s was marked by tremendous optimism and a declared wish for stronger fiscal decentralisation and the transfer of powers, responsibilities and resources to the units of local and regional self-government that were supposed to be closest to citizens in resolving their daily problems. However, this has not happened in these countries, at least not according to the basic financial decentralisation indicators, and this is the main thesis of this work. Despite numerous adjustments made in the local self-government organisation in the observed countries, an optimum level of local and regional self-government organisation has still not been achieved. The units of local and regional self-government are still heavily dependent on, or rather restricted by, the strong central governments, which reduces their autonomy and their influence on the local social and economic development.

  10. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  11. Laboratory changes and levels of biomarkers in localized bacterial infections and sepsis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Pypa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The success of sepsis treatment depends on early diagnosis of the generalization of bacterial infection, but the nonspecificity of clinical manifestations often makes the diagnosis delayed. Therefore, the search for highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis of sepsis is relevant. The aim of our research is investigate the laboratory features and diagnostic value of a number of modern biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis in children. Materials and methods. of general laboratory studies and determination of CRP level were performed in 115 children with generalized and localized forms of bacterial infections. The main group (47 children - children with sepsis, a comparison group (68 children - with a localized bacterial infection of various localization. The age of children was from 1 month. up to 18 years. Grouping was performed according to the presence of signs and symptoms of SIRS and organ dysfunction. Determination of the level of procalcitonin and TNF-α was performed in 31 children of the main group, 45 children in the comparison group and 30 children in the control group (children without signs of inflammation. Prespepsin levels were determined in 16 main group children,14 in the comparison group and26 in the control group. Results. During the study, it was found that the level of leukocytosis was much higher and continued 2.6 times longer in the main group than in the children of the comparison group (p <0.01.Anemia was found in 76.6% of the children in the main group, while in the comparator group, the anemia syndrome was diagnosed 3.7 times less frequently. In the study of CRP in the main group, its level reached 44.7 mg / l and 28.3 mg / l in the comparison group, the specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis of sepsis was 46.8% and 51.5% respectively. The mean TNF-α level in children in the main group was 280.3 pg / ml CI 95% [243.9-316.7], which was 1.5 times higher than in children with a localized

  12. COMMUNICATING REDD+ ISSUES AT LOCAL LEVEL: CREATING LATENT AND MANIFEST CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Rumboko Wibowo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ”Carbon offsetting”in forestry-related projects is widely regarded as the ideal solution to the three challenges of   the  21st Century:  climate change, biodiversity conservation  andsocio-economic development. At the same time, there is scepticism about the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and  Forest  Degradation (REDD  proposal  particularly because of   the  weak  governance and institutional capacities in many developing countries, which could jeopardize the delivery of benefits at the local level. One major problem is that most people have little knowledge on the causes and consequences of the climate change. This is partly because the information  is largely scattered among scientific journals, and obscured by jargon and sophisticated  mathematical  models. Consequently, REDD+ is beyond thereach of  manyof the people affected by REDD+. This  paper examines the efforts and the capacity of  the local governments and other development  agents in explaining the REDD + issues and its impacts on the local people, especially customary communities. The research shows that lack of  policy communication and promotion, as well as consultations with the affected groups arethe main contributing factors to latent and manifest conflicts. In turn, this conflicth as proven that NGOs,  district governments and scientists have not been successful intermediaries. Thus, in the future policy communication on REDD+ should beaimed at improved network formation (i.e. between farmer groups with business partners and NGOs  and other related actors, learning, negotiation and relationship building (i.e. between members of farmer groups,  not only withtheir leaders within the farmer groups but also with governmental and business sectors. Policy communication should also create a  new  configuration of   support  and  services in  form  of   advocacy, empowerment and management skills and technical skills for conserving their

  13. Elevated serum BAFF levels in patients with localized scleroderma in contrast to other organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Echigo, Takeshi; Wayaku, Takamasa; Horikawa, Mayuka; Ogawa, Fumihide; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2007-02-01

    Serum levels of B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF), a potent B-cell survival factor, are elevated in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis (SSc). The objective of this study was to determine serum BAFF levels and relate the results to the clinical features in patients with organ-specific autoimmune diseases of the skin, such as localized scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. Serum BAFF levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 44 patients with localized scleroderma, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris/pemphigus foliaceus, 20 with bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy controls. Twenty patients with SSc and 20 with SLE were also examined as disease controls. Serum BAFF levels were elevated in localized scleroderma patients compared with healthy controls. Concerning localized scleroderma subgroups, patients with generalized morphea, the severest form of localized scleroderma, had higher serum BAFF levels than linear scleroderma or morphea patients. The BAFF levels of generalized morphea were comparable with those of SSc or SLE. Furthermore, serum BAFF levels correlated positively with antihistone antibody levels and the severity of skin lesion as well as the number of skin lesions. By contrast, serum BAFF levels were not significantly elevated in patients with pemphigus or pemphigoid. These results suggest that BAFF may be contributing to autoimmunity and disease development in localized scleroderma.

  14. Complexity of low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations covaries with local connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Nielsen, Jared A; Ferguson, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Very low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations have emerged as a valuable tool for describing brain anatomy, neuropathology, and development. Such fluctuations exhibit power law frequency dynamics, with largest amplitude at lowest frequencies. The biophysical mechanisms generating such fluctuations are poorly understood. Using publicly available data from 1,019 subjects of age 7-30, we show that BOLD fluctuations exhibit temporal complexity that is linearly related to local connectivity (regional homogeneity), consistently and significantly covarying across subjects and across gray matter regions. This relationship persisted independently of covariance with gray matter density or standard deviation of BOLD signal. During late neurodevelopment, BOLD fluctuations were unchanged with age in association cortex while becoming more random throughout the rest of the brain. These data suggest that local interconnectivity may play a key role in establishing the complexity of low-frequency BOLD fluctuations underlying functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity. Stable low-frequency power dynamics may emerge through segmentation and integration of connectivity during development of distributed large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An exploration into municipal waste charges for environmental management at local level: The case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sastre Sanz, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population. The qualitative benchmarking of municipal waste charges shows that flat fees are frequent, whereas variable fees are set according to criteria that are weakly related to waste generation. The average fee per household is €82.2 per year, which does not provide full cost recovery. The current configuration of municipal waste charges penalises taxpayers contributing to source separation of waste, while subsidising less environmentally friendly behaviours. In this sense, municipal waste charges in Spain are far from applying the polluter pays principle. Furthermore, it is argued that municipal waste charges are ineffective for promoting the proper application of the so-called 'waste hierarchy'.

  16. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  17. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  18. Localization, kinetics and metabolism of labelled monoclonal antibodies on a cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinstraesser, A.; Kuhlmann, L.; Zimmer, M.; Schwarz, A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the mechanisms, the localization, kinetics and metabolism of preparations labelled with 131 J and 111 In were examined on a cellular level. Micro-autoradiography for histological assessment of the storage tissue in the organs was complemented by cytological examination methods for assessing the extent of internalisation of the antibodies, and the metabolism of the antibodies in the cytosol fraction could be followed up by chromatography. One of the major results is that even with the complete antibody, accumulation in the liver cells proceeds very rapidly and protein degradation is practically completed within twenty-four hours. In the tumor, however, internalisation plays a minor part (about 80 p.c. of the antibodies remain bound to the membrane). Rapid accumulation of the antibodies by the tubulus epithelium of the kidney causes the intensive image of the renal scintiscan. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Transition Temperatures of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals from the Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreehari Sastry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method which combines the statistical analysis with texture structural analysis called Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (LBGLCM to investigate the phase transition temperatures of thermotropic p,n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nOBA, n=4,6,8,10 and 12 liquid crystals. Textures of the homeotropically aligned liquid crystal compounds are recorded as a function of temperature using polarizing optical microscope attached to the hot stage and high resolution camera. In this method, second-order statistical parameters (contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation are extracted from the LBGLCM of the textures. The changes associatedwiththe values of extracted parameters as a function of temperature are a helpful process to identify the phases and phase transition temperatures of the samples. Results obtained from this method have validity and are in good agreement with the literature.

  20. DE-FORMALIZATION AND FORMALIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS INTERACTION INSTITUTES AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurbatova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia currently faces the time when the new institutions emerge and develop. Thus there is a scientific problem that focuses on the explanation of deviations from institutional planning’s expected results. These deviations serve the purpose of solving current problems and maintaining the economic survival of the certain enterprises. It is especially noticeable at the municipal level where the opposite trends are quite interlaced. The article focuses on the example of Kemerovo region where local authorities derive adjacent institutions with small enterprises. The analysis is using the concept of rules; the extra attention is paid to the matter of regional market institutions foundation and the specifics of small mono-profile towns.

  1. An Application-Level QoS Control Method Based on Local Bandwidth Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service (QoS is an important performance indicator for Web applications and bandwidth is a key factor affecting QoS. Current methods use network protocols or ports to schedule bandwidth, which require tedious manual configurations or modifications of the underlying network. Some applications use dynamic ports and the traditional port-based bandwidth control methods cannot deal with them. A new QoS control method based on local bandwidth scheduling is proposed, which can schedule bandwidth at application level in a user-transparent way and it does not require tedious manual configurations. Experimental results indicate that the new method can effectively improve the QoS for applications, and it can be easily integrated into current Web applications without the need to modify the underlying network.

  2. Economic and Social Importance of Modern SMART Technologies of Budgeting at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotina Hanna M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the main SMART technologies of budgeting in terms of their economic and social aspects, consider the risks and prospects of their implementation at the local level in Ukraine. The article is dedicated to description of modern SMART technologies of budgeting. The essence of the concept of infrastructure gap is defined, the necessity of its overcoming through increasing capital expenditures is substantiated. The main methods of financing capital investments are disclosed, the advantages and disadvantages of public-private partnership are determined. The technology of participative budget, its history, features of its introduction and functioning in Poland, Germany and Ukraine are described. The necessity of implementing the Public Finance Management Strategy for 2017-2021 in Ukraine is justified, and risks related to it are investigated.

  3. Obstacles to local-level AIDS competence in rural Zimbabwe: putting HIV prevention in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamo, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We explore the wider social context of an HIV-prevention programme in rural Zimbabwe. We make no comment on the programme itself, rather seeking to examine the wider community dynamics into which it was inserted, to highlight how pre-existing social dynamics may have influenced community "readiness" to derive optimal benefit from the intervention. Using the concept of "the AIDS competent community", we analysed 44 interviews and 11 focus groups with local people. Despite high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, there were several ways gender, poverty and low literacy may have undermined its perceived relevance to peoples' lives. Lack of opportunities for dialogue in the social milieu beyond the intervention may have limited opportunities for translating factual AIDS knowledge into action plans, or sharing hidden individual experiences of HIV/AIDS-affected family members or friends, given stigma and denial. The initiative of women and young people to respond effectively to AIDS was limited in a context dominated by adult males. People spoke of HIV/AIDS in a passive and fatalistic way, expecting outsiders to solve the problem. This tendency was exacerbated given the community's previous experiences of HIV/AIDS-related NGOs, which had often regarded local people as unpaid volunteer labour rather than building their capacity to make significant decisions and play leadership roles in health programmes. Despite obstacles, however, there were many potential community strengths and resources. There were high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Public denial of HIV/AIDS masked huge reservoirs of private support and kindness to AIDS-affected family and friends. There were many strong community organisations and clubs, potentially forming the springboard for more empowered community responses to HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS programmers should pay greater attention to community readiness for interventions, especially around: (1) identifying and anticipating pre-existing obstacles to

  4. Water-sanitation-hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Ricard; de Palencia, Alejandro Jiménez-Fernández; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-10-01

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District-Kenya-; Kibondo District-Tanzania-; and Municipality of Manhiça-Mozambique-) are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more

  6. Two-dimensional atom localization via two standing-wave fields in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongtao; Wang Hui; Wang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the two-dimensional (2D) localization of an atom in a four-level Y-type atomic system. By applying two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atoms can be localized at some special positions, leading to the formation of sub-wavelength 2D periodic spatial distributions. The localization peak position and number as well as the conditional position probability can be controlled by the intensities and detunings of optical fields.

  7. Amplification of flood frequencies with local sea level rise and emerging flood regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Maya K.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Kopp, Robert E.

    2017-06-01

    The amplification of flood frequencies by sea level rise (SLR) is expected to become one of the most economically damaging impacts of climate change for many coastal locations. Understanding the magnitude and pattern by which the frequency of current flood levels increase is important for developing more resilient coastal settlements, particularly since flood risk management (e.g. infrastructure, insurance, communications) is often tied to estimates of flood return periods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report characterized the multiplication factor by which the frequency of flooding of a given height increases (referred to here as an amplification factor; AF). However, this characterization neither rigorously considered uncertainty in SLR nor distinguished between the amplification of different flooding levels (such as the 10% versus 0.2% annual chance floods); therefore, it may be seriously misleading. Because both historical flood frequency and projected SLR are uncertain, we combine joint probability distributions of the two to calculate AFs and their uncertainties over time. Under probabilistic relative sea level projections, while maintaining storm frequency fixed, we estimate a median 40-fold increase (ranging from 1- to 1314-fold) in the expected annual number of local 100-year floods for tide-gauge locations along the contiguous US coastline by 2050. While some places can expect disproportionate amplification of higher frequency events and thus primarily a greater number of historically precedented floods, others face amplification of lower frequency events and thus a particularly fast growing risk of historically unprecedented flooding. For example, with 50 cm of SLR, the 10%, 1%, and 0.2% annual chance floods are expected respectively to recur 108, 335, and 814 times as often in Seattle, but 148, 16, and 4 times as often in Charleston, SC.

  8. Adaptive nonlocal means filtering based on local noise level for CT denoising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhoubo; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Lake, David S.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Manduca, Armando; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate an image-domain noise reduction method based on a modified nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that is adaptive to local noise level of CT images and to implement this method in a time frame consistent with clinical workflow. Methods: A computationally efficient technique for local noise estimation directly from CT images was developed. A forward projection, based on a 2D fan-beam approximation, was used to generate the projection data, with a noise model incorporating the effects of the bowtie filter and automatic exposure control. The noise propagation from projection data to images was analytically derived. The analytical noise map was validated using repeated scans of a phantom. A 3D NLM denoising algorithm was modified to adapt its denoising strength locally based on this noise map. The performance of this adaptive NLM filter was evaluated in phantom studies in terms of in-plane and cross-plane high-contrast spatial resolution, noise power spectrum (NPS), subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom, and objective low-contrast spatial resolution using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO). Graphical processing units (GPU) implementation of this noise map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering were developed to meet demands of clinical workflow. Adaptive NLM was piloted on lower dose scans in clinical practice. Results: The local noise level estimation matches the noise distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom, demonstrated by small variations in the ratio map between the analytical noise map and the one calculated from repeated scans. The phantom studies demonstrated that the adaptive NLM filter can reduce noise substantially without degrading the high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by modulation transfer function and slice sensitivity profile results. The NPS results show that adaptive NLM denoising preserves the

  9. Local diagnostic reference levels at the Portuguese Institute of oncology francisco gentil of coimbra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, S.; Sousa, M.C. de [Algarve Univ., LIP-Algarve, FCT (Portugal); Lopes, M.C. [IPOFG-CROC, S.A., Medical Physics Dept., Coimbra (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    In the scope of medical radiological exposures and according to European recommendations and national legal requirements [14], the maximum responsible for an installation must assure the establishment of local dose levels for each type of radiological examination and also assure that they are available for the doctor who prescribes the examination. In the absence of national reference dose levels, the so called Local Diagnostic Reference Levels (L.D.R.L.) should be in agreement with the European Diagnostic Reference Levels published for the different types of medical exposures. The aim of this work was to establish a protocol of measurement for each type of more frequent examination, namely in conventional radiology, in CT and in mammography performed in our hospital. For each kind of examination the recommended dose descriptor was adopted and directly measured or derived from basic charge measurements. The patient sample corresponded in each case to at least a minimum of 10 standard-sized patients, as recommended, in order to obtain averages that constitute for each type of radiological examination the L.D.R.L. that could be compared with the European D.R.L.. The results obtained are in the large majority of the situations below the corresponding D.R.L.. Nevertheless we have identified some situations that deserve more attention.In conventional radiology all L.D.R.L. are below the reference levels. However we have detected some skull post anterior (skull P.A.) exposures where entrance skin doses exceeded the standard value. This may be due to equipment age problems but, as always, improvement of staff education will contribute to better practices and we hope that this work can contribute to this objective. In CT the L.D.R.L. that corresponds to single slice scan meet the standards whereas complete examinations described by dose length product (D.L.P.) values show a larger variation and also some situations where the reference level is exceeded. It is possible that

  10. Local diagnostic reference levels at the Portuguese Institute of oncology francisco gentil of coimbra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, S.; Sousa, M.C. de; Lopes, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the scope of medical radiological exposures and according to European recommendations and national legal requirements [14], the maximum responsible for an installation must assure the establishment of local dose levels for each type of radiological examination and also assure that they are available for the doctor who prescribes the examination. In the absence of national reference dose levels, the so called Local Diagnostic Reference Levels (L.D.R.L.) should be in agreement with the European Diagnostic Reference Levels published for the different types of medical exposures. The aim of this work was to establish a protocol of measurement for each type of more frequent examination, namely in conventional radiology, in CT and in mammography performed in our hospital. For each kind of examination the recommended dose descriptor was adopted and directly measured or derived from basic charge measurements. The patient sample corresponded in each case to at least a minimum of 10 standard-sized patients, as recommended, in order to obtain averages that constitute for each type of radiological examination the L.D.R.L. that could be compared with the European D.R.L.. The results obtained are in the large majority of the situations below the corresponding D.R.L.. Nevertheless we have identified some situations that deserve more attention.In conventional radiology all L.D.R.L. are below the reference levels. However we have detected some skull post anterior (skull P.A.) exposures where entrance skin doses exceeded the standard value. This may be due to equipment age problems but, as always, improvement of staff education will contribute to better practices and we hope that this work can contribute to this objective. In CT the L.D.R.L. that corresponds to single slice scan meet the standards whereas complete examinations described by dose length product (D.L.P.) values show a larger variation and also some situations where the reference level is exceeded. It is possible that

  11. Comparison of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, ABCB1, and SLCO1B1 gene-polymorphism frequency in Russian and Nanai populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev DA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dmitrij Alekseevitch Sychev,1 Grigorij Nikolaevich Shuev,1 Salavat Shejhovich Suleymanov,2 Kristina Anatol’evna Ryzhikova,3 Karin Badavievich Mirzaev,3 Elena Anatol’evna Grishina,3 Natalia Evgenievna Snalina,3 Zhannet Alimovna Sozaeva,3 Anton Mikhailovich Grabuzdov,4 Irina Andreevna Matsneva4 1Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education, Ministry of Healthcare, Moscow, 2Saiko Russian–Japanese Medical Center, Khabarovsk, 3Research Centre, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Ministry of Healthcare, 4Department of General Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Background: The efficiency and safety of drug therapy depends on the peculiarities of functioning of the P450 cytochrome group and transporting proteins. There are significant differences for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP frequency. Materials and methods: We studied the peculiarities of P450 cytochrome polymorphisms, SLCO1B1 transporting protein, and P-glycoprotein carriage in healthy volunteers in the Nanai ethnic group living in Russia, and compared them to the carriage of SNPs in the Russian population according to literature data. Results: After performing the real-time polymerase chain reactions on the samples from 70 healthy volunteers from the Nanai group, for the CYP2C9*2C430T polymorphism we determined 70 CC-genotype carriers. As for the CYP2C9*3A1075C polymorphism, we found 62 AA-genotype carriers and eight AC-genotype carriers. For the CYP2C19*2G681A polymorphism, we determined 39 GG-genotype carriers and 28 GA-genotype carriers, for the CYP2C19*3G636A polymorphism 58 GG-genotype carriers and 12 GA-genotype carriers, and for the CYP2C19*17C806T polymorphism 67 CC-genotype carriers and three CT-genotype carriers. For the CYP2D6*4G1846A polymorphism, the GG genotype had 68 carriers, and the GA genotype two carriers. For the

  12. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meissner, DPhil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As one of the 40 driest countries in the world with an annual average rainfall of 497 mm, South Africa is a water-scarce country. Additionally, South Africa's rate of economic development is closely linked to its water security. Thus, increasing water stress, supply variability, flooding, and water pollution levels and inadequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation are slowing economic growth. Despite the high premium placed on South Africa's water resources, no commonly shared understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security. Methods: We used interviews and qualitative analyses to establish and compare how people from different lifestyles perceive water security in the Greater Sekhukhune District and the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipalities of South Africa. The inland Sekhukhune has a drier climate and more rural socioeconomic profile than the coastal, urbanised eThekwini with its complex economy and diverse socioeconomic structure. We did face-to-face structured interviews with a diverse stakeholder group consisting of community members, traditional leaders, municipal officials, researchers, business people, and farmers in each municipality and focus groups in two communities of each municipality: Leeuwfontein and Motetema (Sekhukhune and Inanda and Ntshongweni (eThekwini. Each interview lasted 40–60 min, and focus group discussions lasted 90–120 min. We asked the respondents about their understanding of the concept of water security and whether they believe that, at the local and national level, the authorities had achieved water security for all. Findings: Following a qualitative analysis, we found that water security is a state of mind based on context-specific (ie, localised and individualised perceptions held by an individual of water-related threats and how it influences

  13. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  14. Public administration of quality of education at the local level on the foundation of the competence approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Popova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the essence of the phenomenon of management, reveals the meaning of science categories of public administration, of public administration of education and public administration of quality of education at the local level. Personnel factor identifies priority in improving of public administration of quality of education at the local level, the importance of the implementation of the competence approach to management education sector as a necessary condition to ensure the quality of education.

  15. Implementing lean in Malaysian universities: Lean awareness level in an engineering faculty of a local university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim Khairi, M.; Rahman, Mohamed Abd

    2018-01-01

    Many academic articles were published in Malaysia promoting the goodness of lean in manufacturing and industrial sectors but less attention was apparently given to the possibility of obtaining the same universal benefits when applying lean in non-manufacturing sectors especially higher education. This study aims to determine the level of lean awareness among a local university’s community taking its Faculty of Engineering (FoE) as the case study. It also seeks to identify typical FoE’s staff perception on lean regarding its benefits and the obstacles in implementing it. A web-based survey using questionnaires was carried out for 215 respondents consisting of academic and administrative staff of the faculty. Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the survey data collected. A total of 13.95% of respondents returned the forms. Slightly more than half of those responded (56.7%) have encountered some of the lean terms with mean 1.43 and standard deviation 0.504. However, the large amount of standard deviation somewhat indicates that the real level of lean awareness of FoE as a group was low. In terms of lean benefits, reduction of waste was favored (93.3%) by the respondents with mean 0.93 and standard deviation 0.254. For obstacles in implementing lean, lack of knowledge was selected by most respondents (86.7%) to be the major factor with mean 0.87 and standard deviation 0.346. Through the analysis done, the study may conclude that level of lean awareness among the university‘s community was low thus may hinder implementation of lean concept.

  16. [Incidence of tuberculosis at the local level: Marianao Municipality, Havana City, Cuba (1990-2000)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'fana Valdés, Jorgelina; Cambell, Shirley; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Fraginal, Bárbaro; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2003-01-01

    For the elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is necessary the surveillance of the incidence rate at the local level, as this is the first level of access to the health service. This study is aimed at providing a description of the spread and trend of the tuberculosis incidence rates in Marianao Municipality, Habana City by healthcare areas and age groups throughout the 1990-2000 period. The time series for the 1990-1994 and 1995-2000 incidence rates were analyzed employing a two parameter exponential smoothing method. The total percentage and annual average of variation was estimated. The healthcare areas were stratified. In 1990-1994, the rate rose from 11.1 to 25.8 per 105 inhabitants (33% of increase by year), having been most noticeable in Carlos J. Finlay and Portuondo health areas (respectively annual average 112.7% y 36.2% increases). Taking into account that the control program was strengthened in 1995, the rates dropped by 47.6% in this municipality during the 1995-2000 period. The Finlay and Portuondo areas respectively lowered their rates by 79.9% y 39.7% while the Gonzalez Coro area showed a 58.3% rise and 27 de Noviembre area had no major change. The age and above 60 group had the higher percentage of cases, recording 49.8% of the total and only one case among children under age 15 for the period. During this same period, only six cases of tuberculosis/human inmunodeficiency virus were diagnosed. The 27 de Noviembre area was the only one found to be at the unsatisfactory level according to the stratification. An initially upward trend, followed by a downward trend in tuberculosis was found to exist in the Marianao Municipality throughout the period studied. This disease was predominant among older adults.

  17. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  18. Reconstruction of Local Sea Levels at South West Pacific Islands—A Multiple Linear Regression Approach (1988-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Melet, A.; Meyssignac, B.; Ganachaud, A.; Kessler, W. S.; Singh, A.; Aucan, J.

    2018-02-01

    Rising sea levels are a critical concern in small island nations. The problem is especially serious in the western south Pacific, where the total sea level rise over the last 60 years has been up to 3 times the global average. In this study, we aim at reconstructing sea levels at selected sites in the region (Suva, Lautoka—Fiji, and Nouméa—New Caledonia) as a multilinear regression (MLR) of atmospheric and oceanic variables. We focus on sea level variability at interannual-to-interdecadal time scales, and trend over the 1988-2014 period. Local sea levels are first expressed as a sum of steric and mass changes. Then a dynamical approach is used based on wind stress curl as a proxy for the thermosteric component, as wind stress curl anomalies can modulate the thermocline depth and resultant sea levels via Rossby wave propagation. Statistically significant predictors among wind stress curl, halosteric sea level, zonal/meridional wind stress components, and sea surface temperature are used to construct a MLR model simulating local sea levels. Although we are focusing on the local scale, the global mean sea level needs to be adjusted for. Our reconstructions provide insights on key drivers of sea level variability at the selected sites, showing that while local dynamics and the global signal modulate sea level to a given extent, most of the variance is driven by regional factors. On average, the MLR model is able to reproduce 82% of the variance in island sea level, and could be used to derive local sea level projections via downscaling of climate models.

  19. Fluoroscopy-guided insertion of nasojejunal tubes in children - setting local diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitta, Lavanya; Raghavan, Ashok; Sprigg, Alan; Morrell, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the radiation burden from fluoroscopy-guided insertions of nasojejunal tubes (NJTs) in children. There are no recommended or published standards of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) available. To establish reference dose area product (DAP) levels for the fluoroscopy-guided insertion of nasojejunal tubes as a basis for setting DRLs for children. In addition, we wanted to assess our local practice and determine the success and complication rates associated with this procedure. Children who had NJT insertion procedures were identified retrospectively from the fluoroscopy database. The age of the child at the time of the procedure, DAP, screening time, outcome of the procedure, and any complications were recorded for each procedure. As the radiation dose depends on the size of the child, the children were assigned to three different age groups. The sample size, mean, median and third-quartile DAPs were calculated for each group. The third-quartile values were used to establish the DRLs. Of 186 procedures performed, 172 were successful on the first attempt. These were performed in a total of 43 children with 60% having multiple insertions over time. The third-quartile DAPs were as follows for each age group: 0-12 months, 2.6 cGy cm 2 ; 1-7 years, 2.45 cGy cm 2 ; >8 years, 14.6 cGy cm 2 . High DAP readings were obtained in the 0-12 months (n = 4) and >8 years (n = 2) age groups. No immediate complications were recorded. Fluoroscopy-guided insertion of NJTs is a highly successful procedure in a selected population of children and is associated with a low complication rate. The radiation dose per procedure is relatively low. (orig.)

  20. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  1. Electric power generated by fossil fuels: Impact and environmental administration at global and local level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscarella, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    An analysis is presented on the derived environmental implications of the current and future structure in the electric power market at international level. The reduced prices of the hydrocarbons determine that the fossil electricity is imposed on other generation forms, that which generates serious challenges to the companies and the governments as regards control and handling of gases emissions. By means of a comparative sample of eight electric companies of developed countries and in development, the tendencies are evaluated in the local and regional markets, as well as the environmental effects of different generating systems of electricity. The mechanism of well-known market is analyzed as activities implemented jointly (AIJ) referred to activities to be implemented jointly to combat the greenhouse gases effect. It concludes that in the short and medium term the conditions of the market will continue favoring the generation of fossil energy, reason why they should strengthen mechanisms of the climatic change control and to impel toward the long term the development of renewable and alternative energy

  2. The Local-Level Management of Climate Change: the Case of Urban Passenger Transportation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, Ian Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions is one of the largest and most pressing collective-action problems facing humanity. Addressing this transversal, trans-boundary policy challenge requires action at multiple scales of governance: from behavioral changes by individuals to modifications of local, national and international regulatory frameworks and decision-making processes. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this project draws on theories on collective action, institutional economics, multilevel governance, and indicators in decision making to analyze what appears to be an increasingly poly-centric governance approach to achieving cross-scale action on GHG mitigation. This dissertation addresses the over-arching question of what governance changes are needed to deliver lasting GHG emissions reductions in the urban passenger transport sector in France? This analysis suggests that achieving greenhouse gas mitigation is dependent not only on the ability of actors to coordinate action, but also on the information tools needed to integrate these issues into decision-making at multiple levels of government and across policy priorities. Thus, GHG mitigation must be linked as an often-complementary issue with existing policy priorities. The findings resulting from this dissertation have a number of contributions to make both to the theoretical literature as well as to general policy practice and the specific decision-making process in France in terms of transport, urban planning and climate governance. (author)

  3. Using GPS and leveling data in local precise geoid determination and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B.; Çelik, R. N.; Erol, S.

    2003-04-01

    the fundamental mathematical equation; N=h-H. In the equation, "h" is the ellipsoidal height of a point P, "H" is the orthometric height of the same point and "N" is "geoid undulation" value. Normally, "H" orthometric height derived from leveling measurements but these measurements are tiring applications. So, while having a geoid model in the region as the essential part of geodetic infrastructure, number leveling measurements can be reduced from the procedure and by this way time and labor is saved. Geoid determination is modeling of the data in such a way that geoid height can be obtained digital or analog at a point whose horizontal position is known. Geoid models can be developed for local, regional or global regions. Using satellite techniques, especially GPS, in geodetic measurements are increased importance of geoid. Because geoid is a natural tie between high precision geodetic coordinates and coordinates which obtained from satellites. There are several geoid determination methods according to used data and models. GPS/Leveling method, which is also known as geometric method, is one of these methods. This method is appropriate for local precise geoid determination in respectively small areas. In this paper, it is going to be given information about GPS/Leveling geoid determination method and mathematical models, which are used in geoid determination with this method. And Izmir local geoid model will be presented as a case study. Izmir is one of the west metropolitan cities of Turkey and located near Aegean Sea. The topography is extremely rough in the region. There are two different geoid determination studies which were carried out in 1996 and 2001 in Izmir. Both models were accomplished according to GPS/Leveling method. Those two geoid models of Izmir Metropolitan region are investigated in here, the conflict of them were discussed. The relation between distribution of common reference points and differences of geoid undulation values, which are calculated

  4. Health status convergence at the local level: empirical evidence from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gächter Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health is an important dimension of welfare comparisons across individuals, regions and states. Particularly from a long-term perspective, within-country convergence of the health status has rarely been investigated by applying methods well established in other scientific fields. In the following paper we study the relation between initial levels of the health status and its improvement at the local community level in Austria in the time period 1969-2004. Methods We use age standardized mortality rates from 2381 Austrian communities as an indicator for the health status and analyze the convergence/divergence of overall mortality for (i the whole population, (ii females, (iii males and (iv the gender mortality gap. Convergence/Divergence is studied by applying different concepts of cross-regional inequality (weighted standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Theil-Coefficient of inequality. Various econometric techniques (weighted OLS, Quantile Regression, Kendall's Rank Concordance are used to test for absolute and conditional beta-convergence in mortality. Results Regarding sigma-convergence, we find rather mixed results. While the weighted standard deviation indicates an increase in equality for all four variables, the picture appears less clear when correcting for the decreasing mean in the distribution. However, we find highly significant coefficients for absolute and conditional beta-convergence between the periods. While these results are confirmed by several robustness tests, we also find evidence for the existence of convergence clubs. Conclusions The highly significant beta-convergence across communities might be caused by (i the efforts to harmonize and centralize the health policy at the federal level in Austria since the 1970s, (ii the diminishing returns of the input factors in the health production function, which might lead to convergence, as the general conditions (e.g. income, education etc. improve

  5. On the (in)consistency of citizen and municipal level indicators of social capital and local government performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for

  6. Semen Quality of Post-Thawed Local Ram’s in Tris-Egg Yolk Extender with Different Glutathione Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihati, N.; Rasad, S. D.; Setiawan, R.; Foziah, E. N.; Wigiyanti, E. T.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this research were to find out the effect of glutathione level on semen quality of local ram and to find out the glutathione level that provide the best quality of local ram semen. This research use Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments of glutathione level (0 mM, 4 mM, 5 mM, 6 mM and 7mM) and was repeated for 10 times. Data were analyzed using analysis of varians (ANOVA) and differences between treatment was analyzed using Duncan test. The parameter were semen quality consist of motility, intact plasma membrane (IPM), abnormality, and recovery rate. Result of this research showed that glutathione level significantly (pegg yolk tris extender provide the best quality of local ram semen.

  7. Two-dimensional atom localization based on coherent field controlling in a five-level M-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Li, Jinjiang; Sun, Xiudong

    2017-12-11

    We study two-dimensional sub-wavelength atom localization based on the microwave coupling field controlling and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) effect. For a five-level M-type atom, introducing a microwave coupling field between two upper levels and considering the quantum interference between two transitions from two upper levels to lower levels, the analytical expression of conditional position probability (CPP) distribution is obtained using the iterative method. The influence of the detuning of a spontaneously emitted photon, Rabi frequency of the microwave field, and the SGC effect on the CPP are discussed. The two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization with high-precision and high spatial resolution is achieved by adjusting the detuning and the Rabi frequency, where the atom can be localized in a region smaller thanλ/10×λ/10. The spatial resolution is improved significantly compared with the case without the microwave field.

  8. Impacts of altimeter corrections on local linear sea level trends around Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    .e. the inverted barometer correction, wet tropospheric correction, and sea state bias correction, have significant impacts on the determination of local LSLT. The trend of default corrections contribute more than 1.4 mm year-1 along the coastline of China mainland and 2.1 mm year-1 to local LSLT in the Taiwan...

  9. Local Flexibility Market Design for Aggregators Providing Multiple Flexibility Services at Distribution Network Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Olivella-Rosell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general description of local flexibility markets as a market-based management mechanism for aggregators. The high penetration of distributed energy resources introduces new flexibility services like prosumer or community self-balancing, congestion management and time-of-use optimization. This work is focused on the flexibility framework to enable multiple participants to compete for selling or buying flexibility. In this framework, the aggregator acts as a local market operator and supervises flexibility transactions of the local energy community. Local market participation is voluntary. Potential flexibility stakeholders are the distribution system operator, the balance responsible party and end-users themselves. Flexibility is sold by means of loads, generators, storage units and electric vehicles. Finally, this paper presents needed interactions between all local market stakeholders, the corresponding inputs and outputs of local market operation algorithms from participants and a case study to highlight the application of the local flexibility market in three scenarios. The local market framework could postpone grid upgrades, reduce energy costs and increase distribution grids’ hosting capacity.

  10. Intrinsic Vertebral Markers for Spinal Level Localization in Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Thakur, Anil; Jain, Mukul; Arya, Arvind; Tripathi, Chandrabhushan; Kumari, Rima; Kushwaha, Suman

    2016-12-01

    Prospective clinical study. To observe the usefulness of anterior cervical osteophytes as intrinsic markers for spinal level localization (SLL) during sub-axial cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. Various landmarks, such as the mandibular angle, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, first cricoid ring, and C6 carotid tubercle, are used for gross cervical SLL; however, none are used during cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. We present our preliminary assessment of SLL over anterior vertebral surfaces (i.e., intrinsic markers) in 48 consecutive cases of anterior cervical spinal surgeries for the disc-osteophyte complex (DOC) in degenerative diseases and granulation or tumor tissue associated with infectious or neoplastic diseases, respectively, at an ill-equipped center. This prospective study on patients undergoing anterior cervical surgery for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLL via intraoperative palpation of disease-related morphological changes on anterior vertebral surfaces visible on preoperative midline sagittal T1/2-weighted magnetic resonance images. During a 3-year period, 48 patients (38 males,10 females; average age, 43.58 years) who underwent surgery via the anterior approach for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies, including degenerative disease (n= 42), tubercular infection (Pott's disease; n=3), traumatic prolapsed disc (n=2), and a metastatic lesion from thyroid carcinoma (n=1), comprised the study group. Intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 79% of patients (n=38). Among those with degenerative diseases (n=42), intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 76% of patients (n=32). Intrinsic marker palpation is an attractive potential adjunct for SLL during cervical spinal surgeries via the anterior approach in well-selected patients at ill-equipped centers (e.g., those found in developing countries). This technique may prove helpful

  11. Multiatlas segmentation of thoracic and abdominal anatomy with level set-based local search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Marcus, David M; Fox, Tim

    2014-07-08

    Segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) remains one of the most time-consuming tasks in radiotherapy treatment planning. Atlas-based segmentation methods using single templates have emerged as a practical approach to automate the process for brain or head and neck anatomy, but pose significant challenges in regions where large interpatient variations are present. We show that significant changes are needed to autosegment thoracic and abdominal datasets by combining multi-atlas deformable registration with a level set-based local search. Segmentation is hierarchical, with a first stage detecting bulk organ location, and a second step adapting the segmentation to fine details present in the patient scan. The first stage is based on warping multiple presegmented templates to the new patient anatomy using a multimodality deformable registration algorithm able to cope with changes in scanning conditions and artifacts. These segmentations are compacted in a probabilistic map of organ shape using the STAPLE algorithm. Final segmentation is obtained by adjusting the probability map for each organ type, using customized combinations of delineation filters exploiting prior knowledge of organ characteristics. Validation is performed by comparing automated and manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient, measured at an average of 0.971 for the aorta, 0.869 for the trachea, 0.958 for the lungs, 0.788 for the heart, 0.912 for the liver, 0.884 for the kidneys, 0.888 for the vertebrae, 0.863 for the spleen, and 0.740 for the spinal cord. Accurate atlas segmentation for abdominal and thoracic regions can be achieved with the usage of a multi-atlas and perstructure refinement strategy. To improve clinical workflow and efficiency, the algorithm was embedded in a software service, applying the algorithm automatically on acquired scans without any user interaction.

  12. From continental priorities to local conservation: a multi-level analysis for African tortoises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bombi

    Full Text Available Terrestrial tortoises are the most endangered group of vertebrates but they are still largely ignored for defining global conservation priorities. In this paper, we explored within a hierarchical framework the potential contribution of prioritization studies at the continental scale to the planning of local initiatives for the conservation of African tortoises at the regional level. First, we modeled the distribution of all the African tortoise species, we calculated three indicators of conservation priority (i.e., species richness, conservation value, and complementarity, and we carried out a gap analysis at continental scale. Second, we focused on the most important region for tortoise conservation and performed the same analyses at higher resolution. Finally, we compared the results from the two scales for understanding the degree to which they are complementary. Southern Africa emerged from the continental analysis as the most important region for tortoises. Within this area, the high-resolution analysis pointed out specific core sites for conservation. The relative degree of species protection was assessed similarly at the two different resolutions. Two species appeared particularly vulnerable at both scales. Priority indices calculated at high resolution were correlated to the values calculated for the corresponding cells at low resolution but the congruence was stronger for species richness. Our results suggest to integrate the calculation of conservation value and complementarity into a hierarchical framework driven by species richness. The advantages of large scale planning include its broad perspective on complementarity and the capability to identify regions with greatest conservation potential. In this light, continental analyses allow targeting fine scale studies toward regions with maximum priority. The regional analyses at fine scale allow planning conservation measure at a resolution similar to that required for the practical

  13. Dressed-state analysis of efficient two-dimensional atom localization in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional atom localization via spontaneous emission in a four-level atomic system. It is found that the detection probability and precision of two-dimensional atom localization can be significantly improved due to the interference effect between the spontaneous decay channels and the dynamically induced quantum interference generated by the probe and composite fields. More importantly, a 100% probability of finding an atom within the sub-half-wavelength domain of the standing waves can be reached when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or atom nano-lithography via atom localization. (paper)

  14. Framing the national nuclear legacy at the local level: Implications for the future of federal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Michele; Basta, Tania B.; Somerville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There are several major federal nuclear facilities located in small towns and rural areas of the United States. While many of these facilities were developed in the 1950s to support national defense, in the 1960s and 1970s, some of these shifted their mission to focus on national energy infrastructure. Now, many of these facilities are in a clean-up phase, and local communities are becoming increasingly engaged in influencing decisions about the future of the sites. Communicating with the public in rural communities is challenging when it involves a complicated environmental issue that could have widespread economic impacts. The local media reflect public understanding, so getting a sense of how these media frame issues can be a crucial first step to developing an effective community engagement strategy. A media content analysis of one local newspaper was completed in relation to a major federal nuclear facility. The content analysis is compared to the results of a telephone survey in the region served by the paper and the results suggest that there is a relationship between how the facility is portrayed in local media and public concern. This study has important implications for other nuclear facilities because of the role of local citizens in decision-making. - Highlights: ► Decisions about federal nuclear facilities include local citizen participation. ► Local media can play an important role in public perception of environmental risk. ► Local print media rely on a limited number in of sources for their stories. ► Effective risk communication should begin by understanding local public concerns.

  15. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deibler, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Prowant, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  16. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  17. Development partner support to the health sector at the local level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRUMENCE

    or are lacking local management and governance structures (Conyers & Mellors, 2005). ... organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), consortia and alliances; and .... Provision of equipment and supplies to facilities. 1.

  18. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security....

  19. THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BOARDS OF NORMATIVISM: ECONOMIC AND LEGAL AT LOCAL AUTHORITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration is an area with particularly social impact over all members of society. In the autonomous administrative authorities, local councils have important responsibilities in the organization of local community life. Within these councils several specialized committees operate and those that have the highest volume of activity are usually economic and legal committee. Their role is to filter out under a particular form, the specific procedure being the approval of local initiatives in the field of specific activity, namely economic and financial and legal. The effects of this operation need to be reflected in the adoption of decisions that meet not only the initiator's intentions, but also the point of view of local elected officials who are specialized in a particular area and reunited within the previous committees.

  20. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The integration of object levels and their content: a theory of global/local processing and related hemispheric differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ronald; Volberg, Gregor

    2005-06-01

    This article presents and tests the authors' integration hypothesis of global/local processing, which proposes that at early stages of processing, the identities of global and local units of a hierarchical stimulus are represented separately from information about their respective levels and that, therefore, identity and level information have to be integrated at later stages. It further states that the cerebral hemispheres differ in their capacities for these binding processes. Three experiments are reported in which the integration hypothesis was tested. Participants had to identify a letter at a prespecified level with the viewing duration restricted by a mask. False reporting of the letter at the nontarget level was predicted to occur more often when the integration of identity and level could fail. This was the case. Moreover, visual-field effects occurred, as expected. Finally, a multinomial model was constructed and fitted to the data. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Climate technology transfer at the local, national and global levels: analyzing the relationships between multi-level structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema Abissa, Fisseha; Tessema Abissa, Fisseha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationships between multi-leveled decision structures for climate technology transfer through an analysis of top-down macro-policy and bottom-up micro-implementation. It examines how international climate technology transfer policy under the UNFCCC filters down to the

  3. Determination of the Support Level of Local Organizations in a Model Forest Initiative: Do Local Stakeholders Have Willingness to Be Involved in the Model Forest Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the theme of this study. Within this scope, the views of the stakeholders comprising local government units (LGUs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, village councils (VCs, professional organizations (POs and forest products enterprises (FPEs located in the district of Bucak were collected by utilizing a survey technique. The data were analysed by using non-parametric statistical analyses due to the absence of a normal distribution. The results show that the information provided about the Model Forest concept to the stakeholders located in the district on the Bucak Model Forest initiative was identified as a factor impacting the support level. Moreover, it was also observed that the stakeholders were more willing to provide advisory support rather than financial support. NGOs and VCs were identified as stakeholders who could not provide financial support due to their restricted budgets. We discuss the benefits for a Model Forest initiative of establishing international cooperation to strengthen the local and regional sustainable development process.

  4. Adaptive local refinement and multi-level methods for simulating multiphasic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjeaud, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes some numerical and mathematical aspects of incompressible multiphase flows simulations with a diffuse interface Cahn-Hilliard / Navier-Stokes model (interfaces have a small but a positive thickness). The space discretization is performed thanks to a Galerkin formulation and the finite elements method. The presence of different scales in the system (interfaces have a very small thickness compared to the characteristic lengths of the domain) suggests the use of a local adaptive refinement method. The algorithm that is introduced allows to implicitly handle the non-conformities of the generated meshes to produce conformal finite elements approximation spaces. It consists in refining basis functions instead of cells. The refinement of a basis function is made possible by the conceptual existence of a nested sequence of uniformly refined grids from which 'parent-child' relationships are deduced, linking the basis functions of two consecutive refinement levels. Moreover, it is shown how this method can be exploited to build multigrid pre-conditioners. From a composite finite elements approximation space, it is indeed possible to rebuild, by 'coarsening', a sequence of auxiliary nested spaces which allows to enter in the abstract multigrid framework. Concerning the time discretization, it begins with the study of the Cahn-Hilliard system. A semi-implicit scheme is proposed to remedy to convergence failures of the Newton method used to solve this (non linear) system. It guarantees the decrease of the discrete free energy ensuring the stability of the scheme. The existence and convergence of discrete solutions towards the weak solution of the system are shown. The study continues with providing an unconditionally stable time discretization of the complete Cahn-Hilliard / Navier-Stokes model. An important point is that this discretization does not strongly couple the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes systems allowing to independently solve the two systems

  5. Local muscle metabolic demand induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary contractions at different force levels: a NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC. However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC and MVC (VOL-MVC level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y. Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  6. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-06-13

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  7. Experiences from two local processes of debate and referenda on the issue of siting high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the paper summarizes results from two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman (1995) and Malaa (1997) in northern Sweden regarding whether to continue investigations of the areas for siting of a deep level repository for high level nuclear waste. Active, local participants in the work and discussions preceding each local referendum on the issue were asked to reflect on reasons and considerations related to their opinions, as well as the overall outcome for achieving a deeper understanding of the local processes. The first referendum (1995) yielded a strongly voiced rejection of continuing local investigations (72%), whereas the second (1997) referendum resulted in a marginally negative response (54%). A comparison of the results of the interview studies showed e.g. that the decision processes differed across communities, regarding both time interval and content, and that the local strategies and tactics related to the campaigns preceding the referenda differed. Among the similarities were the types of questions which remained unclear, often related to a long term perspective, e.g. risks and uncertainties regarding material reliability, access to and future safety of the repository, concern for future generations, national and international long-term decision procedures, and roles of responsibility. The discussion focuses on considerations around the issue of local vs. centralized political decisions and the tool provided by the referendum, and touches upon some issues which appeared rather paradoxical. (author)

  8. Tourism Development and Planning at a Local Authority Level: A Case in Manjung, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saad Nor Hasliza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of the tourism industry in the country, it is crucial to ensure that local authorities in Malaysia implement sustainable tourism development. In the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government set a key target to be achieved for the tourism sector. One of the key parties responsible for ensuring that the set targets are achieved is the local authorities, who are responsible for providing proper maintenance because the tourism destinations fall under their area of jurisdiction. The aim of this article is to explore tourism development and planning in one of the popular tourism destination and to analyse the role that local authorities play in the development process. This paper explores the local authorities’ views and opinions on their tourism development area using interview and focus group approaches. The paper also combines the analysis of government policy and planning documents with a review of tourism development literature. The findings reveal challenges and issues that are experienced by the local authorities in regard to setting the direction, development and management of tourism development. The issues of tourism development are then discussed for the government to ensure tourism development sustainability in the long term.

  9. AWARENESS AS A FACTOR OF INFLUENCE ON THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern period of the development of statehood in Russia the significant increase of attention is attributed to the issue of effectiveness of state power and government not only on the federal and regional levels, but on the local level as well. In 2009 there was developed and implemented the system of indicators of the effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government. The system of effectiveness’ estimates included sociological indices of satisfaction of population. Implementation of sociological indices in the system of effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government brought positive responses from academic community, politicians, managers, and the public. In the article the analysis of influence of cognitive factor (being kept informed on the level of social contentment of the activity of local self-government’ bodies is done. We do this, based on the results of sociological studies of the major Russian research organizations and data from the aggregate reports, which deal with the monitoring of effectiveness of local self-government of some subjects in the Central federal district of Russia.

  10. The administrative protection of local planning authorities against decisions on a higher level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses governmental planning that influences local planning's scope of organization and limits local sovereinty which is established as a guarantee for local self-government. Those conflicts occurr in the case of country planning, various specific plans (such as road construction an tower and country planning, nature conservation and landscape planning), and planning permits (decisions to establish new plans according to civil air regulations and permits according to atomic law). Then the author describes the possibilities of legal protection in the case of an action for avoidance which he illustrates with some conflicting cases, laying special emphasis on the right of action of a community, and on the justification of the action for avoidance. (HSCH) [de

  11. Mitochondrial localization of the low level p53 protein in proliferative cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferecatu, Ioana; Bergeaud, Marie; Rodriguez-Enfedaque, Aida; Le Floch, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France); Oliver, Lisa [INSERM U601, Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Medecine, Nantes Cedex (France); Rincheval, Vincent; Renaud, Flore [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France); Vallette, Francois M. [INSERM U601, Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Medecine, Nantes Cedex (France); Mignotte, Bernard [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France); Vayssiere, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.vayssiere@uvsq.fr [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire - CNRS UMR 8159, Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France and Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire et Physiologique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Versailles (France)

    2009-10-02

    p53 protein plays a central role in suppressing tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Emerging publications suggest that following stress, a fraction of p53 translocates to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, the localization of p53 under unstressed conditions remains largely unexplored. Here we show that p53 is localized at mitochondria in absence of apoptotic stimuli, when cells are proliferating, localization observed in various cell types (rodent and human). This is also supported by acellular assays in which p53 bind strongly to mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Furthermore, the mitochondria subfractionation study and the alkaline treatment of the mitochondrial p53 revealed that the majority of mitochondrial p53 is present in the membranous compartments. Finally, we identified VDAC, a protein of the mitochondrial outer-membrane, as a putative partner of p53 in unstressed/proliferative cells.

  12. Reflections on leadership at the local level and the future of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pratt

    2016-05-01

    The interviews provide insight into the complex world in which local leaders work and the opportunities and constraints they must negotiate. They must understand the issues their communities face when changes are impinging on those communities. This understanding helps to give them access, and once access is obtained, they must try to help to solve community problems using their experience and knowledge. The resources available— money, people, and materials—to get to the best outcomes are very limited, and the political setting presents significant challenges. Ultimately they may get results by joining their motivation to help, their local and outside knowledge, and the limited available resources with the power, or potential power, of local people. Finally, there are good reasonys to believe that what was learned here has important implications for the future of leadership in Laos.

  13. Mitochondrial localization of the low level p53 protein in proliferative cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferecatu, Ioana; Bergeaud, Marie; Rodriguez-Enfedaque, Aida; Le Floch, Nathalie; Oliver, Lisa; Rincheval, Vincent; Renaud, Flore; Vallette, Francois M.; Mignotte, Bernard; Vayssiere, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    p53 protein plays a central role in suppressing tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Emerging publications suggest that following stress, a fraction of p53 translocates to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, the localization of p53 under unstressed conditions remains largely unexplored. Here we show that p53 is localized at mitochondria in absence of apoptotic stimuli, when cells are proliferating, localization observed in various cell types (rodent and human). This is also supported by acellular assays in which p53 bind strongly to mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Furthermore, the mitochondria subfractionation study and the alkaline treatment of the mitochondrial p53 revealed that the majority of mitochondrial p53 is present in the membranous compartments. Finally, we identified VDAC, a protein of the mitochondrial outer-membrane, as a putative partner of p53 in unstressed/proliferative cells.

  14. Proposal of a Holistic Model to Support Local-Level Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to a central drive for evidence-based practice, there have been many research support schemes, setups, and other practices concentrating on facilitating access to external research, such as the Centre for Evidence Based Healthcare Aotearoa, the Cochrane Collaboration, and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Very little attention has been paid to supporting internal research in terms of local evidence and internal research capabilities. The whole evidence-based practice movement has alienated internal decision makers and, thus, very little progress has been made in the context of evidence informing local policy formation. Health and social policies are made centrally based on dubious claims and often evidence is sought after implementation. For example, on record, most health care practitioners appear to agree with the causal link between depression and mental illness (sometimes qualified with other social factors with suicide; off the record, even some psychiatrists doubt that such a link is applicable to the population as a whole. Therefore, be it through misplaced loyalty or a lack of support for internal researchers/decision makers, local evidence informing local decision making may have been ignored in favour of external evidence. In this paper, we present a practical holistic model to support local evidence-based decision making. This approach is more relevant in light of a new approach to primary health care of “local knowledge” complementing external evidence. One possible outcome would be to network with other regional programmes around the world to share information and identify “best” practices, such as the “Stop Youth Suicide Campaign”(www.stopyouthsuicide.com.

  15. Co-creating an open platform at the local governance level: How openness is enacted in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baka, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    The open mode of thinking, acting and being has been associated with liberating, participatory and collaborative arrangements that have prompted us to redefine how research, science, innovation and citizenship are to be conceived. In an era where much is said about the ‘open society’ and open inn...... at the local governance level, with implications for both theory and practice....

  16. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  17. Synthesis of the day 'Sane dwelling and radon: how to act at the local level?' - Experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions which addressed the knowledge about radon and regulation regarding radon, the management of the risk related to the presence of radon in dwellings and the environment, at the international level (in Switzerland, in Canada); locally implemented experiments (around Montbeliard, in Aix-en-Provence, in the Finistere district) with measurements and public information are discussed

  18. Intersections between Music Education and Music Therapy: Education Reform, Arts Education, Exceptionality, and Policy at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Pasiali, Varvara

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a music teacher educator and a music therapy clinician and educator discuss special education policy and arts instruction at the district level. To illustrate the gulf between federal and local policies with regard to exceptional learners and arts instruction, we examine the intersections of music therapy and music education with…

  19. A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie; Zheng, Nina; Min, Hu

    2011-10-31

    This report aims to provide a manual with a menu of the successful policies and measures for local governments in China to create low carbon plan or climate action plans. This manual includes a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices.

  20. Adaptation to climate change at local level in Europe: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, F.C.; Bentz, J.; Silva, J.M.N.; Fonseca, A.L.; Swart, R.J.; Santos, F.D.; Penha-Lopes, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Europe’s climate change vulnerability pushes for initiatives such as the European Adaptation Strategy and the associated Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy. What are the triggers and barriers, for which sectors and for which risks and how is adaptation funded? This paper examines 147 Local

  1. Conflict and the Evolution of Institutions: Unbundling Institutions at the Local Level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between

  2. Conflict and the evolution of institutions: Unbundling institutions at the local level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Maarten J.; Bulte, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between

  3. Teachers, School Boards, and the Power of Money: How the Right Wins at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Eleni B.; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines national conservative political advocacy groups' growing interest in local politics, and analyzes how they form alliances and gain political power. Following efforts to restrict collective bargaining for Wisconsin public employees, Kenosha school board members' attempts to legally protect teachers' rights provoked concern…

  4. Making cities resilient: Increasing resilience to disasters at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrito, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Half of humanity is now living in cities, according to the United Nations Population Division. The urban population exceeded the rural for the first time in 2008, and by 2050 urbanisation will rise to 70 per cent with increased urban risk. 'Today, 100 cities are in control of 30 per cent of the world's economy.' The need for maintenance and upkeep of these cities makes safety measures for their citizens crucial. In this context, urban risk, city planning and the role of local governments in dealing with risk reduction have been recognised as key factors to build communities resilient to disasters. While many local governments have taken action to reduce vulnerability, especially when it comes to government organising capacity to deal with disasters, much remains to be done. Disaster risk has become an acute and increasingly urban issue. Poorly-planned urban environments, weak urban governance, an old and fragile infrastructure, and rapid population growth have increased pressure on the urban environment and triggered exposure to disaster risk. More and more people are settling in potential danger zones such as flood plains, volcanic flanks or earthquake faults and coastal areas. They do so because planners and local governments fail to provide alternatives, or because they cannot afford safer land. Local government officials are confronted with the threat of disasters daily, and need improved access to policies and tools to cope with them effectively.

  5. El abordaje epidemiológico de las desigualdades en salud a nivel local The epidemiological approach to health inequalities at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Para responder la pregunta ¿cuáles son los usos y limitaciones de la epidemiología en la reducción de las desigualdades en el nivel local? se problematiza el "papel" de la epidemiología. La hipótesis es que la epidemiología produce conocimiento útil a la gestión en el nivel local para el desarrollo de intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de desigualdades en salud. Estas desigualdades se expresan en un espacio construido por colectivos humanos en procesos sociales e históricos. La producción de conocimiento epidemiológico en el nivel local debe estar orientada a dar soporte a las acciones de un actor social en situación y en un determinado escenario. Por eso se revalorizan los estudios ecológicos y la georreferencia. Esta producción y aplicación de conocimiento es también un fenómeno organizacional. Se entienden las organizaciones como "redes de conversaciones". Se concluye que las acciones estratégicas y las acciones comunicativas de los trabajadores de salud deben constituirse como eje central en la definición de nuevos modelos de cuidado y de gestión comprometidos con la reducción de desigualdades en salud, donde la epidemiología cumple un rol relevante.What are the advantages and limitations of epidemiology for decreasing health inequalities at the local level? To answer this question, the current article discusses the role of epidemiology. The hypothesis is that epidemiology produces useful knowledge for local management of interventions aimed at reducing health inequalities, expressed in spaces built by human communities through social and historical processes. Local production of epidemiological knowledge should support action by social actors in specific situations and contexts, thus renewing the appreciation for ecological designs and georeference studies. Such knowledge output and application are also an organizational phenomenon. Organizations can be seen as "conversational networks". In conclusion, strategic

  6. Social aspects of biomass use for development at the local level in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarigiannis, D.

    1992-01-01

    The currently dominant pattern of rural development projects is characterized by centrally-controlled, top-bottom schemes. The local sociopolitical structure and the fit of development to local customs and needs are given little attention. The major statement made in this work is the need for technological implementation which is sensitive to its socio-economic context in the case of the introduction of novel uses of the biomass potential of Europe. A learning process approach is introduced as the alternative that could build up a low-cost, sustainable use of biomass technologies. In this context, the identification of the decision-making procedures and centers, as well as the understanding of the principal actors and their interrelations, is of paramount importance to the development of fruitful and socially acceptable biomass utilization policies. (author)

  7. The correlation between aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 level and tumor shrinkage after preoperative chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhandyka Rafli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the correlation between aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1 level and tumor shrinkage after chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. This is a retrospective study of 14 locally advanced rectal cancer patients with long course neoadjuvant chemoradiation. ALDH1A1 level was measured using ELISA from paraffin embedded tissue. Tumor shrinkage was measured from computed tomography (CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor v1.1 (RECIST v1.1. The mean of ALDH1A1 level was 9.014 ± 3.3 pg/mL and the mean of tumor shrinkage was 7.89 ± 35.7%. Partial response proportion was 28.6%, stable disease proportion was 50% and progressive disease proportion was 21.4%. There was a significant strong negative correlation (r = –0.890, plt; 0.001 between ALDH1A1 and tumor shrinkage. In conclusion, tumor shrinkage in locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation was influenced by ALDH1A1 level. Higher level of ALDH1A1 suggests decreased tumor shrinkage after preoperative chemoradiation.

  8. Cell-free DNA levels and correlation to stage and outcome following treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Wettergren, Yvonne; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Taflin, Helena; Gustavson, Bengt; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm

    2017-11-01

    Accurate staging of rectal cancer remains essential for optimal patient selection for combined modality treatment, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. We aimed at examining the correlation of cell free DNA with the pathologic stage and subsequent risk of recurrence for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiation. We examined 75 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Blood samples for translational use were drawn prior to rectal surgery. The level of cell free DNA was quantified by digital droplet PCR and expressed as copy number of beta 2 microglobulin. We found a median level of cell free DNA in the AJCC stages I-III of 3100, 8300, and 10,700 copies/mL respectively. For patients with 12 sampled lymph nodes or above, the median level of cell free DNA were 2400 copies/mL and 4400 copies/mL (p = 0.04) for node negative and node positive disease respectively. The median follow-up was 39 months and 11 recurrences were detected (15%). The median level for patients with recurrent disease was 13,000 copies/mL compared to 5200 copies/mL for non-recurrent patients (p = 0.08). We have demonstrated a correlation between the level of total cell free DNA and the pathologic stage and nodal involvement. Furthermore, we have found a trend towards a correlation with the risk of recurrence following resection of localized rectal cancer.

  9. Why Organization May Be the Primary Limitation to Implementing Sustainability at the Local Level: Examples from Swedish Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the effort to address environmental issues at the local level has focused on defining principles and aims rather than addressing the operational difficulties of implementation. Drawing upon insights from sustainability scholarship, this study reviews two cases: the development of a Swedish standard for implementing sustainable development at municipality, county council, and regional levels, and attempts by a small rural municipality to establish a process towards implementing the Aalborg Commitments. The research illustrates the specific organizational and managerial complexity of these case study experiences. It concludes that an organizational focus on integration and mainstreaming deserves particular attention to achieve broader sustainability, or related environmental or adaptation goals. The results, in particular, highlight the role that integrated management systems can play for sustainability work at the local level.

  10. Localized deep levels in AlxGa1−xN epitaxial films with various Al compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Li-Yang; Shen Bo; Wang Ping; Yan Jian-Chang; Wang Jun-Xi

    2014-01-01

    By using high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy (HT-DLTS) and other electrical measurement techniques, localized deep levels in n-type Al x Ga 1−x N epitaxial films with various Al compositions (x = 0, 0.14, 0.24, 0.33, and 0.43) have been investigated. It is found that there are three distinct deep levels in Al x Ga 1−x N films, whose level position with respect to the conduction band increases as Al composition increases. The dominant defect level with the activation energy deeper than 1.0 eV below the conduction band closely follows the Fermi level stabilization energy, indicating that its origin may be related to the defect complex, including the anti-site defects and divacancies in Al x Ga 1−x N films. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. Water security at local government level. What do people think it means in eThekwini?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available aspects Negative aspects Helping municipalities to help themselves Working together we can secure our water future Diverse - from national government to local community and NGO People should get involved in securing their own water, for example... secure future Scientists from government, NGO's academia Good water quality will ensure healthy people, environments and livelihoods for now and in the future Surely mines can't use good quality water More for some (forever?) A water supply...

  12. Cash Management, Revenue Sources and Cost Effective Methods of Revenue Collection at Local Government Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha Gimba Kumshe; Kagu Bukar

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to focus on the elements, objectives, goals and importance of cash management; and also to examine the sources of revenue and cost effective collections for local governments. The elements of cash management are identified as establishing bank relations, preparing cash flow statements, estimating collection receipts and analyzing cash flow and preparing a budget. Amongst the objectives of cash management is to ensure availability of cash resources at all t...

  13. Planing of land use of structural elements of ecological network at local level

    OpenAIRE

    Tretiak V.; Hun'ko L.

    2016-01-01

    and Management projecting of structural elements of land use of the ecological network on the territory of the village council begins with ecological and landscape micro zoning of the territory of village council, held during the preparatory work for the drafting of land and are finished by the formation of environmentally homogeneous regions, to which the system components of ecological network are tied, as well as environmental measures in the form of local environmental restrictions (encum...

  14. Regions of mid-level human visual cortex sensitive to the global coherence of local image patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Damien J; Kersten, Daniel J; Olman, Cheryl A

    2014-08-01

    The global structural arrangement and spatial layout of the visual environment must be derived from the integration of local signals represented in the lower tiers of the visual system. This interaction between the spatially local and global properties of visual stimulation underlies many of our visual capacities, and how this is achieved in the brain is a central question for visual and cognitive neuroscience. Here, we examine the sensitivity of regions of the posterior human brain to the global coordination of spatially displaced naturalistic image patches. We presented observers with image patches in two circular apertures to the left and right of central fixation, with the patches drawn from either the same (coherent condition) or different (noncoherent condition) extended image. Using fMRI at 7T (n = 5), we find that global coherence affected signal amplitude in regions of dorsal mid-level cortex. Furthermore, we find that extensive regions of mid-level visual cortex contained information in their local activity pattern that could discriminate coherent and noncoherent stimuli. These findings indicate that the global coordination of local naturalistic image information has important consequences for the processing in human mid-level visual cortex.

  15. Convenience Sampling of Children Presenting to Hospital-Based Outpatient Clinics to Estimate Childhood Obesity Levels in Local Surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Clark, Andrew F; Kobrzynski, Marta; Filler, Guido

    2015-07-01

    Childhood obesity is a critical public health matter associated with numerous pediatric comorbidities. Local-level data are required to monitor obesity and to help administer prevention efforts when and where they are most needed. We hypothesized that samples of children visiting hospital clinics could provide representative local population estimates of childhood obesity using data from 2007 to 2013. Such data might provide more accurate, timely, and cost-effective obesity estimates than national surveys. Results revealed that our hospital-based sample could not serve as a population surrogate. Further research is needed to confirm this finding.

  16. Health promotion at local level: a case study of content, organization and development in four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Elisabeth VG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several health determinants are related to local conditions and prerequisites at community level. For this reason, strengthening community action has been one of five strategies implemented in health promotion since the end of the 1980s. Such action includes setting priorities, making decisions, planning strategies, and implementing them to achieve better health. The aim of this paper is to obtain a deeper understanding of content, organization and processes in the development of local health promotion. Methods A qualitative multiple case study of four Swedish municipalities. The cases were analyzed in accordance with the principles of cross-case study analysis, and a content analysis of documents and interviews was conducted in two steps. First, a manifest content analysis was performed to identify present and former actors and measures. Thereafter, a latent content analysis was performed to investigate structures and processes in local contexts. Results The results of the inductive content analysis showed development of local health promotion in three phases: initiation, action, and achievement. Strengthening factors were local actors, health statistics and events. Hindering factors were lack of resources and vague objectives. External factors, e.g. national policies, were not perceived as prominent influencing factors. Media reports were regarded as having had an influence, but only to some extent. The content of local health promotion has developed from ad-hoc lifestyle and behaviour-related actions into structural, intersectoral actions related to determinants of health. Conclusions The municipalities have organized and developed their health promotion targets, actions and priorities on the basis of local needs and prerequisites. The three phases in the identified health promotion processes were experienced and documented as being subject to greater influence from internal rather than external strengthening and hindering

  17. Radioactivity levels of salt for natural sediments in the northwestern desert and local markets in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahi, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen samples of salt collected from different locations of old sediments in the western desert at El-Harra and Ain Giffara, Sitra lake and local markets in Egypt have been investigated. Natural radionuclide contents have been measured by γ-ray spectrometry employing a shielded HPGe detector. The activities of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K have been determined in Bq/kg dry weight. The absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation was estimated to be 1.46-16.13 nGy/h. The thorium-to-uranium concentration ratios were also estimated for the samples

  18. Implementation of a network level protocol on a GIXINET type local network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeuillet, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    The installation of a communication system for transferring results from several experiment laboratories to a computing center is described. The objectives of a useful bit rate of 24 kbs, low connection cost and simple infrastructure, extension of the network to 4 buildings situated within a radius of 300m, and connection in the most standardized fashion possible are attained by using the GIXINET local network and adopting the X25 packet protocol. Bit rates of 17.2 kbs for standard 128 octet packets, and 44 kbs for nonstandard packets (776 octets in this case) [fr

  19. Indicadores socioambientais para vigilância da dengue em nível local Socio-environmental indicators for dengue surveillance in the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Fernandes Flauzino

    2011-03-01

    referring to the frequency of water supply and garbage collection in local level studies associated with the incidence of dengue.

  20. A multi-tiered time-series modelling approach to forecasting respiratory syncytial virus incidence at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeder, M C; Fackler, J C

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of documented viral respiratory infections, and the leading cause of hospitalization, in young children. We performed a retrospective time-series analysis of all patients aged Forecasting models of weekly RSV incidence for the local community, inpatient paediatric hospital and paediatric intensive-care unit (PICU) were created. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals calculated around our models' 2-week forecasts were accurate to ±9·3, ±7·5 and ±1·5 cases/week for the local community, inpatient hospital and PICU, respectively. Our results suggest that time-series models may be useful tools in forecasting the burden of RSV infection at the local and institutional levels, helping communities and institutions to optimize distribution of resources based on the changing burden and severity of illness in their respective communities.

  1. A local-community-level, physically-based model of end-use energy consumption by Australian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; McNamara, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We developed a physics based bottom-up model to estimate annual housing stock energy consumption at a local community level (Census Collection District—CCD) with an hourly resolution. Total energy consumption, including space heating and cooling, water heating, lighting and other household appliances, was simulated by considering building construction and materials, equipment and appliances, local climates and occupancy patterns. The model was used to analyse energy use by private dwellings in more than five thousand CCDs in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The predicted results focus on electricity consumption (natural gas and other fuel sources were excluded as the data are not available) and track the actual electricity consumption at CCD level with an error of 9.2% when summed to state level. For NSW and Victoria 2006, the predicted state electricity consumption is close to the published model (within 6%) and statistical data (within 10%). A key feature of the model is that it can be used to predict hourly electricity consumption and peak demand at fine geographic scales, which is important for grid planning and designing local energy efficiency or demand response strategies. - Highlights: ► We developed a physics-based model to estimate housing stock energy consumption. ► House type and vintage, family type and occupancy time were considered. ► The model results are close to actual energy consumption at local community level. ► Its’ results agree well with the published model and statistical data at state level. ► It shows the model could provide from hourly to annual residential energy consumption.

  2. Variation at local government level in the support for families of severely disabled children and the factors that affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the families of 5862 children and young people (aged 0-24 y, mean 10 y 7 mo; 68% male) with severe disabilities resulting in a variety of impairments (21% with autism spectrum disorders, 16% with learning disabilities,* 13% with emotional and behavioural difficulties, and 13% with cerebral palsy [CP]). Data on the severity of intrinsic impairment were assessed using the Health Utilities Index, and the need for support was assessed from the results of a novel parent-completed questionnaire, the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ). These responses were related to data published by local authorities on educational and social policy. Higher levels of unmet need and lack of support, as reported by parents of children and young people with severe disabilities, are associated with greater impairment but not with socioeconomic deprivation. After controlling for impairment and diagnosis, variation at local government level is of the order of 1 to 1.5 ECEQ standard deviation scores. The best- and the worst-performing local authorities--in terms of the averages of the 'support' scores reported by their surveyed residents--cluster in urban areas. For children with CP, a positive correlation was found between the reported unmet educational support requirements in each local authority area and rates of mainstream school placement for children with special educational needs. This indicates that the placement of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is associated with reported unmet need (r=0.60; p=0.01). In the case of children with autism spectrum diagnoses, the provision of additional basic educational support in mainstream

  3. Local electricity market design for the coordination of distributed energy resources at district level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources at the distribution grid level creates concerns about their successful integration in the existing electric grid, designed for centralized generation by large power plants. Failure to the proper integration of distributed energy resources

  4. Effects of graded levels of iron-fortified locally produced natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, dressing percentage was not affected (P>0.05) by the dietary levels, relative fresh organs and primal cut weights were different (P<0.05) for birds fed the various levels of LPNVP and the control birds fed CVMP-based diets. It was however cheaper (P<0.05) to use LPNVP than CVMP as a source of vitamin for ...

  5. Map the Meal Gap: Exploring Food Insecurity at the Local Level

    OpenAIRE

    Craig Gundersen; Emily Engelhard; Elaine Waxman

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning food insecurity literature in the United States has provided a portrait of the causes and consequences of food insecurity. One underexplored aspect is the spatial diversity in food insecurity across the United States. In response, Feeding America has been releasing annual county-level food insecurity estimates since 2010. In this article, we describe the methods underlying these estimates, followed by answers to the following: What are the state-level determinants of food insec...

  6. Cost-effectiveness on a local level: whether and when to adopt a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woertman, Willem H; Van De Wetering, Gijs; Adang, Eddy M M

    2014-04-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a widely accepted tool for decision making in health care. The standard textbook cost-effectiveness analysis focuses on whether to make the switch from an old or common practice technology to an innovative technology, and in doing so, it takes a global perspective. In this article, we are interested in a local perspective, and we look at the questions of whether and when the switch from old to new should be made. A new approach to cost-effectiveness from a local (e.g., a hospital) perspective, by means of a mathematical model for cost-effectiveness that explicitly incorporates time, is proposed. A decision rule is derived for establishing whether a new technology should be adopted, as well as a general rule for establishing when it pays to postpone adoption by 1 more period, and a set of decision rules that can be used to determine the optimal timing of adoption. Finally, a simple example is presented to illustrate our model and how it leads to optimal decision making in a number of cases.

  7. Excess-electron energy levels, localization and transport in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamill, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    In disordered dielectrics, the fundamental parameters which control the physics and chemistry of excess electrons are time, temperature and energy or mean scattering distance. Viscosity and hardness do not directly affect the electron affinity of media, the optical spectra, or the chemical reactivity of dry or delocalized electrons or of relaxed localized or trapped electrons. Since the mean scattering distance and the transport mechanism, including barrier height, are fundamental, both liquids and glasses (including polymers) are considered in order to cover the range of relevant information. Based on the above described background, transport, localization, dry electron scavenging, trapped electron scavenging and recombination are explained. There are no available data for the energy of excess dry electrons in the media relative to vacuum in glasses, unfortunately, because of the very small yield of separated charge pairs at cryogenic temperature. Thermoplastic glassy solids provide attractive possibility above 250 K, and deserve consideration as the substitutes for cryogenic glasses. The same consideration applies to the measurements of electron drift mobility, which are essential for the adequate description of electron scavenging. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Mercury and Lead Levels in Common Soaps from Local Markets in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential toxicity of human exposure was investigated to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on Iranian soaps. Hence, we aimed to determine the presence of lead and mercury in selected soaps commonly used in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: Different common brands of cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps were purchased from retail market of Mashhad in 2016. Levels of these metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique. Results: All samples had the mercury and lead levels but did not exceed the maximum acceptable level (1 µg/g for mercury and 20 µg/g for lead recommended by FDA. The mean levels of mercury were 0.02, 0.08 and 0.23 µg/g, respectively in cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps. These levels for lead were 0.10, 0.19 and 0.13 µg/g. The highest mercury and lead levels were detected in Halazoon contraband and P hygiene brands, respectively. Conclusion: The content of mercury and lead in common soaps is currently not a concern in this city. However, as human body may be exposed to several toxic metals from different care products simultaneously, cumulative toxic effects of these metals must be considered important.

  9. Analysing local-level responses to migration and urban health in Hillbrow: the Johannesburg Migrant Health Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Vearey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Johannesburg is home to a diverse migrant population and a range of urban health challenges. Locally informed and implemented responses to migration and health that are sensitive to the particular needs of diverse migrant groups are urgently required. In the absence of a coordinated response to migration and health in the city, the Johannesburg Migrant Health Forum (MHF – an unfunded informal working group of civil society actors – was established in 2008. We assess the impact, contributions and challenges of the MHF on the development of local-level responses to migration and urban health in Johannesburg to date. In this Commentary, we draw on data from participant observation in MHF meetings and activities, a review of core MHF documents, and semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 MHF members. The MHF is contributing to the development of local-level migration and health responses in Johannesburg in three key ways: (1 tracking poor quality or denial of public services to migrants; (2 diverse organisational membership linking the policy process with community experiences; and (3 improving service delivery to migrant clients through participation of diverse service providers and civil society organisations in the Forum. Our findings indicate that the MHF has a vital role to play in supporting the development of appropriate local responses to migration and health in a context of continued – and increasing – migration, and against the backdrop of rising anti-immigrant sentiments.

  10. Comparisons of predicted steady-state levels in rooms with extended- and local-reaction bounding surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Murray; Wareing, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A combined beam-tracing and transfer-matrix model for predicting steady-state sound-pressure levels in rooms with multilayer bounding surfaces was used to compare the effect of extended- and local-reaction surfaces, and the accuracy of the local-reaction approximation. Three rooms—an office, a corridor and a workshop—with one or more multilayer test surfaces were considered. The test surfaces were a single-glass panel, a double-drywall panel, a carpeted floor, a suspended-acoustical ceiling, a double-steel panel, and glass fibre on a hard backing. Each test surface was modeled as of extended or of local reaction. Sound-pressure levels were predicted and compared to determine the significance of the surface-reaction assumption. The main conclusions were that the difference between modeling a room surface as of extended or of local reaction is not significant when the surface is a single plate or a single layer of material (solid or porous) with a hard backing. The difference is significant when the surface consists of multilayers of solid or porous material and includes a layer of fluid with a large thickness relative to the other layers. The results are partially explained by considering the surface-reflection coefficients at the first-reflection angles.

  11. [Reducing the levels of formaldehyde exposure during a gross anatomy dissection course with a local ventilation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Akio; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Nakashima, Tamiji; Hayashi, Haruki

    2010-03-01

    Reducing the levels of formaldehyde (FA) exposure in gross anatomy laboratories has been urgently required. We improved the environment of our gross anatomy laboratory by changing the existing general ventilation to local ventilation. We developed a local ventilation apparatus (grid-type of hood with downward suction) that can be attached to an ordinary dissection table. Furthermore, in order to make this local ventilation apparatus an enclosure hood, the upper plate of the dissection table was surrounded by flexible vertical flanges. The apparatus works as an effective enclosure hood without interfering with students' practice of dissection. We installed 26 local ventilation apparatuses and connected them to the ventilation duct. The ventilation ducts were installed above the ceiling or along the pillars not to interfere with students' vision and movements in the room. Adopting the local ventilation system reduced dramatically the students' and lecturers' exposure to formaldehyde. The geometric mean formaldehyde concentration was 0.066 ppm in the anatomy laboratory in 2005. Since 2005, the new system has enabled us to comply with safety and health regulations and providing a smell- and irritant-free dissection room with an excellent environment for anatomy study.

  12. Local adaptation at the transcriptome level in brown trout: Evidence from early life history temperature genomic reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Normandeau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences....... These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level...... of phenotypic plasticity at the transcriptome level. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptome approaches to identify genes with different temperature reaction norms. The responses observed suggest that populations may vary in their susceptibility to climate change....

  13. Street-level planning; the shifty nature of ‘local knowledge and practice’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2015-01-01

    The article explores and problematizes one of the oft-cited reasons why the implementation of public policy and other development initiatives goes wrong – namely that there is a mismatch or antagonistic relationship between street-level worker’s decisions and priorities on the one hand and on the...... descriptions of street-level workers as a distinct group of people with distinctive concerns and attitudes to their work.......The article explores and problematizes one of the oft-cited reasons why the implementation of public policy and other development initiatives goes wrong – namely that there is a mismatch or antagonistic relationship between street-level worker’s decisions and priorities on the one hand...... policy this articles suggests that when policy invariably is distorted at the administrative level it is not necessarily due to lack of will among street-level workers to comply with legislation or centrally devised directives but rather because a) in practice, planning and implementation are concurrent...

  14. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    and results to policies and policy development at the EU-level, as well as the national and regional level. PLUREL has peri-urban land use relationships as its main focus. This includes analysis of drivers, consequences, policies and scenarios for the future. Even though PLUREL aims for pan-European coverage...... of natural resources as well as an attractive development in general. Besides these spatial relevant sector policies, the EU enforces legislation which is translated into spatial explicit instruments on sub-regional level. E.g. the Habitat and Birds Directive caused the development of Natura 2000 areas......, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. The implementation of Trans-European Networks through funding programmes is another sector policy having an impact on land-use change and rural-urban relations. On the sub-regional scale the perception on overall goals like sustainability can be very...

  15. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response.

  16. The Importance of Rationales for Internationalization at a Local Level--University and Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ian; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines rationales for internationalization at a research intensive university in the UK. Internationalization is often described at a macro level without reaching down to explore the individual motivations that may support or constrain internationalization at a particular institution. The article argues that it is important to…

  17. An Iterative Maximum a Posteriori Estimation of Proficiency Level to Detect Multiple Local Likelihood Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors focus on the issue of the nonuniqueness of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator of proficiency level in item response theory (with special attention to logistic models). The usual maximum a posteriori (MAP) method offers a good alternative within that framework; however, this article highlights some drawbacks of its…

  18. Serum testosterone level as a predictor of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2012-01-01

    Study Type - Aetiology (individual cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The precise relationship between serum testosterone (T) and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and progression is controversial. Low pre-treatment serum T correlates with higher...

  19. Collective effects, relaxation and localization of hole levels in atoms, molecules, solids, and adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent progress in descriptions of photoelectron spectra is reviewed with emphasis on cases where the one-electron and quasi-particle approximations break down and the hole level becomes spread over a number of discrete lines or a continuum or both. Unifying aspects and similarities between interaction processes in atoms, molecules and solids are stressed. 38 references

  20. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  1. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  2. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  3. On the (In)Consistency of Citizen and Municipal Level Indicators of Social Capital and Local Government Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Jarl K

    2010-06-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for evaluating the value of studies carried out in isolated contexts, that is, with access to data on either, but not both, levels. The method is by comparing data collected by Statistics Belgium on Flemish municipalities, to data collected at citizen level by means of a face-to-face survey. The available evidence supplies at best a meager basis for presupposing a shared component of the indicators under study.

  4. Mercury modulates the cytochrome P450 1a1, 1a2 and 1b1 in C57BL/6J mice: in vivo and in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, Issa E.A.; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Abdelhamid, Ghada; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with Hg 2+ in the absence and presence of TCDD. After 6 and 24 h the liver was harvested and the expression of Cyps was determined. In vitro, isolated hepatocytes were incubated with TCDD in the presence and absence of Hg 2+ . At the in vivo level, Hg 2+ significantly decreased the TCDD-mediated induction of Cyps at 6 h while potentiating their levels at 24 h. In vitro, Hg 2+ significantly inhibited the TCDD-mediated induction of Cyp1a1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, Hg 2+ increased the serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels in mice treated for 24 h. Upon treatment of isolated hepatocytes with Hb alone, there was an increase in the AhR-dependent luciferase activity with a subsequent increase in Cyp1a1 protein and catalytic activity levels. Importantly, when hepatocytes were treated for 2 h with Hg 2+ in the presence of TCDD, then the medium was replaced with new medium containing Hb, there was potentiation of the TCDD-mediated effect. In addition, Hg 2+ increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA, which coincided with a decrease in the Cyp1a1 activity level. When the competitive HO-1 inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin was applied to the hepatocytes there was a partial restoration of Hg 2+ -mediated inhibition of Cyp1a1 activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that there is a differential modulation of the TCDD-mediated induction of Cyp1a1 by Hg 2+ in C57BL/6J mice livers and isolated hepatocytes. Moreover, this study implicates Hb as an in vivo specific modulator of Cyp1 family. -- Highlights: ► In vivo, Hg 2+ decreased the Cyps at 6 h while potentiating their levels at 24 h. ► In vitro, Hg 2+ significantly inhibited the TCDD-mediated induction of Cyps. ► Hg 2+ increased the serum Hb levels in animals treated for 24 h. ► Hb potentiated the TCDD-mediated effect on Cyps. ► Tin mesoporphyrin partially restored Hg 2+ -mediated inhibition of Cyp1a1.

  5. Proto-object categorisation and local gist vision using low-level spatial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaime A; Rodrigues, J M F; du Buf, J M H

    2015-09-01

    Object categorisation is a research area with significant challenges, especially in conditions with bad lighting, occlusions, different poses and similar objects. This makes systems that rely on precise information unable to perform efficiently, like a robotic arm that needs to know which objects it can reach. We propose a biologically inspired object detection and categorisation framework that relies on robust low-level object shape. Using only edge conspicuity and disparity features for scene figure-ground segregation and object categorisation, a trained neural network classifier can quickly categorise broad object families and consequently bootstrap a low-level scene gist system. We argue that similar processing is possibly located in the parietal pathway leading to the LIP cortex and, via areas V5/MT and MST, providing useful information to the superior colliculus for eye and head control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Subwavelength atom localization via quantum coherence in a three-level atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafoor, Fazal [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-12-15

    We propose a three-level atomic system where quantum coherence is generated by a classical standing-wave field coupled to the two upper excited decaying levels. Quantum coherence results in cancellation of the spontaneously emitted spectral lines depending on the choice of the phase of the standing wave. We exploit this phenomenon for precision measurement of the atomic position in the standing wave. Measurement of the conditional position probability distribution shows one to eight peaks per unit wavelength of the standing wave. Only one controllable parameter, that is, the phase of the driving standing wave, is enough to control these atomic positions. Along with the other results, the result of obtaining a single peak is remarkable as it enhances the efficiency of our system by a factor of 8.

  7. Subwavelength atom localization via quantum coherence in a three-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    We propose a three-level atomic system where quantum coherence is generated by a classical standing-wave field coupled to the two upper excited decaying levels. Quantum coherence results in cancellation of the spontaneously emitted spectral lines depending on the choice of the phase of the standing wave. We exploit this phenomenon for precision measurement of the atomic position in the standing wave. Measurement of the conditional position probability distribution shows one to eight peaks per unit wavelength of the standing wave. Only one controllable parameter, that is, the phase of the driving standing wave, is enough to control these atomic positions. Along with the other results, the result of obtaining a single peak is remarkable as it enhances the efficiency of our system by a factor of 8.

  8. Segment-scale, force-level theory of mesoscopic dynamic localization and entropic elasticity in entangled chain polymer liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2017-04-01

    We develop a segment-scale, force-based theory for the breakdown of the unentangled Rouse model and subsequent emergence of isotropic mesoscopic localization and entropic elasticity in chain polymer liquids in the absence of ergodicity-restoring anisotropic reptation or activated hopping motion. The theory is formulated in terms of a conformational N-dynamic-order-parameter generalized Langevin equation approach. It is implemented using a universal field-theoretic Gaussian thread model of polymer structure and closed at the level of the chain dynamic second moment matrix. The physical idea is that the isotropic Rouse model fails due to the dynamical emergence, with increasing chain length, of time-persistent intermolecular contacts determined by the combined influence of local uncrossability, long range polymer connectivity, and a self-consistent treatment of chain motion and the dynamic forces that hinder it. For long chain melts, the mesoscopic localization length (identified as the tube diameter) and emergent entropic elasticity predictions are in near quantitative agreement with experiment. Moreover, the onset chain length scales with the semi-dilute crossover concentration with a realistic numerical prefactor. Distinctive novel predictions are made for various off-diagonal correlation functions that quantify the full spatial structure of the dynamically localized polymer conformation. As the local excluded volume constraint and/or intrachain bonding spring are softened to allow chain crossability, the tube diameter is predicted to swell until it reaches the radius-of-gyration at which point mesoscopic localization vanishes in a discontinuous manner. A dynamic phase diagram for such a delocalization transition is constructed, which is qualitatively consistent with simulations and the classical concept of a critical entanglement degree of polymerization.

  9. DE-FORMALIZATION AND FORMALIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS INTERACTION INSTITUTES AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Kurbatova; U.V. Trofimova

    2008-01-01

    Russia currently faces the time when the new institutions emerge and develop. Thus there is a scientific problem that focuses on the explanation of deviations from institutional planning’s expected results. These deviations serve the purpose of solving current problems and maintaining the economic survival of the certain enterprises. It is especially noticeable at the municipal level where the opposite trends are quite interlaced. The article focuses on the example of Kemerovo region where ...

  10. Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Tsimplis, M.N.; Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Shaw, A.G.P.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Cipollini, P.

    1 National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India 2 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK # [Corresponding author: pmehra@nio.org] Abstract The contribution of atmospheric pressure and wind to sea level variability at Goa (West...), Southampton under an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOWTS) fellowship-2008-2009. We are all grateful to the International Oceanographic Commission for providing us with the opportunity of working together. 17 R: Correlation coefficient between sea...

  11. Numerical aspects of the modelling of the local effects of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, J.C.; Ventura, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical approximations adapted for the development of the computational models for the prediction of the effects of the emplacement of a high level waste repository are reviewed. The problems considered include: the thermal history of the rocky mass constituting the burial media, the flow of underground water and the associated migration of radionuclides in the same media. Results associated with verification of the implemented codes are presented. Their limitations and advantages are discussed. (Author) [es

  12. (DeCentralization of Public Procurement at the Local Level in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan BREZOVNIK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The so-called decentralization of public procurement in EU Member States is accepted as the most suitable design of the public procurement system, often justifi ed by greater economic effi ciency and by the possibility of boosting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, which act on the public procurement market as providers of goods, services and works. Despite the existence of highly decentralized public procurement systems which refl ect the decentralization of administrative systems, especially after the recession, there is a stronger tendency for centralization of public procurement in the EU. The so-called aggregation of demand by contracting authorities can be done in order to achieve economies of scale, including lower prices and transaction costs as well as to improve and professionalize the management of procurement procedures (as highlighted in the Directive 2014/24/EU by the European Parliament and the EU Council. However, even in the context of public procurement centralization, local contracting authorities (i.e., public administration authorities and organizations in Member States should be provided with a suffi ciently wide range of possible (centralized organizational structures and contractual (vertical and horizontal public-public partnerships which will allow them to select the most suitable and most economically effective organizational structure for the execution of public procurement.

  13. Local and System Level Considerations for Plasma-Based Techniques in Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Charles; Gaitonde, Datta

    2007-01-01

    The harsh environment encountered due to hypersonic flight, particularly when air-breathing propulsion devices are utilized, poses daunting challenges to successful maturation of suitable technologies. This has spurred the quest for revolutionary solutions, particularly those exploiting the fact that air under these conditions can become electrically conducting either naturally or through artificial enhancement. Optimized development of such concepts must emphasize not only the detailed physics by which the fluid interacts with the imposed electromagnetic fields, but must also simultaneously identify system level issues integration and efficiencies that provide the greatest leverage. This paper presents some recent advances at both levels. At the system level, an analysis is summarized that incorporates the interdependencies occurring between weight, power and flow field performance improvements. Cruise performance comparisons highlight how one drag reduction device interacts with the vehicle to improve range. Quantified parameter interactions allow specification of system requirements and energy consuming technologies that affect overall flight vehicle performance. Results based on on the fundamental physics are presented by distilling numerous computational studies into a few guiding principles. These highlight the complex non-intuitive relationships between the various fluid and electromagnetic fields, together with thermodynamic considerations. Generally, energy extraction is an efficient process, while the reverse is accompanied by significant dissipative heating and inefficiency. Velocity distortions can be detrimental to plasma operation, but can be exploited to tailor flows through innovative electromagnetic configurations.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LOCALIZED MUSCLE FATIGUE ON KNEE POSITION SENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Gear

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02 and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02. Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue.

  16. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  17. Local adaptation at the transcriptome level in brown trout: evidence from early life history temperature genomic reaction norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Meier

    Full Text Available Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences in gene expression profiles for three brown trout (Salmo trutta populations, one resident and two anadromous, experiencing different temperature regimes in the wild. The study was based on an F2 generation raised in a common garden setting. A previous study of the F1 generation revealed different reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees C representing conditions encountered in the local environments. Global gene expression for fry at the stage of first feeding was analysed using a 32k cDNA microarray. The results revealed differences in gene expression between populations and temperatures and population × temperature interactions, the latter indicating locally adapted reaction norms. Moreover, the reaction norms paralleled those observed previously at early life-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect that were differently expressed between the ecologically divergent populations. These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level of phenotypic plasticity at the transcriptome level. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptome approaches to identify genes with different temperature reaction

  18. Planing of land use of structural elements of ecological network at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available and Management projecting of structural elements of land use of the ecological network on the territory of the village council begins with ecological and landscape micro zoning of the territory of village council, held during the preparatory work for the drafting of land and are finished by the formation of environmentally homogeneous regions, to which the system components of ecological network are tied, as well as environmental measures in the form of local environmental restrictions (encumbrances in land usage and other natural resources. Additionally organization and territorial measures are projected that increase the ecological sustainability of the area: key, binders, buffer areas and renewable ecological network. The regional scheme of ecological network is intended for usage while projecting of creation of new territories that fall under special protection, for defining the tasks as for changing the category of land in the land use planning documents, for development of specifications regarding the reproduction of natural systems on conservation ready lands withdrawn from agricultural use, for accounting the problems of formation the areas of ecological network in forest management and land management projects, while development of the projects of areas organization of natural - reserve fund, in the definition of wetlands of international importance, in determining the habitats of various plants and animals of various categories of protection in accordance with international conventions and national laws - regulations, in planning targeted actions in the conservation of landscape and biological diversity. The main stages of designing local ecological network are: • inventory and identification of rights for land and other natural resources, drawing created territories and objects of natural reserve fund and other areas of natural systems on the planning and cartographic materials, which are under special protection; • rationale of

  19. High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaoyue; Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Tung-Lin; Mishra, Arabinda; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C

    2017-05-16

    Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9.4 T and local field potentials (LFPs), using 98-channel microelectrode arrays, in functionally distinct primary somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in nonhuman primates. Anatomic images of LFP and BOLD were coregistered within 0.10 mm accuracy. We found that the point spread functions (PSFs) of BOLD and LFP responses were comparable in the stimulus condition, and both estimates of activations were slightly more spatially constrained than local correlations at rest. The magnitudes of stimulus responses in area 3b were stronger than those in area 1 and extended in a medial to lateral direction. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of stimulus-evoked activation locations within and across both modalities were robust. Our work suggests that the intrinsic resolution of BOLD is not a limiting feature in practice and approaches the intrinsic precision achievable by multielectrode electrophysiology.

  20. Navigating the boundary of science for decision making at the state and local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.; Rose, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific information should play a vital role in many decision making processes, yet issues incorporating geoscience information often arise due to inherent differences between how scientists and decision makers operate. Decision makers and scientists have different priorities, produce work at different rates, and often lack an understanding of each others' institutional constraints. Boundary organizations, entities that facilitate collaboration and information flow across traditional boundaries such as that between scientists and decision makers, are in a unique position to improve the dialogue between disparate groups. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI), a nonprofit federation of 50 geoscience societies and organizations, is linking the geoscience and decision-making communities through its Critical Issues Program. AGI's Critical Issues program has first-hand experience in improving the transfer of information across the science-decision making boundary, particularly in areas pertaining to water resources and hazards. This presentation will focus on how, by collaborating with organizations representing the decision making and geoscience communities to inform our program development, we have created our three main content types - website, webinar series, and research database - to better meet the needs of the decision-making process. The program presents existing geoscience information in a way that makes the interconnected nature of geoscience topics more easily understood, encourages discussion between the scientific and decision-making communities, and has established a trusted source of impartial geoscience information. These efforts have focused on state and local decision makers—groups that increasingly influence climate and risk-related decisions, yet often lack the resources to access and understand geoscience information.

  1. [The Community Care as a model of social and health integration at the local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    The article develops a hypothesis for improving primary care services through health care solutions that can exceed the models in use (essentially hierarchical and based on tasks) in favor of new relational, multi-sectoral and network approaches that could privilege the integration of social and health services at the regional and district level (Community care). A qualitative methodological approach which analyzes the role of social networks in Community care, some national and international experiences of primary care models and the evaluation of the different role given to primary care both in the hierarchical-pyramidal approach and in the horizontal one (network approach). Some Italian regions are experimenting effective organizational models of care such as Primary Care Teams, Primary Care Units, Regional teams, Departments of Primary Care, Houses of Health ... At international level, it should be mentioned the Chronic Care Model (CCM), recently identified by WHO as a reference model, and adopted by the Tuscany Region (Italy). People-centered health care projects need shared interventions by competent and functional multiprofessional teams: the best outcome for the patient depends on the good interaction between individuals. It's necessary that relationships between members of the group are based on interdependence, integration and consistency to avoid risks of group illusion.

  2. Hand Vein Images Enhancement Based on Local Gray-level Information Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Histogram equalization theory, this paper presents a novel concept of histogram to realize the contrast enhancement of hand vein images, avoiding the lost of topological vein structure or importing the fake vein information. Firstly, we propose the concept of gray-level information histogram, the fundamental characteristic of which is that the amplitudes of the components can objectively reflect the contribution of the gray levels and information to the representation of image information. Then, we propose the histogram equalization method that is composed of an automatic histogram separation module and an intensity transformation module, and the histogram separation module is a combination of the proposed prompt multiple threshold procedure and an optimum peak signal-to-noise (PSNR calculation to separate the histogram into small-scale detail, the use of the intensity transformation module can enhance the vein images with vein topological structure and gray information preservation for each generated sub-histogram. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve extremely good contrast enhancement effect.

  3. LRRK2 affects vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter extracellular level and membrane receptor localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Migheli

    Full Text Available The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene was found to play a role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 encodes a large multi-domain protein that is expressed in different tissues. To date, the physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2 are not clearly defined. In this study we have explored the role of LRRK2 in controlling vesicle trafficking in different cellular or animal models and using various readouts. In neuronal cells, the presence of LRRK2(G2019S pathological mutant determines increased extracellular dopamine levels either under basal conditions or upon nicotine stimulation. Moreover, mutant LRRK2 affects the levels of dopamine receptor D1 on the membrane surface in neuronal cells or animal models. Ultrastructural analysis of PC12-derived cells expressing mutant LRRK2(G2019S shows an altered intracellular vesicle distribution. Taken together, our results point to the key role of LRRK2 to control vesicle trafficking in neuronal cells.

  4. DNA topoisomerase III localizes to centromeres and affects centromeric CENP-A levels in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Norman-Axelsson

    Full Text Available Centromeres are specialized chromatin regions marked by the presence of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is intimately linked to DNA topology, and DNA topoisomerases have previously been implicated in the dynamics of canonical H3 nucleosomes. Here we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Top3 and its partner Rqh1 are involved in controlling the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1 at centromeres. Both top3 and rqh1 mutants display defects in chromosome segregation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarrays, we show that Top3, unlike Top1 and Top2, is highly enriched at centromeric central domains, demonstrating that Top3 is the major topoisomerase in this region. Moreover, centromeric Top3 occupancy positively correlates with CENP-A(Cnp1 occupancy. Intriguingly, both top3 and rqh1 mutants display increased relative enrichment of CENP-A(Cnp1 at centromeric central domains. Thus, Top3 and Rqh1 normally limit the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1 in this region. This new role is independent of the established function of Top3 and Rqh1 in homologous recombination downstream of Rad51. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Top3-Rqh1 complex has an important role in controlling centromere DNA topology, which in turn affects the dynamics of CENP-A(Cnp1 nucleosomes.

  5. 100% RES communities. Steps towards 100% renewable energy at local level in Europe. Motivations, approaches, examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Pidana, Paulina; Hanisch, Angela; Priesner, Georg C.; Mc Kinney, Simon; Buschmann, Pia; Csanaky, Lilla; Praillet, Frederic; Zanchini, Edoardo; Lefevre, Christelle; ); Marincek, Gorazd; Meiffren, Isabelle; Toplice, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced in 2014, the energy and climate goals for 2030 of the European Union require the mobilization of everyone, everywhere. In a dynamic set to intensify rural territories, as well as cities, the communities have a major role to play. As the principal trustees of renewable resource deposits, they are the vanguard of the energy transition. Their strengths? Wind and water in abundance (very often), the sun of course, biomass - agricultural, forest, woodland, domestic, food processing - geothermal energy. With the desire to make this renewable capital live, it made some decide to take or regain control of the energy issue, reduce their energy bills and those of their inhabitants. Attracted by the opportunity to revitalize local economies and rural communes (alone or in groups) they are more likely to want to become 100% RES. But how to move from intention to action when faced with the lack of knowledge, or means, or when you feel too small to act? It is to assist you in developing your energy policy that this guide was written. Pragmatic, practical, it brings together the return on experience from partners and communities involved in 100% RES Communities project. For three years, elected representatives from rural areas, some experienced and some less, together with experts from 10 countries in Europe, have sought the best organizational, technical and financial means to reduce consumption and produce renewable energy. If because of the administrative, cultural, economic differences within the Union, all the territories do not enjoy the same facilities, the 100% RES Communities project has defined pragmatic methods, practices and tools which will make your work easier. You will find in this guide the key steps in defining your strategy and building your action plan. This is a feasible action plan to be shared and implemented with the stakeholders. A final note: because it is within networks that we discover new solutions, which can replenish the practices and

  6. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: attitudes and perceptions of local residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, G W; Jenkins-Smith, H C; Silva, C

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and-more generally-the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three counties where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste.

  7. Coastal Adaptation Planning for Sea Level Rise and Extremes: A Global Model for Adaptation Decision-making at the Local Level Given Uncertain Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the potential economic and physical impacts of climate change on coastal resources involves evaluating a number of distinct adaptive responses. This paper presents a tool for such analysis, a spatially-disaggregated optimization model for adaptation to sea level rise (SLR) and storm surge, the Coastal Impact and Adaptation Model (CIAM). This decision-making framework fills a gap between very detailed studies of specific locations and overly aggregate global analyses. While CIAM is global in scope, the optimal adaptation strategy is determined at the local level, evaluating over 12,000 coastal segments as described in the DIVA database (Vafeidis et al. 2006). The decision to pursue a given adaptation measure depends on local socioeconomic factors like income, population, and land values and how they develop over time, relative to the magnitude of potential coastal impacts, based on geophysical attributes like inundation zones and storm surge. For example, the model's decision to protect or retreat considers the costs of constructing and maintaining coastal defenses versus those of relocating people and capital to minimize damages from land inundation and coastal storms. Uncertain storm surge events are modeled with a generalized extreme value distribution calibrated to data on local surge extremes. Adaptation is optimized for the near-term outlook, in an "act then learn then act" framework that is repeated over the model time horizon. This framework allows the adaptation strategy to be flexibly updated, reflecting the process of iterative risk management. CIAM provides new estimates of the economic costs of SLR; moreover, these detailed results can be compactly represented in a set of adaptation and damage functions for use in integrated assessment models. Alongside the optimal result, CIAM evaluates suboptimal cases and finds that global costs could increase by an order of magnitude, illustrating the importance of adaptive capacity and coastal policy.

  8. Physical exercise can influence local levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tendon-related connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, S O A; Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L

    2004-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon tissue during exercise or training can affect local synthesis and degradation of type I collagen. Degradation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins is controlled by an interplay between matrix metalloproteinases...... (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). However, it is unknown whether local levels of MMPs and TIMPs are affected by tendon loading in humans in vivo. In the present experiment, six healthy young men performed 1 h of uphill (3%) treadmill running. Dialysate was collected from microdialysis probes...... (placed in the peritendinous tissue immediately anterior to the Achilles tendon) before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after an exercise bout. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured in dialysate by gelatin zymography, and amounts were quantified by densitometry in relation to total protein...

  9. A Bubble-Based Drag Model at the Local-Grid Level for Eulerian Simulation of Bubbling Fluidized Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bubble-based drag model at the local-grid level is proposed to simulate gas-solid flows in bubbling fluidized beds of Geldart A particles. In this model, five balance equations are derived from the mass and the momentum conservation. This set of equations along with necessary correlations for bubble diameter and voidage of emulsion phase is solved to obtain seven local structural parameters (uge, upe, εe, δb, ub, db, and ab which describe heterogeneous flows of bubbling fluidized beds. The modified drag coefficient obtained from the above-mentioned structural parameters is then incorporated into the two-fluid model to simulate the hydrodynamics of Geldart A particles in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed. The comparison between experimental and simulation results for the axial and radial solids concentration profiles is promising.

  10. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: Attitudes and perceptions of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Silva, C.

    1996-01-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and - more generally - the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three countries where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Identifying Assets Associated with Quality Extension Programming at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Harder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available County Extension offices are responsible for the majority of programming delivered in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore assets influencing the quality of county Extension programs. A basic qualitative research design was followed to conduct constant comparative analysis of five Extension county program review reports. Using the appreciative inquiry process as the lens through which to view the county program review reports revealed multiple assets leading to quality programming. Assets of the reviewed county Extension programs were found to cluster within the following themes: competent and enthusiastic Extension faculty, community partnerships, engaged and supportive stakeholders, effective resource management, sufficient and stable workforce, meeting stakeholder needs, positive reputation, access to facilities, positive relationships between county and state faculty, and innovative practices. The use of both needs-based and assets-based paradigms will provide Extension organizations with a more holistic understanding of its assets and a research-based foundation from which to make decisions about strengthening the organization at all levels.

  12. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Vaginal Drug Levels and Safety of a Locally Administered Glycerol Monolaurate Cream in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtane, Ameya R; Rothenberger, Meghan K; Frieberg, Abby; Nephew, Karla; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schmidt, Thomas; Reimann, Thomas; Haase, Ashley T; Panyam, Jayanth

    2017-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic affects millions of people worldwide. As women are more vulnerable to infection, female-controlled interventions can help control the spread of the disease significantly. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), an inexpensive and safe compound, has been shown to protect against simian immunodeficiency virus infection when applied vaginally. However, on account of its low aqueous solubility, fabrication of high-dose formulations of GML has proven difficult. We describe the development of a vaginal cream that could be loaded with up to 35% GML. Vaginal drug levels and safety of 3 formulations containing increasing concentrations of GML (5%w/w, 15%w/w, and 35%w/w) were tested in rhesus macaques after vaginal administration. GML concentration in the vaginal tissue increased as the drug concentration in the cream increased, with 35% GML cream resulting in tissue concentration of ∼0.5 mg/g, albeit with high interindividual variability. Compared with the vehicle control, none of the GML creams had any significant effect on the vaginal flora and cytokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 3α and interleukin 8) levels, suggesting that high-dose GML formulations do not induce local adverse effects. In summary, we describe the development of a highly loaded vaginal cream of GML, and vaginal drug levels and safety after local administration in macaques. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for quality control in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Maki; Harata, Yasuo; Shiba, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Nobuhide; Ozawa, Tomonori; Takahashi, Nobutoshi; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dosage and imaging conditions for patients undergoing intraoral radiography at Meikai University Hospital and establish assurance and quality control data. Tube voltage, exposure time, and air kinetic energy released per unit mass (air kerma) of three intraoral radiography units were measured. To calculate the patient entrance dose (PED) for each radiograph using Insight film, we extracted data for 1063 patients from their exposure records. The PED was compared with the diagnostic reference level (DRL) from the European Commission and the UK. The tube voltage of the three units was maintained at 60 ± 2 kV. Differences in exposure time were less than 1.7 % for all units. The air kerma rates were well maintained within a 4.2 % error. Based on the patient data, there were no significant differences in the mean exposure times for males and females for all anatomical sites. The mean PED ranged from 1.09 ± 0.31 mGy for the mandibular incisors to 2.42 ± 0.33 mGy for the maxillary molars. The mean PED at the mandibular molars using InSight film was 1.59 ± 0.20 mGy, being less than the recommended value based on the DRL for intraoral radiography in the UK. We concluded that radiographic conditions at the hospital have been properly maintained. This basic quality control data may assist other dental radiation facilities to reduce patient dosage.

  15. Impact of whey proteins on the systemic and local intestinal level of mice with diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiątecka, D; Złotkowska, D; Markiewicz, L H; Szyc, A M; Wróblewska, B

    2017-04-19

    Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically. This way, whey proteins are associated with obesity. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the estimation of the impact of whey proteins using a commercially available whey protein isolate on the physiological response of mice with diet-induced obesity. The physiological response was evaluated on the local-intestinal level, scrutinizing intestinal microbiota as one of the important factors in obesity and on the systemic level, analyzing the response of the organism. Whey proteins brought about the decrease of the fat mass with a simultaneous increase of the lean mass of animals with diet induced obesity, which is a promising, health-promoting effect. Whey proteins also proved to act beneficially helping restore the number of beneficial bifidobacteria in obese animals and decreasing the calorie intake and fat mass as well as the LDL level. Overall, supplementation of the high fat diet with whey proteins acted locally by restoration of the intestinal ecosystem, thus preventing dysbiosis and its effects and also acted systemically by strengthening the organism increasing the lean mass and thus hindering obesity-related detrimental effects.

  16. A comparison of DEA and SFA using micro- and macro-level perspectives: Efficiency of Chinese local banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago Christiano; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; Cajueiro, Daniel Oliveira; Dias, Marina Villas Boas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates to which extent results produced by a single frontier model are reliable, based on the application of data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier approach to a sample of Chinese local banks. Our findings show they produce a consistent trend on global efficiency scores over the years. However, rank correlations indicate they diverge with respect to individual performance diagnoses. Therefore, these models provide steady information on the efficiency of the banking system as a whole, but they become divergent at the individual level.

  17. Acetone-water complexes at MRCI level using localized orbitals: n ->pi* and pi ->pi* electronic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyau, S.; Ben Amor, N.; Borini, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The n -> pi* and pi -> pi* vertical electronic transitions of acetone with two and four H2O which correspond to a first solvation shell are considered. By using localized orbitals, and thanks to the MRCI approach which permits to know the wave function, the role of the various solvent molecules...... is analysed in details. Distinguishing the solvent molecules allows one to consider them at different calculation levels. The methodology is to compare the spectra obtained with four H2O, with two H2O either in the acetone plane or in a perpendicular plane and when they are completely or partly frozen....

  18. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  19. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  20. Semiempirical theory of level spacing distribution beyond the Berry-Robnik regime: modeling the localization and the tunneling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistic, Benjamin; Robnik, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the level spacing distribution in the classically mixed-type quantum systems (which are generic), exhibiting regular motion on invariant tori for some initial conditions and chaotic motion for the complementary initial conditions. In the asymptotic regime of the sufficiently deep semiclassical limit (sufficiently small effective Planck constant) the Berry and Robnik (1984 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 17 2413) picture applies, which is very well established. We present a new quasi-universal semiempirical theory of the level spacing distribution in a regime away from the Berry-Robnik regime (the near semiclassical limit), by describing both the dynamical localization effects of chaotic eigenstates, and the tunneling effects which couple regular and chaotic eigenstates. The theory works extremely well in the 2D mixed-type billiard system introduced by Robnik (1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 3971) and is also tested in other systems (mushroom billiard and Prosen billiard).

  1. State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J G; Hudgens, D E; Kassakian, J M; Trescott, D L; Craghan, M; Nuckols, W H; Hershner, C H; Linn, C J; Merritt, P G; McCue, T M; O'Connell, J F; Tanski, J; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have no cumulative environmental impact. Our results suggest that shore protection does have a cumulative impact. If sea level rise is taken into account, wetland policies that previously seemed to comply with federal law probably violate the Clean Water Act.

  2. Comparison of local anesthetic effects of lidocaine versus tramadol and effect of child anxiety on pain level in circumcision procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Fazli; Tuncel, Altug; Balci, Melih; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sacan, Ozlem; Kisa, Cebrail; Kayali, Mustafa; Atan, Ali

    2013-10-01

    To compare the local anesthetic effects of tramadol hydrochloride with those of lidocaine in circumcision procedures. We also investigated the effect of child anxiety on pain level. A total of 70 children were included in this study. The children were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 26) received lidocaine hydrochloride + epinephrine and they underwent circumcision using Ali's clamp(®). Group 2 (n = 35) received lidocaine hydrochloride + epinephrine and group 3 (n = 12) 5% tramadol. The last two groups underwent conventional circumcision. The mean anxiety score was 22.6. We did not find significant differences in terms of anxiety score among the groups (p = 0.761). When the pain scores of the groups during injection were compared, it was found that there were no significant differences. However, the pain score of the third group was significantly high when it was compared with the first and second group 2 and 10 min after injection. In the correlation analysis, we found a positive correlation between children's anxiety scores and the pain degree during injection (r = 0.373, p = 0.001). Tramadol may not provide effective local anesthesia in male circumcision. The child's anxiety before the circumcision seems to have a negative effect on pain level. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noise genetics: inferring protein function by correlating phenotype with protein levels and localization in individual human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand gene function, genetic analysis uses large perturbations such as gene deletion, knockdown or over-expression. Large perturbations have drawbacks: they move the cell far from its normal working point, and can thus be masked by off-target effects or compensation by other genes. Here, we offer a complementary approach, called noise genetics. We use natural cell-cell variations in protein level and localization, and correlate them to the natural variations of the phenotype of the same cells. Observing these variations is made possible by recent advances in dynamic proteomics that allow measuring proteins over time in individual living cells. Using motility of human cancer cells as a model system, and time-lapse microscopy on 566 fluorescently tagged proteins, we found 74 candidate motility genes whose level or localization strongly correlate with motility in individual cells. We recovered 30 known motility genes, and validated several novel ones by mild knockdown experiments. Noise genetics can complement standard genetics for a variety of phenotypes.

  4. Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Riera-Montes, Margarita; Nackers, Fabienne; Roederer, Thomas; Koudika, Marie Hortense; Sekkenes, Johanne; Taconet, Aurore; Fermon, Florence; Touré, Albouhary; Grais, Rebecca F; Checchi, Francesco

    2012-10-12

    Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS) approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. We explored (i) the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii) the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i) health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii) health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii) health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3), standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15) are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes.

  5. Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minetti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. Methods We explored (i the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. Results VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3, standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Conclusions Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15 are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes.

  6. Detecting Source Code Plagiarism on .NET Programming Languages using Low-level Representation and Adaptive Local Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Karnalim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though there are various source code plagiarism detection approaches, only a few works which are focused on low-level representation for deducting similarity. Most of them are only focused on lexical token sequence extracted from source code. In our point of view, low-level representation is more beneficial than lexical token since its form is more compact than the source code itself. It only considers semantic-preserving instructions and ignores many source code delimiter tokens. This paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection which rely on low-level representation. For a case study, we focus our work on .NET programming languages with Common Intermediate Language as its low-level representation. In addition, we also incorporate Adaptive Local Alignment for detecting similarity. According to Lim et al, this algorithm outperforms code similarity state-of-the-art algorithm (i.e. Greedy String Tiling in term of effectiveness. According to our evaluation which involves various plagiarism attacks, our approach is more effective and efficient when compared with standard lexical-token approach.

  7. Impact of radiation dose on achieving nadir PSA levels after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kelson, Suzanne; Fuks, Zvi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Several reports have documented the prognostic value of a post-irradiation nadir PSA of ≤1 ng/ml in prostatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine which pre-treatment and treatment-related variables impact upon achieving such nadir levels. Materials and Methods: Between January 1987 and June 1995, 740 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). 214 (29%) patients were treated with neo-adjuvant androgen ablation prior to therapy and were excluded from this analysis. Among the 526 evaluable patients, the clinical stage were as follows: T 1 C=128 (24%); T 2 A=76 (14%); T 2 B=116 (22%); T 2 C=99 (19%) and T 3 =107 (21%). The prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 64.8-68.4 Gy in 87 patients (17%); 70.2 Gy in 191 (36%); 75.6 Gy in 209 (40%) and 81 Gy in 39 (7%). The median pre-treatment PSA value was 11.2 ng/ml (range 0.3-114). The median follow-up was 20 months (range: 6-76 months). Results: 242 patients (46%) had PSA levels which declined to ≤1.0 ng/ml. The median time to a nadir level of ≤1.0 was 15.6 months (range: 1-43 months) from completion of 3D-CRT. 154 (29%) patients continued to show declining PSA levels within the first 2 years after therapy, and 130 patients (25%) failed to nadir at PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/ml. Among patients with nadir PSA levels ≤1, the 3 year PSA relapse-free survival was 91% compared to 29% for patients with nadir PSA levels >1 ng/ml (p<0.0001). A Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that nadir PSA ≤1 was the strongest predictor of PSA relapse-free survival (p<0.001) followed by Gleason score ≤ 6 (p<0.001) and stage< T3 (p=0.004). Among patients who received doses of ≥75.6 Gy, the likelihood of achieving PSA nadir levels ≤1.0 at 24 and 36 months was 86% and 93%, respectively, compared to 74 and 80%, respectively, among those who received lower doses (p<0.001). Doses of ≥75.6 Gy was the strongest

  8. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Where Is Obesity Prevention on the Map? Distribution and Predictors of Local Health Department Prevention Activities in Relation to County-Level Obesity Prevalence in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Marx, Christine; Yan, Yan; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context The system of local health departments (LHD) in the US has potential to advance a locally-oriented public health response in obesity control and reduce geographic disparities. However, the extent to which obesity prevention programs correspond to local obesity levels is unknown. Objective This study examines the extent to which LHDs across the US have responded to local levels of obesity by examining the association between jurisdiction level obesity prevalence and the existence of obesity prevention programs. Design Data on LHD organizational characteristics from the Profile Study of Local Health Departments and county-level estimates of obesity from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed (n=2,300). Since local public health systems are nested within state infrastructure, multilevel models were used to examine the relationship between county-level obesity prevalence and LHD obesity prevention programming and to assess the impact of state-level clustering. Setting 2,300 local health department jurisdictions defined with respect to county boundaries Participants Practitioners in local health departments who responded to the 2005 Profile Study of Local Health Departments. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of having obesity prevention activities and association with area-level obesity prevalence Results The existence of obesity prevention activities was not associated with prevalence of obesity in the jurisdiction. A substantial portion of the variance in LHD activities was explained by state-level clustering. Conclusions This paper identified a gap in the local public health response to the obesity epidemic and underscores the importance of multilevel modeling in examining predictors of LHD performance. PMID:22836530

  10. The relationship between level of autistic traits and local bias in the context of the McGurk effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eUjiie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The McGurk effect is a well-known illustration that demonstrates the influence of visual information on hearing in the context of speech perception. Some studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD display abnormal processing of audio-visual speech integration, while other studies showed contradictory results. Based on the dimensional model of ASD, we administered two analog studies to examine the link between level of autistic traits, as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, and the McGurk effect among a sample of university students. In the first experiment, we found that autistic traits correlated negatively with fused (McGurk responses. Then, we manipulated presentation types of visual stimuli to examine whether the local bias toward visual speech cues modulated individual differences in the McGurk effect. The presentation included four types of visual images, comprising no image, mouth only, mouth and eyes, and full face. The results revealed that global facial information facilitates the influence of visual speech cues on McGurk stimuli. Moreover, individual differences between groups with low and high levels of autistic traits appeared when the full-face visual speech cue with an incongruent voice condition was presented. These results suggest that individual differences in the McGurk effect might be due to a weak ability to process global facial information in individuals with high levels of autistic traits.

  11. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Hypothetical high-level cognitive functions cannot be localized in the brain: another argument for a revitalized behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, William R

    2004-01-01

    A key epistemological difference between behaviorism and cognitivism concerns their respective attitudes toward the analysis of so-called cognitive processes into functional modules. Behaviorists generally say it is not possible. Cognitivists argue that this is an achievable goal. The question has been concretized by recent developments in brain imaging technology. A consideration of the matter suggests that technical and conceptual difficulties abound in the effort to localize "high-level cognitive functions" in narrowly circumscribed regions of the brain. Some of the most serious involve the ambiguous definition of the putative mental components that are to be localized and the generally unacknowledged nonlinear complexity of both psychological processes and the brain. In addition, the imaging techniques themselves are replete with technical difficulties that raise additional questions about this particular application, even though these wonderful machines can make extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology. The cumulative implication of these difficulties is that the cognitive approach to the study of scientific psychology has once again set out on a search for a chimera. New approaches to behaviorism may be required to set psychology back on the correct track.

  13. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Johnson, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty

  14. Local diagnostic reference levels, approaches and compare the values in the South Bohemia Region in view of radiation protection inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanova, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the value of local diagnostic reference levels(the LDRL)in health facilities of the South Bohemia Region. The work is motivated by questions of licensees, who would like to know their position in terms of the LDRL compared to other workplaces. Also by the activity of the inspector who can identify the problematic workplaces, where is necessary to increase attention to optimization, exposure, or justification. In connection with the ongoing internal audits in licensee workplaces the information about the status of the LDRL among others is current, motivating licensee to changes, optimization and verification of compliance with the recommendation of the National radiological standard of Ministry of Health (author)

  15. Nanoparticle uptake and their co-localization with cell compartments - a confocal Raman microscopy study at single cell level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela-Lopis, I; Donath, E; Romero, G; Rojas, E; Moya, S E

    2011-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy, a non-invasive, non-destructive and label-free technique, was employed to study the uptake and localization of nanoparticles (NPs) in the Hepatocarcinoma human cell line HepG2 at the level of single cells. Cells were exposed to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the surface of which was engineered with polyelectrolytes and lipid layers, aluminium oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Raman spectra deconvolution was applied to obtain the spatial distributions of NPs together with lipids/proteins in cells. The colocalization of the NPs with different intracellular environments, lipid bodies, protein and DNA, was inferred. Lipid coated CNTs associated preferentially with lipid rich regions, whereas polyelectrolyte coated CNTs were excluded from lipid rich regions. Al 2 O 3 NPs were found in the cytoplasm. CeO 2 NPs were readily taken up and have been observed all over the cell. Raman z-scans proved the intracellular distribution of the respective NPs.

  16. Nanoparticle uptake and their co-localization with cell compartments - a confocal Raman microscopy study at single cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela-Lopis, I.; Romero, G.; Rojas, E.; Moya, S. E.; Donath, E.

    2011-07-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy, a non-invasive, non-destructive and label-free technique, was employed to study the uptake and localization of nanoparticles (NPs) in the Hepatocarcinoma human cell line HepG2 at the level of single cells. Cells were exposed to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the surface of which was engineered with polyelectrolytes and lipid layers, aluminium oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Raman spectra deconvolution was applied to obtain the spatial distributions of NPs together with lipids/proteins in cells. The colocalization of the NPs with different intracellular environments, lipid bodies, protein and DNA, was inferred. Lipid coated CNTs associated preferentially with lipid rich regions, whereas polyelectrolyte coated CNTs were excluded from lipid rich regions. Al2O3 NPs were found in the cytoplasm. CeO2 NPs were readily taken up and have been observed all over the cell. Raman z-scans proved the intracellular distribution of the respective NPs.

  17. The role of sediment compaction and groundwater withdrawal in local sea-level rise, Sandy Hook, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Miller, Kenneth G.; Browning, James V.; Kopp, Robert E.; Khan, Nicole S.; Fan, Ying; Stanford, Scott D.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2018-02-01

    The rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise at Sandy Hook, NJ (4.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr) was higher than The Battery, NY (3.0 ± 0.3 mm/yr) from 1900 to 2012 despite being separated by just 26 km. The difference cannot be explained by differential glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA; 1.4 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 mm/yr RSL rise, respectively) alone. We estimate the contribution of sediment compaction to subsidence at Sandy Hook using high-resolution grain size, percent organic matter, and porosity data from three upper Quaternary (≤13,350 cal yr) cores. The organic matter content (indicates that compaction of deglacial silts likely reduced the column thickness by 10-20% over the past 13,350 cal yrs. While compaction rates were high immediately after the main silt deposition (13,350-13,150 cal yrs BP), rates decreased exponentially after deposition to an average 20th century rate of 0.16 mm/yr (90% Confidence Interval (C.I.), 0.06-0.32 mm/yr). The remaining ∼0.7 mm/yr (90% C.I. 0.3-1.2 mm/yr) difference in subsidence between Sandy Hook and The Battery is likely due to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal. Historical data from Fort Hancock wells (2 km to the southeast of the Sandy Hook tide gauge) and previous regional work show that local and regional water extraction lowered the water levels in the aquifers underlying Sandy Hook. We suggest that the modern order of contribution to subsidence (highest to lowest) appears to be GIA, local/regional groundwater extraction, and compaction of thick Quaternary silts.

  18. The effect of verapamil as an adjuvant agent with local anesthetic on sensory block level, hemodynamic and postoperative pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaeizavareh, M.H.; Omranifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Coadministration of verapamil with local anesthetics could potentiate the sensory block of peripheral nerve, increase the duration of sensory nerve block and reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine on level of sensory block, post-operative pain and analgesic consumption among patients undergone elective surgery in Isfahan. Methodology: In this prospective randomized interventional clinical double-blind study ASA physical status I or II male patients referred for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. They randomized in group A (20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 mg verapamil) and B(20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2 cc normal saline). The sensory level block, postoperative pain, opioid consumption and vomiting and nausa and hemodynamic state was recorded and compared in two groups. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. Mean of the sensory level block 20 minutes after stating epidural anesthesia and immediately after surgery, postoperative pain score, opioid consumption and nausea and vomiting and fluid intake was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate changes was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine could not significantly increase the level of sensory block and attenuate post-operative pain and analgesic consumption and hemodynamic condition of the patients. For more accurate results it is recommended to determine the effect of different dose of verapamil in larger sample size of the patients. Studying the effect of other Ca channel blockers would be favorable in this regard. (author)

  19. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, Joshua A.; Natali, Susan M.; Levinton, Jeffrey S.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels of groundwater in Ife north local government area of Osun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolanle Saheed Adekunle

    Full Text Available This study determined the presence and levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs of groundwater in Moro, Edun-Abon, Yakoyo and Ipetumodu communities in Ife-North Local Government Area of Osun State. This was with a view to create public awareness about the safety of groundwater as a source for domestic purposes (e.g., drinking, cooking etc. in non-industrial area. Water samples were collected on seasonal basis, comprising of three months (August–October in the wet season and three months (December–February in the dry season. The PAHs in the water samples were extracted with n-hexane using liquid–liquid extraction method, while their qualitative identifications and quantitative estimations were carried out with the use of gas chromatography. Levels of PAHs detected showed predominance of light PAHs (less than four fused rings for both wet and the dry seasons. Higher concentrations of PAHs were recorded during the wet season than the dry season. The study concluded that the groundwater in the communities was contaminated with light PAHs and the total PAHs in this area exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 10 μg L−1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for safety of groundwater. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Groundwater, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Health impact

  1. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the largest pediatric hospital in Chile, with an active optimization program, and could be used by other hospitals in the Latin America region to compare their current patient dose values and determine whether corrective action is appropriate. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Implementation of soil protection objectives at local level - case study in eight municipalities; Maaperaensuojelun toteutuminen paikallistasolla. Tapaustutkimus kahdeksassa kunnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, H.

    2000-06-01

    This study aims to define the possibilities of the local administration to implement the objectives of soil protection. Important soil issues and development needs were analysed from eight group interviews and written material collected from the voluntarily participating municipalities. Relevant legislation was also reviewed as well as the experiences the municipalities included in the study, had about their action plans for the most important groundwater areas. The scope of a local soil protection policy and its objectives were manifested rather narrowly both in the group interviews and in the planning documents. Focus was on the quality of the groundwater resources and on a better control of the contamination risks. Most important soil problems appeared to be related to storage of oil and hazardous chemicals or accidents occurring in their transport, contaminated land areas, or sand and gravel extraction. Moreover the conflicts that arise in municipal decision-making concerning land use and physical planning were discussed in the interviews. Development needs were usually linked to physical planning at a general level, soil research and monitoring, clean-up of contaminated sites, diminishing of traffic contamination risks, and intensifying supervision, counselling and information dissemination. The interviewed groups saw a need to develop soil protection with greater awareness and more systematically than before, as an integral part of existing municipal administration and decision-making. Action plans for groundwater areas were experienced as useful tools to promote soil protection, but the need for other tools was also acknowledged. Stronger emphasise should be put on the economic and social viewpoints in sustainable development when assessing and monitoring further success in soil protection. Appropriate indicators are also needed. (orig.)

  3. Grafton and local bone have comparable outcomes to iliac crest bone in instrumented single-level lumbar fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, James; An, Howard; Hilibrand, Alan; Yoon, S Tim; Kavanagh, Eoin; Boden, Scott

    2012-05-20

    Prospective multicenter randomized clinical trail. The goal of our 2-year prospective study was to perform a randomized clinical trial comparing the outcomes of Grafton demineralized bone matrix (DBM) Matrix with local bone with that of iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in a single-level instrumented posterior lumbar fusion. There has been extensive research and development in identifying a suitable substitute to replace autologous ICBG that is associated with known morbidities. DBMs are a class of commercially available grafting agents that are prepared from allograft bone. Many such products have been commercially available for clinical use; however, their efficacy for spine fusion has been mostly based on anecdotal evidence rather than randomized controlled clinical trials. Forty-six patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive Grafton DBM Matrix with local bone (30 patients) or autologous ICBG (16 patients). The mean age was 64 (females [F] = 21, males [M] = 9) in the DBM group and 65 (F = 9, M = 5) in the ICBG group. An independent radiologist evaluated plain radiographs and computed tomographic scans at 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year time points. Clinical outcomes were measured using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Forty-one patients (DBM = 28 and ICBG = 13) completed the 2-year follow-up. Final fusion rates were 86% (Grafton Matrix) versus 92% (ICBG) (P = 1.0 not significant). The Grafton group showed slightly better improvement in ODI score than the ICBG group at the final 2-year follow-up (Grafton [16.2] and ICBG [22.7]); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.2346 at 24 mo). Grafton showed consistently higher physical function scores at 24 months; however, differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.0823). Similar improvements in the physical component summary scores were seen in both the Grafton and ICBG groups. There was a statistically significant greater mean

  4. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda, Carlos, E-mail: cubeda@uta.cl [Medical Technology Department, Radiological Sciences Center, Health Sciences Faculty, Tarapaca University, Arica 1000000 (Chile); Miranda, Patricia [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Santiago 7500539 (Chile); Vano, Eliseo [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University and IdIS, San Carlos Hospital, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  5. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Tranmission Risk Level on Three Local Health Center in Three Endemic District in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Andiarsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat risiko penularan DBD di wilayah endemis DBD di Kabupaten Bone, Kota Palopo dan Kota Makassar Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian dilaksanakan Bulan Mei-Juni 2015 pada rumah tangga secara sistematik sampling sebanyak 100 rumah pada setiap wilayah kerja puskesmas endemis DBD tertinggi di Kab. Bone (Watampone, Kota Palopo (Wara dan Kota Makassar (Mangasa Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Data dianalisis untuk menunjukkan indikator surveilans larva (HI, CI, dan BI dan density figure. Data disajikan dengan jumlah larva berdasarkan jenis kontainer, persentase dan distribusi kontainer. Nilai ABJ ketiga puskesmas termasuk rendah Watampone: 53%, Wara: 54%, Mangasa: 68%. Persentase CI (angka container larva tertinggi adalah Puskesmas Watampone (17, 78%, selanjutnya Wara (17,71% dan Mangasa (15,47%. Berdasarkan perhitungan HI, CI dan BI, density figure dari ketiga kabupaten pada kategori sedang hingga tinggi dan Maya index menunjukkan tingkat risiko penularan DBD sedang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Density figure pada kontainer rumah tangga yang diperiksa sedang hingga tinggi. Kampanye pencegahan DBD yang kuat, deteksi kasus dari rumah ke rumah dan upaya persuasif yang mengedukasi mengenai hal ini penting dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat agar ikut berpartisipasi dan lebih waspada terhadap DBD.Kata Kunci: DBD, larva, Aedes aegypti, kontainer, Maya IndeksAbstract. The aim of this research is to determine of transmission risk level of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF endemic area in District of Bone, Municipal of Palopo, and Municipal of Makassar, South Sulawesi province. Study held in May-June 2015 to 100 households by systematically sampling method in three highest local healthcare center work area in each endemic in District of Bone (Watampone, Municipal of Palopo (Wara, and Municipal of Makassar (Mangasa, South Sulawesi Province. Data analyzed to show the indicators of DHF surveillance (House

  6. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm 2 for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm 2 for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm 2 for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm 2 for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm 2 /kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences

  7. A cross-sectional study examining predictors of visit frequency to local green space and the impact this has on physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott P. Flowers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of physical activity (PA is a growing public health concern. There is a growing body of literature that suggests a positive relationship may exist between the amount of local green space near one’s home and PA levels. For instance, park proximity has been shown to predict PA levels amongst certain populations. However, there is little evidence for the role of relatedness towards nature and perceptions of local green space on this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine, in a National UK sample, whether subjective indices associated with local green space were better predictors of visit frequency to local green space and PA levels compared to objectively measured quantity of local green space. Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed. From a random sample, 2079 working age adults responded to an online survey in September 2011. Demographics, self-reported PA, objective measures of the local environment (including local green space, road coverage, and environmental deprivation, were assessed in conjunction with perceptions of local green space and nature relatedness. Quantity of local green space was assessed by cross-referencing respondents’ home postcodes with general land use databases. Regression models were conducted to assess which of our independent variables best predicted visit frequency to local green space and/or meeting PA guidelines. In addition, an ordinal regression was run to examine the relationship between visit frequency to local green space and the likelihood of meeting national PA guidelines. Results Nature relatedness was the strongest predictor for both visit frequency to local green space and meeting PA guidelines. Results show that perceived quality is a better predictor of visit frequency to local green space than objective quantity of local green space. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of PA was over four times greater for people who visited local green space once

  8. The localized effect of the Bi level on the valence band in the dilute bismuth GaBixAs1-x alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Zhu, Min-Min; Wang, Jun; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lu, Ke-Qing

    2018-05-01

    The research on the temperature dependence of the band gap energy of the dilute bismuth GaBixAs1-x alloy has been done. It is found that its temperature insensitiveness is due to the enhanced localized character of the valence band state and the small decrease of the temperature coefficient for the conduction band minimum (CBM). The enhanced localized character of the valence band state is the main factor. In order to describe the localized effect of the Bi levels on the valence band, the localized energy is introduced into the Varshni's equation. It is found that the effect of the localized Bi level on the valence band becomes strong with increasing Bi content. In addition, it is found that the pressure dependence of the band gap energy of GaBixAs1-x does not seem to be influenced by the localized Bi levels. It is due to two factors. One is that the pressure dependence of the band gap energy is mainly determined by the D CBM of GaBixAs1-x. The D CBM of GaBixAs1-x is not influenced by the localized Bi levels. The other is that the small variation of the pressure coefficient for the D valence band maximum (VBM) state of GaBixAs1-x can be cancelled by the variation of the pressure coefficient for the D CBM state of GaBixAs1-x.

  9. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Gorai, A. K.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sour...

  10. Importance of Performance Measurement and MCH Epidemiology Leadership to Quality Improvement Initiatives at the National, State and Local Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Kristin M; Gavin, Loretta; Moran, John W; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Goodman, David A; Sappenfield, William M

    2016-11-01

    Purpose In recognition of the importance of performance measurement and MCH epidemiology leadership to quality improvement (QI) efforts, a plenary session dedicated to this topic was presented at the 2014 CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference. This paper summarizes the session and provides two applications of performance measurement to QI in MCH. Description Performance measures addressing processes of care are ubiquitous in the current health system landscape and the MCH community is increasingly applying QI processes, such as Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of systems impacting MCH populations. QI is maximally effective when well-defined performance measures are used to monitor change. Assessment MCH epidemiologists provide leadership to QI initiatives by identifying population-based outcomes that would benefit from QI, defining and implementing performance measures, assessing and improving data quality and timeliness, reporting variability in measures throughout PDSA cycles, evaluating QI initiative impact, and translating findings to stakeholders. MCH epidemiologists can also ensure that QI initiatives are aligned with MCH priorities at the local, state and federal levels. Two examples of this work, one highlighting use of a contraceptive service performance measure and another describing QI for peripartum hemorrhage prevention, demonstrate MCH epidemiologists' contributions throughout. Challenges remain in applying QI to complex community and systems-level interventions, including those aimed at improving access to quality care. Conclusion MCH epidemiologists provide leadership to QI initiatives by ensuring they are data-informed and supportive of a common MCH agenda, thereby optimizing the potential to improve MCH outcomes.

  11. A quantitative evaluation of pleural effusion on computed tomography scans using B-spline and local clustering level set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Gao, Jungang; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Huasi; Guo, Youmin

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the pleural effusion's volume is an important clinical issue. The existing methods cannot assess it accurately when there is large volume of liquid in the pleural cavity and/or the patient has some other disease (e.g. pneumonia). In order to help solve this issue, the objective of this study is to develop and test a novel algorithm using B-spline and local clustering level set method jointly, namely BLL. The BLL algorithm was applied to a dataset involving 27 pleural effusions detected on chest CT examination of 18 adult patients with the presence of free pleural effusion. Study results showed that average volumes of pleural effusion computed using the BLL algorithm and assessed manually by the physicians were 586 ml±339 ml and 604±352 ml, respectively. For the same patient, the volume of the pleural effusion, segmented semi-automatically, was 101.8% ±4.6% of that was segmented manually. Dice similarity was found to be 0.917±0.031. The study demonstrated feasibility of applying the new BLL algorithm to accurately measure the volume of pleural effusion.

  12. Gender classification from face images by using local binary pattern and gray-level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbaş, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2018-04-01

    Gender is an important step for human computer interactive processes and identification. Human face image is one of the important sources to determine gender. In the present study, gender classification is performed automatically from facial images. In order to classify gender, we propose a combination of features that have been extracted face, eye and lip regions by using a hybrid method of Local Binary Pattern and Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix. The features have been extracted from automatically obtained face, eye and lip regions. All of the extracted features have been combined and given as input parameters to classification methods (Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural Networks, Naive Bayes and k-Nearest Neighbor methods) for gender classification. The Nottingham Scan face database that consists of the frontal face images of 100 people (50 male and 50 female) is used for this purpose. As the result of the experimental studies, the highest success rate has been achieved as 98% by using Support Vector Machine. The experimental results illustrate the efficacy of our proposed method.

  13. The effect of unemployment, aggregate wages, and spatial contiguity on local wages: An investigation with German district level data

    OpenAIRE

    Thiess Buettner

    1999-01-01

    Despite spatial rigidity of collectively negotiated wages the local unemployment rate is found to have a significant negative impact on wages. This impact is shown to be consistent with both the wage-curve hypothesis and modern Phillips-curve modelling. Spatial contiguity effects are found in wages and unemployment and their neglect leads to an underestimation of the effect of local unemployment. Yet, the impact of local unemployment on wages turns out to be quite low as compared to studies f...

  14. The Importance of Institutional Design for Distributed Local-Level Governance of Groundwater: The Case of California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of the world, groundwater resources are increasingly stressed, and unsustainable use has become common. Where existing mechanisms for governing groundwater are ineffective or nonexistent, new ones need to be developed. Local level groundwater governance provides an intriguing alternative to top-down models, with the promise of enabling management to better match the diversity of physical and social conditions in groundwater basins. One such example is emerging in California, USA, where new state law requires new local agencies to self-organize and act to achieve sustainable groundwater management. In this article, we draw on insights from research on common pool resource management and natural resources governance to develop guidelines for institutional design for local groundwater governance, grounded in California’s developing experience. We offer nine criteria that can be used as principles or standards in the evaluation of institutional design for local level groundwater governance: scale, human capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency. We assert that local governance holds promise as an alternative to centralized governance in some settings but that its success will depend heavily on the details of its implementation. Further, for local implementation to achieve its promise, there remain important complementary roles for centralized governance. California’s developing experience with local level groundwater management in dozens of basins across the state provides a unique opportunity to test and assess the importance and influence of these criteria.

  15. The intermediates take it all: asymptotics of higher criticism statistics and a powerful alternative based on equal local levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Analyzing the equity of public primary care provision in Kenya: variation in facility characteristics by local poverty level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the equity of service provision. This paper assesses whether poorer areas have poorer health services by investigating associations between public facility characteristics and the poverty level of the area in which the facility is located. Methods Data on facility characteristics were collected from a nationally representative sample of public health centers and dispensaries across all 8 provinces in Kenya. A two-stage cluster randomized sampling process was used to select facilities. Univariate associations between facility characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES of the area in which the facility was located were assessed using chi-squared tests, equity ratios and concentration indices. Indirectly standardized concentration indices were used to assess the influence of SES on facility inputs and service availability while controlling for facility type, province, and remoteness. Results For most indicators, we found no indication of variation by SES. The clear exceptions were electricity and laboratory services which showed evidence of pro-rich inequalities, with equity ratios of 3.16 and 3.43, concentration indices of 0.09 (p Conclusions The paper shows how local area poverty data can be combined with national health facility surveys, providing a tool for policy makers to assess the equity of input and service availability. There was little evidence of inequalities for most inputs and services, with the clear exceptions of electricity and laboratory services. However, efforts are required to improve the availability of key inputs and services across public facilities in all areas, regardless of SES.

  17. [Memorandum on sustainable reinforcement of prevention and health promotion: challenges at the federal, state and local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Pawils, S; Robra, B-P; Trojan, A; Franz, M; Grossmann, B; Schmidt, T-A; Lehmann, H; Bauer, U; Göpel, E; Janz, A; Kuhn, J; Naegele, G; Müller-Kohlenberg, H; Plaumann, M; Stender, K-P; Stolzenberg, R; Süß, W; Trenker, M; Wanek, V; Wildner, M

    2015-05-01

    Research-based evidence and practice-based experience are core requirements for the effective implementation of preventive interventions. The knowledge gained in the Prevention Research Funding Initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (2004-2013) was therefore amalgamated, reflected and consolidated in the Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research (KNP) meta-project. In annual strategy meetings, researchers and practitioners from the field and other experts developed 3 memoranda providing recommendations for the further development of research and practice in the field of prevention and health promotion. Memorandum III is primarily aimed at decision-makers in politics and administration at the federal, state and local level, in civil society and in the workplace. Its recommendations show that structuring efforts are urgently needed to achieve sustainable policy, particularly in the fields of health, education, employment and social affairs. Memorandum III brings together the knowledge extracted and problems identified in research projects. More so than its 2 predecessors, Memorandum III abstracts knowledge from the individual projects and attempts to derive guidance for action and decision-making, as shown by the 7 recommendations that appear to useful for consensus-building in practice and research. Value judgments are inevitable. Prevention and health promotion are an investment in the future: of social health, social capital and social peace. Improvement of the framework conditions is needed to achieve the harmonized awareness and the sustained effectiveness of these structure-building efforts in different policy areas, spheres of life, fields of action, and groups of actors. This includes the implementation of an overall national strategy as well as the expansion of sources of funding, extension of the legal framework, overarching coordination, and the establishment of a National Center of Excellence to develop and safeguard

  18. Two-dimensional atom localization via a coherence-controlled absorption spectrum in an N-tripod-type five-level atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhan Zhiming [School of Physics and Information Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Liu Jibing, E-mail: clding2006@126.com, E-mail: huajia_li@163.com [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China)

    2011-07-28

    A scheme of two-dimensional atom localization based on a coherence-controlled absorption spectrum in an N-tripod-type five-level system is proposed, in which the atom interacts with a weak probe field and three standing-wave fields. Position information of the atom can be achieved by measuring the probe absorption. It is found that the localization properties are significantly improved due to the interaction of dark resonances. It is also shown that the localization factors depend strongly on the system parameters that lead to such spatial structures of localization as chain-like, wave-like, '8'-like, spike-like, crater-like and heart-like patterns. By properly adjusting the system parameters, we can achieve a high-precision and high-resolution atom localization under certain conditions.

  19. Two-dimensional atom localization via a coherence-controlled absorption spectrum in an N-tripod-type five-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Zhan Zhiming; Liu Jibing

    2011-01-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional atom localization based on a coherence-controlled absorption spectrum in an N-tripod-type five-level system is proposed, in which the atom interacts with a weak probe field and three standing-wave fields. Position information of the atom can be achieved by measuring the probe absorption. It is found that the localization properties are significantly improved due to the interaction of dark resonances. It is also shown that the localization factors depend strongly on the system parameters that lead to such spatial structures of localization as chain-like, wave-like, '8'-like, spike-like, crater-like and heart-like patterns. By properly adjusting the system parameters, we can achieve a high-precision and high-resolution atom localization under certain conditions.

  20. Christian Democracy at the Local Level in the Post-dictatorship Era: Political Practices and Clientele Relations in a Chilean Comuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Luján Verón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the interactions between the population of a Chilean comuna and two local authorities of the Christian Democrat Party: a former mayor and current municipal councillor. Through a diachronic analysis including in-depth interviews and political ethnography we analyse how concepts and practices around the exercise of politics are understood by these politicians and analyse ow they interact with the local population. We analyse how notions about politics, loyalty and the proper behaviour of an elected official are understood. Through the issues analysed we provoke the reader to rethink ‘clientelism’ and its role in everyday life and in state building at the local level.

  1. The role of local authorities in the process of siting the Spanish repository for low and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, M.

    1996-01-01

    ENRESA is the owner and operator of El Cabril, he Spanish centre for the storage of low medium activity, short-life, radioactive waste. Specific communications activities were carried out in the area of the site during the licensing period in order for ENRESA to get to know the local inhabitants and inform them of the characteristics of the plant. Several institutions and organisations were involved, but particularly the local Town Council, that played an important role in this process, and a smooth and continuing relationship with these authorities turned out to be one of the key factors for acceptance of El Cabril Major actions developed between ENRESA and the local authorities to improve social and economic co-operation, as well as their results, are described in this paper. Among the major actions taken, the following stand out: the opening of an information bureau in the nearby town to supply information not only about the site, but also regarding the qualifications required and conditions offered for workers and contractors who wished to ser vic the facility. The use of local human resources for the realisation of the El Cabril project necessitated training programmes, and these were effectively carried out by the local authorities and ENRESA. Local companies were given priority for service contracts, and local infrastructure was vastly improved to allow the implementation of the El Cabril project. Public support for local authorities has grown, since there is common agreement among the local populations that the role they played has served to increase the economic levels and possibilities of the area. Furthermore, the implication of local workers helped to disseminate the characteristics, performance and safety measures adopted, among the local communities. (author)

  2. Compulsory Project-Level Involvement and the Use of Program-Level Evaluations: Evaluating the Local Systemic Change for Teacher Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelli; Weiss, Iris R.

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, the National Science Foundation (NSF) contracted with principal investigator Iris Weiss and an evaluation team at Horizon Research, Inc. (HRI) to conduct a national evaluation of the Local Systemic Change for Teacher Enhancement program (LSC). HRI conducted the core evaluation under a $6.25 million contract with NSF. This program…

  3. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  4. Incorporating Air Quality Improvement at a Local Level into Climate Policy in the Transport Sector: A Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Gunawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate policy has a strong influence on policy processes at national levels in Indonesia, while other policies with a focus on air quality improvement are being implemented at local levels. Indonesia as a developing country has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 29 percent by the year 2030. This calls into question the extent to which cities and local governments can cope with the challenges of climate change mitigation. The purpose of the research is to find out the extent to which local air pollution reduction policies can contribute to the climate change mitigation program. The research design involved an empirical case study on governance and policy relevant to climate change efforts to lower GHG in Bandung City, Indonesia. The study evaluated the air quality improvement and the climate change mitigation programs using the actor-based framework of the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT. The governance and stakeholder characteristic of climate change mitigation were also analysed using the structural context part of the CIT framework. The result shows that air quality improvement policy is implemented separately from climate policy; the latter operates at the national level and the former at the local level. By looking at the actor interaction analysis, the study concludes that a more holistic environmental policy approach would be more efficient at reducing local air pollution and contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

  5. Exploring Local Level Factors Shaping the Implementation of a Blended Learning Module for Information and Geospatial Literacy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Vine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended learning model? and How satisfied are implementers (faculty, administrators and library instructional/support staff with the new blended learning model for geospatial and information fluency? Focus groups (n=7 plus one interview (total n=22 were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g., staff, faculty, administrators to better understand facilitators, barriers, and/or issues related to module development, in addition to perceptions about how the modules are utilized by teaching assistants (TAs, instructional assistants (IAs, and instructors. Participants were identified according to their status as either discipline-specific instructional staff (i.e., instructor, TA, IA or staff who supported the development of modules (i.e., library instructional staff, library management, administrators. From an ontological standpoint that privileges an individual perspective on the nature of reality, while epistemologically seeking to understand the relationship between the “knower” and what can be known, we adopted a theory of constructivism to support this inquiry. Transcripts were imported into a qualitative analysis software package (NVivo 8.0 for organization, coding and analysis. Instructors found value in the online modules, particularly in a blended learning setting. Instructors felt that having the material in advance, in-class time could be better focused on interaction, assignments, and assessments and resulted in reduced anxiety in busy lab environments. Several key themes emerged, including: (a instructor expectations (time constraints, sustainability, and collaborative nature of development process and

  6. A practical and applied approach to assessing the cross cutting nature of child injury prevention as a basis for policy making at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Scholtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus essential. In addition, co-benefits due to injury prevention initiatives exist. However, multi-sectoral collaboration is often difficult to establish and maintain. We present an applied approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level to use to explore and address the multi-sectoral nature of child injury. Methods: We combined elements of the Haddon Matrix and the Lens and Telescope model, to develop a new approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level. Results: The approach offers the opportunity for diverse sectors at the local level to work together to identify their role in child injury prevention. Based on ecological injury prevention and life-course epidemiology it encourages multi-disciplinary team building from the outset. The process has three phases: first, visualising the multi-sectoral responsibilities for child injury prevention in the local area; second,  demonstrating the need for multi-sectoral collaboration and helping plan prevention activities together; and third, visualising potential co-benefits to other sectors and age groups that may arise from child injury prevention initiatives. Conclusion: The approach and process encourages inter-sectoral collaboration for child injury prevention at the local level. It is a useful addition for child injury  prevention at the local level, however testing the practicality of the approach in a real-world setting, and refinement of the process would improve it further.

  7. Local Strongmen At The Village Level: The Conflict Of The Demolition Of The First Raja Brawijaya ‘Petilasan’ At Sudimoro Village, Jombang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirojul Huda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Having been enacted since 2014, the Act No. 6/2014 has given a spirit and a huge authority to the villages in developing their potential resources. Unfortunately, those special authorities have not been fcollowed by the leadership’s capacity of the village’s head. This paper attempts to analyze the rise of local actors so-called local strongmen at the village level. This study uses Sidel (1999 perspective on how to seek local strongmen in local area at Sudimoro Village, Megaluh District in Jombang Regency. In case, the head of Sudimoro village produces a despotic action by unloading and dredging the historical land where there was a petilasan from King of Majapahit, well-known as Raja Brawijaya 1. Then, this action eventually triggered a conflict in the middle of its society and has been solved after the hall of cultural heritage of the government of Jombang Regency has intervened. This paper concluded that the high of authority and power would potentially rise the new local strongmen at the village level. Therefore, the existence of the principle of recognition and subsidiarity owned by the village is only used by a few local elites for their interests without any accountability and accessibility for the society.

  8. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a practical tool for the optimisation and for quality assurance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukko, E.; Henner, A.; Nieminen, M.T.; Ahonen, S.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Fluoroscopic procedures are an area of special concern in relation to radiation protection. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of patient radiation doses in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) collected from a single centre, as well as to establish and review local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in ERCP. A total of 100 patients' radiation doses in ERCP were recorded, and the third-quartile method was adopted to establish local DRLs for ERCP. The mean dose area product (DAP) was 2.05 Gy cm 2 , fluoroscopy time (FT) 1.7 min and the number of images was 3. The proposed local DRLs for ERCP were 3.00 Gy cm 2 and 3.0 min. Local DRLs were reviewed in a sample of 25 patients 5 y after they had been established. In reviewing data, the averages of DAP and FT were below the local DRLs. Local DRLs help in the optimisation process of fluoroscopic procedures and guides to a good clinical practice. (authors)

  9. Analysis of local budgets revenues in the Republic of Moldova: level, structure and dynamics for 2008-2014 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei PETROIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consist largely of analysis of the local budgets revenues of the Republic of Moldova for the period of 2008-2014. The analysis can not offer many information in dynamics due to the few number of years, but we tried to make an analyze of the situation. Informational support of the work are the laws and regulations of the country; data provided by the Ministry of Finance, National Bureau of Statistics and the literature. The purpose of this paper is to approach each category of income and part of it, the time evolution of local budget revenues over several consecutive years of budget income distribution in the directions of the Republic of Moldova, and analysis of each component of the local budget. In this paper, we have analyzed in dynamics structure in total revenues of local budgets, in national public budget, in state budget and in GDP. The main components analyzed were: tax and non-tax revenues, revenues without grants and transfers, grants and transfers from the state budget. Also we have attracted special attention to direct and indirect taxes, as well as their components.The necessity of this study is to present a clear and concise form of the administrative-territorial units' budget feature, conceptual notions, policies which are reflected on local revenues in Moldova. This paper aims possibility of revising the budget system structure, improve financial relations within it and its evolution, but it does not reflect fully all matters related to the budget system.

  10. The Effect of Microphone Placement on Interaural Level Differences and Sound Localization Across the Horizontal Plane in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heath G; Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of microphone placement on the interaural level differences (ILDs) available to bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) users, and the subsequent effects on horizontal-plane sound localization. Virtual acoustic stimuli for sound localization testing were created individually for eight BiCI users by making acoustic transfer function measurements for microphones placed in the ear (ITE), behind the ear (BTE), and on the shoulders (SHD). The ILDs across source locations were calculated for each placement to analyze their effect on sound localization performance. Sound localization was tested using a repeated-measures, within-participant design for the three microphone placements. The ITE microphone placement provided significantly larger ILDs compared to BTE and SHD placements, which correlated with overall localization errors. However, differences in localization errors across the microphone conditions were small. The BTE microphones worn by many BiCI users in everyday life do not capture the full range of acoustic ILDs available, and also reduce the change in cue magnitudes for sound sources across the horizontal plane. Acute testing with an ITE placement reduced sound localization errors along the horizontal plane compared to the other placements in some patients. Larger improvements may be observed if patients had more experience with the new ILD cues provided by an ITE placement.

  11. The Rabbit and the Tortoise. Climate Change Policy Development on the Local Level in Norway and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Erling KLAUSEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Policy innovation in unitary states relies heavily on the proclivity of local governments to identify and respond to emerging policy chal­lenges. The article contributes by applying a framework for policy innovation normally used in federal systems to a comparative analysis of two unitary states – Poland and Norway. The analy­sis serves to highlight how the effectiveness of horizontal, non-coercive diffusion mechanisms relies on established norms and traditions for local political self-rule. A key finding is that the prospects of success for ‘soft’ central govern­ment steering seem to rely not least on the re­sourcefulness of the local units. The study fur­thermore highlights the importance of historical trajectories for internal as well as external deter­minants for policy innovation.

  12. Proposal for efficient two-dimensional atom localization using probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao; Zhang Duo

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.

  13. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, T.; Nunokawa, J.; Fujii, H.; Takashima, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Yajima, T.; Matsuzawa, H.; Kurosawa, K.; Yanagawa, Y.; Someya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. (authors)

  14. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  15. Residential Segregation at the Local Level in Poland. Case Studies for Praga Północ, Włochy and Ursynów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaczewska Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to answer two questions concerning the scale and the pattern of residential segregation in Warsaw at the local level and the character of contemporary processes accompanying and modifying this phenomenon. While examining residential segregation we have applied a multidimensional approach to underline the complex nature of this phenomenon. We have focused on data concerning different demographic and socio-economic categories. Furthermore we indicate and describe three socio-spatial, contemporary processes that have accompanied an increase in social inequalities in Warsaw (the creation of enclaves of poverty and wealth and the process of gentrification. The research reveals increasing social inequalities at the local level that began in the socialist era and have strengthened during the transformation period, as well as the stability of the socio-spatial pattern in selected districts that influence their local specifics.

  16. The implementation goals of geoinformation support to planning and spatial management at the local level in the framework of the ONIX project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The project objective is to strengthen the development, establishment, maintenance and use of the geographical data bases in the processes of physical planning and urban management on local level. It is a part of the Slovenian environmental project Onix. The current state is the phase of implementation.

  17. A local environment approach for deep-level defects in semiconductors: Application to the vacancy in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongliang; Lindefelt, U.

    1987-04-01

    A local environment approach for calculation of the electronic structure of localized defects in semiconductors is described. The method starts out from a description of localized orbitals or tight-binding model for semiconductors and is based on the recursion method of Haydock. A repeated symmetrical supercell containing 686 atoms plus defects is formed, both the translational and point-group symmetry of the crystal are fully exploited. In this paper, we report an application of this approach to an undistorted isolated vacancy by using a self-consistent Hamiltonian. A bound state of T 2 symmetry at 0.87 eV above the valence-band edge and a number of band resonances within the valence-band were extracted using Lanczos algorithm and a continued-fraction representation of the local density of states. It was found that the T 2 symmetry gap state is mainly p-like and most of the wavefunction for one of the A 1 symmetry resonances is concentrated on the vacant site and another concentrated on the first neighbors of the vacancy. From the small shifts of the band edges of silicon with a vacancy, we can conclude that the supercell is big enough and the interaction between the defects of different supercells is negligible. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs

  18. Educating Farmers' Market Consumers on Best Practices for Retaining Maximum Nutrient and Phytonutrient Levels in Local Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Robin A.; Orr, Morgan; Goard, Linnette M.; Taylor, Christopher A.; Remley, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Few farmers' market consumers are aware of how to retain optimal nutritional quality of produce following purchase. Our objective was to develop and evaluate educational materials intended to inform market consumers about best practices for storing, preserving, and consuming local produce to maximize nutrients and phytonutrients. Printed…

  19. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Lu Cheng-Biao; Li Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. (paper)

  20. Subjective quality of videos displayed with local backlight dimming at different peak white and ambient light levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the influence of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness) of a display on the subjective quality of videos shown with local backlight dimming is examined. A subjective experiment investigating those factors is set-up using high contrast test sequences. The results are firstly...

  1. "A False Dilemma": Should Decisions about Education Resource Use Be Made at the State or Local Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timar, Thomas B.; Roza, Marguerite

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, states have assumed a greater role in financing education. The presumption of local control has been superseded by systems of state control. This shift in authority raises several critical questions. Chief among them is, "What effect has centralization of education financing had on the capacity of school districts to…

  2. Facilitators for the development and implementation of health promoting policy and programs – a scoping review at the local community level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion, with a focus on multidimensional upstream factors and an ecological, life-course approach, is establishing itself as the guiding philosophy for addressing public health. Action at the political and programmatic level on the Social Determinants of Health has proven effective for promoting and building public health at all levels but has been particularly evident at the national and international levels – due in large part to available documents and guidelines. Although research and experience establish that health promotion is most effective when settings-based, the development of health promoting policies and programs at the local level is still difficult. This study intended to investigate available knowledge on the development and implementation of health promoting policies and programs at the local level and identify factors most important for facilitating capacity building and outcome achievement. Methods We used a scoping review in order to review the current literature on local policy development and program implementation. Keywords were chosen based on results of a previous literature review. A total of 53 articles were divided into two categories: policy and implementation. Critical analysis was conducted for each article and a summary assembled. Data was charted with specific focus on the aims of the study, data acquisition, key theories/concepts/frameworks used, outcome measures, results, and conclusions. Results The articles included in this study primarily focused on discussing factors that facilitate the development of health promoting policy and the implementation of health promotion programs. Most significant facilitators included: collaborative decision-making, agreement of objectives and goals, local planning and action, effective leadership, building and maintaining trust, availability of resources, a dynamic approach, a realistic time-frame, and trained and knowledgeable staff. Within

  3. Is there an ideal REDD+ program? An analysis of policy trade-offs at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, George A; Matthews, Robin; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We use economy-wide simulation methods to analyze the outcome of a simple REDD+ program in a mixed subsistence/commercial-agriculture economy. Alternative scenarios help trace REDD+'s causal chain, revealing how trade-offs between the program's public and private costs and benefits determine its effectiveness, efficiency and equity (the 3Es). Scenarios reveal a complex relationship between the 3Es not evident in more aggregate analyses. Setting aside land as a carbon sink always influences the productivity of agriculture and its supply of non-market goods and services; but the overall returns to land and labor-which ultimately determine the opportunity cost of enrollment, the price of carbon and the distribution of gains and losses-depend on local conditions. In the study area, market-oriented landowners could enroll 30% of local land into a cost-effective program, but local subsistence demands would raise their opportunity costs as REDD+ unfurls, increasing the marginal cost of carbon. A combination of rent and wage changes would create net costs for most private stakeholders, including program participants. Increasing carbon prices undermines the program's efficiency without solving its inequities; expanding the program reduces inefficiencies but increases private costs with only minor improvements in equity. A program that prevents job losses could be the best option, but its efficiency compared to direct compensation could depend on program scale. Overall, neither the cost nor the 3Es of alternative REDD+ programs can be assessed without accounting for local demand for subsistence goods and services. In the context of Mexico's tropical highlands, a moderate-sized REDD+ program could at best have no net impact on rural households. REDD+ mechanisms should avoid general formulas by giving local authorities the necessary flexibility to address the trade-offs involved. National programs themselves should remain flexible enough to adjust for spatially and temporally

  4. Is there an ideal REDD+ program? An analysis of policy trade-offs at the local level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Dyer

    Full Text Available We use economy-wide simulation methods to analyze the outcome of a simple REDD+ program in a mixed subsistence/commercial-agriculture economy. Alternative scenarios help trace REDD+'s causal chain, revealing how trade-offs between the program's public and private costs and benefits determine its effectiveness, efficiency and equity (the 3Es. Scenarios reveal a complex relationship between the 3Es not evident in more aggregate analyses. Setting aside land as a carbon sink always influences the productivity of agriculture and its supply of non-market goods and services; but the overall returns to land and labor-which ultimately determine the opportunity cost of enrollment, the price of carbon and the distribution of gains and losses-depend on local conditions. In the study area, market-oriented landowners could enroll 30% of local land into a cost-effective program, but local subsistence demands would raise their opportunity costs as REDD+ unfurls, increasing the marginal cost of carbon. A combination of rent and wage changes would create net costs for most private stakeholders, including program participants. Increasing carbon prices undermines the program's efficiency without solving its inequities; expanding the program reduces inefficiencies but increases private costs with only minor improvements in equity. A program that prevents job losses could be the best option, but its efficiency compared to direct compensation could depend on program scale. Overall, neither the cost nor the 3Es of alternative REDD+ programs can be assessed without accounting for local demand for subsistence goods and services. In the context of Mexico's tropical highlands, a moderate-sized REDD+ program could at best have no net impact on rural households. REDD+ mechanisms should avoid general formulas by giving local authorities the necessary flexibility to address the trade-offs involved. National programs themselves should remain flexible enough to adjust for

  5. Effects of surface chromium depletion on localized corrosion of alloy 825 as a high-level nuclear waste container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the chromium-depleted, mill-finished surface on the localized corrosion resistance of alloy 825 (UNS N08825) were investigated. Tests were conducted in solutions based on the ground water at Yucca mountain, Nevada, but with a higher concentration of chloride. Results indicated that breakdown (E p ) and repassivation (E rp ) potentials for mill-finished surfaces were more active than those for polished surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated pits could be initiated on the chromium-depleted surface at potentials of 220 mV SCE in a solution containing 1,000 ppm Cl - at 95 C. Potentiostatic tests identified a similar pit initiation potential for the mill-finished surface. However, under longterm potentiostatic tests, a higher potential of 300 mV SCE was needed to sustain stable pit growth beyond the chromium-depleted layer. An increase in surface roughness also was observed to decrease localized corrosion resistance of the material

  6. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  7. The Importance of Local Level Actors: A Comparison of Integration Policies for Foreign Migrant Residents in Two Cities in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Tyler Keahi Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    How do Toyota and Yokkaichi, two cities in Japan, respond to the difficulties faced by their Nikkeijin foreign residents and why do these cities respond differently despite sharing numerous characteristics? Are there key factors that influence different migrant incorporation strategies? How do these factors influence the ways that Brazilian-Nikkeijin might be viewed in each city? This thesis explores the ways that local organizations in Toyota and Yokkaichi assist their Brazilian Nikkeijin ...

  8. GBS: Guidance by Semantics-Using High-Level Visual Inference to Improve Vision-Based Mobile Robot Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Major Findings Each major finding is demarcated by a horizontal rule , and a large, boldface heading. Guidance by Semantics Early Work with ARL on Data...Transactions on Medical Imaging, 27(5):629–640, 2008. [CSF+12] M. Cognetti, P. Stegagno, A. Franchi , G. Oriolo, and H.H. Bulthoff. 3-D mutual localiza...Segmentation. International Journal of Computer Vision, 59(2):167–181, 2004. [FOS09] A. Franchi , G. Oriolo, and P. Stegagno. Mutual localization in a

  9. Computerized Design and Generation of Gear Drives With a Localized Bearing Contact and a Low Level of Transmission Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F.; Chen, J.; Seol, I.; Kim, D.; Lu, J.; Zhao, X.; Handschuh, R.

    1996-01-01

    A general approach developed for the computerized simulation of loaded gear drives is presented. In this paper the methodology used to localize the bearing contact, provide a parabolic function of transmission errors, and simulate meshing and contact of unloaded gear drives is developed. The approach developed is applied to spur and helical gears, spiral bevel gears, face-gear drives, and worm-gear drives with cylindrical worms.

  10. Civic and political rights of the Batwa ethnic minority in local governance at village level: The case of Kanungu District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kibukamusoke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the Batwa ethnic minority group has been considered as a less superior group of human beings. They were forcefully evicted from the forest around Echuya Forest Reserve in Kisoro and Kabale districts of South-Western Uganda. The Batwa in Uganda are one of the most defenceless (vulnerable, marginalised, voiceless (powerless and endangered ethnic minority group in the districts they live in. In turn, their civic and political rights (the right to vote and the right to be voted in local council (LC elections have been ignored partly because of poor sensitisation to and awareness of the Batwa people by all stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the civic and political rights of the Batwa people in Uganda. The key questions to be addressed include:   1. Is the Batwa ethnic minority group aware of the right to vote in Local Council 1 elections in the communities? 2. Is the Batwa ethnic minority group aware of the right to be voted for in Local Council 1 elections in their communities?

  11. An Efficient Normalized Rank Based SVM for Room Level Indoor WiFi Localization with Diverse Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Rezgui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient and effective WiFi fingerprinting-based indoor localization algorithm, which uses the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI of WiFi signals. In practical harsh indoor environments, RSSI variation and hardware variance can significantly degrade the performance of fingerprinting-based localization methods. To address the problem of hardware variance and signal fluctuation in WiFi fingerprinting-based localization, we propose a novel normalized rank based Support Vector Machine classifier (NR-SVM. Moving from RSSI value based analysis to the normalized rank transformation based analysis, the principal features are prioritized and the dimensionalities of signature vectors are taken into account. The proposed method has been tested using sixteen different devices in a shopping mall with 88 shops. The experimental results demonstrate its robustness with no less than 98.75% correct estimation in 93.75% of the tested cases and 100% correct rate in 56.25% of cases. In the experiments, the new method shows better performance over the KNN, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest, and Neural Network algorithms. Furthermore, we have compared the proposed approach with three popular calibration-free transformation based methods, including difference method (DIFF, Signal Strength Difference (SSD, and the Hyperbolic Location Fingerprinting (HLF based SVM. The results show that the NR-SVM outperforms these popular methods.

  12. On the position of local levels of defects in proton-irradiated Pb1-xSnxTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, N.B.; Gas'kov, A.M.; Ladygin, E.A.; Skipetrov, E.P.; Khorosh, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of fast proton irradiation (T≅300 K, E=200 keV, F≤2x10 14 cm -2 ) on electrophysical properties of thin layers p-Pb 1-x Sn x Te (0.17 ≤x≤ 0.26) is investigated. Saturation of radiation flux dependences of hole density due to occurrence of a resonance level under irradiation, which is near the ceiling of the valence band of alloys, and due to stabilization of the Fermi level with the resonance level is detected. Possibility of coordination of novadays data on the position of the levels of radiation defects in alloys Pb 1-x Sn x Te is discussed

  13. Locally Different Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein Levels in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms of Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Dysregulated expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is observed in aortic aneurysms associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. We determined eNOS protein levels in various areas in ascending aortic aneurysms. Methods and Results. Aneurysmal specimens were collected from 19 patients, 14 with BAV and 5 with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV. ENOS protein levels were measured in the outer curve (convexity, the opposite side (concavity, the distal and above the sinotubular junction (proximal aneurysm. Cultured aortic cells were treated with NO synthesis inhibitor L-NAME and the amounts of 35 apoptosis-related proteins were determined. In patients with BAV, eNOS levels were significantly lower in the proximal aorta than in the concavity and distal aorta. ENOS protein levels were also lower in the convexity than in the concavity. While the convexity and distal aorta showed similar eNOS protein levels in BAV and TAV patients, levels were higher in TAV proximal aorta. Inhibition of NO synthesis in aneurysmal aortic cells by L-NAME led to a cytosolic increase in the levels of mitochondrial serine protease HTRA2/Omi. Conclusion. ENOS protein levels were varied at different areas of the aneurysmal aorta. The dysregulation of nitric oxide can lead to an increase in proapoptotic HTRA2/Omi.

  14. Prostate specific antigen levels during and after external beam radiotherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate: Predictor of therapeutic efficancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigus, P.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For 105 patients with locoregional carcinoma of the prostate, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated before, during and after external beam radiotherapy. The median follow-up is 17 months. In 51 patients (48.5%) initial PSA levels exceeded the maximum normal value of 20 ng/ml. Nine patients kept non-declining high levels just after radiotherapy. Only one of these is free of disease. Assuming PSA levels decrease exponentially during radiotherapy, a mean half-life of 62 days (median 54, SD 26 days) was calculated. Three out of five patients with a PSA half-life of more than 88 days relapsed as compared to a 8% (3/37) relapse rate in patients with a 'normal' half-life. Prolonged PSA half-life suggests residual disease. PSA levels are expected to further decrease after radiation. Six months after irradiation persistent high PSA levels were found in 14/51 (27.5%) patients. Only four of them had no evidence of manifest disease. Important negative prognostic factors for disease control in our series were non-declining high levels of PSA, a PSA serum half-life exceeding 88 days and persistence of elevated PSA values longer than six months after treatment. In our opinion, PSA is a valuable marker in the follow-up of prostate cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  15. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  16. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Søgaard, Jacob; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net......This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant...

  17. Action of local exposure of the tumor on the level of thiols in membrane structures of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushchenko, N N; Danilov, V S [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologo-Pochvennyj Fakul' tet

    1975-01-01

    Continued development of Plyss lymphosarcoma was shown to decrease the contents of total SH-groups and disulphides in the liver nuclei; at the same time, the tumour decreased the concentration of total and non-protein SH-groups in the mitochondrial fraction. After four days of tumour development, the content of non-protein SH-groups in the nuclei and of disulphides in the mitochondria was increased and subsequently was decreased. Local irradiation of the tumour resulted in temporary partial increase of the total SH-group content in the mitochondria and nuclei, and of non-protein SH-groups in the microsomes.

  18. Engine cold start analysis using naturalistic driving data: City level impacts on local pollutants emissions and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marta V; Varella, Roberto A; Duarte, Gonçalo O; Farias, Tiago L; Baptista, Patrícia C

    2018-07-15

    The analysis of vehicle cold start emissions has become an issue of utmost importance since the cold phase occurs mainly in urban context, where most of the population lives. In this sense, this research work analyzes and quantifies the impacts of cold start in urban context using naturalistic driving data. Furthermore, an assessment of the influence of ambient temperature on the percentage of time spent on cold start was also performed. Regarding the impacts of ambient temperature on cold start duration, a higher percentage of time spent on cold start was found for lower ambient temperatures (80% of the time for 0°C and ~50% for 29°C). Results showed that, during cold start, energy consumption is >110% higher than during hot conditions while emissions are up to 910% higher. Moreover, a higher increase on both energy consumption and emissions was found for gasoline vehicles than for diesel vehicles. When assessing the impacts on a city perspective, results revealed that the impacts of cold start increase for more local streets. The main finding of this study is to provide evidence that a higher increase on emissions occurs on more local streets, where most of the population lives. This kind of knowledge is of particular relevance to urban planners in order to perform an informed definition of public policies and regulations to be implemented in the future, to achieve a cleaner and healthier urban environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  20. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  1. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  2. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  3. Agentes globais e esfera local: o pólo automobilístico de Gravataí Global agents and the local level: the Gravataí automotive complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Ruduit Garcia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta discutir aspectos das relações global-local, focalizando o processo de formação e desenvolvimento do pólo automobilístico de Gravataí e suas implicações sociais no âmbito das relações de trabalho e emprego em empresas locais. Ao reconhecer a recente formação do sistema global, supõe-se que a presença de agentes globais em contextos locais tenderia a criar novas dinâmicas sociais que dependeriam de articulações específicas entre conjunturas econômico-institucionais, níveis e tipos de recursos econômicos e sociais disponíveis, e estratégias mobilizadas pelos agentes sociais. Os agentes globais imporiam novas referências competitivas e tecnológicas aos agentes locais, que se achariam, com frequência, despreparados para acompanhar tais exigências. Por outro lado, poderiam ser criadas, com diferentes configurações, chances de acesso a capitais, mercados, tecnologias e conhecimentos, estimulando mudanças nas relações de trabalho e emprego na esfera local. A assimetria nas relações de poder econômico não impediria a reação dos agentes locais, nas possibilidades de seus recursos e nos horizontes de seus valores, às novas regras e condições do sistema internacional. A relação global-local teria, portanto, implicações distintas entre os agentes sociais.This article discusses aspects of the global-local relations, focusing on the process of formation and development of the Gravataí automotive complex and its social implications as related to the labor relations and employment in local companies. In accordance with the recent formation of the global system, it is assumed that the presence of global agents in local contexts creates new social dynamics that depend on specific arrangements between economic and institutional circumstances, levels and types of available social and economic resources, and strategies mobilized by social agents. The global agents would impose new competitive and

  4. Skeletal muscle glycogen content and particle size of distinct subcellular localizations in the recovery period after a high-level soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whole muscle glycogen levels remain low for a prolonged period following a soccer match. The present study was conducted to investigate how this relates to glycogen content and particle size in distinct subcellular localizations. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus lateralis muscle...... biopsy collected immediately after and 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after a competitive soccer match. Transmission electron microscopy was used to estimate the subcellular distribution of glycogen and individual particle size. During the first day of recovery, glycogen content increased by ~60% in all...

  5. Effect of breed of female local sheep on blood biochemical and sexual hormonal levels during mating, pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.; El-Sayed, A.I.; Nada, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17β (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 β levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 β at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found

  6. Risk perception of tsunami in the community of Arauco, Chile - a contribution of risk perception to disaster risk management at local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, M. Sc. Susanne; Edilia Jaque Castillo, Dra.; Braun, JProf. Andreas Ch., ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    The research was carried out in the city center of the coastal community of Arauco, Central Chile. The community of Arauco was one of the most affected communities of the tsunami in Chile, the 27th of February 2010. For the data evaluation, the affected inhabitants of the community have been surveyed via standardized questionnaires. Furthermore experts of different fields, amongst others, Disaster Risk Management (DRM), risk education, urban and regional planning, as well as geology have been consulted in form of expert interviews. The results revealed a high risk perception part of the affected community and a weakness of DRM especially at local level, which opens a gap between the evaluation and treatment of risk by experts and risk perception of the affected community. The risk perception of the affected community, here, is predominantly determined by ecological vulnerability, expressed in direct and indirect experience of a tsunami and by institutional vulnerability, expressed among others by a weakness of DRM at local level and a mistrust in responsible institutions for DRM. Due to the institutional vulnerability and the mistrust in responsible institutions we recommend a Community Based Approach (CBA) to strengthen DRM at local level and to take advantage of the high risk perception and knowledge of the affected community. Involving the community in DRM, we assume to close the gap between risk evaluation of experts and risk perception of the inhabitants and to come up with the unique necessities and conditions at local level. Especially in centralized countries, DRM is less effective, because at the one hand, decisions are made distant from the affected communities, so that measures often do not come up with the unique conditions and necessities at local level, and on the other hand measures often do not find acceptance by the affected community. Furthermore centralized DRM is often not effective and quick in response in case of emergency. Another obstacle

  7. Maturity level of local productive arrangements (LPA: a diagnosis of the caps LPA in Apucarana – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Petter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the maturity level of a Caps cluster, capable to analyze the points on which the cluster is the need to make improvements. This research is classified as an applied research, aimed at generating knowledge for practical application in the crowded universe of research, also useful in solving specific problems, in this case the approach is little in the literature of maturity in production clusters, in contrast to the importance this practice in the management of productive agglomerations. This research also ranks on his way to as qualitative and quantitative approach. Data collection took place through the application of a questionnaire developed by Pietrobon (2009, at a Caps Cluster located in Apucarana – Brazil. This search tool maps the maturity of productive clusters through 14 qualitative dimensions, where each has subdivisions that are deployed on specific issues. They still have a numerical weight assigned to you which subsequently generate a score for assessing the maturity level of APL. As results were known information that will be useful as a basis for necessary improvements to the management of APL, which must be shaped according to the specifics of the arrangement, but that foster progress toward this. The score was considered positive, but this points to a broad range of necessary improvements to the maturity level of agglomeration studied.

  8. Search for buildings with high radon levels in Sweden: measurements carried out by local authorities in both older and newly built homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Local authorities in Sweden have made about 58,000 radon daughter measurements with the following aims: (1) to search for houses with high radon daughter levels, (2) to determine the level above which the house would be regarded as an insanitary dwelling, and (3) to check that the radon daughter concentrations in newly built houses are below the established limit. The sampling of dwellings is therefore not representative for Swedish homes. 5300 homes were found to have levels above the limit 400 Bq.m -3 EER. The highest level found was 28,000 Bq.m -3 . In about one third of the homes found to have levels exceeding the limit, measures had been carried out to decrease the radon daughter concentration. About half of the homes in which the levels were decreased had levels below the limit for rebuilding, e.g. 200 Bq.m -3 . Measurements in order to ascertain levels in newly built houses were made in about 1100 homes out of 200,000 built since 1981 which was the year in which requirements for newly built houses came into force. Of those built with radon-protective foundations, 94% had concentrations below the 70 Bq.m -3 EER limit, compared to 80% for traditional building techniques. (author)

  9. An experiment in democracy: observing the Belgian local partnerships for the management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, T.

    2004-01-01

    Observations are offered on the FSC workshop and the Belgian local partnerships from the perspective of public participation theory and practice. A distinction is drawn between participatory democratic theory and pluralism in order to point out that partnerships exemplify the latter and are thus susceptible to the main shortcoming of pluralism, which is that the stakeholders become a club of experts, distant from the individual citizens. A model of risk decision making based on the notions of analysis and deliberation is presented as a means for analytically scrutinizing the workshop and the partnerships. The workshop successfully diversified deliberation by invoking numerous features including: Small group work, informal venues, stimulating short presentations, involvement of local stakeholders, rapporteurs, community visits, and structured discussion. One shortcoming of the workshop was that it could have displayed more continuity with previous workshops and also convey a sense of progress on the issues of interest. A second shortcoming was that it invoked a very singular dimension of risk (to human health) without devoting adequate attention to the other dimensions of risk (economic, ecological, psychological, sociological, and ethical). The partnerships performed well in many ways; in particular the following features were evaluated as being positive: genuine commitment by partnership staff and leadership to involve all stakeholders, some degree of self-selection by participants (voluntary participation), widespread education and outreach, a flexible timetable, genuine commitment from ONDRAF/NIRAS to see the process through, clear, capable, and respected leadership. Finally, the simple survival of the partnerships in Mal and Dessel suggest popular legitimacy and buy-in by participants. A handful of more critical observations were made about the partnerships as well. First, the near absence of women strikes a chord of concern that women may not feel comfortable

  10. High-precision two-dimensional atom localization from four-wave mixing in a double-Λ four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Tao; Yang, Wen-Xing; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Shaopeng; Li, Ling; Zhu, Zhonghu

    2018-03-01

    We propose a scheme for high-precision two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a four-level double-Λ atomic system. Due to the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the 2D position information of the atoms can be directly determined by the measurement of the normalized light intensity of output FWM-generated field. We further show that, when the position-dependent generated FWM field has become sufficiently intense, efficient back-coupling to the FWM generating state becomes important. This back-coupling pathway leads to competitive multiphoton destructive interference of the FWM generating state by three supplied and one internally generated fields. We find that the precision of 2D atom localization can be improved significantly by the multiphoton destructive interference and depends sensitively on the frequency detunings and the pump field intensity. Interestingly enough, we show that adjusting the frequency detunings and the pump field intensity can modify significantly the FWM efficiency, and consequently lead to a redistribution of the atoms. As a result, the atom can be localized in one of four quadrants with holding the precision of atom localization.

  11. Chronic intermittent hypoxia alters local respiratory circuit function at the level of the preBötzinger complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a common state experienced in several breathing disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and apneas of prematurity. Unraveling how CIH affects the CNS, and in turn how the CNS contributes to apneas is perhaps the most challenging task. The preBötzinger complex (preBötC is a pre-motor respiratory network critical for inspiratory rhythm generation. Here, we test the hypothesis that CIH increases irregular output from the isolated preBötC, which can be mitigated by antioxidant treatment. Electrophysiological recordings from brainstem slices revealed that CIH enhanced burst-to-burst irregularity in period and/or amplitude. Irregularities represented a change in individual fidelity among preBötC neurons, and changed transmission from preBötC to the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XIIn, which resulted in increased transmission failure to XIIn. CIH increased the degree of lipid peroxidation in the preBötC and treatment with the antioxidant, 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (1-methylpyridinium-4-yl-21H,23H-porphyrin manganese(III pentachloride (MnTMPyP, reduced CIH-mediated irregularities on the network rhythm and improved transmission of preBötC to the XIIn. These findings suggest that CIH promotes a pro-oxidant state that destabilizes rhythmogenesis originating from the preBötC and changes the local rhythm generating circuit which in turn, can lead to intermittent transmission failure to the XIIn. We propose that these CIH-mediated effects represent a part of the central mechanism that may perpetuate apneas and respiratory instability, which are hallmark traits in several dysautonomic conditions.

  12. Structural social capital and local-level forest governance: Do they inter-relate? A mushroom permit case in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorriz-Mifsud, Elena; Secco, Laura; Da Re, Riccardo; Pisani, Elena; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In diffuse forest uses, like non-timber forest products' harvesting, the behavioural alignment of pickers is crucial for avoiding a "tragedy of the commons". Moreover, the introduction of policy tools such as a harvest permit system may help in keeping the activity under control. Besides the official enforcement, pickers' engagement may also derive from the perceived legitimate decision of forest managers and the community pressure to behave according to the shared values. Framed within the social capital theory, this paper examines three types of relations of rural communities in a protected area in Catalonia (Spain) where a system of mushroom picking permits was recently introduced. Through social network analysis, we explore structural changes in relations within the policy network across the policy conception, design and implementation phases. We then test whether social links of the pickers' community relate to influential members of the policy network. Lastly, we assess whether pickers' bonding and bridging structures affect the rate of permit uptake. Our results show that the high degree of acceptance could be explained by an adequate consideration of pickers' preferences within the decision-making group: local pickers show proximity to members of the policy network with medium-high influence during the three policy phases. The policy network also evolves, with some members emerging as key actors during certain phases. Significant differences are found in pickers' relations among and across the involved municipalities following an urban-rural gradient. A preliminary relation is found between social structures and differential pickers' engagement. These results illustrate a case of positive social capital backing policy design and, probably, also implementation. This calls for a meticulous design of forest policy networks with respect to communities of affected forest users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Interdependence between Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Variables on a Local and Regional Level: Evidence for German Counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research...... is related to the fact that cropland farming seems to be less profitable in this low-yield areas. Furthermore, organic farming in this low-yield area tends to be economically attractive for farmers due to political support and low foregone income from conventional farming. However, the indirect impact...

  14. Correlation of indoor radon levels with physical properties of local soil in Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Bhaskar Reddy, G.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. As might be expected, the physical characteristics of soil play key roles in determining the radon concentration in nearby buildings. The physical characteristics of soil, such as density, specific gravity and porosity in the vicinity of the dwellings of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, have been determined using core cutter and specific gravity bottle. In the present paper, these parameters are correlated with the average indoor radon levels estimated for a year using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author)

  15. Solitary recurrence of castration-resistant prostate cancer with low or undetectable levels of prostate specific antigen salvaged with local ablative radiation therapy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachien Jake; Ying, James; Kapur, Payal; Wohlfeld, Bryan; Roehrborn, Claus; Kim, Dong W Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer recurrences are usually first detected by increased levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), and systemic therapy is often initiated if distant metastasis is confirmed. However, low or nearly undetectable levels of PSA in the modern era of ultrasensitive PSA assay may be difficult to interpret in patients with a history of prostate cancer. Deciding whether to initiate additional systemic therapy in limited indolent metastatic disease while balancing the quality of life of the patient and ensuring the oncologic control of the disease may be challenging. In the present study, the case of a biopsy-confirmed solitary spine recurrence of prostate cancer with nearly undetectable but persistent levels of PSA (0.05 ng/ml) is reported. Treatment of the recurrence with local ablative radiotherapy improved the pain experienced by the patient, and reduced his levels of PSA to undetectable limits (<0.05 ng/ml). Repeated imaging analysis, PSA assay and clinical assessment demonstrated durable control of the disease without the requirement for additional systemic treatments. The present case highlighted the importance of initiating appropriate work-up according to the clinical scenario. Local treatment for solitary or oligometastatic recurrence of prostate cancer may enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutic strategies and benefit certain patients.

  16. Hybrid Density Functional Study of the Local Structures and Energy Levels of CaAl2O4:Ce3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bibo; Jing, Weiguo; Lou, Liren; Zhang, Yongfan; Yin, Min; Duan, Chang-Kui

    2018-05-03

    First-principles calculations were carried out for the electronic structures of Ce 3+ in calcium aluminate phosphors, CaAl 2 O 4 , and their effects on luminescence properties. Hybrid density functional approaches were used to overcome the well-known underestimation of band gaps of conventional density functional approaches and to calculate the energy levels of Ce 3+ ions more accurately. The obtained 4f-5d excitation and emission energies show good consistency with measured values. A detailed energy diagram of all three sites is obtained, which explains qualitatively all of the luminescent phenomena. With the results of energy levels calculated by combining the hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) and the constraint occupancy approach, we are able to construct a configurational coordinate diagram to analyze the processes of capture of a hole or an electron and luminescence. This approach can be applied for systematic high-throughput calculations in predicting Ce 3+ activated luminescent materials with a moderate computing requirement.

  17. Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica - Implications for local climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Clow, Gary D.; Andersen, Dale T.; Simmons, George M., Jr.; Love, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from 10 years of ice-thickness measurements at perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The ice cover of this lake had been thinning steadily at a rate exceeding 20 cm/yr during the last decade but seems to have recently stabilized at a thickness of 3.3 m. Data concerning lake level and degree-days above freezing are presented to show the relationship between peak summer temperatures and the volume of glacier-derived meltwater entering Lake Hoare each summer. From these latter data it is inferred that peak summer temperatures have been above 0 C for a progressively longer period of time each year since 1972. Possible explanations for the thinning of the lake ice are considered. The thickness of the ice cover is determined by the balance between freezing during the winter and ablation that occurs all year but maximizes in summer. It is suggested that the term most likely responsible for the change in the ice cover thickness at Lake Hoare is the extent of summer melting, consistent with the rising lake levels.

  18. When global rule reversal meets local task switching: The neural mechanisms of coordinated behavioral adaptation to instructed multi-level demand changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiquan; Wolfensteller, Uta; Schubert, Torsten; Ruge, Hannes

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive flexibility is essential to cope with changing task demands and often it is necessary to adapt to combined changes in a coordinated manner. The present fMRI study examined how the brain implements such multi-level adaptation processes. Specifically, on a "local," hierarchically lower level, switching between two tasks was required across trials while the rules of each task remained unchanged for blocks of trials. On a "global" level regarding blocks of twelve trials, the task rules could reverse or remain the same. The current task was cued at the start of each trial while the current task rules were instructed before the start of a new block. We found that partly overlapping and partly segregated neural networks play different roles when coping with the combination of global rule reversal and local task switching. The fronto-parietal control network (FPN) supported the encoding of reversed rules at the time of explicit rule instruction. The same regions subsequently supported local task switching processes during actual implementation trials, irrespective of rule reversal condition. By contrast, a cortico-striatal network (CSN) including supplementary motor area and putamen was increasingly engaged across implementation trials and more so for rule reversal than for nonreversal blocks, irrespective of task switching condition. Together, these findings suggest that the brain accomplishes the coordinated adaptation to multi-level demand changes by distributing processing resources either across time (FPN for reversed rule encoding and later for task switching) or across regions (CSN for reversed rule implementation and FPN for concurrent task switching). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Health equity issues at the local level: socio-geography, access, and health outcomes in the service area of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Henry B; King-Schultz, Leslie W; Aftab, Asma S; Bryant, John H

    2007-08-01

    Although health equity issues at regional, national and international levels are receiving increasing attention, health equity issues at the local level have been virtually overlooked. Here, we describe here a comprehensive equity assessment carried out by the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti (HAS) in 2003. HAS has been operating health and development programs in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti for 50 years. We reviewed all available information arising from a comprehensive evaluation of the programs of HAS carried out in 1999 and 2000. As part of this evaluation, two demographic and health surveys were carried out. We carried out exit interviews with clients receiving primary health care, observations within health facilities, interviews with households related to quality of care, and focus group discussions with community-based health workers. A special study was carried out in 2003 to assess factors determining the use of prenatal care services. Finally, selected findings were obtained from the HAS information system. We found markedly reduced access to health services in the peripheral mountainous areas compared to the central plains. The quality of services was more deficient and the coverage of key services was lower in the mountains. Finally, health status, as measured by under-five mortality rates and levels of childhood malnutrition, was also worse in the mountains. These findings indicate that local health programs need to give attention to monitoring the health status as well as the quality and coverage of basic services among marginalized groups within the program service area. Health inequities will not be overcome until such monitoring occurs and leaders of health programs ensure that inequities identified are addressed in the local programming of activities. It is quite likely that, within relatively small geographic areas in resource-poor settings around the world, similar, if not even greater, levels of health inequities exist. These inequities

  20. Superradiance from an ultrathin film of three-level V-type atoms: interplay between splitting, quantum coherence and local-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V A; Carreno, F; Anton, M A; Calderon, Oscar G; Dominguez-Adame, F

    2003-01-01

    We carry out a theoretical study of the collective spontaneous emission (superradiance) from an ultrathin film comprised of three-level atoms with V configuration of the operating transitions. As the thickness of the system is small compared to the emission wavelength inside the film, the local-field correction to the averaged Maxwell field is relevant. We show that the interplay between the low-frequency quantum coherence within the subspace of the upper doublet states and the local-field correction may drastically affect the branching ratio of the operating transitions. This effect may be used for controlling the emission process by varying the doublet splitting and the amount of low-frequency coherence

  1. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption.

  2. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  3. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF KNOWLEDGE AND AVAILABILITY OF LOCAL LEVEL OF EAST NUSA TENGGARA IN THE MIDDLE OF CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH EDUCATION IN KUPANG VOCATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hadi Trigutomo

    2017-06-01

    society. The availability of national food can be fully fulfilled if it is commenced from the food sufficiency in the levels of family. In regard to the local area, it is marked by the existence of food consumption which can fulfill the sufficiency of every individual, in terms of balanced nutrition. In fact, it then has an impact on sufficiency of food and the nutrition status of Indonesian society can be fulfilled locally, especially in East Nusa Tenggara. The availability of food in terms of adequate quantities and types for the whole community locally in East Nusa Tenggara, smooth food distribution, cheap food prices and affordability by the all levels of society locally in East Nusa Tenggara, evenly distributed to all families in the region.

  4. Effects of Economic Conditions and Organizational Structure on Local Health Jurisdiction Revenue Streams and Personnel Levels in Connecticut, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Kertanis, Jennifer; O'Keefe, Elaine; Humphries, Debbie L

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether or not changes in economic conditions during the 2008-2010 U.S. recession were associated with changes in Connecticut local health jurisdictions' (LHJs') revenue or personnel levels. We analyzed Connecticut Department of Public Health 2005-2012 annual report data from 91 Connecticut LHJs, as well as publicly available data on economic conditions. We used fixed- and random-effect regression models to test whether or not LHJ per capita revenues and full-time equivalent (FTE) personnel differed during and post-recession compared with pre-recession, or varied with recession intensity, as measured by unemployment rates and housing permits. On average, total revenue per capita was significantly lower during and post-recession compared with pre-recession, with two-thirds of LHJs experiencing per capita revenue reductions. FTE personnel per capita were significantly lower post-recession. Changes in LHJ-level unemployment rates and housing permits did not explain the variation in revenue or FTE personnel per capita. Revenue and personnel differed significantly by LHJ organizational structure across all time periods. Economic downturns can substantially reduce resources available for local public health. LHJ organizational structure influences revenue levels and sources, with implications for the scope, quality, and efficiency of services delivered.

  5. Participatory development activities at local level : case studies in villages of Central Thailand : an analysis of people's participation in the planned development process using the concept of the "Linking loops"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated

  6. Boronated protoporphyrin (BOPP): localization in lysosomes of the human glioma cell line SF-767 with uptake modulated by lipoprotein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Daniel E.; Forte, Trudy M.; Javed Afzal, S.M.; Deen, Dennis F.; Kahl, Stephen B.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Bauer, William F.; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    1999-01-01

    concentrations of BOPP were randomly distributed throughout the cytoplasm; however, larger lysosomes containing BOPP were concentrated around the cell nucleus. Little or no BOPP accumulated in the cell nucleus. At incubation concentrations of 20 and 40 μg/ml (24-h time point), BOPP uptake in SF-767 cells was reduced in LPDS compared with NS (66% reduction). A similar result was observed for normal human fibroblasts (AG-1522 cells, 40 μg/ml, 24 h). At 40 μg/ml, in both NS and LPDS at 24 h, BOPP accumulation in LDL receptor-deficient human fibroblasts (GM019-15C cells) was reduced relative to AG-1522 cells. BOPP accumulation in GM019-15C cells (40 μg/ml, 24 h) was not affected by serum lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: In cell culture, BOPP is taken up by human glioma cells via the LDL pathway and is compartmentalized into cellular lysosomes. Knowledge of this mechanism of BOPP uptake and retention will be important in attempts to modify toxicity and efficacy of this drug

  7. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO 2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO 2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO 2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  8. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  9. Transfer between local and global processing levels by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens) in exemplar- and rule-based categorization tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Ulrike; Braunöder, Elisabeth

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment investigated pigeons' and humans' processing styles-local or global-in an exemplar-based visual categorization task in which category membership of every stimulus had to be learned individually, and in a rule-based task in which category membership was defined by a perceptual rule. Group Intact was trained with the original pictures (providing both intact local and global information), Group Scrambled was trained with scrambled versions of the same pictures (impairing global information), and Group Blurred was trained with blurred versions (impairing local information). Subsequently, all subjects were tested for transfer to the 2 untrained presentation modes. Humans outperformed pigeons regarding learning speed and accuracy as well as transfer performance and showed good learning irrespective of group assignment, whereas the pigeons of Group Blurred needed longer to learn the training tasks than the pigeons of Groups Intact and Scrambled. Also, whereas humans generalized equally well to any novel presentation mode, pigeons' transfer from and to blurred stimuli was impaired. Both species showed faster learning and, for the most part, better transfer in the rule-based than in the exemplar-based task, but there was no evidence of the used processing mode depending on the type of task (exemplar- or rule-based). Whereas pigeons relied on local information throughout, humans did not show a preference for either processing level. Additional tests with grayscale versions of the training stimuli, with versions that were both blurred and scrambled, and with novel instances of the rule-based task confirmed and further extended these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Patient dose measurement in common medical X-ray examinations and propose the first local dose reference levels to diagnostic radiology in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuli, Behrouz; Tabari Juybari, Raheleh; Forouzi, Meysam; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate patient dose in pelvic and abdomen x-ray examinations. This work also provided the LDRLs (local diagnostic reference levels) in Khuzestan region, southwest of Iran to help establish the NDRLs (national diagnostic reference levels). Methods: Patient doses were assessed from patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters based on the IAEA indirect dosimetry method. With regard to this method, exposure parameters such as tube output, kVp, mAs, FFD and patient anatomical data were used for calculating ESD (entrance skin dose) of patients. This study was conducted on 250 standard patients (50% men and 50% women) at eight high-patient-load imaging centers. Results: The results indicate that mean ESDs for the both pelvic and abdomen examinations were lower than the IAEA and EC reference levels, 2.3 and 3.7 mGy, respectively. Mean applied kVps were 67 and 70 and mean FFDs were 103 and 109, respectively. Tube loadings obtained in this study for pelvic examination were lower than all the corresponding values in the reviewed literature. Likewise, the average annual patient load across all hospitals were more than 37000 patients, i.e. more than 100 patients a day. Conclusions: The authors recommend that DRLs (diagnostic reference levels) obtained in this region, which are the first available data, can be used as local DRLs for pelvic and abdomen procedures. This work also provides that on-the-job training programs for staffs and close cross collaboration between physicists and physicians should be strongly considered.

  11. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  12. Percutaneous full endoscopic lumbar foraminoplasty for adjacent level foraminal stenosis following vertebral intersegmental fusion in an awake and aware patient under local anesthesia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kazuta; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Takata, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Fumio; Tezuka, Fumitake; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Chikawa, Takashi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic surgery for the lumbar spine has become established in the last decade. It requires only an 8 mm skin incision, causes minimal damage to the paravertebral muscles, and can be performed under local anesthesia. With the advent of improved equipment, in particular the high-speed surgical drill, the indications for percutaneous endoscopic surgery have expanded to include lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy has been used to treat intervertebral stenosis. However, it has been reported that adjacent level disc degeneration and foraminal stenosis can occur following intervertebral segmental fusion. When this adjacent level pathology becomes symptomatic, additional fusion surgery is often needed. We performed minimally invasive percutaneous full endoscopic lumbar foraminoplasty in an awake and aware 50-year-old woman under local anesthesia. The procedure was successful with no complications. Her radiculopathy, including muscle weakness and leg pain due to impingement of the exiting nerve, improved after the surgery. J. Med. Invest. 64: 291-295, August, 2017.

  13. Managing air and water quality in the face of uncertain futures: perspectives, perceptions, reported action, and needs for climate adaptation at the local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsworth, L. W.; Ekstrom, J.

    2017-12-01

    As the climate continues to shift, projections show amplified and more frequent extreme events, including coastal and inland flooding, wildfires, prolonged droughts, and heatwaves. Vital public goods, both air quality and water quality, can be critically affected by such extreme events. Climate change will make it increasingly difficult for managers to achieve public health targets for air and water quality. Successfully preparing governance structures developed to maintain and improve air and water quality may benefit from preventative strategies to avoid public health impacts and costs of climate change locally. Perceptions of climate change and its risks, actions taken so far, and perceived barriers to adaptation give insight into the needs of managers for preparing for climate change impacts. This paper compares results of two surveys that looked at local level management of air quality and water quality in California. Air quality managers consistently reported to recognize the risks of climate change on their sector, where water quality managers' perceptions varied between no concern to high concern. We explore the differences in governance, capacity influence the ill-defined responsibility and assumed roles of water and air districts in adaptation to extreme events increasing with climate change. The chain and network of managing air quality is compared with that of water quality - laying out similarities and differences. Then we compare how the survey respondents differed in terms of extreme weather-influenced threats to environmental quality. We end with a discussion of responsibility - where in the chain of managing these life-critical ecosystem services, is the need greatest for adapting to climate change and what does this mean for the other levels in the chain beyond the local management.

  14. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa.

  15. Avaliação econômica em Saúde na esfera de atenção local à saúde Health economic evaluation in a local level government health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Gomes Sancho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por finalidade contribuir com a reflexão sobre a possibilidade de se operacionalizar avaliações econômicas em saúde nas esferas de atenção local à saúde e a consequente apreensão dos resultados de estudos para efeito de decisão pelos gestores. Para subsidiar essa reflexão, se utilizou como objeto de análise a avaliação realizada sobre o custo do Programa SAMU/192 no município de Belo Horizonte (MG, dados relativos à efetividade do programa e uma revisão nas bases eletrônicas de dados (SciELO e Medline sobre o uso de estudos para efeito de decisão. A análise apontou que, mesmo para uma simples avaliação de gastos, ainda existem problemas relativos à disponibilidade de dados, como também no que concerne aos dados para subsidiar a avaliação sobre sua efetividade, e em relação à definição de sistemas e o relacionamento entre sistemas de informação. Assim como mostrou que os estudos são pouco utilizados pelos gestores, levando à conclusão de que a condução e a utilização, para efeito de gestão, de estudos deste porte ainda são pouco factíveis nesta esfera de governo.This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the possibility of applying health economic evaluations at local level government healthcare system, and consequently use the results of this study into decision making. In order to subside this reflexion, it