WorldWideScience

Sample records for levee berm construction

  1. Bikini: Disposal of contaminated soil in Berm construction; Design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Since the levels of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in Bikini Island soil fall off exponentially (on average) with depth, the bulk of soil contamination can be removed directly by excavating the top 30 cm. Radiologically, the spoil is of low specific activity, and it can be handled without special precautions. However, the disposal of the spoil, totalling some 940,000 cubic yards plus vegetation, would pose something of a problem. Dumping into the lagoon (Bravo Crater) or ocean, presumably simple and effective measures, would not be legally permissible. A more practical alternative would employ the spoil to build a berm on the ocean-side of the island, or possibly a causeway between Bikini and Eneu Islands. The design of the proposed structures was reviewed at a conference held at the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, August 19, 1985. It was concluded that further study was required (BARC 2). This has been done by Coastal Engineering Research center and the complete report is presented

  2. New developments in toe berm design for breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the ROCK MANUAL (2007) some guidance is given for the design of toes for breakwaters. However, for very shallow toes, as well as for very wide toes (or berms) this guidance is only marginally. Recently a number of shallow berms and toes have been constructed, partly with the intention to lower

  3. Stability prediction of berm breakwater using neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Manjunath, Y.R.

    In the present study, an artificial neural network method has been applied to predict the stability of berm breakwaters. Four neural network models are constructed based on the parameters which influence the stability of breakwater. Training...

  4. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) Subsurface Containment Berm Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Degree-Days CRREL Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory ERDC U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center FWENC Foster Wheeler ...contract with the Navy, Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) constructed a subsurface containment berm at the airfield of the Naval...659J91.61 ncURE 3- 3 NAVAl.. AACnC R(Sf.ARCH l,.ASORATORY POINT 9ARROW. AlASKA AS-BUILT CONTAINMENT BERM EXTENSION AND MONITORING WELLS FOSTER W

  5. Predictions of barrier island berm evolution in a time-varying storm climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Flocks, James; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Long, Joseph W.; Guy, Kristy K.; Thompson, David M.; Cormier, Jamie M.; Smith, Christopher G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Dalyander, P. Soupy

    2014-01-01

    Low-lying barrier islands are ubiquitous features of the world's coastlines, and the processes responsible for their formation, maintenance, and destruction are related to the evolution of smaller, superimposed features including sand dunes, beach berms, and sandbars. The barrier island and its superimposed features interact with oceanographic forces (e.g., overwash) and exchange sediment with each other and other parts of the barrier island system. These interactions are modulated by changes in storminess. An opportunity to study these interactions resulted from the placement and subsequent evolution of a 2 m high sand berm constructed along the northern Chandeleur Islands, LA. We show that observed berm length evolution is well predicted by a model that was fit to the observations by estimating two parameters describing the rate of berm length change. The model evaluates the probability and duration of berm overwash to predict episodic berm erosion. A constant berm length change rate is also predicted that persists even when there is no overwash. The analysis is extended to a 16 year time series that includes both intraannual and interannual variability of overwash events. This analysis predicts that as many as 10 or as few as 1 day of overwash conditions would be expected each year. And an increase in berm elevation from 2 m to 3.5 m above mean sea level would reduce the expected frequency of overwash events from 4 to just 0.5 event-days per year. This approach can be applied to understanding barrier island and berm evolution at other locations using past and future storm climatologies.

  6. Landscape Evolution of the Oil Spill Mitigation Sand Berm in the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Survey (USGS) National Wetlands Research Center 700 Cajundome Boulevard Lafayette, LA 70506 Adrienne L. Garber University of Louisiana at Lafayette...amount of oil from reaching the Chandeleur Islands and inland wetlands ; thereby protecting these sensitive ecosystem resources. This study was...change from as- built to 360–day post-construction. The berm boundary represents the berm footprint above the -2 ft NAVD (Figure 2

  7. Design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake East Toe berm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, B.R.; Martens, S.N.; Meyer, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Syncrude surface mining oil sand operation is located near Fort McMurray, Alberta, and produces an average of 470 tonnes of oil sand feed daily, which, after undergoing a bitumen extraction phase, generates 360,000 tonnes of tailings solids. This production yields approximately 83 million barrels of Syncrude Sweet Blend annually, being 13% of Canada's oil production. Tailings from the extraction process are used to hydraulically construct containment dikes and supporting beaches of the storage facilities, while the process water is returned to the extraction process. Since the start of the operation in 1978, the Mildred Lake Settling Basin has been Syncrude's primary tailings storage facility, and many design changes have occurred over 20 years which have optimized sand storage at the facility. An overview is included of the final design and preliminary performance of the Mildred Lake East Toe Berm currently being constructed along Cells 20 to 25 of Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin. The main point of constructing the East Toe Berm is to provide storage for 20 million cubic m or more of tailings over the period of March 1998 to July 1999. Following this period, a permanent tailings storage will be available in-pit. The key features of the Mildred Lake East Toe Berm described include the planning, design, and construction aspects, of which an additional benefit is an added storage capacity to the existing Mildred Lake Settling Basin. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Numerical Hydrodynamic Study of Hypothetical Levee Setback Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    has recorded peak flows up to 9,919 cms (350,000 cfs) before the construction of flow control dams. The New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam (NSBLD...of the levee setback alternatives at the observation point downstream of the levee setbacks are nearly identical as the WSE of the base condition...the levee setback, respectively. The WSE of the levee setback alternatives at the observation point downstream are nearly identical as the WSE of the

  9. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  10. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    2013-01-01

    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison...... with the reshaping of a large Norwegian breakwater exposed to the North Sea waves. As a motivation for applying the Van der Meer formula a discussion of design parameters related to berm breakwater stability formulae is given. Comparisons of front erosion predicted by the use of the Van der Meer formula with model...... test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height...

  11. Erosion of Earthen Levees by Wave Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Reba, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    Earthen levees of aquaculture and irrigation reservoirs in the United States often experience significant erosion due to wind-generated waves. Typically constructed using local soils, unprotected levees are subjected to rapid erosion and retreat due to wind generated waves and surface runoff. Only a limited amount of published work addresses the erosion rates for unprotected levees, and producers who rely on irrigation reservoirs need an economic basis for selecting a protection method for vulnerable levees. This, in turn, means that a relationship between wave energy and erosion of cohesive soils is needed. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out in order to quantify wave induced levee erosion and retreat. A model erodible bank was packed using a soil consisting of approximately 14% sand, 73% silt, and 13% clay in a 20.6 m long 0.7 m wide and 1.2 m deep wave tank at the USDA-ARS, National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford MS. The geometry of the levee face was monitored by digital camera and the waves were measured by means of 6 capacitance wave staffs. Relationships were established between levee erosion, edge and retreat rates, and incident wave energy.

  12. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali

    2016-11-01

    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, Kasper; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm.......The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm....

  14. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  15. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter...

  16. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about

  17. Protection of Levees against Beavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Wojciech; Balawejder, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Beavers are a protected species, so the levees must be properly protected so as not to harm the beavers and protect the levees from the destruction caused by these animals. This protection requires the use of bentonite mats as shaft seals, and wire mesh. Recently, such new protection structures began to be used successfully.

  18. leve a moderada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Zapata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La Demencia Tipo Alzheimer (DTA representa un 70% del total de demencias que afectan a las personas de edad avanzada. Es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa que ocasiona un significativo deterioro cognitivo en los pacientes e implica una incapacidad progresiva para el adecuado funcionamiento en la vida diaria. Los estudios han tenido como eje el deterioro cognitivo, principalmente los procesos de memoria que son los más dramáticos. Sólo en años recientes se ha empezado a investigar el deterioro que puede causar la enfermedad a otros niveles como en el reconocimiento de las expresiones faciales emocionales. El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar el reconocimiento de la expresión facial emocional en pacientes con DTA frente a personas sanas y determinar si se presentan alteraciones en este tipo de reconocimiento en los pacientes con dicha demencia. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: se conformaron dos grupos. Uno de 22 pacientes con DTA leves y moderados y otro grupo de 22 personas sin demencia. Se aplicó el MMSE para el diagnóstico del grado de severidad de la demencia y la prueba de rostros Pofa Kit de Paul Ekman para la evaluación del reconocimiento de la expresión facial emocional. RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias significativas en el reconocimiento global entre el grupo control y el grupo de pacientes. La única emoción que permaneció reconocida fue la de felicidad aún en estados moderados de la enfermedad. La rabia y tristeza se vieron afectadas desde los estados leves y el reconocimiento de la expresión de miedo se alteró solo en los estados moderados de la enfermedad

  19. Using Combustion Synthesis to Reinforce Berms and Other Regolith Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Moonraker Excavator and other tools under development for use on the Moon, Mars, and asteroids will be employed to construct a number of civil engineering projects and to mine the soil. Mounds of loose soil will be subject to the local transport mechanisms plus artificial mechanisms such as blast effects from landers and erosion from surface vehicles. Some of these structures will require some permanence, with a minimum of maintenance and upkeep. Combustion Synthesis (CS) is a family of processes and techniques whereby chemistry is used to transform materials, often creating flame in a hard vacuum. CS can be used to stabilize civil engineering works such as berms, habitat shielding, ramps, pads, roadways, and the like. The method is to unroll thin sheets of CS fabric between layers of regolith and then fire the fabric, creating a continuous sheet of crusty material to be interposed among layers of loose regolith. The combination of low-energy processes, ISRU (in situ resource utilization) excavator, and CS fabrics, seems compelling as a general method for establishing structures of some permanence and utility, especially in the role of robotic missions as precursors to manned exploration and settlement. In robotic precursory missions, excavator/ mobility ensembles mine the Lunar surface, erect constructions of soil, and dispense sheets of CS fabrics that are covered with layers of soil, fired, and then again covered with layers of soil, iterating until the desired dimensions and forms are achieved. At the base of each berm, for example, is a shallow trench lined with CS fabric, fired and filled, mounded, and then covered and fired, iteratively to provide a footing against lateral shear. A larger trench is host to a habitat module, backfilled, covered with fabric, covered with soil, and fired. Covering the applied CS fabric with layers of soil before firing allows the resulting matrix to incorporate soil both above and below the fabric ply into the fused layer

  20. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  1. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  2. Overtopping of Berm Breakwaters Evaluation of Overtopping Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    The berm breakwater concept is basicly rather old, but was not used very much until it was “reinvented” in the early 1980’ties, when a slope protection for an airfield runway extending into the sea in the Alutian Islands, Alaska was designed.......The berm breakwater concept is basicly rather old, but was not used very much until it was “reinvented” in the early 1980’ties, when a slope protection for an airfield runway extending into the sea in the Alutian Islands, Alaska was designed....

  3. BERM BREAKWATERS WITH CONCRETE BLOCKS AS ARMOUR UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    Camara Aguilera, Altea

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to test the hydraulic stability of berm breakwaters with concrete armour units. To achieve this, five breakwater models were tested with the same wave program. All the models were modifications of the Sirevåg berm breakwater. The modifications consisted in the replacement of the class I stone form the armour layer by two different concrete units, cubes and cubipodsThe design waves were Hs,100=7.0 m, Tz=10.6 s. HoTo=48. The wave program consisted in 7 different ...

  4. Reliability Evaluation of Armour Layer and Toe Berm Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1995-01-01

    Failure of various parts of a rubble mound breakwater can be crucial for the stability of the rubble mound breakwater as a whole. This is illustrated in Fig 1, showing the various failure modes. The primary failure modes which will be focused on in this investigation are failure in the armour layer...... and the toe berm. The main function of the toe berm, is to keep the main armour layer in place so that movement is restricted to a minimum. As the water depth is lowered at the breakwater, the stability of the toe will decrease. The armour layer is also more susceptable to damage when the water level...

  5. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  6. Morphology of fluvial levee series along a river under human influence, Maros River, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tímea; Balogh, Márton; Fiala, Károly; Sipos, György

    2018-02-01

    The development and morphometry of fluvial levees reflect the connection between channel and overbank processes, which can be altered by various human activities. The aims of this study are to investigate the morphology and spatial characteristics of fluvial levees and evaluate the role of some local- and catchment-scale human activities on their medium-term (150 years) development. This study applies LiDAR data along a 53-km-long reach of the Maros River in Hungary. Six fluvial levee types are identified based on the beginning and end of their evolution. These levee types were generated by local nineteenth century channel regulation works (cutoffs) and mid-twentieth century channel narrowing, which was caused by gravel mining and water impoundment in the upstream sections. However, other human activities also influenced the development of active fluvial levees because their horizontal evolution could have been limited by embanked flood-protection levees or the widening of low-lying floodplain benches that were generated by channel narrowing. Additionally, revetment constructions influenced their vertical parameters as higher fluvial levees developed along the fixed banks. Generally, the older active fluvial levees are wider, while the younger active levees are narrower with steeper slopes but not always lower. On the low-lying floodplain levels (benches), the youngest fluvial levees evolved quite rapidly and consist of coarser material. Currently, only 9.8- to 38-year return-period floods could cover the fluvial levees, contributing to their evolution. This fact and the development of fluvial levee series with two-three members reflect a gradual decoupling of the channel from the floodplain.

  7. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  8. Spatial relationships of levees and wetland systems within floodplains of the Wabash Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Morrison, R. R.; Nardi, F.; Annis, A.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Given the unique biogeochemical, physical, and hydrologic services provided by floodplain wetlands, proper management of river systems should include an understanding of how floodplain modifications influences wetland ecosystems. The construction of levees can reduce river-floodplain connectivity, yet it is unclear how levees affect wetlands within a river system, let alone the cumulative impacts within an entire watershed. This paper explores spatial relationships between levee and floodplain wetland systems in the Wabash basin, United States. We used a hydrogeomorphic floodplain delineation technique to map floodplain extents and identify wetlands that may be hydrologically connected to river networks. We then spatially examined the relationship between levee presence, wetland area, and other river network attributes within discrete HUC-12 sub-basins. Our results show that cumulative wetland area is relatively constant in sub-basins that contain levees, regardless of maximum stream order within the sub-basin. In sub-basins that do not contain levees, cumulative wetland area increases with maximum stream order. However, we found that wetland distributions around levees can be complex, and further studies on the influence of levees on wetland habitat may need to be evaluated at finer-resolution spatial scales.

  9. An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

  10. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near...... the structure toe. The main goal of the present paper is to provide an estimation technique based on this physical principle to predict the deformation of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The proposed method is verified by comparison with model test data. It is found that by using the maximum wave...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance...

  11. National Levee Database, series information for the current inventory of the Nation's levees.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The National Levee Database is authoritative database that describes the location and condition of the Nation’s levees. The database contains 21 feature classes...

  12. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2004-01-01

    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average...... overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage....

  13. A Cultural Resources Survey of Arlington Revetment and LSU Berm Levee Improvement Item, East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Light gm Slas 14 14 Lis Smm pmlew aumk Simm Milk glass 1 Modern brown glass I Olive glass _ Tin cm key 11 Shotg cartridge 1 Slate 1 Mortar 1 1 Piece of...Parish, Louisiana. Anthropological Report No. 1. Archaeological Survey and Antiquities Commission, Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism , Baton

  14. New Orleans Levees and Floodwalls: Hurricane Damage Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Nicole T

    2005-01-01

    .... The breaches occurred at the Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Project being constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and maintained by local levee districts. Those observers questioning why infrastructure providing a greater level of hurricane protection was not available are countered by those arguing that structural protections carry their own risks. This report will be updated as needed to track significant developments.

  15. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  16. Overtopping of Berm Breakwaters Extension of Overtopping Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    the formula is improved so it gives reliable estimates also for more stable structures. The extension of the overtopping formula is based on analysis of front slope stability data from many different data sets. In most cases there is only a small difference between the Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004......In this paper is presented an improved version of the overtopping formula by Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004)valid for berm breakwaters with initial slopes of 1:1.25. In the present paper guidelines is given on how to modify the formula to take into account the initial slope angle. Further...

  17. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi...... prograding spit on the south-eastern Baltic shores of Zealand, Denmark. The modern, sandy beach at this location consists of a beachface with a shallow incipient berm, a mature berm, and a dune-covered beach ridge. It borders a beach-ridge plain to the west, where more than 20 N–S oriented beach ridges...... and swales are present. Measured water-level data from 1991 to 2012 and topographical observations, carried out during fair weather period and during a storm event, provided the basis for a conceptual model exhibiting berm formation and transformation into the local beach-ridge system. The character...

  18. Transient Flow through an Unsaturated Levee Embankment during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, N.; Stark, T.; Vahedifard, F.; Cadigan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River and corresponding tributaries drain approximately 3.23 million km2 (1.25 million mi2) or the equivalent of 41% of the contiguous United States. Approximately 2,600 km ( 1,600 miles) of earthen levees presently protect major urban cities and agricultural land against the periodic Mississippi River floods within the Lower Mississippi River Valley. The 2011 flood also severely stressed the levees and highlighted the need to evaluate the behavior of levee embankments during high water levels. The performance of earthen levees is complex because of the uncertainties in construction materials, antecedent moisture contents, hydraulic properties, and lack of field monitoring. In particular, calibration of unsaturated and saturated soil properties of levee embankment and foundation layers along with the evaluation of phreatic surface during high river stage is lacking. Due to the formation of sand boils at the Duncan Point Levee in Baton Rouge, LA during the 2011 flood event, a reconnaissance survey was conducted to collect pore-water pressures in the sand foundation using piezometers and identifying the phreatic surface at the peak river level. Transient seepage analyses were performed to calibrate the foundation and levee embankment material properties using field data collected. With this calibrated levee model, numerical experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of rainfall intensity and duration, progression of phreatic surface, and seasonal climate variability prior to floods on the performance of the levee embankment. For example, elevated phreatic surface from river floods are maintained for several months and can be compounded with rainfall to lead to slope instability.

  19. Transient Seepage for Levee Engineering Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, steady-state seepage analyses have been a key tool for designing levees by practicing engineers. However, with the advances in computer modeling, transient seepage analysis has become a potentially viable tool. A complication is that the levees usually have partially saturated flow, and this is significantly more complicated in transient flow. This poster illustrates four elements of our research in partially saturated flow relating to the use of transient seepage for levee design: (1) a comparison of results from SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE for a generic levee cross section common to the southeastern United States; (2) the results of a sensitivity study of varying saturated hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric water content function (as represented by van Genuchten), and volumetric compressibility; (3) a comparison of when soils do and do not exhibit hysteresis, and (4) a description of proper and improper use of transient seepage in levee design. The variables considered for the sensitivity and hysteresis studies are pore pressure beneath the confining layer at the toe, the flow rate through the levee system, and a levee saturation coefficient varying between 0 and 1. Getting results for SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE to match proved more difficult than expected. After some effort, the results matched reasonably well. Differences in results were caused by various factors, including bugs, different finite element meshes, different numerical formulations of the system of nonlinear equations to be solved, and differences in convergence criteria. Varying volumetric compressibility affected the above test variables the most. The levee saturation coefficient was most affected by the use of hysteresis. The improper use of pore pressures from a transient finite element seepage solution imported into a slope stability computation was found to be the most grievous mistake in using transient seepage in the design of levees.

  20. Applying Mechanistic Dam Breach Models to Historic Levee Breaches

    OpenAIRE

    Risher Paul; Gibson Stanford

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina elevated levee risk in the US national consciousness, motivating agencies to assess and improve their levee risk assessment methodology. Accurate computation of the flood flow magnitude and timing associated with a levee breach remains one of the most difficult and uncertain components of levee risk analysis. Contemporary methods are largely empirical and approximate, introducing substantial uncertainty to the damage and life loss models. Levee breach progressions are often ...

  1. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  2. Levee Vertical Land Motion Changes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T. L.; Knowles, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is home to numerous islands that provide economically and agriculturally important land. However, the island interiors are sinking and most sit below sea level, making the levee roads that surround the islands vital for their continued health and productivity. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data over the islands was collected in 2007 by the California Department of Water Resources and mobile LiDAR data was collected along the levee roads on Bacon, Bouldin, Jersey, and Brannan-Andrus Islands in 2015 and 2016 by the USGS. These datasets provide high resolution topographic models with 8 year separation that can be used to examine topographic change along the levees. A cross-section of each dataset was output along the approximate centerline of the levee road, so that profiles of the 2007 and 2015/2016 LiDAR observations could be compared. Regions of levee road subsidence and of levee road construction and reinforcement on the order of 0-3 centimeters per year were evident in locations around the islands. There is a high degree of spatial variability of these rates even for individual islands. These results were compared to the levee road maps published by the CA Delta Stewardship Council and it was found that the regions of reinforcement and subsidence did not always align between the published maps and the LiDAR data. Additionally, the levee road heights and rates of change, in regions of road subsidence, were compared to sea level rise projections to evaluate the risk that rising sea level may pose to the islands in the future.

  3. Stability of submerged rock berms exposed to motion of liquefied soil in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    . Various berm materials were used, stones of size 0.74–2.5cm, plastic balls of size 3.6cm, brass of size 2.5cm and steel of size 1.0cm. The experiments show that rock berms that are stable under very large waves can be unstable when they are exposed to the motion of liquefied soil. The limited data......The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behaviour of a submerged rock berm in liquefied backfill soil. The soil is liquefied by waves, and the rock berm is subject to the orbital motion of the liquefied soil. The soil used in the experiments was silt with d50=0.075mm...

  4. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    body, dissolved Pb forms precipitates of Pb hydroxide [Pb(OH)2], Pb carbonate [PbCO3, cerrusite], or basic Pb carbonate [Pb3(OH)2 ( CO3 )2...along with a potential seed crystal for heterogeneous nucleation of Pb-pyromorphites (Wright et al., 2004). Depending on the presence of certain... single steel bullet trap. The sand or dirt berm is the oldest and most basic type of bullet trap. It uses the mass of the berm itself to stop and

  5. First Year Sedimentological Characteristics and Morphological Evolution of an Artificial Berm at Fort Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    collected in the berm area. In the control areas, surface sediment samples were taken at approximately the toe of the dune (where present...In the berm area, surface sediment samples were taken at approximately the toe of the dune (where 29   present), backbeach, high tide line, mean...samples were taken at approximately the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach, high tide line, mean sea level, low tide line, 2 ft water depth

  6. Establishing a Reliability Evaluation of the Toe Berm and Armour Layer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, Jørgen S.

    1995-01-01

    Failure of various sections of a rubble mound breakwater can be crucial for the stability of the rubble mound breakwater as a whole. This is illustrated in Fig 1, showing a series of failure modes for a rubble mound structure. Ensuring static stability of the armour layer and toe berm and crown......, enables stability of the primary sections of a rubble mound breakwater. The combined static stability of the armour layer and toe berm will be investigated....

  7. River Loire levees hazard studies – CARDigues’ model principles and utilization examples on Blois levees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the river Loire, in order to have a homogenous method to do specific risk assessment studies, a new model named CARDigues (for Levee Breach Hazard Calculation was developed in a partnership with DREAL Centre-Val de Loire (owner of levees, Cerema and Irstea. This model enables to approach the probability of failure on every levee sections and to integrate and cross different “stability” parameters such topography and included structures, geology and material geotechnical characteristics, hydraulic loads… and observations of visual inspections or instrumentation results considered as disorders (seepage, burrowing animals, vegetation, pipes, etc.. This model and integrated tool CARDigues enables to check for each levee section, the probability of appearance and rupture of five breaching scenarios initiated by: overflowing, internal erosion, slope instability, external erosion and uplift. It has been recently updated and has been applied on several levee systems by different contractors. The article presents the CARDigues model principles and its recent developments (version V28.00 with examples on river Loire and how it is currently used for a relevant and global levee system diagnosis and assessment. Levee reinforcement or improvement management is also a perspective of applications for this model CARDigues.

  8. Overview of Levee Setback Projects and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    other life-history stages of fish and other aquatic organisms . Levees can also increase the frequency of common floods in the floodplain where they...projects is the use of flood- borne sediments to supplement fertilizers in flooded farm fields. Historically, floodwaters were a significant source of

  9. Hydrodynamic and sedimentological controls governing formation of fluvial levees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G. H.; Edmonds, D. A.; David, S. R.; Czuba, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial levees are familiar features found on the margins of river channels, yet we know little about what controls their presence, height, and shape. These attributes of levees are important because they control sediment transfer from channel to floodplain and flooding patterns along a river system. Despite the familiarity and importance of levees, there is a surprising lack of basic geomorphic data on fluvial levees. Because of this we seek to understand: 1) where along rivers do levees tend to occur?; 2) what geomorphic and hydrodynamic variables control cross-sectional shape of levees? We address these questions by extracting levee shape from LiDAR data and by collecting hydrodynamic and sedimentological data from reaches of the Tippecanoe River, the White River, and the Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. Fluvial levees are extracted from a 1.5-m resolution LiDAR bare surface model and compared to hydrological, sedimentological, and geomorphological data from USGS stream gages. We digitized banklines and extracted levee cross-sections to calculate levee slope, taper, height, e-folding length, and e-folding width. To answer the research questions, we performed a multivariable regression between the independent variables—channel geometry, sediment grain size and concentration, flooding conditions, and slope—and the dependent levee variables. We find considerable variation in levee presence and shape in our field data. On the Muscatatuck River levees occur on 30% of the banks compared to 10% on the White River. Moreover, levees on the Muscatatuck are on average 3 times wider than the White River. This is consistent with the observation that the Muscatatuck is finer-grained compared to the White River and points to sedimentology being an important control on levee geomorphology. Future work includes building a morphodynamic model to understand how different hydrodynamic and geomorphic conditions control levee geometry.

  10. Numerical simulation of pore pressure changes in levee under flood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisz, Jacek; Borecka, Aleksandra; Pilecki, Zenon; Kaczmarczyk, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the potential for using numerical simulation to assess the development of deformation and pore pressure changes in a levee as a result of the increase and decrease of the flood wave. The simulation made in FLAC 2D did not take into account the filter-erosion deformation associated with seepage in the levee. The simulations were carried out for a field experimental storage consisting of two combined levees, which was constructed with the help of homogeneous cohesive materials with different filtration coefficients. Calculated and measured pore pressure changes were analysed at 4 monitoring points. The water level was increased to 4 m in 96 hours and decreased in 120 hours. The characteristics of the calculated and measured pore pressure changes over time were similar. The maximum values of the calculated and measured pore pressure were almost identical. The only differences were the greater delay of the experimental levee response to changes in water level increase compared to the response of the numerical model. These differences were probably related to filtering-erosion effects during seepage in the levee.

  11. Análisis de los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones leves por accidentes de trabajo en la construcción en España Analysis of the mechanisms of minor occupational injuries in the construction industry in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Benavides

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La construcción es la actividad económica que registró mayor número de lesiones por accidentes de trabajo (LAT con baja en jornada en España (25,6%, de las cuales el 98,5% eran leves con casi 5 millones de días perdidos en 2000. Esto ocurre después de adoptarse numerosas normas preventivas en los últimos años. El objetivo fue identificar los mecanismos específicos de LAT leves en la construcción. Métodos: El total de LAT leves en la construcción fue 235.853 durante el año 2000. De ellas se seleccionaron las ocurridas en la «construcción general de inmuebles y obras de ingeniería civil» (n = 155.044, tanto en el conjunto de trabajadores como en albañiles y peones de la construcción. Como actividad de referencia se seleccionó la «actividad financiera y de seguros» (n = 2.019. Las LAT por afección no traumática (infarto, etc. fueron el grupo control (n = 167, asumiendo que el riesgo de LAT no traumática era independiente de la actividad económica. La odds ratio (OR se ajustó por edad, sexo, antigüedad en la empresa, tipo de contrato y tamaño de la empresa, mediante modelos de regresión logística no condicional. Resultados: Los mecanismos de producción más específicos de LAT en la construcción, respecto a los de las finanzas y seguros, fueron, para el conjunto de trabajadores, la proyección de partículas (OR = 33,0; IC del 95%, 15,3-70,8 y los golpes por objetos (OR = 18,2; IC del 95%, 9,7-34,1. Los mismos que también se identificaron en albañiles y peones. Conclusiones: Las actividades orientadas a prevenir las LAT leves en la construcción deben tener en cuenta estos mecanismos de producción, especialmente la proyección de partículas, a pesar de que su frecuencia respecto a otros mecanismos de producción sea baja. Los estudios de casos y controles constituyen una alternativa útil para el análisis de las LAT.Objectives: The construction industry produces the highest number of occupational

  12. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  13. Traumatismo craneoencefálico leve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Zufiría, José Manuel; Prieto, Noemí Lomillos; Cuba, Bernardino Choque; Degenhardt, Martin Tamarit; Núñez, Pedro Poveda; López Serrano, María Remedios; López Raigada, Azahara Belén

    2018-01-01

    Resumen Introducción y objetivo: El TCE leve representa un problema sanitario de enorme interés debido a que un número significativo de enfermos con trauma leve desarrollará complicaciones potencialmente mortales. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido describir una serie amplia de pacientes adultos, mayores de 14 años, que sufren TCE leve, atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de Getafe, entre los años 2010 y 2015 (n = 2480), estudiar el perfil epidemiológico y analizar el diagnóstico y el tratamiento efectuados, así como establecer los principales factores pronósticos que influyen en el resultado final. Método: Se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo, de revisión de historias clínicas, analizando los resultados con estudio estadístico bivariable y multivariable. Resultados: El TCE leve es más frecuente en varones, y el mecanismo causante más común en nuestro medio es el accidente de tráfico. Se propone un modelo de clasificación de pacientes según grupos de riesgo, que los subdivide en riesgo bajo, intermedio o alto, que se correlaciona bien con la probabilidad de desarrollar complicación intracraneal, y, consecuentemente, con el resultado final. Se discute la indicación de la radiografía simple de cráneo y de la Tomografía Computarizada (TC), así como del ingreso hospitalario para observación neurológica. Conclusiones: En este estudio, la presencia de focalidad neurológica en la exploración clínica, la edad, las alteraciones de la coagulación y la existencia de fractura en la radiografía simple se relacionan con mayor posibilidad de desarrollar lesiones traumáticas intracraneales y con peor pronóstico final. La escala de Glasgow para el Coma es deficitaria en la determinación del resultado final del paciente que sufre TCE, porque no considera variables tales como la amnesia o la pérdida de conocimiento, muy frecuentes en el traumatismo craneoencefálico leve. PMID:29430327

  14. Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Hvordan er det å leve med CRPS?

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne studien er å se på hvordan pasienter med komplekst regionalt smertesyndrom (CRPS) opplever å leve med tilstanden og hvordan disse pasientene har opplevd å bli møtt i helsevesenet. CRPS er en langvarig tilstand med sterke smerter som kan medføre økt smerterespons, redusert funksjon og nedsatt livskvalitet hos pasientene. Studien er en kvalitativ undersøkelse basert på dybdeintervju av fire pasienter med CRPS. Pasientene ble rekruttert fra en smerteavdeling i Nord-Norge og u...

  16. Comparison of Homogenous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Front Slope Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, K. T.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    A model test study was conducted to study overtopping and front slope stability of homogenous and multi-layered berm breakwaters. The two breakwater types are compared and cons and pros are listed. The study shows that the optimum number of stone classes might be significantly lower than what has...... previously been used in the Icelandic type of berm breakwater because it seems that the number of stone classes in the berm can be reduced from five to two without significantly influencing overtopping and stability performance. Moreover, the new results are compared to the design formulae established...

  17. McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    J COUNTY MC GEE REEK DRAINAGE BLEVEE DISTRICT N~ i, 0. ~ I I LEGEND Co ,. 3 ~ . -~------~----EXISTING LEVEE _____________PROPOSED LEVEE...Development, Conservation, Environmental Protection Agency, Health, Institute for Environmental Quality, Mines and Minerals. Pollution Control Board...Protection Agency, Health, Institute for Environmental Quality, Mines and Minerals, Pollution Control Board, Registration and Education, Transportation

  18. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  19. La casa Bermúdez-Samper, 1952-1960 Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia O’Byrne Orozco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La casa Bermúdez, proyectada por Guillermo Bermúdez Umaña entre 1952 y 1960, es uno de los proyectos más conocidos y publicados de la arquitectura que se hizo en Bogotá durante la fecunda década de los años cincuenta del siglo XX. Este artículo propone una descripción de la casa a través de los documentos publicados con miras a entender y hacer explícito, desde los elementos, las partes y las relaciones que forman la arquitectura de la casa, el porqué de su fama.

  20. Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    coefficient, and sediment clogging coefficients. Also, the flexible reactive barrier system permitted overtopping and filter socks would be arranged in a...FINAL REPORT Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water ESTCP Project ER-201213 MARCH 2016...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  1. Performance Monitoring of a Nearshore Berm at Ft. Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Figure 14. Establishing a temporary benchmark. ERDC/CHL TR-13-11 28 Visually estimated vegetation/ toe -of- dune line, MHHW line (identified...sediment samples were taken at the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach, high tide line, mean sea level, low tide line, and then at approximately...2-ft, 4-ft, 6-ft, and 8-ft water depths. In the berm area, surface sediment samples were taken at the toe of the dune (where present), backbeach

  2. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    Guidance on selection of breakwater types and related design safety levels for breakwaters are almost non-existent, which is the reason that PIANC has initiated working group 47 on this subject. This paper presents ongoing work particulary on the Icelandic type berm breakwater within the PIANC...... working group. It will concentrate on design guidance and on the optimum safety levels for this type of structure....

  3. Efeitos do treinamento auditivo em idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Rezende de Almeida Ávila; Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy; Eliane Schochat

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Pesquisas demonstram a existência do Transtorno do Processamento Auditivo em indivíduos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de um treinamento auditivo, em indivíduos com comprometimento cognitivo leve. MÉTODOS: Participaram 25 indivíduos, com idades entre 69 e 91 anos e diagnóstico de Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve, sendo que, 10 receberam treinamento auditivo (grupo estudo), 10 receberam treinamento visual (grupo alternativo) e cinco não re...

  4. A Bivariate return period for levee failure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, M.; Caporali, E.

    2017-12-01

    Levee breaches are strongly linked with the interaction processes among water, soil and structure, thus many are the factors that affect the breach development. One of the main is the hydraulic load, characterized by intensity and duration, i.e. by the flood event hydrograph. On the magnitude of the hydraulic load is based the levee design, generally without considering the fatigue failure due to the load duration. Moreover, many are the cases in which the levee breach are characterized by flood of magnitude lower than the design one. In order to implement the strategies of flood risk management, we built here a procedure based on a multivariate statistical analysis of flood peak and volume together with the analysis of the past levee failure events. Particularly, in order to define the probability of occurrence of the hydraulic load on a levee, a bivariate copula model is used to obtain the bivariate joint distribution of flood peak and volume. Flood peak is the expression of the load magnitude, while the volume is the expression of the stress over time. We consider the annual flood peak and the relative volume. The volume is given by the hydrograph area between the beginning and the end of event. The beginning of the event is identified as an abrupt rise of the discharge by more than 20%. The end is identified as the point from which the receding limb is characterized by the baseflow, using a nonlinear reservoir algorithm as baseflow separation technique. By this, with the aim to define warning thresholds we consider the past levee failure events and the relative bivariate return period (BTr) compared with the estimation of a traditional univariate model. The discharge data of 30 hydrometric stations of Arno River in Tuscany, Italy, in the period 1995-2016 are analysed. The database of levee failure events, considering for each event the location as well as the failure mode, is also created. The events were registered in the period 2000-2014 by EEA

  5. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

  6. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Structures with Berms Through an Extensive Database and 2DV Numerical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, Barbara; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses wave reflection from permeable structures with a berm, including reshaping cases. Data are obtained from recent wave flume experiments and from 2DV numerical simulations performed with the COBRAS-UC code. The objectives of this research were to identify the proper representation...

  7. Using Levee Setbacks to Increase Floodplain Connectivity and Reduce Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, T. A.; Echevarria-Doyle, W.

    2017-12-01

    Levees typically constrain flood flows to within the main channel, isolating the river from its natural floodplain. Levees limit the areal and temporal extents of flooding, but can increase flood peaks, alter ecosystems, and cause scour. In order to mitigate these effects, some groups have begun moving portions of levees further away from the main channel, creating setback levees. Here we describe a series of levee setback scenarios for a hypothetical river that were modeled with the unsteady, 2D-hydraulic model AdH. In our scenarios, the water surface elevations were reduced both at the location of the levee setback and for some distance upstream. The models also show that the floodplain roughness can have a greater effect on the reduction in water surface elevation than the size of the levee setback. Groups planning levee setbacks can use these results to help guide their designs.

  8. Case Study: Zutphen : Estimates of levee system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, K.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of levee system reliability can conflict with experience and intuition. For example, a very high failure probability may be computed while no evidence of failure has been observed, or a very low failure probability when signs of failure have been detected.

  9. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  10. Efeitos do treinamento auditivo em idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rezende de Almeida Ávila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pesquisas demonstram a existência do Transtorno do Processamento Auditivo em indivíduos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de um treinamento auditivo, em indivíduos com comprometimento cognitivo leve. MÉTODOS: Participaram 25 indivíduos, com idades entre 69 e 91 anos e diagnóstico de Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve, sendo que, 10 receberam treinamento auditivo (grupo estudo, 10 receberam treinamento visual (grupo alternativo e cinco não receberam intervenção (grupo controle. Testes cognitivos e de processamento auditivo foram aplicados antes e após os treinamentos. RESULTADOS: Apenas o grupo estudo apresentou melhora significante para todas as habilidades auditivas testadas, mas com piora do desempenho para as habilidades cognitivas. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento auditivo foi efetivo em relação às habilidades auditivas, mas não em relação às habilidades cognitivas.

  11. Óscar Bermúdez: investigador del Norte Grande, historiador del salitre, hombre de dos mundos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objetivo hacer una semblanza biográfica del historiador Óscar Bermúdez, investigador del Norte Grande de Chile, especialmente del periodo salitrero. Para alcanzar ese objetivo, se interpretaron sus principales obras, se realizaron entrevistas y se analizaron dos estudios biográficos anteriores sobre Bermúdez. Sin embargo, este artículo no pretende ser solamente una semblanza biográfica de un personaje, sino establecer cuáles serían las principales influencias disciplinarias y de pensamientos en el trabajo historiográfico de este investigador. Se analiza de modo preferente la perspectiva epistemológica de Bermúdez, donde se discutela metodología positivista de su investigación historiográfica, que es comparada con su narrativa, especialmente sus cuentos publicados, donde se abren otras posibilidades para comprender el pensamiento de este autor.

  12. Levee Presence and Wetland Areas within the 100-Year Floodplain of the Wabash Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. R.; Dong, Q.; Nardi, F.; Grantham, T.; Annis, A.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands have declined over the past century due to land use changes and water management activities in the United States. Levees have been extensively built to provide protection against flooding events, and can fundamentally alter the water distribution and hydrologic dynamics within floodplains. Although levees can reduce wetlands in many places, it is unclear how much wetland areas are impacted at a basin-scale. This study explores the relationship between wetlands, levee presence, and other important hydrologic metrics within a 100-year floodplain. We estimated total wetland area, levee length, floodplain area and other variables, in discrete 12-digit hydrologic units (HUC-12) of the Wabash Basin (n=854) and examined the relationship between these variables using non-parametric statistical tests. We found greater areas of wetland habitat in HUC12 units that contain levees compared to those without levees when we aggregated the results across the entire basin. Factors such as stream order, mean annual flow, and HUC12 area are not correlated with the wetland area in HUC-12 units that contain levees. In addition, median wetland area in HUC12 units with levees is surprisingly consistent regardless of maximum stream order. Visual observations of wetland distributions indicate that wetland presence may be dependent on its location relative to levees. These results indicate that refined geospatial analyses may be necessary to explore the complex influence of levees on wetland habitat, and that additional basins should be explored to develop more generalized trends. This information is preliminary and subject to revision.

  13. Spatial and temporal correlation between beach and wave processes: implications for bar-berm sediment transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Saravanan, S.; Anandakumar, H.; Thanushkodi, K.; Suguna, N.; Jaya, J.

    2018-06-01

    Investigation of a beach and its wave conditions is highly requisite for understanding the physical processes in a coast. This study composes spatial and temporal correlation between beach and nearshore processes along the extensive sandy beach of Nagapattinam coast, southeast peninsular India. The data collection includes beach profile, wave data, and intertidal sediment samples for 2 years from January 2011 to January 2013. The field data revealed significant variability in beach and wave morphology during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon. However, the beach has been stabilized by the reworking of sediment distribution during the calm period. The changes in grain sorting and longshore sediment transport serve as a clear evidence of the sediment migration that persevered between foreshore and nearshore regions. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal linkages between beach and nearshore criterions. The outcome of the multivariate analysis unveiled that the seasonal variations in the wave climate tends to influence the bar-berm sediment transition that is discerned in the coast.

  14. Spatial and temporal correlation between beach and wave processes: implications for bar-berm sediment transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Saravanan, S.; Anandakumar, H.; Thanushkodi, K.; Suguna, N.; Jaya, J.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of a beach and its wave conditions is highly requisite for understanding the physical processes in a coast. This study composes spatial and temporal correlation between beach and nearshore processes along the extensive sandy beach of Nagapattinam coast, southeast peninsular India. The data collection includes beach profile, wave data, and intertidal sediment samples for 2 years from January 2011 to January 2013. The field data revealed significant variability in beach and wave morphology during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon. However, the beach has been stabilized by the reworking of sediment distribution during the calm period. The changes in grain sorting and longshore sediment transport serve as a clear evidence of the sediment migration that persevered between foreshore and nearshore regions. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal linkages between beach and nearshore criterions. The outcome of the multivariate analysis unveiled that the seasonal variations in the wave climate tends to influence the bar-berm sediment transition that is discerned in the coast.

  15. Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    ER D C/ EL S R- 17 -3 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative , Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management En vi...EL SR-17-3 June 2017 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative , Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management David L. Smith...alternative view point is necessary. ERDC/EL SR-17-3 4 Levee setbacks are a relatively recent innovation in Corps flood risk management practice

  16. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  17. Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    of Flood Protection Update Summary Draft December 2009 Page F-5 soil in unsaturated region. So those equipotential lines above phreatic surface are...Lexington levee where a 50 percent probability of failure is assumed when the water surface is at the top of the levee and a 100 percent chance of failure...is assumed when the water surface is above the top of the levee. Additionally, for cases where the SWL is determined to be the same elevation as

  18. Diabetes tipo 2 y obesidad leve: tratamiento quirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzaren S,Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En la actualidad la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y la obesidad representan un serio problema de salud, comportándose como enfermedades epidémicas. Existe un gran interés en explorar distintas opciones de tratamiento de la DM2 en pacientes que no tienen obesidad mórbida. Objetivo: Reportar los parámetros de control glicémico en pacientes con DM2 y obesidad leve sometidos a bypass gástrico (BPG) a 3 años de seguimiento. Metodología: Estudio clínico prospectivo que incluye pacien...

  19. Behaviour of levee on softsoil caused by rapid drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upomo, Togani Cahyadi; Effendi, Mahmud Kori; Kusumawardani, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Rapid Drawdown is a condition where the water elevation that has reached the peak suddenly drops. As the water level reaches the peak, hydrostatic pressure helps in the stability of the slope. When water elevation decreases there will be two effects. First, reduced hydrostatic pressure and second, modification of pore water pressure. Rapid draw down usually comon in hydraulic structure such as dam and levee. This study will discuss behaviour of levee on softsoil caused by rapid drawdown. The analysis based on method which developed by US Army Corps Engineer and modified method which developed by Duncan, Wright, dan Wong. Results of analysis show that in drawdown condition, at 1 m drop of water, safety factor obtained based on US Army Corps Engineer method was 1.16 and 0.976 while based on Duncan, Wright, and Wong methods were 1.244 and 1.117. At 0.5 m water level, safety factor based on US Army Corps Engineer method was 1.287 and 1.09 while Duncan, Wright, and Wong were 1.357 and 1.194.

  20. Uso del tratamiento acupuntural en pacientes con episodio depresivo leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental en el Centro Comunitario Provincial de Salud Mental de Las Tunas, con el objetivo de determinar la efectividad del empleo de la acupuntura en pacientes portadores de episodio depresivo leve. El universo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes diagnosticados clínicamente con la enfermedad, que acudieron a la consulta de Medicina Natural y Tradicional de esta entidad entre marzo de 2011 a marzo de 2013. La muestra quedó constituida por 60 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios diagnósticos y de inclusión establecidos para la investigación, se aplicó un muestreo aleatorio simple que permitió conformar dos grupos, uno de estudio, al que se le aplicó tratamiento acupuntural, y uno control, que recibió tratamiento con amitriptilina. Los resultados mostraron que el insomnio fue el síntoma asociado más frecuente. Al terminar el tratamiento se obtuvo que la depresión se eliminó en la totalidad de los pacientes, pero fue más inmediato el efecto antidepresivo en los pacientes del grupo estudio, los síntomas asociados desaparecieron en casi la totalidad de ellos. Se concluye que el tratamiento tradicional acupuntural constituye una terapia efectiva en los pacientes con episodio depresivo leve

  1. Growth, Failure, and Erosion of Submarine Channel Levees on the Upper Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. E.; Flemings, P. B.; Nikolinakou, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Late Pleistocene channel levees on the Mississippi Fan failed repeatedly along deep-seated listric faults. These growth faults begin at the top of the levee, as much as a kilometer away from the channel axis. They plunge 150-200 meters downward reaching their deepest point halfway towards the channel axis (0.5 km) along the base of a regional sand unit. They then rise toward the channel axis where they emerge. The erosion of toe-thrust material coupled with levee growth, promoted a dynamic equilibrium: turbidity currents flushed the channel axis and deposited new levee on the margins, which induced further displacement into the channel. With a geomechanical model we show that deep-seated failure occurred by undrained loading of an underlying low permeability mudstone. Excess pore pressure formed a low-strength layer that localized the detachment at the base of a regional sand. Our results show that deep-seated failure is expected when levee systems form above regional sand bodies that were deposited rapidly above low permeability mudstone. Furthermore, the presence of this failure style in channel-levee systems is a strong indicator that overpressures and low effective stresses were present during formation and thus record paleo-pressures. Understanding these systems is critical for the design of safe well penetrations, predicting hydraulic connectivity of deepwater channel sands, and the growth of submarine channel-levee systems. This study illuminates the linkages between sedimentation, erosion, and the mechanical stability of levees in submarine channel systems.

  2. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls

  3. 77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... revetments, sand dunes, and barrier islands. b. New federally authorized cost-shared levee projects shall be..., the landside slope, and within 15 feet of the landside toe (subject to preexisting real estate... appropriate depth but not less than 20 feet below the levee toe. The determination and documentation of site...

  4. An Approach for Real-time Levee Health Monitoring Using Signal Processing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Kozionov, A.P.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a levee health monitoring system within the UrbanFlood project funded under the EU 7th Framework Programme. A novel real-time levee health assessment Artificial Intelligence system is developed using data-driven methods. The system is implemented in the UrbanFlood early warning system.

  5. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  6. Condiciones de salud y satisfacción laboral según régimen laboral en enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Horna, Azucena Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación que a continuación se presenta es titulado: Condiciones de Salud, satisfacción laboral según el régimen laboral de los enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez, tuvo como objetivo general: determinar la relación que existe entre las condiciones de salud, la satisfacción laboral según el régimen laboral de los enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez. El método utilizado fue descriptivo, explicativo, transversal y correlacional. La población estuvo ...

  7. Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane L.; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

  8. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-846 Caruthersville, Pemiscot County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Houses of brick, stone and log were torn to pieces and those of frame tossed on their sides. Many citizens fled to the mountains . In 1812, the five...especially because of the many bands of guerrillas and Union troops who were ranging the countryside. No battles were fought in the projczt aLea ...to the economy of the state, were adamant about the need to build railroads. I 4-3 I Although one railroad, the St. Louis and Iron Mountain , ran from

  9. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties Missouri. Item R-752 Lambethville; Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    occidentalis) and persimmon ( Diospyros virginianna) occupied better drained immature alluvial soils. Soil development on bottomland sites favored...15 genera of ungulates and various giant rodents and car- nivores north of Mexico. Maps presented by Simpson (1945) indicate that the genus Tapirus

  10. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms, Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri Item R-618 Knowlton; Desha County, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    spp_), maples, hackberry (Celtis laevigata), hickories, sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) and persimmon ( Diospyros virginianna) occupied better drained...of Mexico. Surely many of these were forest denizens and occurred in the study area. Maps presented by Simpson (1945) indicate that the genus Tapirus

  11. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., compressibility of embankment soils, compressibility of foundation soils, age of the levee system, and... described in the COE manual, “Soil Mechanics Design—Settlement Analysis” (EM 1100-2-1904) must be submitted...

  12. 2005 United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post-Hurricane Katrina Levee Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These topographic data were collected for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by a helicopter-mounted LiDAR sensor over the New Orleans Hurricane Protection Levee...

  13. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Many arroyos that formed by incision more than a century ago in the southwestern United States are currently filling with sediment. This reversal of processes is important because it causes changes in riparian ecology, erosion hazards, ground water recharge, and sediment supply to downstream. Along the Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in New Mexico, we examined the geometry and facies of channel and floodplain stratigraphy exposed in trenches, used high-resolution dating of the sedimentary beds, and used photographs and other historical evidence to investigate the processes of aggradation in naturally leveed channels within arroyos. Prior to the onset of aggradation, the streambeds were composed of sand and had low relief, and arroyo walls retreated rapidly due to stream undermining. Aggradation began with the formation of sand levees at the margins of the streambeds, followed by formation of newer levees increasingly closer to the thalweg. These levees coincide with rows of woody shrubs (tamarisk and willow), plants that germinated in moist sand along the high-water marks of moderate flows, and survived because subsequent periods lacked flows large enough to remove them. Flow entering a row of woody shrubs decelerates, promoting deposition of suspended sand. Stream flows in this setting are always turbid but do not have the rheology of debris flows. The rows of shrubs probably are a requirement for initial formation of sand levees on low relief streambeds in this setting. As new levees formed closer to the thalweg the channel effectively narrowed, and smaller discharges overtopped the levees adjacent to the channel. Those closer levees accumulated sand most rapidly, leaving the suspended sand concentration depleted by the time water reached more distant ones. All levees aggraded vertically. As the main channel narrowed it acquired a roughly trapezoidal-shape (Top Width/Depth ~ 9 to 5) with banks inclined close to the angle of repose. In addition, sediment deposited on

  14. The Eroticism of Artificial Flesh in Villiers de L'Isle Adam's L'Eve Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pulham

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villiers de L'Isle Adam's 'L'Eve Future' published in 1886 features a fictional version of the inventor Thomas Edison who constructs a complex, custom-made android for Englishman Lord Ewald as a substitute for his unsatisfactory lover. Hadaly, the android, has a number of literary and cultural precursors and successors. Her most commonly accepted ancestor is Olympia in E. T. A. Hoffmann's 'The Sandman' (1816 and among her fascinating descendants are Oskar Kokoschka's 'Silent Woman'; Model Borghild, a sex doll designed by German technicians during World War II;‘Caracas' in Tommaso Landolfi's short story ‘Gogol's Wife' (1954; a variety of gynoids and golems from the realms of science fiction, including Ira Levin's 'Stepford Wives' (1972; and, most recently, that silicon masterpiece - the Real Doll. All, arguably, have their genesis in the classical myth of Pygmalion. This essay considers the tension between animation and stasis in relation to this myth, and explores the necrophiliac aesthetic implicit in Villiers's novel.

  15. Application of GPR Method for Detection of Loose Zones in Flood Levee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Tomisław; Małysa, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    In the paper the results of non-invasive georadar (GPR) surveys carried out for detection of loose zones located in the flood levee was presented. Terrain measurements were performed on the Vistula river flood levee in the village of Wawrzeńczyce near Cracow. In the investigation site, during the flood in 2010, leakages of levee were observed, so detection of inner water filtration paths was an important matter taking into account the stability of the levee during the next flood. GPR surveys had reconnaissance character, so they were carried out with the use of short-offset reflection profiling (SORP) technique and radargrams were subjected to standard signal processing. The results of surveys allowed to outline main loose zone in the levee which were the reason of leakages in 2010. Additionally gravel interbeddings in sand were detected which had an important influence, due to higher porosity of such zones, to water filtration inside of the levee. In the paper three solutions which allow to increase quality and resolution of radargrams were presented, i.e. changeable-polarisation surveys, advanced signal processing and DHA procedure.

  16. Screening Mississippi River Levees Using Texture-Based and Polarimetric-Based Features from Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Dabbiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of synthetic aperture radar remote sensing data for earthen levee mapping with an emphasis on finding the slump slides on the levees. Earthen levees built on the natural levees parallel to the river channel are designed to protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the Unites States from flooding. One of the signs of potential impending levee failure is the appearance of slump slides. On-site inspection of levees is expensive and time-consuming; therefore, a need to develop efficient techniques based on remote sensing technologies is mandatory to prevent failures under flood loading. Analysis of multi-polarized radar data is one of the viable tools for detecting the problem areas on the levees. In this study, we develop methods to detect anomalies on the levee, such as slump slides and give levee managers new tools to prioritize their tasks. This paper presents results of applying the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL’s Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR quad-polarized L-band data to detect slump slides on earthen levees. The study area encompasses a portion of levees of the lower Mississippi River in the United States. In this paper, we investigate the performance of polarimetric and texture features for efficient levee classification. Texture features derived from the gray level co-occurrence (GLCM matrix and discrete wavelet transform were computed and analyzed for efficient levee classification. The pixel-based polarimetric decomposition features, such as entropy, anisotropy, and scattering angle were also computed and applied to the support vector machine classifier to characterize the radar imagery and compared the results with texture-based classification. Our experimental results showed that inclusion of textural features derived from the SAR data using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT features and GLCM features provided

  17. Levee Seepage Detection in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using Polarimetric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Bekaert, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's extensive levee system protects over 2,800 km2 of reclaimed lands and serves as the main irrigation and domestic water supply for the state of California. However, ongoing subsidence and disaster threats from floods and earthquakes make the Delta levee system highly vulnerable, endangering water supplies for 23 million California residents and 2.5 million acres of agricultural land. Levee failure in the Delta can cause saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay, reducing water quality and curtailing water exports to residents, commercial users, and farmers. To protect the Delta levee system, it is essential to search for signs of seepage in which water is piping through or beneath levees, which can be associated with deformation of the levees themselves. Until now, in-situ monitoring has largely been applied, however, this is a time-consuming and expensive approach. We use data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) airborne radar instrument to identify and characterize levee seepages and associated land subsidence through advanced remote sensing technologies. The high spatial resolution of UAVSAR can help to direct surveys to areas that are likely to be experiencing damage. UAVSAR is an L-band airborne sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio, repeat flight track accuracy, and spatial resolution of 7x7 m2 (for multi-looked products) that is necessary for detailed levee monitoring. The adaptability of radar instruments in their ability to see through smoke, haze, and clouds during the day or night, is especially relevant during disaster events, when cloud cover or lack of solar illumination inhibits traditional visual surveys of damage. We demonstrate the advantages of combining polarimetric radar imagery with geographic information systems (GIS) datasets in locating seepage features along critical levee infrastructure in the Delta for 2009-2016. The ability to efficiently locate potential

  18. Using ground penetrating radar in levee assessment to detect small scale animal burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah

    2014-04-01

    Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.

  19. Accuracy Analysis Comparison of Supervised Classification Methods for Anomaly Detection on Levees Using SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakalavathi Marapareddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the use of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery to support levee condition assessment by detecting potential slide areas in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Levees are prone to a failure in the form of internal erosion within the earthen structure and landslides (also called slough or slump slides. If not repaired, slough slides may lead to levee failures. In this paper, we compare the accuracy of the supervised classification methods minimum distance (MD using Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance, support vector machine (SVM, and maximum likelihood (ML, using SAR technology to detect slough slides on earthen levees. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR. The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  20. Field observation of morpho-dynamic processes during storms at a Pacific beach, Japan: role of long-period waves in storm-induced berm erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Masaru; Seki, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Many ultrasonic wave gages were placed with a small spacing across the swash zone to monitor either sand level or water level. Continuous monitoring conducted for a few years enabled the collection of data on the change in wave properties as well as swash-zone profiles. Data sets including two cases of large-scale berm erosion were analyzed. The results showed that 1) shoreline erosion started when high waves with significant power in long-period (1 to 2 min.) waves reached the top of a well-developed berm with the help of rising tide; 2) the beach in the swash zone was eroded with higher elevation being more depressed, while the bottom elevation just outside the swash zone remained almost unchanged; and 3) erosion stopped in a few hours after the berm was completely eroded or the swash-zone slope became uniformly mild. These findings strongly suggest that long waves play a dominant role in the swash-zone dynamics associated with these erosional events.

  1. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  2. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    -sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

  3. Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

  4. Cultural Resources Survey of Three Iberville Parish Levee Enlargement and Revetment Construction Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-22

    elm (Ulmus), and pecan (Carya illlnoensis) may occur at higher elevations. Poison ivy (Rhus radicans), Virginia and trumpet creeper (Parthenocissus sp... pecans were produced In the parish. Cotton, grown during the early 1900s, had all but disappeared by 1940. Soybeans, initially planted with corn to...Holland and England are known as de Equivalents in Italy , Iberia, and Mexico are called muioica. Tin glazed earthenware has a soft porous paste

  5. Carbonate Channel-Levee Systems Influenced by Mass-Transport Deposition, Browse Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, D.; Janson, X.; Sanchez-Phelps, C.; Covault, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine channels are primary conduits for clastic sediment transport to deep-water basins, thereby controlling the location of marine depocenters and sediment bypass. The evolution and depositional character of submarine channels have broad implications to sediment dispersal, sediment quality, and hydrocarbon exploration potential. Siliciclastic channel systems have been extensively studied in modern environments, seismic and outcrop; however, carbonate channel-levee deposits have only recently been explored. Here we utilize newly released high-resolution (90 Hz) seismic-reflection data from the Australian Browse Basin to document the influence of mass-transport complex (MTC) deposition on the stratigraphic architecture of carbonate channel-levee systems. The 2014 vintage seismic survey is 2500 km2 and hosts numerous large Miocene-age carbonate channel-levee complexes basinward of the shelf edge. Regional horizons and individual channel forms were mapped. Channels range from 200-300 m wide and are bounded by high-relief levee-overbank wedges (>100 ms TWTT). These channels extend across the survey area >70 km. The leveed-channels were sourced from middle and late Miocene slope gullies linked to platform carbonates. Slope-attached and locally derived MTC's are evident throughout the Miocene section likely related to periods of basin inversion and shelf-edge gully incision. We interpret that regionally extensive (>1000 km2) slope-attached MTC's can shut down a channel-levee system and trigger the initiation of a new system, whereas more locally derived (wasting and turbidity currents, which informs depositional models of carbonate slope systems and calls for re-evaluation of the controls on stratigraphic patterns in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deep-water basins.

  6. Condition Assessment of Levees, U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission. Report 5: Flood Simulation Study of Retamal Levee, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, Using Seismic and Electrical Geophysical Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunbar, Joseph B; Llopis, Jose L; Sills, George L; Smith, Eric W; Miller, Rick D; Ivanov, Julian; Corwin, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    In November 2004, a team from the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center conducted a ponding test on a reach of the Retamal levee in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to simulate performance of the levee during a flood event...

  7. Syncrude`s highway berm: part 3 of 5 - Soil parameters (pore pressure parameters and settlement from inundation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Fong, V.; Ashton, C.; Strueby, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Difficulties in predicting pore fluid pressures in the fills composing the highway berm were discussed. The pore water pressures in the in-situ clay foundation units were expected to be very sensitive to water content. Over 200 piezometer tips were installed into fill and in situ soil units, and results of the measurements were reported. The in situ basal foundation clays and sands were found to have a similar pore pressure ratio of typically less than 0.25. Fill pore fluid pressure ratios determined in the field varied according to density when loose fills were compared to very dense fills. To illustrate, when the fill was 86% to 91% of maximum Standard Proctor Density, the pore pressure ratio value was not dependent on fluid content. When the fill was densely compacted to 98% Standard Proctor Density, the pore pressure ratio was largely dependent on the fluid content as it related to the optimum fluid content determined from Standard Proctor testing. Significant first-time wetting settlement was observed to occur with fills at initial densities of around 90% of maximum Standard Proctor dry density. Settlements for fills placed initially above 97% Standard Proctor Density generally had inundation settlements of less than 0.3% of fill thickness predicted from laboratory testing. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  9. Kommunen er død - længe leve den digitale disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann

    2017-01-01

    "New Public Management is Dead. Long Live the Digital Era." Sådan proklamerede Patrick Donleavy digitaliseringens muligheder i en banebrydende artikel fra 2005. Med en omskrivning af dette citat til "Kommunen er død, længe leve den digitale disruption", er ballet åbnet for denne artikel......."New Public Management is Dead. Long Live the Digital Era." Sådan proklamerede Patrick Donleavy digitaliseringens muligheder i en banebrydende artikel fra 2005. Med en omskrivning af dette citat til "Kommunen er død, længe leve den digitale disruption", er ballet åbnet for denne artikel....

  10. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level....

  11. Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    socks used in the construction industry with an additional metal-sorbing amendment added to the sand. The results of treatability testing are presented...reactive filter barrier should be placed immediately behind the cement target trough. For maintenance of the center range, the layer closest to the hill...using oxides – A review. Environmental Pollution, 172, 9-22. Larson, S., B. Tardy, M. Beverly, A. Hearn, M. Thompson, and G. Williams. 2004. Topical

  12. Propriedades espectrais da matéria orgânica leve-livre e leve intra-agregado de dois latossolos sob plantio direto e preparo convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Freixo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a natureza química das frações leves-livres (FLL e leves intra-agregado (FLI da matéria orgânica do solo, obtidas pelo fracionamento físico do solo por densidade, por meio da espectroscopia na região do infravermelho, para verificar se tais frações constituem compartimentos distintos da matéria orgânica do solo. Foram analisadas amostras de Latossolos de dois estados do Brasil (RS e GO, submetidos a plantio direto e preparo convencional, em distintos sistemas de rotação de culturas. A análise por infravermelho revelou diferenças contrastantes entre os compartimentos orgânicos estudados. Os espectros de IV da fração leve-livre apresentaram configuração semelhante aos dos resíduos vegetais, indicando que ela se encontra em estádios iniciais de transformação. Não foram observadas diferenças estruturais na FLL entre os distintos sistemas de preparo e rotação de culturas. Os espectros de IV da FLI apresentaram bandas de absorção N-H e C-O de polissacarídeos menos intensas e em maior conjugação, em relação aos espectros da FLL, características de material mais humificado. Foi observada ainda uma maior transformação estrutural da fração leve intra-agregado em solos sob preparo convencional, quando comparada à FLI de solo sob vegetação natural e plantio direto. Os índices de hidrofobicidade (IH e de condensação (IC, determinados a partir de relações entre as bandas de absorção de grupamentos - CH3 alifáticos, C-O de polissacarídeos e C=O conjugados, permitiram identificar as diferenças na recalcitrância e condensação das frações leves. Constatou-se que ambos os índices foram significativamente maiores para a matéria orgânica intra-agregado, por conseqüência de seu maior grau de humificação.

  13. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities : Appendix B Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOTs construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the leve...

  14. Developments in Levee Reliability and Flood Risk Analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of advances in flood risk and levee reliability analysis in the Netherlands. It is described how new safety standards – in the form of a target failure probability – have been derived on the basis of nationwide flood risk assessments which taken into account both

  15. Numerical modelling of levee stability based on coupled mechanical, thermal and hydrogeological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwornik Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modelling of coupled mechanical, thermal and hydrogeological processes for a soil levee is presented in the paper. The modelling was performed for a real levee that was built in Poland as a part of the ISMOP project. Only four parameters were changed to build different flood waves: the water level, period of water increase, period of water decrease, and period of low water level after the experiment. Results of numerical modelling shows that it is possible and advisable to calculate simultaneously changes of thermal and hydro-mechanical fields. The presented results show that it is also possible to use thermal sensors in place of more expensive pore pressure sensors, with some limitations. The results of stability analysis show that the levee is less stable when the water level decreases, after which factor of safety decreases significantly. For all flooding wave parameters described in the paper, the levee is very stable and factor of safety variations for any particular stage were not very large.

  16. Leve de Variatie! Een onderzoek naar de beleving van en de publiciteit rondom Oktober Kennismaand 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Groven, M.; Higler, L.

    2011-01-01

    Leve de Variatie! Een onderzoek naar de beleving van en de publiciteit rondom Oktober Kennismaand 2010 The until 2007 yearly organized Science Week aimed at the enhancement of the knowledge of scientific and technological developments by the public has from 2008 on developed into a month of

  17. ON LAND SLIDE DETECTION USING TERRASAR-X OVER EARTHEN LEVEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahrooghy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthen levees have an important role to protect large areas of inhabited and cultivated land in the US from flooding. Failure of the levees can threaten the loss of life and property. One of the problems which can lead to a complete failure during a high water event is a slough slide. In this research, we are trying to detect such slides using X-band SAR data. Our methodology consists of the following four steps: 1 segmentation of the levee area from background; 2 extracting features including backscatter features and texture features; 3 training a back propagation neural network classifier using ground-truth data; and 4 testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. A dual-polarimetric X-band image is acquired from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. Ground-truth data include the slides and healthy area. The study area is an approximately 1 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. The output classification shows the two classes of healthy and slide areas. The results show classification accuracies of approximately 67% for detecting the slide pixels.

  18. Acerca del rol de Pedro Bermúdez en el Cantar de Mio Cid: Un acercamiento a su figura épica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Janín

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an attempt on getting close to the literary figure of Pedro Bermúdez in the Cantar de Mio Cid that allows it to characterize him as a peculiar hero; and proposes that Pedro represents a type of hero which is different to the model the Cantar means to coin, perhaps more primitive and alternative to the cidian paradigm, thus the virtues and values of the tradition of the most arcaic epic songs are not eliminated but displaced to a hero that seconds the protagonist, complementing him at the same time.

  19. Moren er død, moren leve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Nebeling

    2015-01-01

    Gay men are carrying a history as being suspected as potential pedophiles and non-suited parents, and while the reproductive technology of transnational gestational surrogacy makes it possible for gay men to become parents within heteronormative logics, the constructions of families without...... a mother are looked upon as problematic at best. Through field observations and interviews with gay men, who have been or who are involved in transnational surrogacy I explore how gay men fragmentize the notion of the mother in to several positions. The article argues that the gay men are reproductive...

  20. Acolhimento: tecnologia leve nos processos gerenciais do enfermeiro Acogimiento: tecnología leve en los procesos gerenciales del enfermero Welcoming: soft technology in nurse's management processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Raquel Rossi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo identificar a utilização das tecnologias leves nos processos gerenciais do enfermeiro e a sua interferência na produção do cuidado. Constituiu-se em um estudo de caso de abordagem qualitativa, cujos sujeitos da pesquisa foram enfermeiros de um setor de internação de um hospital geral localizado em um município do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados através da observação livre do trabalho do enfermeiro. Nos processos gerenciais do enfermeiro identificou-se a utilização de tecnologias leves, entre elas o acolhimento, assim como alguns fatores que o configuram, sendo possível afirmar que ao utilizar essa tecnologia o enfermeiro produz e promove a humanização do cuidado.El objetivo de este estudio fué la utilización de tecnologías leves en los procesos gerenciales del enfermería e su interferencia al producir lo cuidado. Se constituye en un estudio de caso de abordaje cualitativa e los sujetos de investigación eran enfermeros de un sector de internación de un hospital general localizado en una ciudad del Río Grande do Sul. Los datos fueron colectados a través de la libre observación de sus trabajos. En los procesos gerenciales del enfermero, se identifico el uso de tecnologías leves, entre ellas, el acogimiento, así como algunos factores que lo configuran, siendo posible afirmar que al utilizar esa tecnología, el enfermero produce e promociona la humanización del cuidado.This study aimed the identification of the use of soft technologies in nursing management processes and their interference in care production. It was constituted in a case study case of quality feature and the research subjects were nurses of a public hospital located in a city of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected by means of free observation of the nurses' job. In their managing processes, it was identified the use of soft technologies, among them the welcoming, as well as some factors that present it

  1. Escultores académicos del siglo XVIII en el Diccionario de Ceán Bermúdez. Nuevas adiciones (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrán Martín, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In A.E.A. number 310 we presented Ceán Bermúdez's information on sculptors whose surnames begin with the letters A through E, entries which were finally not included in his Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España (1800. In this second part, we continue from F to Z. The scarcity of bibliography concerning some of these artists means that these documents are of prime importance, given that they frequently include unpublished information.

    En el número 310 de A.E.A. dimos a conocer aquellos artículos relativos a los escultores académicos desde la letra A hasta la E que fueron suprimidos en el momento de publicación del Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España de Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. Continuamos en esta segunda entrega con los correspondientes desde la letra F hasta el final. La escasez de bibliografía sobre algunos de los artistas mencionados convierte a estos documentos en fuentes de primer orden al contener datos en gran parte inéditos.

  2. River Activism, “Levees-Only” and the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Randolph

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates media coverage of 19th and early 20th century river activism and its effect on federal policy to control the Mississippi River. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ “levees-only” policy—which joined disparate navigation and flood control interests—is largely blamed for the Great Flood of 1927, called the largest peacetime disaster in American history. River activists organized annual conventions, and later, professional lobbies organized media campaigns up and down the Mississippi River to sway public opinion and pressure Congress to fund flood control and river navigation projects. Annual river conventions drew thousands of delegates such as plantation owners, shippers, bankers, chambers of commerce, governors, congressmen, mayors and cabinet members with interests on the Mississippi River. Public pressure on Congress successfully captured millions of federal dollars to protect property, drain swamps for development, subsidize local levee districts and influence river policy.

  3. Using level-I PRA for enhanced safety of the advanced neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C.T.; Linn, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-1, level-I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor has been completed as part of the conceptual design phase of this proposed research facility. Since project inception, PRA and reliability concepts have been an integral part of the design evolutions contributing to many of the safety features in the current design. The level-I PRA has been used to evaluate the internal events core damage frequency against project goals and to identify systems important to safety and availability, and it will continue to guide and provide support to accident analysis, both severe and nonsevere. The results also reflect the risk value of defense-in-depth safety features in reducing the likelihood of core damage

  4. Crevasse Splays Versus Avulsions: A Recipe for Land Building With Levee Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Esposito, Christopher R.

    2018-05-01

    Natural-levee breaches can not only initiate an avulsion but also, under the right circumstances, lead to crevasse splay formation and overbank sedimentation. The formative conditions for crevasse splays are not well understood, yet such river sediment diversions form an integral part of billion-dollar coastal restoration projects. Here we use Delft3D to investigate the influence of vegetation and soil consolidation on the evolution of a natural-levee breach. Model simulations show that crevasse splays heal because floodplain aggradation reduces the water surface slope, decreasing water discharge into the flood basin. Easily erodible and unvegetated floodplains increase the likelihood for channel avulsions. Denser vegetation and less potential for soil consolidation result in small crevasse splays that are not only efficient sediment traps but also short-lived. Successful crevasse splays that generate the largest land area gain for the imported sediment require a delicate balance between water and sediment discharge, vegetation root strength, and soil consolidation.

  5. SIRS Digues 2.0: A Cooperative Software For Levees Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moins Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SIRS Digues is a computing tool that makes informations on levees more durable and accessible in order to enhance their management. The first version of the software, which was IRSTEA’s initiative, was deployed in 2004. The second version was released in 2015. This article aims at pointing out the innovative aspects of this last version. They concern thematic and functionalities, computing technics and architecture, and last but not least, the business model chosen in order to build a long lasting software. The software’s kernel is sketched to propose a general description of levees: it focuses on description of the levees and linked objects, on disorders that affects them, on works... Most of these topics were already broached by the first version. The kernel of the version 2 may be extended using optional thematic modules. These modules concern: vegetation monitoring, reporting (in coherence with current French regulatory requirements, riverbanks, riverbed... Main functionnalities perfomed by SIRS Digues V1 and V2 are : data structuring and centralisation, quick access to relevant data, reporting and mapping, etc. SIRS Digues 2.0 updates and improves already existing functionalities of the first version. SIRS Digues V2 relies on an documentoriented NoSQL database, CouchDB, and on geospatial libraries, Geotoolkit and Apache-SIS. SIRS Digues V2 was released with a copyleft license. Copyrights belong to the French levees managers’ society, “France Digues”, which acts as a cooperative. Members put their heads together in order to gather their financial capacities and fund software development. France Digues has got the technical and thematic expertise and supply various services to the members. This business model aims to ensure accessibility, durability and adaptability of the software.

  6. Red River of the North Walsh and Pembina Countries, North Dakota Farmstead Ring Levees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    services during the event; and postflood reoccupation and recovery. Practically, for rural areas, a plan should be developed and implemented on a county...trends for the area can be seen in the OBERS projections in table 4. Farm employment is projected to continue decreasing while the nonfarm sectors ...report provides the public the initial information needed to assess the potential for Federal involvement in developing ring levees for the

  7. A Case History of Embankment Failure: Geological and Geotechnical Aspects of the Celotex Levee Failure, New Orleans, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunbar, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    .... The data examined during research on the causes of levee failure included geologic setting, historic bank migration and previous bank lines, thalweg profiles, width/depth ratios, scour pool movement, and river profiles...

  8. Dedicated IT infrastructure for Smart Levee Monitoring and Flood Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balis Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart levees are being increasingly investigated as a flood protection technology. However, in large-scale emergency situations, a flood decision support system may need to collect and process data from hundreds of kilometers of smart levees; such a scenario requires a resilient and scalable IT infrastructure, capable of providing urgent computing services in order to perform frequent data analyses required in decision making, and deliver their results in a timely fashion. We present the ISMOP IT infrastructure for smart levee monitoring, designed to support decision making in large-scale emergency situations. Most existing approaches to urgent computing services in decision support systems dealing with natural disasters focus on delivering quality of service for individual, isolated subsystems of the IT infrastructure (such as computing, storage, or data transmission. We propose a holistic approach to dynamic system management during both urgent (emergency and normal (non-emergency operation. In this approach, we introduce a Holistic Computing Controller which calculates and deploys a globally optimal configuration for the entire IT infrastructure, based on cost-of-operation and quality-of-service (QoS requirements of individual IT subsystems, expressed in the form of Service Level Agreements (SLAs. Our approach leads to improved configuration settings and, consequently, better fulfilment of the system’s cost and QoS requirements than would have otherwise been possible had the configuration of all subsystems been managed in isolation.

  9. S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles

  10. Berm Breakwater Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. Reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent...

  11. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  12. Modeling and analysis of the vertical roots distribution in levees - a case study of the third Rhone correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field

  13. Marcadores de estrés oxidativo en hipertensión leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La hipertensión es un factor de riesgo cardiovascular y en 90% de los casos se desconoce el mecanismo que la inicia. Recientemente, se considera que la hipertensión es un síndrome de anormalidades metabólicas y estructurales, en el que las especies reactivas derivadas del oxígeno (EROs juegan un papel fisiopatológico preponderante en su desarrollo. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles séricos de zinc, selenio y magnesio en personas normotensas e hipertensas. Asimismo, valorar la actividad de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD y los niveles de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS en ambos grupos de estudio. Diseño: Estudio analítico observacional, tipo casos y controles. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Sangre de pacientes normotensos y con hipertensión leve. Intervenciones: Se obtuvo las muestras de sangre de 20 pacientes normotensos y 20 con hipertensión leve, con edades entre 50 y 60 años, después de un ayuno de 12 horas, realizándose el estudio en suero y sangre total. Principales medidas de resultados: Variación de niveles de TBARS, oligoelementos (Se, Zn y Mg, medición de actividad de SOD eritrocitario. Resultados: En el grupo de hipertensos, se obtuvo incremento significativo de magnesio y TBARS y disminución significativa de zinc y de la actividad de SOD. Conclusiones: Se demuestra el compromiso del estrés oxidativo en pacientes con hipertensión leve. La hipermagnesemia podría explicarse por el daño a los elementos formes de la sangre.

  14. Escultores académicos del siglo XVIII en el Diccionario de Ceán Bermúdez. Nuevas adiciones (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrán Martín, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Toward the end of 1799, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Saint Ferdinand, in charge of the publication of Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez's Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España, decided not to include information pertaining to living artists. All of this material, preserved in the National Library in Madrid, and never before published, is presented in this first article dealing with academic sculptors letters A to E. A comparison of this new information with existing studies demonstrates the need for a profound revision of the works of certain artists.

    A finales del año 1799, la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Femando, una vez que se hace cargo de la publicación del Diccionario de los más ilustres profesores de las Bellas Artes en España de Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, decide editar la obra sin la información referente a los artistas todavía en activo. De toda esa documentación, conservada en la Biblioteca Nacional y no publicada hasta el momento, se da a conocer en este primer artículo la perteneciente a los escultores académicos desde la letra A hasta la E. La comparación de esta información con los estudios existentes dedicados a la cuestión, muestra la necesidad de una nueva revisión en profundidad de la obra de determinados artistas.

  15. "Determinação cromatografica quantitativa de gases leves em hidrogenio"

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Pimenta Neves Jr

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: O hidrogênio ultrapurificado tem sido utilizado em ritmo crescente em diversos processos de alta tecnologia, com destaque para a indústria de micro-eletrônica, onde a presença de impurezas no gás influi decisivamente nos resultados obtidos. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos aspectos relacionados à determinação cromatográfica quantitativa de gases leves em hidrogênio. Inicialmente foram desenvolvidas técnicas de amostragem e análise que possibilitam determinar concentrações de até 1mm...

  16. Programa de entrenamiento en habilidades sociales con personas mayores con discapacidad auditiva y visual leve

    OpenAIRE

    García Carracedo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A partir de la hipótesis de que la mejora en habilidades sociales va a repercutir en mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas mayores, se ha desarrollado un programa de intervención dirigido a personas mayores con discapacidad auditiva y visual leve procedentes de la residencia “Casa Beneficencia” situada en la calle camino del cementerio en Valladolid. En el presente trabajo hemos utilizado diversas técnicas para la recogida de información previa y posterior diagnóstico de las necesidad...

  17. Memoria lexico-semantica no comprometimento cognitivo leve amnestico e doença de Alzheimer leve : aspectos neuropsicologicos, de neuroimagem estrutural e modelo de organização cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: A organização cerebral da memória léxico-semântica, assim como suas alterações em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA) leve e Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve amnéstico (CCLa) não são completamente conhecidas. Neste estudo, avaliamos o desempenho de pacientes com DA leve, CCLa e idosos normais em testes léxico-semânticos como o Teste de Nomeação de Boston (TNB), Teste de Similaridades do CAMCOG e Fluência Verbal (FV) para categoria animais, além de outros domínios cognitivos. Aprofund...

  18. Oficinas de estimulação cognitiva adaptadas para idosos analfabetos com transtorno cognitivo leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Borges dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oficinas de estimulação cognitiva para idosos analfabetos com transtorno cognitivo leve é um tema pouco pesquisado. Objetivou-se verificar a autopercepção da memória em idosos analfabetos com transtorno cognitivo leve, antes e após oficinas de estimulação cognitiva, adaptadas para analfabetos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada na Unidade de Saúde de Taguatinga-DF, envolvendo 63 idosos: 22 no Grupo Experimental (GE, com 10 oficinas; 21 no Grupo Controle 1 (GC1, com 10 palestras; e 20 no Grupo Controle 2 (GC2, sem intervenção. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas antes e após intervenções, perguntando-se sobre memória. Aos GE e GC1 foram oferecidas atividades semanais de duas horas. A idade média foi 72,8 anos, 92% do sexo feminino. Na pré-intervenção, 82% haviam piorado memória no último ano. Na pós-intervenção, GC1 e GC2 mantiveram alterações da memória, enquanto GE melhorou cognição. Conclui-se que as oficinas e palestras proporcionaram melhora na funcionalidade e socialização/integração.

  19. An inverse method to estimate the flow through a levee breach

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oria, Marco; Mignosa, Paolo; Tanda, Maria Giovanna

    2015-08-01

    We propose a procedure to estimate the flow through a levee breach based on water levels recorded in river stations downstream and/or upstream of the failure site. The inverse problem is solved using a Bayesian approach and requires the execution of several forward unsteady flow simulations. For this purpose, we have used the well-known 1-D HEC-RAS model, but any unsteady flow model could be adopted in the same way. The procedure has been tested using four synthetic examples. Levee breaches with different characteristics (free flow, flow with tailwater effects, etc.) have been simulated to collect the synthetic level data used at a later stage in the inverse procedure. The method was able to accurately reproduce the flow through the breach in all cases. The practicability of the procedure was then confirmed applying it to the inundation of the Polesine Region (Northern Italy) which occurred in 1951 and was caused by three contiguous and almost simultaneous breaches on the left embankment of the Po River.

  20. Sedimentological analysis and bed thickness statistics from a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex: Myall Trough, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozzi, Jason; Pantopoulos, George; Maravelis, Angelos G.; Nordsvan, Adam; Zelilidis, Avraam

    2018-02-01

    This investigation presents an outcrop-based integrated study of internal division analysis and statistical treatment of turbidite bed thickness applied to a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex in the Myall Trough, southeast Australia. Turbidite beds of the studied succession are characterized by a range of sedimentary structures grouped into two main associations, a thick-bedded and a thin-bedded one, that reflect channel-fill and overbank/levee deposits, respectively. Three vertically stacked channel-levee cycles have been identified. Results of statistical analysis of bed thickness, grain-size and internal division patterns applied on the studied channel-levee succession, indicate that turbidite bed thickness data seem to be well characterized by a bimodal lognormal distribution, which is possibly reflecting the difference between deposition from lower-density flows (in a levee/overbank setting) and very high-density flows (in a channel fill setting). Power law and exponential distributions were observed to hold only for the thick-bedded parts of the succession and cannot characterize the whole bed thickness range of the studied sediments. The succession also exhibits non-random clustering of bed thickness and grain-size measurements. The studied sediments are also characterized by the presence of statistically detected fining-upward sandstone packets. A novel quantitative approach (change-point analysis) is proposed for the detection of those packets. Markov permutation statistics also revealed the existence of order in the alternation of internal divisions in the succession expressed by an optimal internal division cycle reflecting two main types of gravity flow events deposited within both thick-bedded conglomeratic and thin-bedded sandstone associations. The analytical methods presented in this study can be used as additional tools for quantitative analysis and recognition of depositional environments in hydrocarbon-bearing research of ancient

  1. Topographic effect on Radio-Magnetotelluric and Slingram signals: application to a levee along the Loire river, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.

  2. Queueing systems with heavy tails (Summary of Ph.D. thesis on the occasion of receiving the Gijs de Leve prize)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives a short summary of my PhD thesis Queueing Systems with Heavy-tails, winner of the Gijs De Leve prize for the best Dutch thesis in operations research in the period 2000-2002. Apart from the Gijs de Leve prize, this thesis also received the ASML prize, for best thesis in Ihe

  3. Linking submarine channel–levee facies and architecture to flow structure of turbidity currents: : insights from flume tank experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380590913; Eggenhuisen, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322850274; Cartigny, M.J.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823716

    Submarine leveed channels are sculpted by turbidity currents that are commonly highly stratified. Both the concentration and the grain size decrease upward in the flow, and this is a fundamental factor that affects the location and grain size of deposits around a channel. This study presents

  4. Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal.

  5. Assessment of earthen levee stability for management and response: A NASA-DHS-California Dept. Water Resources collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Bekaert, D. P.; Dudas, J.

    2016-12-01

    Radar remote sensing of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the largest estuary in the western U.S. (over 2500 km2), and its levee system provides an opportunity for NASA Applied Science to aid the CA Department of Water Resources (CA-DWR) in monitoring and emergency response. The delta contains over 1,500 km of earthen levees, supports about 2.5 million acres of agricultural land, and serves as a main water supply for 23 million California residents. Many of the reclaimed islands are 10-25 feet below sea level, sit atop compressible peat and organic clay soils, and are surrounded by levees only 1 foot above the once in a century flood elevation threshold. Land subsidence in the delta can be attributed to a variety of factors, including: aerobic oxidation of soils, soil compaction from drainage, wind erosion, anaerobic decomposition, dissolved carbon fluxes, floods, seismic events, and even rodent burrowing. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an established technique to measure surface displacements and has been used to map large-scale subsidence. The demonstration of earthen levee monitoring is a recent development that has been greatly furthered by the emergence of new instruments such as NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). UAVSAR is an L-band airborne sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio, repeat flight track accuracy, and has a high spatial resolution (7 x 7 m) that is necessary for detailed levee monitoring. The adaptability of radar instruments in their ability to see through smoke, haze, and clouds during the day or night, is especially relevant during disaster events, when cloud cover or lack of solar illumination inhibits traditional visual surveys of damage. We demonstrate the advantages of combining InSAR with geographic information systems (GIS) datasets in locating subsidence features along critical levee infrastructure in the Delta for 2009-2016. The ability to efficiently locate potential areas of

  6. Erosion versus construction: The origin of Venusian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Guest, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Lava channels are a common feature in the volcanic regions of the Moon, and have now been observed on Venus. There has been much debate about the origin of lunar channels as to whether they are the result of erosional (either thermal or mechanical) or constructional processes. It is necessary to determine the criteria to distinguish between the different types of channels. The clearest evidence is that the presence of levees indicates that the channel experienced a constructional phase for a period. One example of a channel of this type in the southeast region of Aphrodite Terra appears to show both erosional and constructional characteristics. It is approximately 700 km long with an average width of about 1 km. It drops a distance of 700 m from beginning to end, which means that the average slope is 0.06 degrees. Its source may have been a graben situated at the northwest end of the channel. It appears to have different origins along its length. The lack of levees near the source suggests that the channel is erosional in this region. The presence of levees indicates that a constructional phase has occurred. These are formed by lava repeatedly splashing over the channel sides and solidifying. Evidence of levees is seen further away from the source. However, the presence of levees does not mean that the lava was not also eroding and deepening the channel. Thus, in conclusion, our example channel is very sinuous and there is evidence of erosion. There may also have been overflow here. In its middle reaches it roofs over and has the characteristics of a lava tube. In the lower reaches there is strong evidence for the presence of levees indicating construction. On Earth, limited amounts of erosion may occur in basaltic lava channels, although not nearly on the same scale as on the planets just mentioned. For lava erosion on Earth to occur to a comparable extent, excessive eruption times are required. However, low-viscosity komatiite lava may erode to a larger extent

  7. Stratigraphic Stacking of Deepmarine Channel Levee Turbidites: Scales of Cyclicity and their Origin. Examples from the Laingsburg Fm. (Karoo, South Africa) and the Rosario Fm. (Baja, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, I. A.; Hodgson, D.

    2009-12-01

    Thinning upwards of the turbidite beds that form deepmarine channel levees is a common motif reported from modern and recent levees on the seafloor, from subsurface examples, and from outcropping ancient examples. Because levees are thought to be built by deposition from turbidity currents superelevated over their channel form, the volume and style of overbank deposition are controlled primarily by the relationship between levee height (i.e., thalweg to crest) and flow thickness, determining the amount of overspill. Thus stratigraphic variability of turbidite thickness is explained by some change in either or both of those factors, which may arise autocyclicly or allocyclicly. Variation in the ratio of intra-channel and extra-channel deposition can be an autocyclic stratigraphic response, e.g., in bypass dominated systems, thalweg aggradation may be retarded with respect to levee aggradation, hence as levee relief increases, flows become more confined and, given a relatively narrow range of flow sizes, the volume of overbank flow and deposit thickness decrease with stratigraphic height. However, the same stratigraphic response of the levee may occur due to allocyclic flow magnitude variation, i.e., through decreasing flow magnitude. In both the autocyclic and allocyclic case the stratigraphic response of the levee may be one of thinning upwards, even if the overall system response may be one of progradation (autocyclic bypassing case) or retrogradation (allocyclic decreasing flow magnitude case), with entirely different connotations for sequence stratigraphic interpretation. Here we report examples of different scales of bed thickness cyclicity (both thickening and thinning upward cycles superimposed by smaller scale cycles) within levees of the Rosario Formation, Baja California, Mexico, and from the Laingsburg Formation, Karoo, South Africa, and, together with published examples, discuss criteria for the recognition, and drivers of, autocyclic and allocyclic bed

  8. Proceedings of a Hydrology and Hydraulics Workshop on Riverine Levee Freeboard Held in Monticello, Minnesota on 27-29 August 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-10

    Presented by Earl E. Eiker) Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ...................... 5 LEVEE FREEBOARD DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN (Paper 2) Brad...0~e a) . Plate PAPE 0 12 LEVEE FREEBOARD DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN by Brad Fowler 1 presented by Robert M. Daniel2 1. Introduction. It’s been now nearly... Deja Vu All Over Again (Bob Daniel, HQUSACE) 10:00 - 10:15 am Break 10:15 - 11:00 am Paper 3 FEMA Levee Accreditation Procedures (John Matticks, Asst

  9. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  10. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  11. Levee work for No.3 unit in Ikata Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Tadashi.

    1987-01-01

    An underwater concreting technique was decided to be used for preventing subsidence of a rubble mound which may occur after the installation of a caison. It was planned to fill the gaps among the rubble stones with a special type of underwater concrete. This report deals with the tests for concrete placing and actual levee work which was carried out based on the test results. Tests are performed to determine the compressive strength, flow properties and self-levelling properties of the concrete. Water analysis is also conducted. Furthermore, examinations are made on the capability of the mixer to be mounted on the vessel, the capacity of the concrete pump and required batches to be fed. A work plan is developed based on these examinations. The actual underwater concrete placing work was carried out as follows: 1) excavation of the foundation ground by a grab dredger, 2) throwing down of rubble stones around the foundation and compaction of them by a heavy weight, 3) shaping of the face of slope, 4) throwing down of additional stons in the central portion, and 5) placing of special underwater concrete. For quality management, measurements of the slump. slump flow and air volume were made and compressive strength testing was performed during the work. The tubidity is also observed. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Detection of Subsurface Defects in Levees in Correlation to Weather Conditions Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I. A.; Eisenmann, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been used for many years in successful subsurface detection of conductive and non-conductive objects in all types of material including different soils and concrete. Typical defect detection is based on subjective examination of processed scans using data collection and analysis software to acquire and analyze the data, often requiring a developed expertise or an awareness of how a GPR works while collecting data. Processing programs, such as GSSI's RADAN analysis software are then used to validate the collected information. Iowa State University's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) has built a test site, resembling a typical levee used near rivers, which contains known sub-surface targets of varying size, depth, and conductivity. Scientist at CNDE have developed software with the enhanced capabilities, to decipher a hyperbola's magnitude and amplitude for GPR signal processing. With this enhanced capability, the signal processing and defect detection capabilities for GPR have the potential to be greatly enhanced. This study will examine the effects of test parameters, antenna frequency (400MHz), data manipulation methods (which include data filters and restricting the range of depth in which the chosen antenna's signal can reach), and real-world conditions using this test site (such as varying weather conditions) , with the goal of improving GPR tests sensitivity for differing soil conditions.

  13. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  14. Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at differ...

  15. Assessing the impacts of dams and levees on the hydrologic record of the Middle and Lower Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W.F.; Ickes, Brian; Ryherd, Julia K.; Guida, Ross J.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of dams and levees on the long-term (>130 years) discharge record was assessed along a ~1200 km segment of the Mississippi River between St. Louis, Missouri, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. To aid in our evaluation of dam impacts, we used data from the U.S. National Inventory of Dams to calculate the rate of reservoir expansion at five long-term hydrologic monitoring stations along the study segment. We divided the hydrologic record at each station into three periods: (1) a pre-rapid reservoir expansion period; (2) a rapid reservoir expansion period; and (3) a post-rapid reservoir expansion period. We then used three approaches to assess changes in the hydrologic record at each station. Indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) and flow duration hydrographs were used to quantify changes in flow conditions between the pre- and post-rapid reservoir expansion periods. Auto-regressive interrupted time series analysis (ARITS) was used to assess trends in maximum annual discharge, mean annual discharge, minimum annual discharge, and standard deviation of daily discharges within a given water year. A one-dimensional HEC-RAS hydraulic model was used to assess the impact of levees on flood flows. Our results revealed that minimum annual discharges and low-flow IHA parameters showed the most significant changes. Additionally, increasing trends in minimum annual discharge during the rapid reservoir expansion period were found at three out of the five hydrologic monitoring stations. These IHA and ARITS results support previous findings consistent with the observation that reservoirs generally have the greatest impacts on low-flow conditions. River segment scale hydraulic modeling revealed levees can modestly increase peak flood discharges, while basin-scale hydrologic modeling assessments by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers showed that tributary reservoirs reduced peak discharges by a similar magnitude (2 to 30%). This finding suggests that the effects of dams and

  16. Quality and Dose Optimized CT Trauma Protocol - Recommendation from a University Level-I Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Johannes; Kaul, David; Böning, Georg; Rotzinger, Roman; Freyhardt, Patrick; Schwabe, Philipp; Maurer, Martin H; Renz, Diane Miriam; Streitparth, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Purpose  As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods  61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50 %). The CT protocol included a native acquisition of the head followed by a single contrast-enhanced acquisition of the whole body (64-MSCT). CA (350 mg/ml iodine) was administered as a split bolus injection of 100 ml (2 ml/s), 20 ml NaCl (1 ml/s), 60 ml (4 ml/s), 40 ml NaCl (4 ml/s) with a scan delay of 85 s to detect injuries of both the arterial system and parenchymal organs in a single acquisition. Both the quantitative (SNR/CNR) and qualitative (5-point Likert scale) image quality was evaluated in parenchymal organs that are often injured in trauma patients. Radiation exposure was assessed. Results  The use of IR combined with a reduction of tube voltage resulted in good qualitative and quantitative image quality and a significant reduction in radiation exposure of more than 40 % (DLP 1087 vs. 647 mGyxcm). Image quality could be improved due to a dedicated protocol that included different levels of IR adapted to different slice thicknesses, kernels and the examined area for the evaluation of head, lung, body and bone injury patterns. In synopsis of our results, we recommend the implementation of a polytrauma protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp and the following IR levels: cCT 5mm: ASIR 20; cCT 0.625 mm: ASIR 40; lung 2.5 mm: ASIR 30, body 5 mm: ASIR 40; body 1.25 mm: ASIR 50; body 0.625 mm: ASIR 0. Conclusion  A dedicated adaptation of the CT trauma protocol (level of reduction of tube voltage and of IR

  17. Deterioro cognitivo leve: ¿dónde termina el envejecimiento normal y empieza la demencia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el aumento de la prevalencia de demencia en el mundo, debemos poner especial atención a la evaluación diagnóstica de estadios previos a la demencia. El deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL podría ser considerado un estadio precoz de demencia, en especial de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (AD; por lo que consideramos importante un diagnóstico adecuado, mediante la utilización de instrumentos y técnicas fiables y sensibles, que permitan discriminar entre sujetos con envejecimiento normal y patológico. Los estudios epidemiológicos muestran una elevada prevalencia de DCL en la población general. Asimismo, se ha documentado la progresión de DCL a demencia y EA, sobre todo en sujetos con DCL del tipo amnésico. La edad, el estado de portador del APOE-ε4, la atrofia del hipocampo en resonancia magnética y la presencia de algunos biomarcadores en líquido cefalorraquídeo parecen influir en la conversión. Se sugiere que el estudio de pacientes con sospecha de DCL sea el mismo que se emplea en la sospecha de demencia y EA. La evaluación neuropsicológica es la única prueba que permite confirmar el diagnóstico y nos ayuda a realizar una adecuada clasificación de los subtipos de DCL: amnésico, multidominio y monodominio no amnésico.

  18. Aptidão física de escolares com deficiência intetectual leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denise Justo Panda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, visualizamos muitas escolas com um trabalho significativo e contributivo para o processo de inclusão, com esforços direcionados para o desenvolvimento integral dos alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais nas escolas regulares e a educação física tem um papel importante nesse processo. Objetivo: avaliar a aptidão física relacionada à saúde e ao desempenho esportivo dos escolares diagnosticados com deficiência Intelectual leve, de três escolas participantes do Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência – PIBID/UNICRUZ/Educação Física. Método: foram sujeitos do estudo 21 escolares, com idades entre 7 e 15 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi o Manual de testes e avaliação PROESP-BR (Projeto Esporte Brasil. Resultados: as variáveis que avaliaram a saúde dos educandos desencadearam maior preocupação, pois mostraram que a maioria dos alunos das três escolas está na zona de risco, principalmente no IMC (índice de massa corporal, estando eles acima do seu peso ideal, ou seja, com sobrepeso e até casos de obesidade. Outro resultado preocupante foram os índices de flexibilidade que mostram problemas de mobilidade corporal. As variáveis relacionadas ao desempenho esportivo desses alunos não foram tão alarmantes, mas estão aquém do esperado. Considerações finais: os resultados do estudo foram socializados e ofereceram indicadores para um planejamento de atividades, de acordo com as reais necessidades dos alunos, levando em conta que as oficinas de educação psicomotora do PIBID/UNICRUZ/ Educação Física devem apresentar significância para todos os seus participantes.

  19. Variability in Light Use Efficiency With Changes in Vegetation Structure and Understory, Using a Temporally Changing Flux Footprint at the BERMS Old Jack Pine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Barr, A.; Black, A.; Hopkinson, C.; Kljun, N.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P.; Shashkov, A.; Zha, T.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing algorithms of vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) often include a light use efficiency (LUE) term that varies depending on meteorological constraints and biome type. LUE is defined as the carbon fixed per mole of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (APAR). LUE estimated using GPP from eddy covariance data is complex and changes over short time periods as the available resources (soil moisture, light, temperature, and nitrogen) vary. An understanding of the variability in LUE will improve local to regional estimates of GPP within complex vegetated land cover types using the variety of remote sensing technologies now available. This study examines variability in LUE and GPP at a mature jack pine site within the Fluxnet-Canada BERMS (Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites) study area using a flux footprint model (Kljun et al. 2004) and airborne lidar data (e.g. Chasmer et al. 2006). Three separate weeks of high frequency eddy covariance data are analyzed for June, July, and August 2002 to capture changes in photosynthesis and carbon uptake through the growing season with variations in precipitation and soil moisture. Footprint estimates are derived in half-hourly resolution to provide information on the spatial and temporal variation of the sources of measured C-fluxes. Airborne lidar directly samples ground topography and vegetation structure (i.e., canopy and understory height, gaps between trees, base of canopy), and may provide information on soil moisture and drainage at the ground surface via absorbed and reflected laser pulse energy. Two questions will be addressed specific to net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of the site as a whole, including parts of the ecosystem that may not be properly represented using eddy covariance techniques. These are: 1. How does C uptake and respiration spatially and temporally vary across the jack pine site? 2. How do vegetation characteristics vary with

  20. Lexical semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease Memória léxico-semântica no comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e doença de Alzheimer leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L.F. Balthazar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study lexical semantic memory in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and normal controls. METHOD: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and that of aMCI, on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent semantic memory tests (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, neuropsychological tests (counterproofs, and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used Mann-Whitney test for intergroup comparisons and Pearson's coefficient for correlations between memory tests and counterproofs (statistical significance level was pOBJETIVO: Estudar a memória léxico-semântica no comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico (aCCL, doença de Alzheimer (DA leve e controles normais. MÉTODO: Incluímos 15 pacientes com DA leve, 15 com aCCL e 15 controles normais, usando os critérios DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA e CDR 1 para DA, e os do International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, e CDR 0,5 para aCCL. Todos os sujeitos passaram por testes de memória semântica (Teste de nomeação de Boston - TNB, item de Similaridades do CAMCOG, teste de aprendizado auditivo-verbal de Rey (TAAVR, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM, testes neuropsicológicos (contraprovas e Escala Cornell para Depressão em Demência. A análise dos dados usou o teste de Mann-Whitney para comparações entre os grupos e o coeficiente de Pearson para correlação entre testes e contraprovas (nível de significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com aCCL foram semelhantes aos controles no TNB e Similaridades, mas inferiores no MEEM e TAAVR. Pacientes com DA leve tiveram performance inferior à de sujeitos com aCCL e controles em todos os

  1. Determinação da exigência nutricional de treonina para poedeiras leves e semipesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Sandra Roselí

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este experimento com o objetivo de determinar a exigência nutricional de treonina para poedeiras leves e semipesadas no período de 21 a 36 semanas. Foram utilizadas 576 aves, 288 poedeiras leves e 288 semipesadas, durante quatro períodos experimentais de 28 dias cada. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 2 (níveis x marcas, com seis repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração basal contendo 14,2% de proteína bruta, suplementada com cinco níveis de L-treonina (0,025; 0,050; 0,075; 0,100; e 0,125%, resultando em um total de 0,510; 0,535; 0,560; 0,585; 0,610; e 0,635% de treonina. O desempenho produtivo e a qualidade interna dos ovos foram avaliados. Consumo de ração, produção de ovos massa de ovos e o ganho de peso foram superiores para as poedeiras semipesadas. A produção e qualidade interna dos ovos, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso não foram influenciados pelos níveis de treonina utilizados. O nível de 0,510% de treonina, que corresponde a 515 mg/ave/dia (0,423% de treonina digestível e 535 mg/ave/dia (0,440% de treonina digestível, foi suficiente para atender, satisfatoriamente, o desempenho e a qualidade interna dos ovos das poedeiras leves e semipesadas, respectivamente, para as características avaliadas.

  2. Quality and dose optimized CT trauma protocol. Recommendation from a university level-I trauma center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Johannes; Boening, Georg; Rotzinger, Roman; Freyhardt, Patrick; Streitparth, Florian [Charite School of Medicine and Univ. Hospital Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kaul, David [Charite School of Medicine and Univ. Hospital Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schwabe, Philipp [Charite School of Medicine and Univ. Hospital Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Trauma Surgery; Maurer, Martin H. [Inselspital Bern (Switzerland). Dept. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology; Renz, Diane Miriam [Univ. Hospital Jena (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-09-15

    As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods 61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50%). The CT protocol included a native acquisition of the head followed by a single contrast-enhanced acquisition of the whole body (64-MSCT). CA (350 mg/ml iodine) was administered as a split bolus injection of 100 ml (2 ml/s), 20 ml NaCl (1 ml/s), 60 ml (4 ml/s), 40 ml NaCl (4 ml/s) with a scan delay of 85s to detect injuries of both the arterial system and parenchymal organs in a single acquisition. Both the quantitative (SNR/CNR) and qualitative (5-point Likert scale) image quality was evaluated in parenchymal organs that are often injured in trauma patients. Radiation exposure was assessed. The use of IR combined with a reduction of tube voltage resulted in good qualitative and quantitative image quality and a significant reduction in radiation exposure of more than 40% (DLP 1087 vs. 647 mGy x cm). Image quality could be improved due to a dedicated protocol that included different levels of IR adapted to different slice thicknesses, kernels and the examined area for the evaluation of head, lung, body and bone injury patterns. In synopsis of our results, we recommend the implementation of a polytrauma protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp and the following IR levels: cCT 5mm: ASIR 20; cCT 0.625 mm: ASIR 40; lung 2.5 mm: ASIR 30, body 5 mm: ASIR 40; body 1.25 mm: ASIR 50; body 0.625 mm: ASIR 0. A dedicated adaptation of the CT trauma protocol (level of reduction of tube voltage and of IR) according to the examined body region (head, lung, body, bone) combined with a

  3. Quality and dose optimized CT trauma protocol. Recommendation from a university level-I trauma center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, Johannes; Boening, Georg; Rotzinger, Roman; Freyhardt, Patrick; Streitparth, Florian; Kaul, David; Schwabe, Philipp; Maurer, Martin H.; Renz, Diane Miriam

    2017-01-01

    As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods 61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50%). The CT protocol included a native acquisition of the head followed by a single contrast-enhanced acquisition of the whole body (64-MSCT). CA (350 mg/ml iodine) was administered as a split bolus injection of 100 ml (2 ml/s), 20 ml NaCl (1 ml/s), 60 ml (4 ml/s), 40 ml NaCl (4 ml/s) with a scan delay of 85s to detect injuries of both the arterial system and parenchymal organs in a single acquisition. Both the quantitative (SNR/CNR) and qualitative (5-point Likert scale) image quality was evaluated in parenchymal organs that are often injured in trauma patients. Radiation exposure was assessed. The use of IR combined with a reduction of tube voltage resulted in good qualitative and quantitative image quality and a significant reduction in radiation exposure of more than 40% (DLP 1087 vs. 647 mGy x cm). Image quality could be improved due to a dedicated protocol that included different levels of IR adapted to different slice thicknesses, kernels and the examined area for the evaluation of head, lung, body and bone injury patterns. In synopsis of our results, we recommend the implementation of a polytrauma protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp and the following IR levels: cCT 5mm: ASIR 20; cCT 0.625 mm: ASIR 40; lung 2.5 mm: ASIR 30, body 5 mm: ASIR 40; body 1.25 mm: ASIR 50; body 0.625 mm: ASIR 0. A dedicated adaptation of the CT trauma protocol (level of reduction of tube voltage and of IR) according to the examined body region (head, lung, body, bone) combined with a

  4. Efecto de la restitución temprana de la nutrición oral en la pancreatitis aguda leve

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Sandoval, Carlos Andres; Isaza Restrepo, Andres; Moscoso Daza, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Aunque el manejo nutricional de los pacientes con Pancreatitis Aguda Severa ha sido bien establecido por la evidencia disponible, el inicio de la vía oral en Pancreatitis Leve no ha sido igualmente estudiado. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto del inicio temprano de la nutrición por vía oral en estos pacientes. Métodos: Realizamos un descriptivo serie de comparación de casos en los cuales comparamos la evolución y resultados del manejo de los pacientes con pancreatitis aguda ant...

  5. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  6. Concreto leve com pérolas de EPS: estudo de dosagens e de características mecânicas

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Pereira Moreira Ozório

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o comportamento do concreto leve com pérolas de poliestireno expandido (expanded polystyrene – EPS), para posterior utilização em estruturas pré-moldadas constituídas, por exemplo, por painéis de paredes e lajes sujeitas a ações mecânicas. Também foram considerados parâmetros de durabilidade e mecanismos de redução da porosidade. Dentre um universo de solicitações a que as estruturas de concreto leve podem estar submetidas, analisaram-se, para d...

  7. Aplicación de técnicas quimiométricas para clasificar la calidad de agua superficial de la microcuenca del río Bermúdez en Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investigativo presenta la aplicación de técnicas quimiométricas seleccionadas: análisis de cluster, análisis de componentes principales y análisis de factores, para clasificar la calidad del agua de los ríos y evaluar datos de contaminación.Se monitoreó 14 parámetros fisicoquímicos en 10 estaciones localizadas en la microcuenca del río Bermúdez de agosto de 2005 a febrero de 2007. Los resultados permitieron determinar la existencia de dos clusters naturales de sitios de monitoreo con características similares de contaminación e identificar la DQO, DBO, NO3-, SO4-2 y SST, como las principales variables que discriminan entre los sitios de muestreo.

  8. Rice husk derived waste materials as partial cement replacement in lightweight concrete Utilização de resíduos derivados da casca de arroz como substitutos parciais do cimento no concreto leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Yoji Kawabata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study rice husk ash (RHA and broiler bed ash from rice husk (BBA, two agricultural waste materials, have been assessed for use as partial cement replacement materials for application in lightweight concrete. Physical and chemical characteristics of RHA and BBA were first analyzed. Three similar types of lightweight concrete were produced, a control type in which the binder was just CEMI cement (CTL and two other types with 10% cement replacement with, respectively, RHA and BBA. All types of similar lightweight concrete were prepared to present the same workability by adjusting the amount of superplasticizer. Properties of concrete investigated were compressive and flexural strength at different ages, absorption by capillarity, resistivity and resistance to chloride ion penetration (CTH method and accelerated carbonation. Test results obtained for 10% cement replacement level in lightweight concrete indicate that although the addition of BBA conducted to lower performance in terms of the degradation indicative tests, RHA led to the enhancement of mechanical properties, especially early strength and also fast ageing related results, further contributing to sustainable construction with energy saver lightweight concrete.Neste trabalho, cinzas de casca de arroz (RHA e cinzas de cama de frango (BBA, dois resíduos agrícolas, foram avaliadas para uso como substitutos parciais do cimento para produção de concreto leve. Características físicas e químicas de RHA e BBA foram analisadas. Três tipos semelhantes de concreto leve foram produzidos, um controle em que o ligante era totalmente cimento CEM I (CTL e dois outros tipos de concreto, com substituição de 10% com RHA e BBA, respectivamente. Todos os tipos de concreto leve foram feitos através do ajuste da quantidade de superplastificante para apresentarem a mesma trabalhabilidade. Propriedades de concreto investigados foram resistência à compressão e à flexão em diferentes idades

  9. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  10. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  12. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  13. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  14. Entre armas leves e a regulamentação internacional: para que lado o Brasil dirige uma política pública?

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Armando Diniz Guerra Silvestre; Flávia de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: O crescimento da atenção internacional acerca da temática relacionada a armas leves tem gerado várias ações que evidenciam esta preocupação no âmbito internacional. Diversas organizações multilaterais – como a ONU com seu Programa de Ação da ONU para Prevenir, Combater e Suprimir o Comércio Ilícito de Armas Pequenas e Armamentos Leves em Todos seus Aspectos – e não-governamentais – tendo a Caritas por exemplo, seguem registrando seu uso em diversas zonas de conflito do mundo. Entretan...

  15. Programas psicosociales de intervención cognitiva en población con signos de deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL: Revisión de efectos y eficacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima González Palau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido al incremento en el porcentaje de adultos mayores, así como de las enfermedades degenerativas, existe un creciente interés en la determinación de métodos psicosociales eficaces dirigidos a sujetos con Deterioro Cognitivo leve. Recientes estudios experimentales exponen efectos positivos de las intervenciones cognitivas dirigidas a esta población, tanto en métodos tradicionales y como en estrategias de intervención por medio de nuevas tecnologías. la presente revisión proporciona un análisis sistemático de la literatura existente en miras de valorar el efecto y los alcances de las intervenciones cognitivas no farmacológicas existentes en la actualidad, dirigidas a adultos mayores con Deterioro Cognitivo leve.

  16. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rahabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District Salt Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    142+00 to 144+00. These areas are located approximately 1,000 feet south of Rosa Parks Way and the photos show sags and sinkholes on the landside...sloughing and slides, lost sod, displaced riprap, and sinkhole development to portions of the right and left descending banks of Salt Creek. 1.4 AUTHORITY... sinkhole development. The proposed project repairs include reshaping the levee banks back to a 3:1 slope and replacing lost bank material with compacted

  17. Evaluación de la conducta vocacional de estudiantes con discapacidad intelectual leve en etapa de transición escuela-empleo

    OpenAIRE

    Labrín Díaz, Paula

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la construcción de instrumentos (inexistentes) que permitan evaluar los indicadores de la conducta vocacional en estudiantes con discapacidad intelectual leve que asisten al nivel laboral en centros de educación especial chilenos. Los indicadores que se consideran, acordes con los planteamientos de Rivas , son los siguientes : Historial personal, intereses vocacionales, factores de personalidad , habilidades y destrezas y estilos de aprendizaje. Los par...

  18. A Case Study of Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis of Building Levees to Mitigate the Joint Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR will magnify the impacts of storm surge; the resulting severe flooding and inundation can cause huge damage to coastal communities. Community leaders are considering implementing adaptation strategies, typically hard engineering projects, to protect coastal assets and resources. It is important to understand the costs and benefits of the proposed project before any decision is made. To mitigate the flooding impact of joint effects of storm surge and SLR, building levee segments is chosen to be a corresponding adaptation strategy to protect the real estate assets in the study area—the City of Miami, FL, USA. This paper uses the classic Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA to assess the cost efficiency and proposes corresponding improvements in the benefit estimation, by estimating the avoided damages of implementing levee projects. Results show that the city will benefit from implementing levee projects along the Miami River in both a one-time 10 year storm event with SLR and cumulative long-term damage scenarios. This study also suggests that conducting CBA is a critical process before making coastal adaptation planning investment. A more meaningful result of cost effectiveness is estimated by accounting for the appreciation and time value. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify how the choice of discount rate influences the result. Uncertain factors including the rate of SLR, storm intensification, land use changes, and real estate appreciation are further analyzed.

  19. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants

  20. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  1. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  2. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  3. Mild cognitive impairment: cognitive screening or neuropsychological assessment? Comprometimento cognitivo leve: rastreio cognitivo ou avaliação neuropsicológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the neuropsychological profile of mild cognitive impairment subtypes (amnestic, non-amnestic and multiple-domain of a clinical sample. We further address the diagnostic properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the identification of the different mild cognitive impairment subtypes in clinical practice. METHOD: Cross-sectional clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of 249 elderly patients attending a memory clinic at a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: The performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment was heterogeneous across the different subtests of the neuropsychological battery, with a trend towards an overall worse performance for amnestic (particularly multiple domain mild cognitive impairment as compared to non-amnestic subtypes. Screening tests for dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination adequately discriminated cases of mild Alzheimer's disease from controls, but they were not accurate to discriminate patients with mild cognitive impairment (all subtypes from control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination of mild cognitive impairment subtypes was possible only with the aid of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. It is necessary to develop new strategies for mild cognitive impairment screening in clinical practice.OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil neuropsicológico dos subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve, amnéstico, não-amnéstico e múltiplos domínios, de uma amostra clínica. Além disto, avaliou-se as propriedades diagnósticas do Mini-exame do Estado Mental e do Cambridge Cognitive Examination na identificação dos diferentes subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve na prática clínica. MÉTODO: Avaliação clínica e neuropsicológica transversal de 249 idosos em uma clínica de memória de um hospital universitário em São Paulo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Testes de rastreio para

  4. Prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo leve en mayores institucionalizados Prevalencia of the mild cognitive impairment in institutionalized elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Vallejo Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: el concepto de deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL define un estado previo en el declinar cognitivo hacia la demencia, donde se observan cambios cognitivos identificables mediante una adecuada evaluación clínica y neuropsicológica. Nuestro objetivo es conocer la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo leve en la Residencia José Matía Calvo. Método: estudio observacional descriptivo transversal de los residentes institucionalizados con ausencia de patología neurológica o deterioro cognitivo severo de la Residencia de Mayores José Matía Calvo de Cádiz. Se cribó a los sujetos con el mini examen cognoscitivo en la versión de Lobo durante enero de 2008, obteniéndose una muestra de la que se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas y de control (estado cognitivo. Resultados: se desprende que la prevalencia de DCL en los ancianos institucionalizados en nuestro centro es del 27%, cifra más elevada que la aportada como media por algunos autores para la población general (15%-20%, pero menor que la establecida en otras residencias de mayores, que oscilan entre el 38,7% y el 44%. Conclusiones: el aumento constatado de la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo en la población mayor y su repercusión en el nivel de independencia y calidad de vida de los mayores institucionalizados justifica la necesidad de identificar precozmente tal alteración para iniciar, lo antes posible, programas de intervención dirigidos a retrasar la dependencia, potenciar las capacidades residuales y mejorar la calidad de vida de estos ancianos.Introduction and objetive: the concept of Mild cognitive impairment defines a previous state in to decline cognitive towards the dementia, where are observed cognitive identifiable changes by means of a suitable clinical and evaluation and neuropsycological. To know the prevalencia of the cognitive slight deterioration in our center. Methods: observacional, descriptively and transversely study of the residents

  5. The impact of foundation conditions on the design and construction of the Snake Lake Reservoir dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    Unique aspects of the design and construction of two small dams for the Snake Lake Reservoir Project and some of the lessons learned in the process are described. The outstanding feature of this project was that although relatively close together and in the same post-glacial channel, the foundations of the two dams were quite different. The West Dam had permeable silt, sand and gravel with deep bedrock, while the East Dam had impermeable high plastic clay and shallow bedrock as foundation. The challenge to the design was to develop a cross section that would work for both foundation conditions. The final design turned out to be an impermeable fill with toe berms accommodating the variability in the foundations. Instrumentation was used to determine when the second construction stage should commence. At the end of the construction, the reservoir was partially filled relying on the instrumentation to suggest when that would be safe enough to proceed without impacting the overall embankment stability. In the event, the West Dam foundation soils proved to be several orders of magnitude higher than estimated from grain size analyses, requiring installation of a relief valve after construction was completed. Apart from that, dam construction proceeded smoothly and the instrumentation performed as expected.12 refs., 7 figs

  6. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  7. A baixa estatura leve está associada ao aumento da pressão arterial em adolescentes com sobrepeso La baja estatura leve está asociada al aumento de la presión arterial en adolescentes con sobrepeso Mild stunting is associated with higher blood pressure in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos têm demonstrado que a desnutrição pré/pós-natal leva a um maior risco de doenças não transmissíveis, como diabetes, hipertensão e obesidade na idade adulta. OBJETIVO: Determinar se os adolescentes com sobrepeso e desnutrição leve [escores-Z altura/idade (HAZ na faixa de -2] têm pressão arterial mais elevada do que os indivíduos com sobrepeso e com estatura normal (HAZ > -1. MÉTODOS: Os participantes foram classificados como de baixa estatura leve ou de estatura normal, e estratificados de acordo com os percentis de massa corporal para a idade, como sobrepeso, peso normal ou abaixo do peso. As pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD foram determinadas de acordo com as diretrizes e a gordura abdominal foi analisada por absorciometria de dupla emissão de raios-X. RESULTADOS: Indivíduos com baixa estatura leve e sobrepeso apresentaram valores mais elevados da PAD (p = 0,001 do que suas contrapartes de baixo peso (69,75 ± 12,03 e 54,46 ± 11,24 mmHg, respectivamente, mas semelhantes àqueles com IMC normal. Não foram encontradas diferenças nos valores de PAD em indivíduos normais, indivíduos com sobrepeso e com baixo peso entre os grupos de estatura normal. Foi encontrado um aumento na PAS (p = 0,01 entre os indivíduos com baixa estatura leve quando comparados os indivíduos com sobrepreso com suas contrapartes de baixo peso e IMC normal (114,70 ± 15,46, 97,38 ± 10,87 e 104,72 ± 12,24 mmHg, respectivamente. Embora não tenham sido observadas diferenças nas médias de PAS entre os grupos de baixa estatura leve e estatura normal, foi encontrado um intercepto significativo (p = 0,01, revelando maior PAS entre os indivíduos com baixa estatura leve. Houve correlação entre PAS e gordura abdominal (r = 0,42, ρ = 0,02 no grupo com baixa estatura leve. CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos de baixa estatura leve com sobrepeso apresentaram maior PAS do que os de estatura normal e sobrepeso. Esses achados

  8. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  9. Faxing Structures to the Moon: Freeform Additive Construction System (FACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Wilcox, Brian; McQuin, Christopher; Townsend, Julie; Rieber, Richard; Barmatz, Martin; Leichty, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the highly articulated All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robotic mobility system as a precision positioning tool, a variety of print head technologies can be used to 3D print large-scale in-situ structures on planetary surfaces such as the moon or Mars. In effect, in the same way CAD models can be printed in a 3D printer, large-scale structures such as walls, vaults, domes, berms, paving, trench walls, and other insitu derived elements can be FAXed to the planetary surface and built in advance of the arrival of crews, supplementing equipment and materials brought from earth. This paper discusses the ATHLETE system as a mobility / positioning platform, and presents several options for large-scale additive print head technologies, including tunable microwave "sinterator" approaches and in-situ concrete deposition. The paper also discusses potential applications, such as sintered-in-place habitat shells, radiation shielding, road paving, modular bricks, and prefabricated construction components.

  10. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  11. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  12. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  13. Caracterização de massas cerâmicas do estado de S. Paulo para produção de agregados leves para concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Santis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo a caracterização de diferentes massas cerâmicas do estado de S. Paulo para a produção de agregados leves de argila calcinada visando à utilização em concretos de cimento Portland. A caracterização das massas cerâmicas deu-se por meio das técnicas de limites de liquidez e plasticidade, análise granulométrica, análise química e difração de raios X. Os corpos de prova confeccionados com essas massas cerâmicas, queimados a 900 ºC, foram caracterizados por meio da avaliação da retração linear, absorção de água, porosidade aparente, massa específica aparente, expansão por umidade e resistência à compressão. Os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a viabilidade da produção de agregados leves de argila calcinada para utilização em concretos e os valores da massa específica (1,555 a 1,785 kg/m³ e da resistência à compressão (18,0 a 55,8 MPa apresentaram-se em um patamar intermediário entre os observados para a argila expandida (agregado leve comercial e para o agregado convencional (basalto.

  14. Levee Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  15. Levee Lines - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  16. Soldagem por ponto no estado sólido de ligas leves Solid state spot welding of lightweight alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Contri Campanelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A recente preocupação quanto às mudanças climáticas vem impulsionando pesquisas em eficiência energética dos meios de transportes no sentido de reduzir a emissão de gases. Uma das principais soluções consiste na redução do peso estrutural através da aplicação de novos materiais, como as ligas leves de alumínio e magnésio. Entretanto, novos usos ficam muitas vezes limitados pela dificuldade de união desses materiais. A técnica de soldagem por fricção e mistura (FSW é um processo de união no estado sólido que surge como uma alternativa viável para substituir ou complementar as tecnologias de união consagradas. Como uma junta contínua não é sempre a requisitada, duas tecnologias de união por ponto derivadas do FSW estão em desenvolvimento: soldagem por fricção e mistura por ponto (FSSW e soldagem por fricção por ponto (FSpW. Além de fornecerem juntas de elevada resistência e praticamente isentas de defeitos, estas técnicas apresentam alta eficiência energética, curto ciclo de soldagem, facilidade de automação e compatibilidade com o meio-ambiente, fazendo frente às técnicas convencionais de união por ponto, como a soldagem por resistência por ponto (RSW e a rebitagem.The recent concern about climate change has stimulated research into transport energy efficiency in order to reduce the emission of gases. One of the main solutions is to reduce the structural weight through the application of new materials, such as aluminum and magnesium lightweight alloys. However, new applications are often limited by the difficulty of joining these materials. Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid state joining technique that emerges as a viable alternative to replace or complement the established joining technologies. As a continuous weld is not always requested, two spot welding technologies derived from FSW are under development: Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW and Friction Spot Welding (FSpW. Besides providing

  17. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial leve

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Vinaccia; Japcy Margarita Quiceno; Ángela Gómez; Lina Marcela Montoya

    2007-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar las dimensiones de la calidad de vida relacionadas con la salud en 282 pacientes con hipertensión arterial leve de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Se utilizó el Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida en Hipertensión Arterial (CHAL). Los resultados evidenciaron un cierto deterioro en la calidad de vida de estos pacientes en lo que concierne al estado de ánimo y principalmente en sus manifestaciones somáticas.

  18. Evaluación del bienestar psicológico y estrategias de afrontamiento en padres con niños o adolescentes con retraso mental leve

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Analía; Bastida, Marisa; Quiroga, Adriana; Charra, Salomé; Leiva, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Tener un hijo con discapacidad intelectual supone una fuente de conflictos tanto para la dinámica familiar como para los propios adolescentes. Es probable que la familia tenga que reestructurarse para afrontar los niveles de estrés que puedan influir sobre el bienestar de sus miembros. Esta investigación evalúa el bienestar psicológico de los padres con un niño y/o adolescente entre 9 y 14 años con retraso mental leve, estrategias de afrontamiento y posibles relaciones entre estas variables. ...

  19. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  20. Rehabilitación por el ejercicio de la escoliosis idiopática leve en niños y adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoncelli, María Laura

    2013-01-01

    La Sociedad Internacional para el Estudio de la Escoliosis (Scoliosis Research Society) la define como "una curvatura lateral de la columna con rotación de las vértebras dentro de la curva". La escoliosis idiopática es una patología de origen multifactorial que causa una alteración en la postura corporal. La indicación de diferentes técnicas de gimnasia postural ha sido una práctica habitual como parte del tratamiento conservador de la escoliosis idiopática leve(EIL) en niños y adolescente...

  1. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  2. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  3. Resultados preliminares do tratamento dos pacientes submetidos a radiofreqüência (baixa freqüência, somnoplastia no ronco e apnéia leve do sono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibbern Ralph S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O ronco afeta 5 a 50% da população tornando-se um problema médico e social importante. O tratamento pode ser com medidas comportamentais, CPAP e cirúrgico. Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados pós-operatórios dos pacientes submetidos à radiofreqüência em palato. Forma de estudo: retrospectivo clínico. Material e método: 28 pacientes submetidos à radio-freqüência em palato, com diagnóstico de Ronco e Apnéia Leve do Sono. Observamos os resultados pós-operatórios através das Escalas de Epworth, Ronco e Sonolência diurna, complicações e percentual de melhora dos sintomas. A análise estatística foi pelo Mann Whytney Test. Resultados: 16 pacientes com melhora subjetiva do Ronco acima de 70% após a cirurgia; 26 pacientes mostraram redução significativa pelas Escalas, com complicações mínimas. Conclusão: Radio-freqüência é um método seguro e eficaz no tratamento do Ronco e Apnéia Leve do Sono. Resultados melhores serão obtidos com avaliação criteriosa pré e pós-operatórias.

  4. Aplicación de nuevas tecnologías en personas mayores con trastorno cognitivo leve-moderado desde la Terapia Ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Rodríguez Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión bibliográfica pretende ofrecer una visión de las posibilidades que ofrecen las nuevas tecnologías a personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo leve-moderado para retardar o frenar los síntomas de deterioro cognitivo. Actualmente, las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación tienen mucho protagonismo y se han convertido en una herramienta con mucho potencial para este tipo de personas. Para ello, se han  analizado una serie de estudios sobre el uso de las nuevas tecnologías en personas mayores con trastornos cognitivos con el fin de ofrecer una visión más clara sobre los datos obtenidos hasta el día de hoy respecto a este campo de investigación en Terapia Ocupacional. Se seleccionaron un total de 204 artículos, tras un proceso de duplicación y tras pasar diferentes herramientas de calidad, quedaron un total de 7 artículos. Los resultados encontrados indican que las nuevas tecnologías contribuyen a disminuir algunos síntomas asociados a la enfermedad, como la ansiedad y la depresión, mejorando además ciertas funciones cognitivas en personas que tienen un deterioro cognitivo leve-moderado, siendo importante combinarlas con las terapias tradicionales.

  5. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  6. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  7. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Materials for Additive Construction: Applications on Earth, the Moon, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Erick; Edmunson, Jennifer; Fiske, Michael; Christiansen, Eric; Miller, Josh; Davis, Bruce Alan; Read, Jon; Johnston, Mallory; Fikes, John

    2017-01-01

    Additive Construction is the process of building infrastructure such as habitats, garages, roads, berms, etcetera layer by layer (3D printing). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are pursuing additive construction to build structures using resources available in-situ. Using materials available in-situ reduces the cost of planetary missions and operations in theater. The NASA team is investigating multiple binders that can be produced on planetary surfaces, including the magnesium oxide-based Sorel cement; the components required to make Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), the common cement used on Earth, have been found on Mars. The availability of OPC-based concrete on Earth drove the USACE to pursue additive construction for base housing and barriers for military operations. Planetary and military base structures must be capable of resisting micrometeoroid impacts with velocities ranging from 11 to 72km/s for particle sizes 200 micrometers or more (depending on protection requirements) as well as bullets and shrapnel with a velocity of 1.036km/s with projectiles 5.66mm diameter and 57.40mm in length, respectively.

  8. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  9. Entre armas leves e a regulamentação internacional: para que lado o Brasil dirige uma política pública?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Armando Diniz Guerra Silvestre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O crescimento da atenção internacional acerca da temática relacionada a armas leves tem gerado várias ações que evidenciam esta preocupação no âmbito internacional. Diversas organizações multilaterais – como a ONU com seu Programa de Ação da ONU para Prevenir, Combater e Suprimir o Comércio Ilícito de Armas Pequenas e Armamentos Leves em Todos seus Aspectos – e não-governamentais – tendo a Caritas por exemplo, seguem registrando seu uso em diversas zonas de conflito do mundo. Entretanto, sua regulamentação no Direito Internacional Humanitário é esparsa, o que convém, sobretudo, aos fabricantes de armas. A Indústria de Defesa, como se apresenta na literatura do tema, tem sido incentivada indiscriminadamente no Brasil. Segundo o Small Arms Trade Survey, o país figura na quarta posição mundial em vendas de armas leves atrás somente de Estados Unidos, Itália e Alemanha. Por sua vez, o Ministério do Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Exterior (MDIC afirma que houve crescimento de 500% no valor de exportações deste setor, que passaram de US$ 109,6 milhões em 2005 para US$ 321,6 milhões em 2010, considerando somente as armas de fogo. Contudo, este não é um dado surpreendente, pois o incentivo a esta indústria aparece na Estratégia Nacional de Defesa de 2008. Esta pesquisa, realizada sob abordagem qualitativa e de acordo com o método indutivo com caráter prospectivo, segundo a técnica de pesquisa de análise de conteúdo jurídico-documental, apresenta a seguinte hipótese: que o desenvolvimento à indústria de Defesa tem sido fator a impedir a adoção medidas jurídicas mais enérgicas para o tratamento da regulamentação de armas convencionais, ainda que o Brasil seja signatário de alguns tratados sobre o tema.

  10. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  11. Tecnologias leves em saúde e sua relação com o cuidado de enfermagem hospitalar Tecnologías leves en salud y su relación con el cuidado de enfermería hospitalaria Light technologies in health and its relation with the hospital nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Conceição da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objeto da pesquisa foi a incorporação de tecnologias leves no contexto hospitalar, na ótica de enfermeiras, e sua relação com o cuidado de enfermagem. Objetivos: caracterizar as tecnologias consideradas leves no hospital, na ótica de enfermeiras, e analisar as concepções de enfermeiras sobre o uso dessas tecnologias no cuidado de enfermagem. Fundamentou-se na classificação dos diferentes tipos de tecnologias no trabalho em saúde e em pressupostos sobre o cuidado de enfermagem. Pesquisa exploratória, qualitativo-descritiva, desenvolvida em dois hospitais universitários na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram coletados através da técnica de criatividade e sensibilidade "Almanaque", conjugada à entrevista semi-estruturada. Do discurso das enfermeiras emergiram tecnologias fundamentadas em suas experiências de cuidado. Suas concepções sobre tecnologias leves revelaram o que teoristas de enfermagem referem como atributos da relação humana no cuidado. Essas, quando discutidas no âmbito do cuidado de enfermagem, emergem como qualidades do cuidado em si.El objeto de la investigación fue la incorporación de tecnologías leves en hospitales, desde la perspectiva de las enfermeras y las relaciones establecidas con el cuidado de enfermería. Objetivos: caracterizar las tecnologías consideradas leves en el hospital, desde la perspectiva de las enfermeras; y analizar las concepciones de las enfermeras sobre el uso de estas tecnologías en el cuidado de enfermería. El estudio se fundamentó en la clasificación de diferentes tipos de tecnologías aplicadas en el área de la salud y en presuposiciones sobre el cuidado de enfermería. Investigación exploratoria, cualitativa y descriptiva, desarrollada en dos hospitales universitarios de la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de dos técnicas: creatividad y sensibilidad, denominada "Almanaque," y entrevista semi-estructurada. De los discursos de las

  12. Comparison of evacuation methods used in the Netherlands and the USACE Dam and Levee Safety Programs for the Natomas Basin (CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolen B. (Bas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in the USA and in the Netherlands, extensive studies on approaches for identifying flood risks (the combination of levee failure probabilities and consequences are ongoing. A related topic concerns evacuation and emergency management (EEM. The magnitude of life loss is directly influenced by the effectiveness of EEM. Different models can be used to define the effectiveness of evacuation. The main objective of this study is to compare Dutch and American methods for evacuation as part of flood risk management strategies for a number of case studies in the US. A second, additional objective is to explore how approaches for EEM that have been recently developed in the Netherlands, can be applied in the United States. This research shows the benefits and limitations for the application of different types of models. This research contributes to the improvement of methods for emergency management, in the Netherlands, the US and other countries.

  13. Deterioro cognitivo leve: Encuesta sobre actitudes de médicos especialistas y generalistas Mild cognitive impairment: Survey of attitudes of specialists and general physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M. Serrano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available El deterioro cognitivo leve es una entidad caracterizada por el compromiso predominante de la memoria en ausencia de trastorno funcional. Ha sido asociado a un período predemencial de la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Sin embargo, se considera que otras áreas cognitivas pueden verse afectadas, pudiendo implicar también otras etiologías. Así, algunos profesionales lo consideran un término etiológico, dirigido hacia la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otros un complejo sindromático, incluyendo varias enfermedades. Otro factor agregado que generó confusión ha sido el porcentaje de conversión a demencia. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar la opinión médica sobre el deterioro cognitivo leve y los problemas que genera en la práctica diaria. Se adaptó el cuestionario sobre deterioro cognitivo leve de Dubois y col, 2003; 24 médicos expertos en demencia de Argentina y Brasil (16 neurólogos y 8 psiquiatras y 30 médicos generalistas aceptaron responder al mismo. Los resultados muestran que el 92% de los médicos expertos piensa que es una entidad heterogénea, no la limitan a un estadio predemencia de la enfermedad de Alzheimer; y el 63% refieren que puede empeorar. El 83% de los expertos inician tratamiento específico utilizando preferentemente anticolinesterásicos, memantine y vitamina E. La vasta mayoría de médicos considera al deterioro cognitivo leve como una entidad sindromática, que no está limitada a la enfermedad de Alzheimer; pero sin embargo, inicia tratamiento con drogas dirigidas hacia ella. La ambigüedad existente hace necesario estandarizar definiciones y reconceptualizar la enfermedad de Alzheimer en su estadio pre-demencia.Mild cognitive impairment (MCI refers to persons who are slightly cognitively impaired for age but do not meet the criteria for dementia. MCI has been related to a pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer&'s disease (AD. However, other possible diagnoses such as cerebro-vascular disease, frontotemporal

  14. Solução concentrada de albumina eqüina na fluidoterapia em eqüinos com desidratação leve a moderada

    OpenAIRE

    Belli,C.B.; Michima,L.E.S.; Latorre,S.M.; Fernandes,W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da solução concentrada de albumina eqüina diluída a 5% em solução fisiológica (SF) durante fluidoterapia em eqüinos, após indução de desidratação leve a moderada, utilizando-se cinco eqüinos adultos, sem alterações clínicas. Cada animal passou por dois protocolos de fluidoterapia: apenas com SF (metade sob pressão e metade em fluxo contínuo - grupo-controle); com solução de albumina eqüina e SF (apenas em fluxo contínuo - grupo experimental). Avaliaram-se peso, exame físic...

  15. El trabajo preventivo en alumnos con retraso mental leve que no cumplen con sus deberes escolares, mediante el uso del psicodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Matos Sarmiento

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo consta de acciones encaminadas a la preparación de los docentes para mejorar el trabajo preventivo en alumnos con retraso mental leve que no cumplen con sus deberes escolares y que además constituyen un grupo muy heterogéneo. Para realizar este trabajo, se tuvieron en cuenta: Métodos Empíricos y Teóricos, Principios de la Educación Especial, las ideas de hombres célebres como: Martí, Fidel, Vigotsky y otros, lo que permitió ofrecer procedimientos metodológicos ordenados, con acciones concretas para resolver el problema de la socialización de estos alumnos .

  16. Anemia crônica e glomerulopatia secundárias à Doença de Depósito das Cadeias Leves Chronic anemia and glomerulopathy secondary to Light-chain Deposition Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala P. Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 65 anos de idade, internada com anemia de longa evolução que se associou posteriormente a uma glomerulopatia manifestada por proteinúria, cilindrúria e perda de função renal. As cadeias leves no plasma e na urina estavam elevadas, sobretudo a fração kappa e uma biópsia renal estudada por imunofluorescência e microscopia eletrônica confirmou o diagnóstico de Doença de Depósito das Cadeias Leves. A nefropatia de cadeia leve ocorre pela superprodução de cadeia leve de imunoglobulina produzida por linfócitos B com deposição nas membranas tubulares e no glomérulo.The authors present a case of a 65-year-old female patient, with chronic anemia associated with glomerulopathy manifested as proteinuria, cylindruria and renal failure. There were high serum and urinary levels of light chains and the diagnosis was performed by renal biopsy, examined using immunofluorescence and by electron microscopy that showed light chain paraproteins. Nephropathy of light-chain deposition disease occurs due to an over-production of light chains from immunoglobulins produced by B lymphocytes with a deposit in tubular and glomerular membranes.

  17. Uso de agregado leve de EVA em contrapiso argamassado para isolamento ao ruído de impacto em edificações residenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Fonseca Tutikian

    Full Text Available Resumo O copolímero etileno acetato de vinila (EVA é largamente utilizado na indústria calçadista. Entretanto, a geração de resíduos no processo de fabricação é bastante significativa. Com a implementação da norma de desempenho, NBR 15575, os projetos de construções habitacionais devem atender aos níveis de desempenho exigidos. Dentre os requisitos prescritos pela norma está a isolação ao ruído de impacto entre pisos, a qual pode ser otimizada com a utilização de materiais de baixa massa específica. Nesse contexto, este artigo visa desenvolver uma argamassa leve, a partir da incorporação de EVA proveniente da indústria calçadista, a ser utilizada como contrapiso para isolamento acústico. Para tanto, fez-se um estudo por meio de ensaios de resistência à compressão e à tração, bem como nível de pressão sonora de impacto padronizado ponderado, realizado em câmara normatizada. Foram desenvolvidos cinco traços, com proporções de 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% de substituição da agregado miúdo por EVA, além do contrapiso convencional. Foram moldadas placas de 1 m2 de contrapiso leve, e uma amostra representativa do tamanho da laje com 16 m2, as quais diferiram em 2 dB para o isolamento acústico. O traço com melhor desempenho proporcionou uma redução de 9 dB em relação ao contrapiso convencional, mostrando ser eficaz para utilização como isolante acústico.

  18. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  19. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  20. Costs of berm and causeway alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments initiated in February 1985 and still in progress have demonstrated that removal of 30 cm of topsoil brings the specific activity of Bikini Island soil down to the level of that on Eneu and reduces the external exposure rate to gamma rays from an average of 68 pr/h to 5 pr/h. The analytical data completed thus far for food crops grown in the experimental and control areas indicate a parallel response. During 1986 results became available showing that removal of topsoil would also limit productivity. However, it is now known that with adequate care the excavated plot can be as productive as the unexcavated (natural) one. The removal of 30 cm (1 foot) of topsoil at Bikini Island would produce large amounts of waste vegetable matter and approximately 719,000 cubic meters of contaminated topsoil. Three principal alternatives have been considered for the disposal of the spoil. The cost estimates for these and other rehabilitation alternatives were developed in detail by a panel of engineers, chaired by BARC member Arthur S. Kubo, which met in January 1986. The panel's report constitutes Appendix C of BARC Report No. 4

  1. Evaluating Sediment Mobility for Siting Nearshore Berms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    placement of dredged sediment that may contain more fine silts and clays than are allowed for placement directly on the beach. The United States Army...used in the density and viscosity calculations. For this technical note an example study site is selected and the sediment mobility indexes are...acceleration due to gravity, sρ is the sediment density, ρ is the water density, v is the kinematic viscosity of water, crθ is the Shields

  2. Costs of berm and causeway alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States); [BDM Corporation, McLean, VA (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Experiments initiated in February 1985 and still in progress have demonstrated that removal of 30 cm of topsoil brings the specific activity of Bikini Island soil down to the level of that on Eneu and reduces the external exposure rate to gamma rays from an average of 68 pr/h to 5 pr/h. The analytical data completed thus far for food crops grown in the experimental and control areas indicate a parallel response. During 1986 results became available showing that removal of topsoil would also limit productivity. However, it is now known that with adequate care the excavated plot can be as productive as the unexcavated (natural) one. The removal of 30 cm (1 foot) of topsoil at Bikini Island would produce large amounts of waste vegetable matter and approximately 719,000 cubic meters of contaminated topsoil. Three principal alternatives have been considered for the disposal of the spoil. The cost estimates for these and other rehabilitation alternatives were developed in detail by a panel of engineers, chaired by BARC member Arthur S. Kubo, which met in January 1986. The panel's report constitutes Appendix C of BARC Report No. 4.

  3. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease Demência e transtorno cognitivo leve em pacientes com doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the occurrence of cognitive impairment in 32 individuals (average age: 67.2 years old with Parkinson' disease (PD. Procedures: clinical-neurological assessment; modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale (HYS; standard neuropsychological battery of CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer' Disease; Pfeffer questionnaire; and Clinical Dementia Rating. A comparison was made with a control group (CG, consisting of 26 individuals with similar age and educational level but without cognitive impairment. The PD patients showed an inferior performance in the CERAD battery when compared to the CG. Three PD sub-groups were characterised according to cognition: no cognitive impairment - 15 cases; mild cognitive impairment - 10; dementia - 7 cases. There was a significant association between motor disability (HYS and the occurrence of dementia. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment frequently occur in PD patients and should be investigated in a routine way.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a ocorrência de déficits cognitivos em 32 indivíduos (idade média: 67,2 anos com doença de Parkinson (DP. Procedimentos: avaliação clínico-neurológica, escala de Hoehn and Yahr modificada (EHY, bateria neurospicológica do CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer' Disease, questionário de Pfeffer e escore clínico da demência (Clinical Dementia Rating. Foi feita comparação com grupo controle (GC de 26 indivíduos sem declínio cognitivo, com idade e nível educacional similares. Os pacientes com DP tiveram desempenho inferior na bateria CERAD, quando comparados ao do GC. Foram caracterizados 3 subgrupos com PD segundo a cognição: sem déficits cognitivos - 15 casos; transtorno cognitivo leve - 10; demência - 7 casos. Houve associação entre comprometimento motor e ocorrência de demência. Demência e transtorno cognitivo leve são freqüentes em pacientes com DP e devem ser

  4. Pancreatite aguda leve: avaliação pela ultra-sonografia. estudo prospectivo Mild acute pancreatitis: ultrasound evaluation: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martins Machado

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste estudo foram avaliados, por meio da ultra-sonografia, 21 pacientes com pancreatite aguda leve. Foram analisadas a presença ou ausência de hipoecogenicidade do pâncreas e a presença ou ausência de líquido peripancreático. Em 19 pacientes (90,5% foi identificada hipoecogenicidade pancreática, e em três (15,8% destes pacientes foi identificada a presença de pequena quantidade de líquido na pequena cavidade dos epíploons. Em dois pacientes (9,5% não se identificou qualquer alteração pancreática. Com relação à possível etiologia da pancreatite aguda, em 15 pacientes (71,5% pôde-se demonstrar a presença de colecistopatia calculosa, em quatro pacientes (19,0% havia história de alcoolismo crônico e não foram identificados cálculos na vesícula biliar, e em dois pacientes (9,5% não foi identificada qualquer causa aparente. Os autores concluem que a ultra-sonografia pode identificar alteração na maioria dos pacientes com pancreatite aguda leve e permite, ainda, o acompanhamento daqueles com pequenas coleções líquidas peripancreáticas.We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 21 patients with mild acute pancreatitis. The presence or absence of pancreatic hypoechogenicity and peripancreatic fluid collection was assessed. Pancreatic hypoechogenicity was identified in 19 patients (90.5% whereas small sac fluid collection was identified in 3 (15.8% of these patients. No abnormality was seen in 2 patients (9.5%. Regarding the etiology of acute pancreatitis, cholelithiasis was identified in 15 patients (71.5%, alcohol abuse was identified in 4 patients (19.0%, and in 2 patients (9.5% no probable etiology could be found. The authors conclude that ultrasonography may identify abnormalities in the majority of patients with mild acute pancreatitis and can be used to assess patients with peripancreatic fluid collections.

  5. Algoritmo de manejo del trauma craneoencefálico leve: Una necesidad social en Cuba Algorism for mild craneo - encephalic trauma management social necessity in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Varela Hernández

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El tema del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve ha sido poco estudiado es Cuba por lo que se presenta este artículo con el objetivo de demostrar la necesidad social de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos pacientes que se adapte al contexto social cubano. Se ofrecen conceptos actualizados sobre la importancia de la ciencia y la tecnología en la sociedad moderna y se aborda la significación de la innovación tecnológica para el desarrollo de la tecnociencia en Cuba. Se trata, basado en una epistemología compleja, las relaciones que se establecen entre el desarrollo social y los servicios de salud, así como entre la evolución de la tecnociencia y el trauma craneoencefálico. Se argumenta la relevancia social del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve tanto a nivel mundial como local, así como el impacto favorable de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos enfermos, realizado sobre una base científica, el cual permite un empleo óptimo y racional de las tecnologías imagenológicas de avanzada con que se cuenta.The topic about mild cranium-encephalic traumatism has been little studied in Cuba, that is why this article is presented with the objective to demonstrate the social necessity to apply an algorism for these patient's handling adapted to the Cuban social context. The article offers present-day concepts about the importance of science and technology in modern society and the significance of the technological innovation in the development of the techno-science in Cuba. The relationships between the social development and health services, as well as between the evolution of the techno-science and the cranium-encephalic trauma is treated, based on a complex apistemiology. The article argues the social relevance of the mild cranium-encephalic traumatism in the world and in the country, and the favourable impact of the application of an algorism of these sick persons' handling, carried out upon a scientific base which

  6. Obtenção de cermet por tecnologia do pó a partir da utilização da cinza leve proveniente da queima do carvão mineral em termoelétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Brogni

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho busca produzir cermet (Cinza-Fe) pela tecnologia do pó utilizando cinza leve produzida com a queima do carvão mineral em termoelétrica para uma possível utilização e aplicação na usinagem. Esse estudo tem como objetivo específico caracterizar e analisar as propriedades mecânicas e metalúrgicas das amostras obtidas a partir das misturas. Utilizouse o ferro como componente da mistura em função do baixo custo e vasta disponibilidade. Após a obtenção da cinza leve, determinou-se o t...

  7. O desempenho de idosos com e sem Declínio Cognitivo Leve nos Testes Wisconsin de Classificação de Cartas e Iowa Gambling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner, Gabriela Peretti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes sugerem a existência de disfunções executivas no Declinio Cognitivo Leve (DCL, além das de memória. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de disfunções executivas em pacientes com DCL. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Teste Wisconsin de Classificação de Cartas (WCST e o Iowa Gambling Test (IGT. Foram estudados dez pacientes com e 27 sem DCL. Os dados foram analisados através do teste t de Student para amostras independentes e da análise de variância (ANOVA para medidas repetidas. Os resultados não evidenciaram diferença significativa entre os grupos nos índices de respostas do WCST e no número de cartas retiradas de cada baralho no IGT. O estudo da evolução do desemoenho no IGT revelou diferença qualitativa entre os grupos. Idosos sem DCL, aprendem ao longo da tarefa, enquanto idososcom DCL não o fazem, sugerindo uma interferência dos sistemas de memória na tomada de decisão

  8. Experimental Salmonella Gallinarum infection in light laying hen lines Infecção experimental por Salmonella Gallinarum de aves leves de postura comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Berchieri Júnior

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the epidemiology of fowl typhoid in chickens supposedly involves a vertical transmission stage, a previous work run by the authors has suggested that this did not happen in a commercial line of laying hens highly susceptible to systemic disease with Salmonella Gallinarum. A new experiment was carried out in two other lines of commercial layers, considerably more resistant than those used in the previous study. Clinical fowl typhoid was not observed, but Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from the spleen and liver four weeks after infection and, sporadically, from the ovary.Estudo anterior, realizado pelos mesmos autores com aves consideradas susceptíveis ao agente do tifo aviário, sugeriu que a relação entre a bactéria e a aves restringe-se ao período da enfermidade. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a relação hospedeiro-parasita entre Salmonella Gallinarum e aves leves de postura comercial, consideradas mais resistentes ao tifo aviário. As aves não desenvolveram a doença clínica, mas a bactéria foi isolada do baço e do fígado quatro semanas após a infecção e, em algumas ocasiões, também do ovário.

  9. Desenvolvimento de argamassas microporosas para a construção civil Development of microporous mortar for the civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Coimbra

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho consistiu na obtenção e estudo de uma argamassa de peso leve para o uso na construção civil através da adição combinada, de aditivos formadores de microporosidade, mais a utilização de cargas que incorporam resíduos industriais. A técnica vem sendo recentemente apontada como uma promissora alternativa para a construção de estruturas leves, onde o compromisso da resistência mecânica aliada às ações ambientais, tais como degradações físico-químicas provocadas por intemperismo, não representam pré-requisitos básicos da construção civil, que possam impedir a utilização de argamassas de baixa densidade, com micro porosidade controlada. Assim sendo, esse trabalho utilizou aditivos adequados para a formação de bolhas estáveis, e quando necessário, agentes promotores de resistência mecânica, tais que puderam compensar perdas de resistência devido a presença excessiva das bolhas. A avaliação da influência dos aditivos, bem como do método de preparação das argamassas leves que incluem o mecanismo de mistura, o desenvolvimento microestrutural e propriedades são correlacionados, visando a obtenção de uma composição adequada que possa ser utilizada na fabricação de estruturas leves.The purpose of that work was to obtain a lightweight mortar for use in the civil construction through the combined addition of micropore chemical formers and industrial residues. Recently, the lightweight mortar technique has been pointed out as an alternative for the construction of light structures, where the commitment of the mechanical resistance associated with the climate actions, such as physical-chemical degradation caused by environmental actions, do not represent basic requirements for civil construction that could restrain the use of low density mortar, with micropore controlled structure. The work analysed the influence of additives adapted for the formation of stable bubbles, and in some cases, the use of

  10. A construction process model for implementing constructability in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langkemper, J.; Al-Jibouri, S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Maas, G.J.; Gassel, van F.

    2003-01-01

    In construction, failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, cost escalation, delays and disputes during the construction process. The integration of construction knowledge and experience during planning and design is termed

  11. Minimal and mild endometriosis negatively impact on pregnancy outcome Endometriose mínima e leve e seu impacto negativo sobre a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Pina Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis, a highly prevalent gynecological disease, can lead to infertility in moderate to severe cases. Whether minimal stages are associated with infertility is still unclear. The purpose of this systematic review is to present studies regarding the association between pregnancy rates and the presence of early stages of endometriosis. Studies regarding infertility, minimal (stage I, American Society of Reproductive Medicine [ASRM] and mild (stage II, ASRM endometriosis were identified by searching on the MEDLINE database from 1985 to September 2011 using the following MESH terms: endometriosis; infertility; minimal; mild endometriosis; pregnancy rate. 1188 articles published between January of 1985 and November of 2011 were retrieved; based on their titles, 1038 citations were excluded. Finally, after inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected to be part of this systematic review. Several reasons have been discussed in the literature to explain the impact of minimal endometriosis on fertility outcome, such as: ovulatory dysfunction, impaired folliculogenesis, defective implantation, decrease embryo quality, abnormal immunological peritoneal environment, and luteal phase problems. Despite the controversy involving the topic, the largest randomized control trial, published by Marcoux et al. in 1997 found a statistically different pregnancy rate after resection of superficial endometrial lesions. Earlier stages of endometriosis play a critical role in infertility, and most likely negatively impact pregnancy outcomes. Further studies into stage I endometriosis, especially randomized controlled trials, still need to be conducted.RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão sistemática é apresentar estudos sobre a associação entre as taxas de gravidez e a presença de fases iniciais de endometriose. Estudos relacionados com a infertilidade e estágios mínimos e leves (estágios I,II, American Society of Reproductive Medicine [ASRM

  12. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  13. Evaluación y seguimiento del envejecimiento sano y con deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL a través del TAVEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara García-Herranz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL se define como un estado intermedio entre el envejecimiento normal y el patológico, que en ocasiones, puede evolucionar a algún tipo de demencia, principalmente de tipo Alzheimer. La necesidad de encontrar marcadores que detecten tempranamente el DCL hace que determinados tests neuropsicológicos, básicamente de memoria, puedan ser considerados marcadores tempranos de este síndrome. La presente investigación pretende comprobar si el Test de Aprendizaje Verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC es útil en la evaluación y seguimiento del envejecimiento sano y con DCL en función de su estabilidad e inestabilidad temporal. La muestra de estudio se compuso de 179 participantes (95 sanos y 84 DCL entre 58-90 años evaluados en dos ocasiones a través del TAVEC junto con otros tests neuropsicológicos. Los resultados en el TAVEC mostraron diferencias significativas entre la primera y la segunda evaluación llevada a cabo un año después, tomando la muestra total y subdividida en sanos y DCL estables e inestables. Hubo diferencias en la ejecución entre los diferentes subgrupos clasificados en función de la estabilidad/ inestabilidad. Se concluye que el TAVEC es una herramienta útil, tanto en la evaluación de la memoria episódica verbal, como en el seguimiento del envejecimiento sano y con DCL.

  14. Colangiopancreatografía magnética: valor diagnóstico para detectar coledocolitiasis en pacientes con pancreatitis aguda leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanny Mogollón Reyes

    Full Text Available Introducción: la pancreatitis aguda (PA es una enfermedad clínica común que puede ser desde leve hasta fatal. En el 40 % de los casos es de origen biliar, y es causada por una obstrucción de la ampolla de Váter por barro biliar o por cálculos. En el diagnóstico de la pancreatitis aguda de origen biliar (PAB se emplean métodos invasivos como la colangiopancreatografía endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE, la cual se asocia a morbilidad y mortalidad, y métodos no invasivos como la colangiopancreatografía magnética (CRM, que emerge como modalidad diagnóstica en los centros de tercer y cuarto nivel de complejidad. Métodos: se evaluaron las características diagnósticas de la CRM a través de los registros históricos de pacientes que ingresaron a un hospital universitario de nivel IV a los que se les realizó CRM y CPRE. Esta última fue considerada el método de referencia para la evaluación. Resultados: Para la CRM se determinó una sensibilidad del 97 % y una especificidad del 44 % para la detección de coledocolitiasis, con un valor predictivo positivo de 0,35 y un valor predictivo negativo de 0,99. Algunos de estos resultados son inferiores a los documentados en la bibliografía mundial. Conclusiones: la CRM permite obtener imágenes precisas de la vía biliar, en un ambiente seguro y sin riesgos para el paciente. Esta técnica tiene una capacidad de detección de coledocolitiasis que oscila entre el 78 y el 97 %, resultado que concuerda con lo descrito en otros estudios.

  15. Perspectives of construction robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  16. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  17. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  18. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  19. Oficinas de estimulação cognitiva adaptadas para idosos analfabetos com transtorno cognitivo leve Talleres de estimulación cognitiva adaptadas para ancianos analfabetos con deterioro cognitivo leve Workshops for cognitive stimulation adapted for elderly illiterate individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Borges dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oficinas de estimulação cognitiva para idosos analfabetos com transtorno cognitivo leve é um tema pouco pesquisado. Objetivou-se verificar a autopercepção da memória em idosos analfabetos com transtorno cognitivo leve, antes e após oficinas de estimulação cognitiva, adaptadas para analfabetos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada na Unidade de Saúde de Taguatinga-DF, envolvendo 63 idosos: 22 no Grupo Experimental (GE, com 10 oficinas; 21 no Grupo Controle 1 (GC1, com 10 palestras; e 20 no Grupo Controle 2 (GC2, sem intervenção. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas antes e após intervenções, perguntando-se sobre memória. Aos GE e GC1 foram oferecidas atividades semanais de duas horas. A idade média foi 72,8 anos, 92% do sexo feminino. Na pré-intervenção, 82% haviam piorado memória no último ano. Na pós-intervenção, GC1 e GC2 mantiveram alterações da memória, enquanto GE melhorou cognição. Conclui-se que as oficinas e palestras proporcionaram melhora na funcionalidade e socialização/integração.Objetivó-se evaluar la percepción subjetiva de la memoria en ancianos analfabetos con deterioro cognitivo leve, antes y después de talleres para estimulación cognitiva adaptada para personas analfabetas. Participaran 63 ancianos: 22 en el grupo experimental (GE con 10 talleres; 21 en el grupo control 1 (GC1, con 10 conferencias sobre salud; y 20 en el grupo control 2 (CG2, sin intervención. Fueron realizadas entrevistas semi estructuradas antes y después de las intervenciones, preguntandose sobre la memoria. Para los del GE e GC1 fueran ofrecidas actividades semanales de dos horas. La edad media de los participantes fue de 72,8 años, 92% eran del sexo femenino. En la pre-intervención, 82% reportaran deterioro en la memoria durante el último año. En la pos-intervención, los del CG1 y del CG2 mantuvieron los cambios en la memoria, mientras que los del GE mejoraron la cognición. Concluí-se que

  20. Resistência mecânica de compósitos cimentícios leves utilizando resíduos industriais e fibras de sisal Mechanical resistence of lightweight cement composites utilizing industrial residues and fibers of sisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo T. de Arruda Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A valorização de materiais alternativos incorporados com resíduos como opção ao convencional deve possibilitar a geração de um produto com qualidade, estética, produtividade e com potencial de reduzir impactos da poluição ambiental. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de desenvolver elementos construtivos para forro e divisórias, a partir de matrizes cimentícias com incorporação de resíduos industriais (resíduo cerâmico, etil vinil acetato - EVA e fibras de sisal. Desenvolveram-se técnicas de moldagem em matrizes cimentícias autoadensáveis e se avaliou a resistência mecânica dos novos compósitos. Uma placa com resíduos de EVA foi produzida e, através de trabalhos de reologia, encontrou-se a pasta matriz de revestimento desta placa, com teor adequado de adições pozolânicas e aditivo superplastificante. Avaliaram-se as resistências mecânicas das placas, da pasta matriz de revestimento encontrada, com e sem adição de fibras, e do novo compósito formado pela união desses dois elementos. Utilizou-se a técnica de alinhamento de fibras com o intuito de incrementar resistência ao novo compósito leve. A adição da matriz com fibras alinhadas melhorou a resistência a flexão do novo compósito.The appreciation of alternative materials incorporated in waste as an option to conventional material should enable to generate a product with quality, aesthetics, productivity and reduce the potential impacts of environmental pollution. This study aims to develop constructive elements for ceilings and walls from cementitious matrix incorporating industrial waste (ceramic waste, ethyl vinyl acetate - EVA and sisal fibers. Moulding techniques to produce self-compacting cementitious matrices were developed and the strength of the new composites were evaluated. A plate with EVA waste was produced and through rheology studies, a matrix plaster for coating of plate surface was found, with appropriate content of pozzolanic and

  1. Literature Review - Vegetation on Levees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    topography resulting from catastrophic wind (Hurricane Opal ) was measured across a variety of forest types. Study Location: Coweeta Basin, western North...Series/Source: Ecology, 1973. 54(2):445-448 Peer-reviewed: Yes Code: RTSYST, ECOSYS Abstract* : Strip- mine high walls and road cuts less than...by visual observations. Study Location: North-central WV ERDC SR-10-2 225 Method: Root profiles were examined at exposed high-walled strip mine

  2. Innovative Methods for Levee Rehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Edward

    1998-01-01

    .... This report covers analytical studies on two-dimensional slope stability analysis of geogrid mechanically stabilized slides and slope remediation using a prefabricated geocomposite drainage system...

  3. Representaciones y creencias en torno a la evaluación lingüística del adulto mayor con trastorno cognitivo leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vallés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los cambios demográficos que experimenta la población mundial cada día es más frecuente que los equipos de atención en el área de la logopedia deban atender adultos mayores con trastorno cognitivo leve (TCL, es decir, personas que presentan problemas en su memoria y otras funciones mentales, sin que los mismos interfieran con el desarrollo de sus actividades cotidianas (Speling et. al., 2011. Esta situación obliga a desarrollar acciones desde una nueva perspectiva epistemológica, ontológica y metodológica, especialmente en países en vías de desarrollo donde las personas mayores de 65 años se pueden enfrentar al aislamiento y la falta de servicios de salud pública, producto de una serie de representaciones negativas en torno al envejecimiento que atentan sobre su calidad de vida y determinan que los programas de formación profesional del logopeda deban abordar temas relacionados con el envejecimiento como proceso complejo y multifactorial. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las representaciones sociales que deban ser consideradas a la hora de elaborar una propuesta de evaluación lingüística dirigida al adulto mayor con TCL desde una perspectiva discursiva que permita el estudio del componente pragmático. Se plantea como alternativa el uso del análisis de la conversación entre pacientes e interlocutores claves como herramienta diagnóstica y la incorporación a los programas de formación profesional en Logopedia de contenidos sobre Psiquiatría, Lingüística Clínica, Geriatría y Gerontología a fin de alcanzar una práctica ajustada a los complejos marcos sociales donde se desarrolla actualmente la práctica logopédica en países en desarrollo.

  4. Propuesta de intervención para fomentar la inteligencia emocional en una alumna con un trastorno del desarrollo intelectual leve de 5º de Primaria: un estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    La Inteligencia Emocional favorece las relaciones interpersonales y el autoconocimiento. Esto se ve afectado cuando un alumno presenta algún tipo de trastorno psicológico. Por ello el objetivo general es realizar una aproximación teórico-práctica del desarrollo de la Inteligencia Emocional en una alumna con un Trastorno del Desarrollo Intelectual leve. Para la consecución de este objetivo se ha analizado el marco legal vigente y, seguidamente, se ha elaborado un marco teórico que abarca el...

  5. Eficácia da estimulação transcraniana por corrente contínua associada ao treino cognitivo nos domínios da linguagem e praxia de pacientes com doença de alzheimer na fase leve / Transcranial direct current stimulation associated with cognitive training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessyca Alves Silvestre da Silva

    2017-11-01

    case-report study with 2 subjects, in which both were submitted to the tDCS and COG intervention protocol applied simultaneously. A descriptive analysis of the results obtained through ADAS-Cog subtests (Naming of objects and fingers, Order comprehension, Constructive capacity, Praxis ideal, Oral language, Difficulty finding words in a spontaneous speech, Understanding of oral language, The Verbal Fluency Test (FAS and the Poppelreuter Overlap Test applied in the pre- and post-treatment periods that evaluated the domains studied in the present study. After the intervention protocol, a significant improvement in the performance of the subjects was observed through the evaluation instruments used. The therapeutic approach employed was an effective method for the treatment of AD in the light phase, acting in the maintenance and preservation of the cognitive functions of the subjects.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Cognitive Training, Language, Praxis.Resumen La enfermedad de Alzheimer (DA es un desorden neurodegenerativo progresivo, con una presentación de declive de las funciones cognitivas y, consecuentemente, pérdida gradual de la autonomía, de acuerdo con la evolución de la enfermedad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos de la técnica de Estimulación Transcraniana por Corriente Continua (ETCC asociada al Entrenamiento Cognitivo (COG en los dominios cognitivos responsables del Lenguaje y Praxia en sujetos que se encuentran en la fase leve de la DA. Se trata de un estudio tipo relato de caso con 2 sujetos, en que ambos fueron sometidos al protocolo de intervención de ETCC y COG aplicados simultáneamente. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos a través de los subtítulos del ADAS-Cog (Nombramiento de objetos y dedos, Comprensión de órdenes, Capacidad constructiva, Praxia ideativa, Lenguaje oral, Dificultad en encontrar palabras en un discurso espontáneo, Comprensión del

  6. EVOLUÇÃO DA EMISSÃO DE MONÓXIDO DE CARBONO ASSOCIADA À FROTA DE VEÍCULOS LEVES NA CIDADE DE SÃO JOSÉ DOS CAMPOS – SP - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janilda Eufrásio da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A problemática em torno do aumento da poluição na troposfera terrestre e seus impactos negativos na saúde pública e no meio ambiente têm incentivado diversas pesquisas científicas. Os veículos leves são considerados um dos principais responsáveis pelo crescimento da taxa de poluição atmosférica, e, por este fato, este trabalho apresenta uma estimativa do total de monóxido de carbono (CO, emitido por veículos leves (gasolina, etanol e flex nas últimas décadas, na cidade de São José dos Campos, SP, considerando-se a evolução da frota entre os anos de 1973 e 2013. Os valores encontrados através da metodologia adotada são comparáveis aos valores medidos recentemente por órgãos públicos. Considerando a atual tendência de crescimento da frota circulante na cidade, foi possível discutir o total de emissão de CO esperado para o ano de 2020 e apresentar algumas soluções para a redução da emissão deste poluente atmosférico.

  7. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  8. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  9. Construction project management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  10. Visualization of construction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hisako; Miura, Jun

    2000-01-01

    It is required for nuclear power plant construction to reduce construction cost and shorten construction period. An early and accurate construction planning including schedule coordination among the companies has recently become more important and it is possible to obtain necessary information for construction planning in early stage. In this situation, we have been developing a visualization system for construction engineering for nuclear power plants. This system has an interface with the existing Plant Layout 3D-CAD system and consists of three sub systems: (1) Scheduling and simulation system, (2) Yard planning system and (3) Scaffolding planning system. This paper describes overview of this system. This visualization system is very helpful for construction engineers to easily understand situation and environment around installation area, to easily plan a work sequence and confirm the planned schedule, and it is also effective for customers and workers to understand the planning. As a result, this visualization system enables safety and high quality construction. (author)

  11. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  12. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  13. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  14. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  15. Heterotic string construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found

  16. Care cost for pregnant and parturient women with diabetes and mild hyperglycemia Costo de la asistencia de gestantes y parturientas diabéticas y con hiperglicemia leve Custo da assistência de gestantes e parturientes diabéticas e com hiperglicemia leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Molina Cavassini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare inpatient and outpatient care costs for pregnant/parturient women with diabetes and mild hyperglycemia. METHODS: A prospective observational quantitative study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Center in the city of Botucatu, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. Direct and indirect costs and disease-specific costs (medications and tests were estimated. Thirty diet-treated pregnant women with diabetes were followed up on an outpatient basis, and 20 who required insulin therapy were hospitalized. RESULTS: The cost of diabetes disease (prenatal and delivery care was US$ 3,311.84 for inpatients and US$ 1,366.04 for outpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and indirect costs as well as total prenatal care cost were higher for diabetic inpatients while delivery care costs and delivery-postpartum hospitalization were similar. Prenatal and delivery-postpartum care costs were higher for these patients compared to those paid by Brazilian National Health System.OBJETIVO: Comparar costos de hospitalización y de atención por ambulatorio en gestantes/parturientas diabéticas y con hiperglicemia leve. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, cuantitativo descriptivo realizado en centro de diabetes perinatal en Botucatu, Sureste de Brasil, entre 2007 y 2008. Se estimaron los costos por absorción directos e indirectos disponibles en la institución y los costos específicos para la enfermedad (medicamentos y exámenes. Las 30 gestantes diabéticas tratadas con dieta fueron acompañadas en ambulatorio y 20 tratadas con dieta más insulina fueron hospitalizadas. RESULTADOS: El costo de la enfermedad diabetes (para asistencia prenatal y parto fue de US$ 3,311.84 para las gestantes hospitalizadas y de US$ 1,366.04 para las acompañadas en ambulatorio. CONCLUSIONES: Los costos directos e indirectos y el costo total de la asistencia prenatal fueron más elevados en las gestantes diabéticas hospitalizadas mientras que los costos de

  17. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  18. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  19. TPX tokamak construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.; Kungl, D.; Seidel, P.; Halfast, C.

    1995-01-01

    A construction management contract normally involves the acquisition of a construction management firm to assist in the design, planning, budget conformance, and coordination of the construction effort. In addition the construction management firm acts as an agent in the awarding of lower tier contracts. The TPX Tokamak Construction Management (TCM) approach differs in that the construction management firm is also directly responsible for the assembly and installation of the tokamak including the design and fabrication of all tooling required for assembly. The Systems Integration Support (SIS) contractor is responsible for the architect-engineering design of ancillary systems, such as heating and cooling, buildings, modifications and site improvements, and a variety of electrical requirements, including switchyards and >4kV power distribution. The TCM will be responsible for the procurement of materials and the installation of the ancillary systems, which can either be performed directly by the TCM or subcontracted to a lower tier subcontractor. Assurance that the TPX tokamak is properly assembled and ready for operation when turned over to the operations team is the primary focus of the construction management effort. To accomplish this a disciplined constructability program will be instituted. The constructability effort will involve the effective and timely integration of construction expertise into the planning, component design, and field operations. Although individual component design groups will provide liaison during the machine assembly operations, the construction management team is responsible for assembly

  20. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  1. How engineering facilitates construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.T.

    1976-01-01

    During a recent survey, construction personnel at jobsites were asked, ''what are the ten most unwanted construction problems.'' One reoccurring answer was design/construction incompatibility. In fact, many designs were impractical from a construction point of view. The reasons for this problem can be identified: Once construction begins, engineering is under intense pressure to issue new drawings to allow work to progress according to schedule. Other reasons may be the relative inexperience of the design personnel in construction, changes in design criteria and delays in receipt of supplier or client information. A description is presented of ways to solve this problem by obtaining construction expertise and input into the various phases and products of the engineering work

  2. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, João M.L.; Gallinaro, Bruno; Carajilescov, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ► The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ► Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ► The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ► Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

  3. Constructing Student Problems in Phylogenetic Tree Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven D.

    Evolution is often equated with natural selection and is taught from a primarily functional perspective while comparative and historical approaches, which are critical for developing an appreciation of the power of evolutionary theory, are often neglected. This report describes a study of expert problem-solving in phylogenetic tree construction.…

  4. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  5. Imperfect construction of microclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E.; Zhou, K.; Gilbert, G.; Weinstein, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Microclusters are the basic building blocks used to construct cluster states capable of supporting fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this paper, we explore the consequences of errors on microcluster construction using two error models. To quantify the effect of the errors we calculate the fidelity of the constructed microclusters and the fidelity with which two such microclusters can be fused together. Such simulations are vital for gauging the capability of an experimental system to achieve fault tolerance.

  6. VE of construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  7. VE of construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  8. HITACHI construction CAE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.

    1994-01-01

    Construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants have important problems such as shortening the construction period and reducing the construction cost. Recently, the problem of insufficient construction labor has arisen, and as drastic strategic development has become a necessary counter-measure. The following four principles are included in the measures to be taken for efficient execution of the construction work within the short construction period: (1) reduction of on-site work and expansion of module block making, (2)improvement of the accuracy of the on-site work process, adjustment and expansion of the work in parallel with the construction process, (3)improvement of efficiency of the on-site work and mechanization and automation of the work, (4)improvement of the accuracy of the management of the construction. A three dimensional simulation system plant construction plan CAE, comprising five modules has been developed. A project management system was also developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of management work in the field

  9. Avaliação de solução concentrada de albumina eqüina na fluidoterapia em eqüinos com desidratação leve a moderada

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Bargi Belli

    2005-01-01

    A utilização de colóides é indicada em várias situações, mas nem sempre aplicável na clínica de eqüinos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o uso de solução concentrada de albumina eqüina (diluída a 5%) durante fluidoterapia em eqüinos com desidratação leve a moderada, comparando-a com fluidoterapia apenas com solução fisiológica. Foram utilizados dois grupos de cinco eqüinos adultos, sem alterações clínicas. Cada animal passou pelo protocolo dos dois grupos experimentais (fluidoterapia ap...

  10. Sediment accretion and carbon storage in constructed wetlands receiving water treated with metal-based coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Elizabeth; Kraus, Tamara; Liang, Yan; Bachand, Sandra M.; Horwath, William R.; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, subsidence of organic rich soils threatens levee stability and freshwater supply, and continued oxidative loss of organic matter contributes to greenhouse gas production. To counter subsidence in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California, we examined the feasibility of using constructed wetlands receiving drainage water treated with metal-based coagulants to accrete mineral material along with wetland biomass, while also sequestering carbon in wetland sediment. Nine field-scale wetlands were constructed which received local drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) or iron sulfate (FeSO4) coagulants. After 23 months of flooding and coagulant treatment, sediment samples were collected near the inlet, middle, and outlet of each wetland to determine vertical accretion rates, bulk density, sediment composition, and carbon sequestration rates. Wetlands treated with PAC had the highest and most spatially consistent vertical accretion rates (~6 cm year-1), while the FeSO4 wetlands had similarly high accretion rates near the inlet but rates similar to the untreated wetland (~1.5 cm year-1) at the middle and outlet sites. The composition of the newly accreted sediment in the PAC and FeSO4 treatments was high in the added metal (aluminum and iron, respectively), but the percent metal by weight was similar to native soils of California. As has been observed in other constructed wetlands, the newly accreted sediment material had lower bulk densities than the native soil material (0.04-0.10 g cm-3 versus 0.2-0.3 g cm-3), suggesting these materials will consolidate over time. Finally, this technology accelerated carbon burial, with rates in PAC treated wetland (0.63 kg C m-2 yr-1) over 2-fold greater than the untreated control (0.28 kg C m-2 yr-1). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using constructed wetlands treated with coagulants to reverse subsidence by accreting the

  11. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  12. Safety in construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety

  13. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOTs : construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the le...

  14. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  15. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  16. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control is the ...

  17. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddley, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of constructing a radiation shielding plug for use in the roof of the coolant containment vault of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described. The construction allows relative movement of that part of service cables and pipes which are carried by the fixed roof and that part which is carried by the rotatable plug. (U.K.)

  18. Constructional and Conceptual Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Ellen Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's (1995) recognition that, in addition to various word-level constructions, sentences also instantiate meaningful argument structure constructions enables a non-polysemy-based analysis of various verb 'alternations' (Levin 1993). In such an analysis, meaning variations associated with the use of the same verb in different argument…

  19. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  20. Industrialization for sustainable construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Barrett, P; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R; Keraminiyage, K.; Pathirage, C

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable construction (SuCo), which genesis dates in the early 1990’s, advocates the creation and operation of a quality and healthy built environment based on resource efficiency, life cycle economics and ecological principles. (Kibert, 2003). Currently the Construction Industry does not meet

  1. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  2. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  3. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Andrew E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  4. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik

    2017-06-01

    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  5. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  6. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  7. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  8. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  9. Construction of anhydrite dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, L; Francois, G

    1977-05-01

    To construct a ventilation dam, the road is closed with a fibreglass sheet onto which 3 or 4 cm of anhydrite paste is sprayed. The equipment necessary is described, and the cost is compared with that of an aggregate dam.

  10. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  11. Caltrans : construction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Caltrans intends this manual as a resource for all personnel engaged in contract administration. The manual establishes policies and procedures for the construction phase of Caltrans projects. However, this manual is not a contract document. It impos...

  12. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  13. On Construction Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  14. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  15. Skin Problems in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you work with… Wet cement or plaster Abrasive cleaners Paints Adhesives Chemical solvents These materials can contain ... health hazards construction workers face on the job. Production of this card was supported by Grant OH009762 ...

  16. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  17. Photovoltaic roof construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-02-26

    In a batten-seam roof construction employing at least one photovoltaic cell module, the electrical conduits employed with the at least one photovoltaic cell module are disposed primarily under the battens of the roof.

  18. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  19. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  20. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  1. ATLAS construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is being constructed at the LHC, in view of a data-taking startup in 2007. This report concentrates on the progress and the technical challenges of the detector construction, and summarizes the status of the work as of August 2004. The project is on track to allow the highly motivated ATLAS Collaboration to enter into a new exploratory domain of high-energy physics in 2007. (author)

  2. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  3. Quality during construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines the quality assurance program used by Bechtel Corp. in constructing Nuclear Power Plants. As a tool for scheduling and visualizing situations during construction, power plant scale models are used. The use of models, preplanning, detail scheduling, and early development of procedures and inspection plans, have all contributed to a lower cost integrated quality program. Quality control and quality assurance are built in, thus satisfying the regulatory requirements

  4. AP1000 construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)

  5. Constructability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)

  6. CT scan findings in mild head trauma: a series of 2,000 patients Achados tomográficos no trauma cranioencefálico leve: análise de 2000 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. Bordignon

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the cranial computed tomography (CT scan findings of 2,000 cases of mild head trauma (HT in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. The mean age of the entire series was 30.8 ±19 years. The overall male to female ratio was 2:1. The most common causes of head injury were interpersonal aggression (17.9%, falls (17.4%, automobile accidents (16.2%, falls to the ground (13.1% and pedestrian injuries (13 %. Alcohol intoxication was associated with HT in 158 cases (7.9%. A normal CT scan was seen in 60.75% (1215 and an abnormal CT scan in 39.25% (785 of patients. Out of 785 abnormal CT scan, 518(65.9% lesions were related to HT. The most common CT scan HT related findings were: soft tissue swelling (8.9 %, skull fractures (4.3 %, intracranial and subgaleal hematomas (3.4% and 2.4 %, brain swelling (2 % and brain contusion (1.2%. Out of 785 abnormal CT scans, 267 (34.1% lesions were not related to head trauma. Incidental CT scan findings included brain atrophy (5.9%, one calcification (5.2% several calcifications (2.4% (probably neurocysticercosis in most cases, ischemic infarct (1.9% and leukoaraiosis (1.3%. These findings showed the importance of CT scan examination in mild head injuries. Further studies to identify mild HT patients at higher risk of significant brain injury are warranted in order to optimize its use.São descritos os achados de tomografia computadorizada craniana (TC de 2000 casos de trauma cranio-encefálico (TCE leve em Curitiba, Paraná. A idade média de toda série de pacientes foi 30,8 ± 19 anos. A razão homem/mulher foi 2:1. A causas mais comuns de TCE foram agressão interpessoal (17,9%, quedas de nível (17,4%, acidentes automobilísticos (16,2%, queda ao solo (13,1% e atropelamento (13%. Intoxicação por álcool foi um importante fator associado ao TCE e esteve presente em 158 casos (7,9% de 2000 pacientes. Uma TC normal ocorreu em 60,75% (1215 e uma TC anormal em 39,25% (785 dos pacientes. Das 785 TC

  7. Efeito da temperatura ambiente e do empenamento sobre o desempenho de frangas leves e semipesadas Effect of environmental temperature and feather coverage on the performance of two laying-type pullets lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Hatsumi Fukayama

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para determinar os efeitos da temperatura ambiente e do empenamento das aves sobre o desempenho de duas linhagens de postura na fase de crescimento (10ª a 13ª semana de idade. Foram alojadas 480 aves de reposição da marca Hy-line, sendo 240 aves de cada linhagem W-36 (leve e Brown (semipesada, em 5 câmaras climáticas com temperaturas de 12, 18, 24, 30 e 36ºC. Em cada temperatura foram avaliadas 3 coberturas de pena; 100% (não depenada, 50% (depenada em 50% do corpo e 0% (totalmente depenada. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada segundo um esquema fatorial (5 x 3 x 2 sendo: 5 temperaturas, 3 porcentagens de cobertura de pena e 2 linhagens. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de regressão para a obtenção das curvas respostas com os melhores ajustes. A linhagem semipesada apresentou maior consumo de ração em relação à linhagem leve em todas as temperaturas. Houve diminuição do ganho de peso em função da redução no consumo de ração e aumento da temperatura. A linhagem leve apresentou uma maior amplitude nas faixas de conforto térmico (18,33ºC a 32,00ºC do que a linhagem semipesada (23,75ºC a 29,50ºC.This work aims to evaluate the effect of environmental temperature and feather covering on the performance of two laying-type lines pullets from (10 to 13 weeks old. Four hundred and eighteen Hy-line pullets, 240 birds of each strain W-36 (light and Brown (semi heavy were housed in five temperature controlled rooms at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36ºC. At each temperature three feather coverings were evaluated: 100% (no plucked, 50% (50% of the body plucked and 0% (feathers removed. The statistical analysis was according to a 5 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme with 5 temperatures, 3 feather coverings and 2 strains. The data were analyzed by polynomial regression. The brown strain presented higher feed intake than the white strain at all temperatures. The decrease in feed intake with the temperature

  8. Construction time of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.b, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  9. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  10. Constructive renormalization theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    These notes are the second part of a common course on Renormalization Theory given with Professor P. da Veiga. I emphasize here the rigorous non-perturbative or constructive aspects of the theory. The usual formalism for the renormalization group in field theory or statistical mechanics is reviewed, together with its limits. The constructive formalism is introduced step by step. Taylor forest formulas allow to perform easily the cluster and Mayer expansions which are needed for a single step of the renormalization group in the case of Bosonic theories. The iteration of this single step leads to further difficulties whose solution is briefly sketched. The second part of the course is devoted to Fermionic models. These models are easier to treat on the constructive level so they are very well suited to beginners in constructive theory. It is shown how the Taylor forest formulas allow to reorganize perturbation theory nicely in order to construct the Gross-Neveu 2 model without any need for cluster or Mayer expansions. Finally applications of this technique to condensed matter and renormalization group around Fermi surface are briefly reviewed. (author)

  11. ITER towards the construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the last few years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Participant's Negotiators have developed the Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for finalisation following selection of the construction site and nomination of the project's Director General. The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organisational preparations. Construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organisation is established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is strongly supported by the governments of the Participants as well as by the scientific community. The real negotiations, including siting and the final details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. Their wish to host ITER construction is too strong to allow convergence to a single site considering the ITER device in isolation. A broader collaboration among the Parties is therefore being contemplated, covering complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, and allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting. This report reviews these preparations, and the status of negotiations

  12. PIK reactor construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, K.A.; Smolsky, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    The 100MW reactor PIK for fundamental researches has a thermal neutron flux of more than 10 15 n/cm 2 sec. This presentation outlines the construction state as of 2001, its prospects and completion tactics in the conditions of unstable finance. Construction of the reactor started in 1976. In 1986 construction of the building was completed and significant part of the installation work fulfilled. Construction of cooling systems was finished, the control panel assembled, and adjustment of the pump and gate valve control circuits started. After Chernobyl catastrophe, the USSR nuclear reactor safety requirements were revised. The PIK design did not meet these requirements and underwent considerable revision. The reconstruction design resulted in double the initial cost. Creation of the containment was the bulkiest part of the reconstruction. It brought about the need to disassemble the roofing of the building, dismantle all the equipment of the two upper floors, and lay up the equipment of the lower floors. As of 2001, construction in accordance with the revised design is at the stage of assemblage of the most important units, i.e. reactor itself, cooling system, heavy water system, and a number of auxiliary systems, such as depleted fuel storage, emergency cooling system etc. (orig.)

  13. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  14. Labor construction trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program

  15. APPLIED ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applied disciplines in the sphere of construction which are engaged in the solution of vital macroeconomical problems (the general trend of development of these disciplines is the expansion of problematics and mutual integration are considered. Construction organization characteristic at the present stage as a systems engineering discipline covering the investment process of creation of real estate items, is given. The main source of current research trends for applied sciences (socio-economic development forecasts, regional and local programs is determined. Interpenetration and integration of various fields of knowledge exemplified by the current interindustry problem of blocks renovation organization of existing development, is demonstrated. Mathematical model of wave construction (for the period of deployment is proposed. Nature of dependence of the total duration of renovation on the limit of annual input and coefficient of renovation, is established. Overall structure of the Moscow region housing market is presented, and approaches to definition of effective demand are proposed.

  16. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  17. Resultados da reabilitação neuropsicológica em paciente com doença de Alzheimer leve Results of neuropsychological rehabilitation in patient with mild Alzheimer's disease - A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ávila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente sempre houve mais grupos de suporte e informação para familiares e cuidadores de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA do que para os próprios pacientes. Entretanto, com o aumento do número de diagnósticos de DA em sua fase inicial, esta realidade está se modificando. Cresce a demanda por tratamento tanto medicamentoso como comportamental para esses pacientes. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever uma experiência de reabilitação neuropsicológica (RN em grupo, e posteriormente individual, com a mesma paciente com DA leve. CGP participou primeiramente de dois grupos de RN com duração de quatro meses cada, e em seguida iniciou RN individual por um período de 22 meses. Na RN foram trabalhados principalmente déficits de memória, linguagem e treinos de atividades de vida diária. Neste período de tratamento, verificou-se alteração positiva de seu escore no MEEM, além de nenhuma função cognitiva ter apresentado deterioração. Este estudo de caso corroborou pesquisas anteriores que apontam efeitos positivos da RN com pacientes com DA leve.Traditionally, Alzheimer's support and information groups have been developed for families and caregivers rather than for the actual patient. However, this reality is changing because of the increase in early AD diagnosis. The demand for medication and behavioral treatment for patients is also increasing. The purpose of this case report is to describe the neuropsychological rehabilitation (NR of a mild AD patient in group and in individual sessions. First, CGP took part in two NR groups each for a 4 month period, and then started individual NR sessions for a 22 month period. In the sessions, memory and language abilities were the focus of the NR as well as the activities of daily living. During this period it was possible to observe positive changes in MMSE score, as will as preservation of other cognitive function scores. This single case study is in agreement of

  18. Do children with Glasgow 13/14 could be identified as mild traumatic brain injury? Pacientes pediátricos com Glasgow 13 ou 14 podem ser identificados como traumatismo craniano leve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Tude Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify in mild head injured children the major differences between those with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS 15 and GCS 13/14. METHOD: Cross-sectional study accomplished through information derived from medical records of mild head injured children presented in the emergency room of a Pediatric Trauma Centre level I, between May 2007 and May 2008. RESULTS: 1888 patients were included. The mean age was 7.6±5.4 years; 93.7% had GCS 15; among children with GCS 13/14, 46.2% (pOBJETIVO: Identificar as principais diferenças entre os pacientes com Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS 15 e aqueles com escore 13/14. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado por meio da revisão de prontuários médicos de crianças vítimas de traumatismo craniencefálico leve, admitidas em Centro de Urgências Pediátricas nível I, durante um ano. RESULTADOS: Incluídas 1888 vítimas; idade média de 7,6±5,4 anos; 93,7% apresentaram pontuação 15 na GCS. Naqueles com pontuação 13/14, 46,2% (p<0,001 sofreram traumas múltiplos e 52,1% (p<0,001 apresentaram alterações na tomografia de crânio. Tratamento neurocirúrgico foi necessário em 6,7% dos pacientes com GCS 13/14 e 9,2% (p=0,001 apresentaram seqüelas neurológicas no momento da alta hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças com escore 13/14 apresentam maior prevalência de traumas múltiplos, alterações na tomografia de crânio, necessidade de tratamento neurocirúrgico e internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Devemos ser cautelosos ao classificar crianças com pontuação 13/14 na GCS como vítimas de traumatismo craniano leve.

  19. Construction Management Meets Today's Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    1979-01-01

    Construction management--the control of cost and time from concept through construction--grew out of a need to meet the realities of today's economy. A checklist of services a construction manager provides is presented. (Author/MLF)

  20. Construction Manager or General Contractor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, John

    1991-01-01

    Unlike the general contractor approach, the construction management firm acts on behalf of the school district in school construction. Examines the development and nature of construction management, and cites its advantages and disadvantages. (MLF)

  1. PWR plant construction in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshifumi

    2002-01-01

    The construction methods based on the experiences on the Nuclear Island, which is a critical path in the total construction schedule, have been studied and reconsidered in order to construct by more reliable and economical method. So various improved construction method are being applied and the duration of construction is being reduced continuously. So various improved construction method are being applied and the duration of construction is being reduced continuously. In this paper, the history of construction of twenty-three (23) PWR Plant, the actual construction methods and schedule of Ohi-3/4, to which the many improved methods were applied during their construction, are introduced mainly with the improved points for previously constructed plants. And also the situation of construction method for the next PWR Plant is simply explained

  2. Construction and validation of a tool to Assess the Use of Light Technologies at Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho

    2016-12-19

    to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. construir e validar um instrumento para avaliação do uso de tecnologias leves, pela equipe de enfermagem, em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. estudo metodológico no qual o instrumento foi elaborado utilizando o método psicométrico para construção com base na categorização das tecnologias em saúde de Merhy e Franco, da Política Nacional de Humanização, utilizando-se a taxonomia Nursing Intervention Classification para categorizar os domínios do instrumento. Utilizou-se o Percentual de Concordância e o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) para validação. o resultado da aplicação do Percentual de Concordância entre os juízes foi superior ao recomendado de 80%, havendo destaque na avaliação da pertinência ao tema proposto, apresentando um percentual de concordância de 99%. o instrumento foi validado com quatro domínios (Vínculo, Autonomia, Acolhimento e Gestão) e dezenove itens que avaliam o uso das tecnologias leves em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. construir y validar un instrumento para evaluación del uso de tecnologías leves, por el equipo de enfermer

  3. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  4. Construction Management: Planning Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsht, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

  5. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  6. Constructions of Peripherality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the concept of peripheralisation. In particular, I consider how peripheries can be discursively constructed in the debates surrounding planning cases, and how this might serve to legitimate particular interests. This is related to the case of a proposed golf resort...

  7. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  8. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo...

  9. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  10. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  11. Constructions in Wonderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard; Shibuya, Yoshikata

    -gram analysis to some different texts, including Lewis Carroll's 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (AW), Mark Twain's 1884/5 novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (HF), and some US presidential speeches, to identify frequently (co)occurring words that may be indicative of underlying constructions...

  12. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  13. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting that these p......My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting...... that these predictable units should be considered grammatical constructions on a par with the nonpredictable constructions. Frequency has usually been seen as the only possible argument speaking in favor of viewing some formally and semantically fully predictable units as grammatical constructions. However, this paper...... semantically and formally predictable. Despite this difference, [méllo INF], like the other future periphrases, seems to be highly entrenched in the cognition (and grammar) of Early Medieval Greek language users, and consequently a grammatical construction. The syntactic evidence speaking in favor of [méllo...

  14. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?

  15. Housing and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    OECD economies, in aggregate, have been sluggish; unemployment remains high in several countries, and minimal gross domestic product gains are forecast for the Euro area through 2016. Recession, sovereign debt problems and lethargic economies continue to constrain Europe’s housing construction market; no improvement is expected before 2015 or...

  16. Patterns of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge construction patterns in a local learning community. Observation, documents, and semistructured interviews were employed to collect data. Twenty learners were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively using the constant comparative method. Five major patterns--radiation, circulation,…

  17. Neuroeconomics: Constructing identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The paper asks whether neuroeconomics will make instrumental use of neuroscience to adjudicate existing disputes in economics or be more seriously transformed by neuroscience in ways that might transform economics. The paper pursues the question by asking how neuroscience constructs an understanding

  18. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  19. Anyonic FRT construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, S.; Rodriguez-Plaza, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan method to construct matrix bialgebras from non-singular solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation is extended to the anyonic or Z n -graded case. The resulting anyonic quantum matrices are braided groups in which the braiding is given by a phase factor. (orig.)

  20. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9300 - Berms or guardrails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  2. Competing security and humanitarian imperatives in the Berm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Simpson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60,000 Syrians are trapped in ‘the Berm’, a desolate area on the Syria-Jordan border. When security concerns are prioritised over humanitarian needs, and aid agencies turn to militant groups to deliver aid, the consequences can be deplorable.

  3. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  4. Regional distribution of native and exotic species in levees of the lower delta of the Paraná river - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aceñolaza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of exotic and native species in levee neo-ecosystems were analyzed. No invasive species were found in unit A; their absence could be explained by the fluvial action of the Paraná river, extraordinary flood episodes and anthropic disturbances. Invasive species associated with the tidal regimen of the de la Plata river were present in units B and C, particularly Chinese privet (L. sinense, green ash (F. pennsylvanica, honey locust (G. triacanthos, Japanese honeysuckle (L. Japonica, blackberry ( Rubus spp., box elder (A. Negundo and glossy privet (L. Lucidum.Native species showed low recovery values, both at a regional level and within each unit, with the exception of A. The neo-ecosystems with the greater degree of abandonment of units B and C exhibited dominance of exotic tree species and, to a lesser extent, recovery of native species of the original gallery forest (seibo, Erythrina crista galli; laurel, Nectandra falcifolia; canelón, Rapanea spp. and arrayán, Blepharocalyx tweediei.

  5. A influência do tipo de instrução escolar na formação de conceitos em portadores de deficiência mental leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan, Heloísa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a influência do tipo de instrução escolar no processo de formação de conceitos em portadores de deficiência mental leve educados em classes especiais e classes regulares de ensino. Pressupõe-se que a formação de conceitos permite que um indivíduo atinja um nível abstrato de pensamento, o qual propicia a independência em relação às caracteristícas do momento e do espaço presentes e auxilia todo o funcionamento cognitivo. Contudo, o desenvolvimento desse processo não depende somente do esforço individual, mas também do contexto social em que a pessoa está inserida. Com a entrada em um novo contexto desafiador e estimulante como a escola, e como a classe regular, há a introdução de elementos novos no desenvolvimento do indivíduo. A colaboração de pessoas mais competentes e de métodos mais homogêneos leva o indivíduo ao desenvolvimento de formas culturalmente apropriadas que o tornam capaz de executar um pensamento mais lógico e complexo

  6. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  7. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    for social construction, i.e. supporting staging, performing, and sharing of playful activities involving people and artifacts.             The method used is a triangulation of the problem domain—pervasive media systems for children—from three perspectives: theory, design, and empirical work......: the potential of pervasive media systems to support the children’s social construction.  ......In this dissertation, I propose a new type of playful media for children. Based on field work, prototypes, and theoretical development, I define, build, and explore a distinct cross-section of existing and new digital media, tools, and communication devices in order to assess the characteristics...

  8. Construction quality assurance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project

  9. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    " in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk....... It proposes that the expert bureaucratic practice of classification legitimizes (i) the valorisation that was made in the drafting of the assessment framework for the classification, and (ii) political operationalization when enacted that might have (non-)distributive implications for the allocation of public...

  10. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  11. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  12. Industry Studies 2002: Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project...Bechtel Corporation (IBM Plant Construction Site), Shanghai American Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibit, Shanghai 3 INTRODUCTION The...of states have or are working on a statewide or agency-wide privatization plan , including California, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan and

  13. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  14. Improving construction performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Design for Constructability's overall purpose was to identify and address changes in the nuclear industry to restore nuclear energy as an attractive option for new generating capacity. As the centerpiece of project control, a comprehensive, stable schedule should organize the project logically to accomplish the project's objectives. A good schedule will: integrate the project team; serve as a communications tool to all members of the project team; and provide a means to monitor and measure project performance

  15. NRC Construction Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This presentation deals with the domestic and international construction experience sources. From the domestic (USA) point of view, the sources are event notifications, non-compliance reports, inspection reports, etc. Internationally, the presentation highlights the following sources: IRS and ConEx reports, Nuclear Events Web Based System (NEWS), bilateral agreements, MDEP, etc. It also mentions and describes briefly reported on concrete, rebar, fabrication and digital issues

  16. Toward a constructive physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2..pi..Gm/sub p//sup 2/) approx. = 1.7 x 10/sup 38/). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved.

  17. Toward a constructive physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2πGm/sub p/ 2 ) approx. = 1.7 x 10 38 ). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved

  18. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  19. Toward construction of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the past years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Negotiators have developed a draft Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for completion following the nomination of the Project's Director General (DG). The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organizational preparations. The actual construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organization will be established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is now strongly supported by all the participants as well as by the scientific community with the final high-level negotiations, focused on siting and the concluding details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. The extent to which they both wish to host the ITER facility is such that large contributions to a broader collaboration among the Parties are also proposed by them. This covers complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, as well as may allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting. (author)

  20. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  1. Radioactive materials in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank; Kaltz, Andrea Christine

    2014-01-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  2. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  3. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor construction comprising a reactor core submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel which is suspended from the roof structure of a containment vault. Control rods supported from the roof structure are insertable in the core which is carried on a support structure from the wall of the primary vessel. To prevent excessive relaxation of the support structure whereby the control rods would be displaced relative to the core, the support structure incorporates a normally inactive secondary structure designed to become effective in bracing the primary structure against further relaxation beyond a predetermined limit. (author)

  4. Constructive approach to supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.; Urrutia, L.F.; Finkelstein, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from a first-order formulation of the Lagrangian of noninteracting massless helicity-2 and helicity-3/2 particles, global supersymmetry transformations are deduced. Then, allowing the supersymmetry transformations to become local requires, if supersymmetry is to be maintained, the introduction of a unique primitive interaction through the 'gravitino' stress tensor and torsion. Finally, the imposition of exact supersymmetry invariance leads by a short, constructive process to full supergravity and the complete form of the super-symmetry transformations. In particular, no explicit use is made of general coordinate invariance, and the self-consistency of the gravitational coupling emerges from the local supersymmetry requirement alone. (author)

  5. Reactor PIK construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, Kir

    2003-01-01

    The construction work at the 100 MW researches reactor PIK in year 2002 was in progress. The main activity was concentrated on mechanical, ventilation and electrical equipment. Some systems and subsystems are under adjustment. Hydraulic driving gear for beam shutters are finished in installation, rinsing, and adjusting. Regulating rods test assembling was done. On the critical assembly the first reactor fueling was tested to evaluate the starting neutron source intensity and a sufficiency of existing control and instrument board. Mainline of the PIK facility design and neutron parameters are presented. (author)

  6. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  7. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment Preditores clínicos e biológicos da evolução para doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease during follow-up (odds ratio = 4.5, CI95% [1.3-13.6], p = 0.010. At baseline, older age, lower scores on memory tests and presence of the APOE*4 allele predicted the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. In a sub sample of amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease had lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42, p = 0.020 and higher concentrations of total TAU (p = 0.030 and phosphorylated TAU (p = 0.010, as compared to non-converters. DISCUSSION: This is the first Brazilian study to report cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the prediction of the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Our data are in accordance with those reported in other settings. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid total-TAU, phospho-TAU and Aβ42 may help identify patients with mild cognitive impairment at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.OBJETIVO: A identificação de preditores da conversão para a doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve é relevante para o manejo clínico e para decidir sobre a prescrição de drogas antidemência. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal em coorte de indivíduos idosos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e controles saudáveis; estimativa do risco da progressão para doença de Alzheimer nos dois grupos; determinação das vari

  8. Assessing the sustainable construction of large construction companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nasrun, Mohd Nawi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Considering the increasing concerns for the consideration of sustainability issues in construction project delivery within the construction industry, this paper assesses the extent of sustainable construction among Malaysian large contractors, in order to ascertain the level of the industry's impacts on both the environment and the society. Sustainable construction explains the construction industry's responsibility to efficiently utilise the finite resources while also reducing construction impacts on both humans and the environment throughout the phases of construction. This study used proportionate stratified random sampling to conduct a field study with a sample of 172 contractors out of the 708 administered questionnaires. Data were collected from large contractors in the eleven states of peninsular Malaysia. Using the five-level rating scale (which include: 1= Very Low; 2= Low; 3= Moderate; 4= High; 5= Very High) to describe the level of sustainable construction of Malaysian contractors based on previous studies, statistical analysis reveals that environmental, social and economic sustainability of Malaysian large contractors are high.

  9. Innovations in nuclear concrete constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The technical requirements and scope of concrete work on nuclear projects present significant engineering and construction challenges. These demands represent the extremes in many areas of construction operations. In meeting these challenges, engineering and construction forces have developed several innovations which can be beneficially applied to other types of construction. Innovative approaches in the general categories of engineering scope, construction input to engineering, work planning, special methods and techniques, and satisfaction of quality assurance requirements are given in this paper. The transfer of this technology to other segments of the construction industry will improve overall performance by avoiding the problem areas encountered on nuclear projects

  10. Desempenho e características do sêmen de galos leves submetidos a diferentes fotoperíodos Performance and semen characteristics of light roosters submitted to different photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Patrícia Maciel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fotoperíodos sobre o desempenho e características do sêmen de galos de linhagem leve, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram utilizados 24 galos da linhagem Lohman LSL com idade inicial de 19 semanas, sendo os mesmos submetidos a 3 tratamentos: 1 fotoperíodo contínuo; 2 fotoperíodo intermitente e 3 fotoperíodo natural crescente. As aves foram alojadas em galpão dividido em 3 ambientes, de forma que a iluminação de um, não interferisse na do outro. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 8 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída de 1 galo. O período experimental teve duração de 20 semanas e as variáveis avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (g/ave/dia; peso corporal (g; produção de sêmen (ml, motilidade (% e vigor espermáticos (0 a 5, concentração espermática (número de células x 10(9, número de células de sêmen totais (NCT- volume x concentração e morfologia espermática (alterações de cabeça, cauda e alterações totais. Os galos submetidos ao fotoperíodo contínuo apresentaram maior consumo de ração (P0,05 dos fotoperíodos sobre as demais variáveis. Concluiu-se que os fotoperíodos contínuo, intermitente ou natural crescente podem ser utilizados em galpões abertos para galos leves durante o período reprodutivo, sem prejuízo às características do sêmen.With the aim of evaluating the effects of different photoperiods on the performance and semen characteristics in roosters of light strains, an experiment was carried out at Animal Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. A total of 24 roosters of the Lohman LSL strain (light, aged 19 weeks was used, they themselves being submitted to 3 treatments: 1 continuous photoperiod; 2 intermittent photoperiod and 3 growing natural photoperiod. The birds were housed in a shelter divided into 3

  11. Avaliação de programas de iluminação sobre o desempenho zootécnico de poedeiras leves Evaluation of lightning programs upon the performance of white egg layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge de Freitas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de programas de iluminação sobre o desempenho zootécnico de poedeiras leves ao final de produção, em experimento realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA. Foram testados um programa de iluminação intermitente e outro com apenas iluminação natural, em dias de luminosidade crescente, em comparação com um programa contínuo com a utilização de 288 poedeiras leves da linhagem Leghorn branca. As aves foram alojadas em galpão dividido em 3 ambientes, por lona de plástico preta, de forma que a iluminação de um não interferisse na dos outros. Cada ambiente experimental apresentou 32 gaiolas nas quais foram alojadas 96 galinhas. Foi realizado um período pré-experimental de 28 dias. O período experimental teve duração de 112 dias, em que avaliou-se o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso e a massa dos ovos e a conversão alimentar por massa de ovos. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com restrição nos tratamentos, e oito repetições. As aves submetidas ao programa de iluminação intermitente e iluminação natural consumiram (P0,05 nos programas de iluminação testados. A produção e a massa de ovos foi maior (PThis experiment was conducted with objective to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for light at the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Lavras . An intermittent lighting program and another with only natural lighting on days of increasing lighting as compared with a continuous program by utilizing 288 light layers were tested. The hens were keept in a house divided into three environments in such a way the lighting of one did not interfere with that of the other one. The experimental period lasted 112 days , divided into four periods of 28 days. The design utilized was the completely randomized with restriction in the treatments and eight replicates. The means of the treatments were compared with the

  12. Utilizating various levels of metionine+cystine on rations of laying hens up 45 weeks of age Níveis de metionina+cistina no desempenho de poedeiras comerciais leves com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in the Aviary of Experimental Farm of Iguatemi of the State University of Maringá (FEI/UEM, with the objective of studying the needs in sulfur amino acids for hens. 200 hens were used above 45 weeks, in 4 cycles of 28 days each. The treatments consisted on a basal ration with 16.0% PB and 2,850 kcal EM/kg, supplement with 5 TSAA levels (0.52; 0.57; 0.62; 0.67 and 0.72%. The variables studied were ration consumption and of TSAA; production, weight, and internal quality of the eggs, weight of the peel of the eggs, specific gravity and feed conversion. The completely randomized design, was used with 5 treatments, 5 repetitions and 8 birds for experimental unit. The data were submitted the regression analysis by the system SAS®. In the conditions in that the experiment was accomplished, there was a growing lineal increase in the medium weight of the eggs, when were increased the levels of sulfur amino acids in the ration. For eggs quality, peel percentage and Haugh units (UH, there was not significant difference (P>0.05. Production of eggs was converted for posture percentage and alimentary conversion (kg/kg and kg/dz, they didn't also have difference (P>0.05.Objetivando-se estudar as necessidades em aminoácidos sulfurados para poedeiras comerciais leves, utilizaram-se 200 poedeiras leves com 45 semanas de idade, em 4 períodos de 28 dias cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração basal com 16,0% PB e 2.850 kcal EM/kg, suplementada com 5 níveis de metionina+cistina (met+cis (0,52; 0,57; 0,62; 0,67 e 0,72%. As variáveis estudadas foram consumo de ração (CR, consumo de met+cis (CM, conversão alimentar (CA, produção de ovos (PO, peso dos ovos (PE, qualidade interna dos ovos (QI, peso da casca dos ovos (PC, porcentagem de casca dos ovos (CO, gravidade específica (GE e Unidades Haugh (UH. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos, 5 repetições e 8 aves por unidade

  13. Probabilistic pathway construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofshahi, Mona; Lee, Kyongbum; Hassoun, Soha

    2011-07-01

    Expression of novel synthesis pathways in host organisms amenable to genetic manipulations has emerged as an attractive metabolic engineering strategy to overproduce natural products, biofuels, biopolymers and other commercially useful metabolites. We present a pathway construction algorithm for identifying viable synthesis pathways compatible with balanced cell growth. Rather than exhaustive exploration, we investigate probabilistic selection of reactions to construct the pathways. Three different selection schemes are investigated for the selection of reactions: high metabolite connectivity, low connectivity and uniformly random. For all case studies, which involved a diverse set of target metabolites, the uniformly random selection scheme resulted in the highest average maximum yield. When compared to an exhaustive search enumerating all possible reaction routes, our probabilistic algorithm returned nearly identical distributions of yields, while requiring far less computing time (minutes vs. years). The pathways identified by our algorithm have previously been confirmed in the literature as viable, high-yield synthesis routes. Prospectively, our algorithm could facilitate the design of novel, non-native synthesis routes by efficiently exploring the diversity of biochemical transformations in nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  15. Construction of Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenichi; Ogiso, Zenichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nishida, Masaaki; Tateishi, Yoshinori; Mishima, Tsuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    The construction works was started in January, 1983. The main works can be divided into (1) the construction of the roads to the site including the repair of the prefectural road, (2) the preparation of the land for temporary installation outside the site, (3) the creation of the site, the excavation for building foundations, the change of the stream in the site, and the land side works of water intake and discharge facilities, (4) the sea area works of bank revetment, breakwaters and unloading quay, and (5) the manufacture of caissons and blocks in the Technoport Fukui about 60 km distant from the site. The main buildings are those for the reactor, reactor auxiliaries, maintenance and waste treatment, diesel engines, and the turbine. The aseismatic structure, the coolant temperature if it leaks were the main considerations. The manufacture, transport and installation of machinery and equipment are reported. The sodium of about 1700 t was imported from France. The MOX fuel for initial charge was produced, and the pellets were filled smoothly. (K.I.)

  16. Constructal vascularized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  17. Scene construction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic future thinking. 24 participants with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were asked to imagine new fictitious experiences and described their mental representations of the scenes in as much detail as possible. Descriptions were scored according to various dimensions (e.g., sensory details, spatial reference), and participants also provided ratings of their subjective experience when imagining the scenes (e.g., their sense of presence, the perceived similarity of imagined events to past experiences). Imagined scenes contained less phenomenological details (d = 1.11) and were more fragmented (d = 2.81) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Furthermore, positive symptoms were positively correlated to the sense of presence (r = .43) and the perceived similarity of imagined events to past episodes (r = .47), whereas negative symptoms were negatively related to the overall richness of the imagined scenes (r = -.43). The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' impairments in remembering the past and imagining the future are, at least in part, due to deficits in the process of scene construction. The relationships between the characteristics of imagined scenes and positive and negative symptoms could be related to reality monitoring deficits and difficulties in strategic retrieval processes, respectively. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Microgripper construction kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengenbach, Ulrich K.; Hofmann, Andreas; Engelhardt, Friedhelm; Scharnowell, Rudolf; Koehler, Bernd

    2001-10-01

    A large number of microgrippers has been developed in industry and academia. Although the importance of hybrid integration techniques and hence the demand for assembly tools grows continuously a large part of these developments has not yet been used in industrial production. The first grippers developed for microassembly were basically vacuum grippers and downscaled tweezers. Due to increasingly complex assembly tasks more and more functionality such as sensing or additional functions such as adhesive dispensing has been integrated into gripper systems over the last years. Most of these gripper systems are incompatible since there exists no standard interface to the assembly machine and no standard for the internal modules and interfaces. Thus these tools are not easily interchangeable between assembly machines and not easily adaptable to assembly tasks. In order to alleviate this situation a construction kit for modular microgrippers is being developed. It is composed of modules with well defined interfaces that can be combined to build task specific grippers. An abstract model of a microgripper is proposed as a tool to structure the development of the construction kit. The modular concept is illustrated with prototypes.

  19. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico sob sistemas de aléias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de carbono orgânico (COT do solo, matéria orgânica leve (MOL em água e as frações oxidáveis do COT em uma área de cultivo de milho em aléias de Flemingia macrophylla submetida a diferentes manejos de sua parte aérea. A área de estudo está localizada na “Fazendinha Agroecológica”, no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O desenho experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 3 tratamentos e 8 repetições, consistindo dos seguintes tratamentos: testemunha (cultivo de milho com ausência de aléias; cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias com poda de 0,6 m de altura e cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias sem poda. Em cada uma das áreas foram coletadas amostras compostas nas profundidades de 0-5 cm. A presença de aléias, bem como, as podas realizadas em Flemingia macrophylla na área que essa encontrava-se associada ao cultivo de milho não alterou o teor de COT do solo. No entanto, a utilização dos caules e das folhas como adubo verde oriunda do tratamento onde se realizou a poda da parte aérea das aléias de Flemingia macrophylla, proporcionou ao solo aumento dos teores de MOL, Conteúdo de C da MOL e da fração F1.

  20. Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diet containing radish cake (Raphanus sativusDesempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais leves submetidas a dietas contendo torta de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effects of different levels of radish cake (0, 5, 10 and 20% in laying hens rations on performance parameters and qualitative and sensorial characteristics of egg. A total of 240 light laying hens, with 52 to 60 weeks of age, standartized according the weight and laying performance distributed a completely randomized design, with six repetitions with eight birds per unit, were used. The experiment was conducted during eight weeks, subdivided within four periods of two weeks. There was effect of radish cake (P O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão da torta de nabo forrageiro, TNBF, (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% na ração sobre os parâmetros produtivos e qualidade dos ovos de galinhas poedeiras. Foram utilizadas 240 poedeiras comerciais leves, entre 52 e 60 semanas de idade, uniformizadas por peso e postura, dispostas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições de oito aves por tratamento. O experimento teve duração de oito semanas, dividido em quatro períodos de duas semanas cada. Houve efeito da TNBF (P < 0,05 sobre o consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, massa dos ovos, índices de cor e avaliação sensorial. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para conversão alimentar e peso dos ovos. O uso da torta de nabo forrageiro na ração de galinhas poedeiras afeta negativamente os parâmetros produtivos e a qualidade sensorial dos ovos.

  1. Construction inspection manual of procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides highway construction personnel with relevant, practical information in order to perform accurate inspections and provide relevant construction procedural information for the various roadway and structures items of work. It is the...

  2. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  3. Priorities in Construction IT Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarslev, Axel

    1999-01-01

    Gives the results of a survey of the use and needs of research in IT in relation to construction......Gives the results of a survey of the use and needs of research in IT in relation to construction...

  4. Construction of SPring-8 LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Yanagida, Ken-ichi; Mizuno, Akihiko; Hori, Toshihiko; Tamezane, Kenji; Kodera, Masahiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Mashiko, Katsuo

    1993-01-01

    Construction of the linac building has been started in February 1993. The components of the linac are under manufacturing. The preinjector of linac was already constructed and temporarily installed in Tokai Establishment in order to test the beam quality. (author)

  5. Quantitative Identification of Construction Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprowicz T.

    2017-01-01

    Risks pertaining to construction work relate to situations in which various events may randomly change the duration and cost of the project or worsen its quality. Because of possible significant changes of random events, favorable, moderate, and difficult conditions of construction work are considered. It is the first stage of the construction risk analysis. The probabilistic parameters of construction are identified and described by using the design characteristics model of the structure and...

  6. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  7. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated......, critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide......The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced...

  8. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  9. TOTEM Construction Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winter technical stop saw the final steps of the installation of the TOTEM experiment. After 8 years of development, the inelastic telescope T1 was successfully installed inside CMS at both sides of the interaction point. This detector joins the previously installed inelastic telescope T2 and the Roman Pots (147m and 220m from the CMS interaction point) to study both elastic and inelastic proton scattering.   The Genova team who designed and built the detector in front of the '+' arm of the T1 telescope after final insertion. All the detector chambers were assembled at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Major contributions to the construction of the support structure and the installation process came from CERN. “Installing the T1 detector was an important milestone for TOTEM,” says Joachim Baechler, Technical Coordinator for TOTEM. Enrico Robutti from Genova, responsible for the T1 project, added: "The T1 detector was carefully installed ...

  10. Perturbative and constructive renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, P.A. Faria da

    2000-01-01

    These notes are a survey of the material treated in a series of lectures delivered at the X Summer School Jorge Andre Swieca. They are concerned with renormalization in Quantum Field Theories. At the level of perturbation series, we review classical results as Feynman graphs, ultraviolet and infrared divergences of Feynman integrals. Weinberg's theorem and Hepp's theorem, the renormalization group and the Callan-Symanzik equation, the large order behavior and the divergence of most perturbation series. Out of the perturbative regime, as an example of a constructive method, we review Borel summability and point out how it is possible to circumvent the perturbation diseases. These lectures are a preparation for the joint course given by professor V. Rivasseau at the same school, where more sophisticated non-perturbative analytical methods based on rigorous renormalization group techniques are presented, aiming at furthering our understanding about the subject and bringing field theoretical models to a satisfactory mathematical level. (author)

  11. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    projects - among others - from ARC are included: Soft Structures builds upon of a series of experimental use of EPS hot wire cutting, where the EPS eventually act as formwork for concrete casting. The processing of the EPS is distinct and delimited by the behaviour and form of both the robot and tool...... of steel and concrete makes it a reliable approach to many challenges in the realisation of buildings. Rebar Inside Out attempts to rethink the possibilities of the reinforced concrete composite starting from its inside. This means starting with the reinforcing steel, the production and shaping of this......, and then through that process build a workflow for the production of the concrete composite. It also means letting the steel out of the concrete, thereby positioning the two materials in a transnational relationship between steel construction and concrete composite....

  12. Derailed self-constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the construction of self amongst a group of young boys in Denmark who have had experience with eating disorders, self- harm, loneli-ness and other manifestations of a lack of well- being. At first glance, these manifestations of a lack of well- being seem rather distinct...... and incomparable, but they have in common the fact that the young boys who have had these experiences say that they are due to personal faults and imperfections. In other words, they are related to problematizing thematizations of the self. In the chapter, we investigate these problematizing thematizations...... and explore the ways that young boys understand and experience the self, and how they link this self to their lack of well-being. As will become apparent, fear of marginalization seems to be an important part of this connection: The young boys are struggling to live up to expectations in an increasingly...

  13. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  14. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  15. Constructing Data Curation Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief literature review and then introduces the methods, design, and construction of the Data Curation Profile, an instrument that can be used to provide detailed information on particular data forms that might be curated by an academic library. These data forms are presented in the context of the related sub-disciplinary research area, and they provide the flow of the research process from which these data are generated. The profiles also represent the needs for data curation from the perspective of the data producers, using their own language. As such, they support the exploration of data curation across different research domains in real and practical terms. With the sponsorship of the Institute of Museum and Library Services, investigators from Purdue University and the University of Illinois interviewed 19 faculty subjects to identify needs for discovery, access, preservation, and reuse of their research data. For each subject, a profile was constructed that includes information about his or her general research, data forms and stages, value of data, data ingest, intellectual property, organization and description of data, tools, interoperability, impact and prestige, data management, and preservation. Each profile also presents a specific dataset supplied by the subject to serve as a concrete example. The Data Curation Profiles are being published to a public wiki for questions and discussion, and a blank template will be disseminated with guidelines for others to create and share their own profiles. This study was conducted primarily from the viewpoint of librarians interacting with faculty researchers; however, it is expected that these findings will complement a wide variety of data curation research and practice outside of librarianship and the university environment.

  16. Construction Management of Electromechanical Engineering Project in Petrochemical Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Tao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industry as a basic industry, occupies a pivotal position in the national economy, with the continuous development of science and technology, electromechanical automation in the petrochemical industry has been widely used to save a lot of labor but also greatly improve the oil Chemical industry production efficiency. Therefore, in the construction of petrochemical industry, mechanical and electrical engineering as part of it. It plays a vital role. Petrochemical industry with the production of high temperature and high pressure and flammable and explosive gas, can strengthen the construction of mechanical and electrical engineering specialization and construction management of scientific, has become the relationship between the smooth development of mechanical and electrical engineering and engineering quality of the key, A direct impact on the petrochemical construction of the overall construction quality. To this end, it is necessary for the construction of petrochemical construction of electromechanical engineering construction management to promote the construction of mechanical and electrical engineering management level gradually increased. This article on the machine Electric engineering project construction management were discussed with a view to the petrochemical construction in the relevant aspects of the need to provide reference for reference.

  17. Prefabrication in Building Construction: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry is facing many problems in terms of construction waste, quality, environment, durability, safety and higher construction cost. Adoption of prefabrication is a possible solution to such problems. Accordingly, there is a need to study the prospects that would stimulate the appropriate discussion of the suitability of prefabrication and other construction methods for concrete buildings. Therefore, this study investigates the significance of advantages in adopting prefabrication along with hindrances through questionnaire survey. The data has been analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method as a MCDM approach. The results depict that main advantages of prefabrication are ?Shorter construction time? and ?Less construction site waste?. The top hindrances in adopting prefabrication as identified in this study are: ?Higher initial construction cost? and ?Inflexible for design changes?. Based on the survey results and apparent progress in the adoption of prefabrication around the world, it is concluded that the use of prefabrication is likely to increase in developing countries like Pakistan

  18. Prefabrication in building construction: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, F.A.; Khehro, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Construction industry is facing many problems in terms of construction waste, quality, environment, durability, safety and higher construction cost. Adoption of prefabrication is a possible solution to such problems. Accordingly, there is a need to study the prospects that would stimulate the appropriate discussion of the suitability of prefabrication and other construction methods for concrete buildings. Therefore, this study investigates the significance of advantages in adopting prefabrication along with hindrances through questionnaire survey. The data has been analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method as a MCDM approach. The results depict that main advantages of prefabrication are Shorter construction time and Less construction site waste. The top hindrances in adopting prefabrication as identified in this study are: Higher initial construction cost and Inflexible for design changes. Based on the survey results and apparent progress in the adoption of prefabrication around the world, it is concluded that the use of prefabrication is likely to increase in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  19. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  20. Análise de variáveis fisiológicas de adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico de asma leve intermitente ou leve persistente quando submetidos a hipóxia aguda e teste de esforço máximo Analysis of physiological variables during acute hypoxia and maximal stress test in adolescents clinically diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Maldonado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar variáveis fisiológicas de adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico de asma quando submetidos a teste de hipóxia aguda e de esforço máximo. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal composto por 48 adolescentes (12-14 anos, divididos em três grupos: 12 no grupo asma leve intermitente (ALI, 12 no grupo asma leve persistente (ALP e 24 no grupo controle. Todos foram submetidos a teste de hipóxia aguda e a teste de esforço máximo. Características antropométricas foram coletadas, e variáveis funcionais foram determinadas antes e após o teste de esforço máximo. Em condições de hipóxia aguda, foram registrados o tempo de descida e o tempo de recuperação de SpO2 durante repouso. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas variáveis antropométricas nem nas variáveis ventilatórias durante o teste de esforço entre os grupos. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas na pressão de oxigênio com 50% de saturação da hemoglobina antes do teste e na PaO2 antes do teste entre os grupos ALP e controle (p = 0,0279 e p = 0,0116, respectivamente, assim como na tensão de extração de oxigênio antes do teste entre os grupos ALI e ALP (p = 0,0419. Não houve diferenças significativas nos tempos de SpO2 em quaisquer das condições estudadas. O consumo de oxigênio e a eficiência da respiração foram semelhantes entre os grupos. O uso de um broncodilatador não trouxe vantagens nos resultados no teste de hipóxia. Não foram encontradas correlações entre o teste de hipóxia e as variáveis fisiológicas. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem que os adolescentes com asma leve persistente têm uma melhor capacidade de adaptação à hipóxia comparado aos com outros tipos de asma.OBJECTIVE: To analyze adolescents clinically diagnosed with asthma, in terms of the physiological changes occurring during acute hypoxia and during a maximal stress test. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross

  1. Advanced construction methods in ACR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Choy, E.; Yu, S.K.W.

    2002-01-01

    The ACR - Advanced CANDU Reactor, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is designed with constructability considerations as a major requirement during all project phases from the concept design stage to the detail design stage. This necessitated a much more comprehensive approach in including constructability considerations in the design to ensure that the construction duration is met. For the ACR-700, a project schedule of 48 months has been developed for the nth replicated unit with a 36 month construction period duration from First Concrete to Fuel Load. An overall construction strategy that builds on the success of the construction methods that are proven in the construction of the Qinshan CANDU 6 project has been developed for the ACR. The overall construction strategy comprises the 'Open Top' construction technique using a Very Heavy Lift crane, parallel construction activities, with extensive modularization and prefabrication. In addition, significant applications of up to date construction technology will be implemented, e.g. large volume concrete pours, prefabricated rebar, use of climbing forms, composite structures, prefabricated permanent formwork, automatic welding, and utilization of the latest electronic technology tools such as 3D CADDs modelling yields a very high quality, clash free product to allow construction to be completed 'right the first time' and eliminates rework. Integration of 3D CADDs models and scheduling tools such as Primavera has allowed development of actual construction sequences and an iterative approach to schedule verification and improvement. Modularization and prefabrication are major features of the ACR design in order to achieve the project schedule. For the reactor building approximately 80% of the volume will be installed as modules or prefabricated assembles. This ensures critical path activities are achieved. This paper examines the advanced construction methods implemented in the design in order to

  2. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incursion into the plant site. (b) Berm construction: Berms, including any pond walls, dikes, low dams and... that pollutant materials removed from the process water and wastewater streams will be retained in... continue their effectiveness and to protect from unexpected and catastrophic failure. ...

  3. Construction industry in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moavenzadeh, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the construction capability available in the developing countries to meet the demand for shelter. It discusses the role of construction in the process of development and its importance to economic growth. It considers the issue facing the growth of a viable indigenous construction industry in the developing world within the context of the activities involved in the creation of constructed facilities--planning, design, contruction and maintenance; it also examines the environment within which the industry has developed. For each construction activity the paper reviews available capabilities, the various resources needed for the development of an indigenous industry, and some possible means of accommodating these needs.

  4. Social cost in construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çelik, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.celik@emu.edu.tr [Department of Civil Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, T.R. North Cyprus, Via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Kamali, Saeed, E-mail: saeedkamali2002@gmail.com [Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Arayici, Yusuf, E-mail: yusuf.arayici@hku.edu.tr [Department of Civil Engineering, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that completion of construction projects has a direct positive impact on the growth of national and local economies as well as humans' wellbeing, construction projects, especially in the urban areas, generate serious environmental nuisances for the adjacent residents and have unintentional adverse impacts on their surrounding environment. Construction causative adverse impacts on the neighbouring communities are known as the social costs. This study aims to present a state-of-the-art overview of social costs in construction industry in terms of definition, consideration, classification and quantification. Furthermore, it is aimed to bring the construction social cost phenomenon for the agenda of Environmental Impact Assessors.

  5. Social cost in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Tolga; Kamali, Saeed; Arayici, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that completion of construction projects has a direct positive impact on the growth of national and local economies as well as humans' wellbeing, construction projects, especially in the urban areas, generate serious environmental nuisances for the adjacent residents and have unintentional adverse impacts on their surrounding environment. Construction causative adverse impacts on the neighbouring communities are known as the social costs. This study aims to present a state-of-the-art overview of social costs in construction industry in terms of definition, consideration, classification and quantification. Furthermore, it is aimed to bring the construction social cost phenomenon for the agenda of Environmental Impact Assessors.

  6. Research on construction quality and improvement of assembly construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Based on the acceleration of the urbanization process and the improvement of the quality of life of our residents, the demand for building construction has been increasing. In this context, the construction industry in order to promote the construction efficiency, quality improvement, to meet the needs of the development of the times to strengthen the new technology, the use of new technologies. At present, China’s engineering construction units in the process of carrying out the project to strengthen the use of assembly-type construction technology, which thus achieved for the traditional construction work low-level, high time-consuming issues, and promote the steady improvement of production efficiency. Based on this, this paper focuses on the analysis of the connotation of the assembly structure and analyzes the quality problems in the construction process of the construction projects and puts forward the improvement measures to promote the improvement of the building quality and the construction of the building Construction speed. Based on this, this paper analyzes the structural system and design of prefabricated building.

  7. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  8. Political construction of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheze, A.A.A. de la.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970s radioactive waste disposal became a controversial scientific and social issue in the United States, after the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) charged with the development, regulation and promotion of nuclear technology, had tried to implement its disposal technology near Lyons, Kansas. This study traces the emergence of this controversy as part of the long-term development of the US radioactive waste disposal technology. Radioactive waste was not always considered a problem, and different meanings were attached to radwaste in the 1940s and early 1950s. Problem definitions and technical designs that underlaid this technology can be reconstructed, and its possible to show how some definitions received attention and others not, and how some became, and remained, dominant. During the process of problem definition, views compete, agendas are built, resources are allocated, and boundaries are created and maintained between 'inside' and 'outside world'. This is a political process, and by heuristically using concepts from political science and recent technology studies, the Political Construction of US radioactive waste disposal technologically can be reconstructed. (author). 301 refs.; 3 figs.; 15 tabs

  9. Causes of Construction Delays in Qatar Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Gunduz; Mohanad H. A. AbuHassan

    2016-01-01

    Construction industry mainly focuses on the superstructure, infrastructure, and oil and gas industry. The development of infrastructure projects in developing countries attracted a lot of foreign construction contractors, consultants, suppliers and diversified workforce to interfere and to be evolved in such huge investment. Reducing worksite delays in such projects require knowledge and attention. Therefore, it is important to identify the influencing delay attributes affecting construction ...

  10. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2014-01-01

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  11. Sustainable Construction Risk Perceptions in the Kuwaiti Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalya Ismael

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is fundamentally different than traditional construction because it requires whole systems thinking, early collaboration across stakeholders, and core principles like reducing resource consumption, eliminating toxins, and applying life cycle costing. Construction professionals unfamiliar with this mindset and approach may perceive sustainable construction as risky. One of the global regions in need of more sustainable construction is the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA region. The MENA region is one of the fastest developing in the world. However, it is the slowest one in implementing sustainable construction practices. Kuwait, in particular, contributes 53% more carbon emissions per capita than the United States. To understand how the Kuwaiti construction industry perceives risks associated with more sustainable construction, a survey was developed with 52 risk elements in which 131 industry professionals responded. The results indicate that industry professionals perceive a lack of public awareness as the risk element with the highest probability of occurrence. The risk element with the highest possible negative impact on future projects is designers’ and contractors’ inexperience with sustainable construction. Other risks were found to include a high initial cost for materials and overall project costs. Educational interventions, changes in risk allocation, and behavioral science to reframe upfront costs as long-term savings are offered as possible solutions.

  12. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There is no single satisfactory way to measure productivity in the construction industry. The industry is too varied, too specialized and too dependent upon vast numbers of interrelations between trades, contractors, designers and owners. Hence, no universally reliable indices for measuring construction productivity has been developed. There are problems that are generic to all large union-built nuclear power plants. The actions of any one owner cannot rectify the shortcomings of the construction industry. The generic problems are being identified, and many national organizations are attempting to make the construction industry more productive by recommending various changes

  13. NHD Levee Centerlines, US, 2013, NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a feature-based database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the sream segments or reaches that comprise the...

  14. GMO is dood, lang leve de gentechniek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Nu de consument met geen stok aan de gmo-voeding is te krijgen, bloeit de aandacht voor klassieke veredeling op. Dit traditionele proces plukt echter ook de vruchten van gentech. Er kan gerichter veredeld worden, met als resultaat tropisch fruit dat niet bederft tijdens de verscheping, of wellicht

  15. Transient Seepage Analyses in Levee Engineering Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    and contractors in conventional engineering practice has outpaced the development of guidance documents and design recommendations. The major...ERDC TR-16-8 99 B.5 Final solution The final solution is obtained by first solving for ht from Equation B.5 as follows: t t tssˆh h h  (B

  16. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to respond to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Direction Letter (TDL) 02-003 (Waisley 2001), which directs Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) to complete a design study to recommend repository design options to support receipt and/or emplacement of any or all of the following: commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE-managed spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) (including naval spent nuclear fuel [SNF]), and immobilized plutonium (if available), as soon as practicable, but no later than 2010. From the possible design options, a recommended approach will be determined for further evaluation to support the preliminary design of the repository. This study integrates the results of the repository Design Evolution Study (Rowe 2002) with supporting studies concerning national transportation options (BSC 2002b) and Nevada transportation options (Gehner 2002). The repository Design Evolution Study documents the processes used to reevaluate the design, construction, operation, and cost of the repository in response to TDL 02-003 (Waisley 2001), and to determine possible repository conceptual design options. The transportation studies evaluate the national and Nevada transportation options that support the repository conceptual design options. An evaluation methodology was established, based on Program-level requirements developed for the study in reference BSC 2001a, to allow the repository and system design options to be evaluated on a consistent basis. The transportation options and the design components were integrated into system design implementation options, which were evaluated using receipt and emplacement scenarios. The scenarios tested the ability of the design concept to adapt to changes in funding, waste receipt rate, and Nevada rail transportation availability. The results of the evaluation (in terms of system throughput, cost, and schedule) were then compared to the Program-level requirements, and

  17. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA no rastreio de comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC pré-dialítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise de Andrade Paraizo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: Indivíduos com doença renal crônica (DRC têm grande risco de desenvolver comprometimento cognitivo (CC, inicialmente leve (CCL, passível de identificação, mas ainda subdiagnosticado e subtratado. O Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA vem sendo indicado para rastreio de CCL na DRC. Objetivo: Avaliar o CCL em indivíduos com DRC pré-dialítica. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado em 72 indivíduos, não idosos, com DRC nos estágios pré-dialíticos. A avaliação neuropsicológica incluiu: o teste de cognição global MoCA; o teste do relógio (TDR; o Digit Span ordem direta (DOD e inversa (DOI; o teste de fluência verbal (FV, fonêmica (FAS e semântica (animais; o punho-borda-mão (PBM; e de memória 10 figuras. Resultados: A média de idade dos participantes foi de 56,74 ± 7,63 anos, com predominância de homens (55,6%, com escolaridade ≥ 4 anos (84,3%, a maioria com DRC 1, 2 e 3a e 3b (67,6%, hipertensa (93,1% e diabética (52,1%. O CC (MoCA ≤ 24 foi observado em 73,6% dos usuários. Não encontramos associação das variáveis demográficas e clínicas com CC, mas tendência de associação com a idade (p = 0,07, com a escolaridade (p = 0,06 e com o DM (0,06. Os testes de função executiva, TDR, DOI e PBM, isoladamente, apresentaram boa sensibilidade e valor preditivo negativo comparados ao MoCA para a identificação de CC e, em conjunto, foram capazes de predizer o resultado do MoCA. Conclusão: O CCL é frequente em usuários não idosos com DRC pré-dialítica. O TDR, DOI e PBM associados são equivalentes ao MoCA na identificação do CC nessa população, sugerindo comprometimento de funções executivas.

  18. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas Fiscal Year 1987: The MCA range Construction, Pidcoke Land Exchange, and Phantom Range Projects. Archeological Resource Management Series Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    granted to Coryell County. 1930 Community Natural Gas Company provided service for 500 customers. 1935 Community Public Service provided electricity for...berm-girded ditch feature is noted, and domestic vegetation includes horehound and nopale . Observed artifacts include coarse earthenwares, undecorated

  19. Ansiedad y depresión en la esclerosis múltiple remitente-recidivante: relación con las alteraciones neuropsicológicas y la percepción subjetiva de deterioro cognitivo en pacientes con discapacidad mínima/leve.

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Olivares-Pérez; Antonieta Nieto-Barco; Moisés Betancort-Montesinos; Yaiza Pérez- Martín; Miguel Ángel Hernández-Pérez; José Barroso-Ribal

    2009-01-01

    Introducción. La ansiedad y la depresión son trastornos psiquiátricos vinculados a la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM). Sin embargo, la ansiedad no ha sido prácticamente estudiada. Objetivos. Examinar la asociación de ambos trastornos con el deterioro neuropsicológico y su contribución a la autopercepción de deterioro cognitivo. Sujetos y métodos. Se estudiaron 33 pacientes con EM Remitente-Recidivante y niveles de discapacidad mínima-leve. Instrumentos: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); ...

  20. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Construction Safety Forecast for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    cadwallader, lee charles

    2006-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is poised to begin its construction activity. This paper gives an estimate of construction safety as if the experiment was being built in the United States. This estimate of construction injuries and potential fatalities serves as a useful forecast of what can be expected for construction of such a major facility in any country. These data should be considered by the ITER International Team as it plans for safety during the construction phase. Based on average U.S. construction rates, ITER may expect a lost workday case rate of < 4.0 and a fatality count of 0.5 to 0.9 persons per year.

  2. Document management in engineering construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Bing

    2008-01-01

    Document management is one important part of systematic quality management, which is one of the key factors to ensure the construction quality. In the engineering construction, quality management and document management shall interwork all the time, to ensure the construction quality. Quality management ensures that the document is correctly generated and adopted, and thus the completeness, accuracy and systematicness of the document satisfy the filing requirements. Document management ensures that the document is correctly transferred during the construction, and various testimonies such as files and records are kept for the engineering construction and its quality management. This paper addresses the document management in the engineering construction based on the interwork of the quality management and document management. (author)

  3. Constructive Memory: Past and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adapti...

  4. ABWR construction experience in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Junichi; Miura, Jun; Saito, Fuyuki; Mori, Hiroya

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6 and 7 (K6 and 7) owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), have been in service since November 1996 and September 1997 respectively, and are the first ABWRs in the world. Hitachi, Ltd. and Toshiba Corporation took part in the projects and achieved safety construction in 52- month schedule from rock inspection to turnover in cooperation with TEPCO and other contractors with broad experience in BWRs. Taking advantage of experience of the Kashiwazaki construction, the ABWR construction methods realize to satisfy with requests from electric power companies and to fit site conditions. The Chubu Electric Power Company's Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 5 (Hamaoka 5) and Hokuriku Electric Power Company's Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 2 (Shika 2), which are ABWRs, completed rock inspection in May 2000 and June 2001 respectively, and are under construction. The ABWR construction methods are proved their validity through four actual construction projects. Safe constructions with the highest quality have been advanced thus further aiming at the introduction of the latest technologies and contributing to reduce plant construction costs and also to shorten schedule. (author)

  5. Constructing leadership identities through stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Hersted, Lone

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of leadership identities through stories found in four narrative interviews from a qualitative study and leadership development project based on social constructionism and action learning. We argue that leadership development and the construction of leadership...... that the concept of coauthoring is useful in developing leadership and leadership identities through reflexive dialogs and emerging stories....... identities in a postmodern paradigm are based on the negotiation and co-construction of meanings, relationships, and stories. The following questions are investigated: What happens when a group of leaders from different organizations construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct their identity as leaders through...

  6. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  7. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  8. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, ...

  9. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  10. New Ideas for School Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers' Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Present educators, architects, engineers, and building product manufacturers with a medium of common interest for discussion of mutual school construction problems, objectives, needs, ideas, capabilities and limitations. Contents include--(1) modern wood construction, (2) school room in a steel mill, (3) masonry in new school design, (4) the…

  11. Barriers of lean construction implementation in the Moroccan construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajjou, Mohamed Saad; Chafi, Anas

    2018-04-01

    Improving the production system performance has become a fundamental pillar that must be taken into consideration in the construction industry. Recent developments in the construction sector have led to renewed interest in new techniques of management. Lean Construction is a very effective approach that has gained a high popularity by its ability to eliminate waste and maximize the value for the customer. Although both developed and developing countries have gained large benefits by implementing Lean Construction approach, several experiences showed many barriers that are hindering its implementation especially in developing countries. This paper aims to assess the critical barriers to the successful implementation in the Moroccan construction industry. Based on a literature review, followed by an analysis of data collected from a questionnaire survey which targeted 330 practitioners in the Moroccan construction field, several barriers were identified as key barriers. The findings of this investigation revealed that there are significant barriers such as Lack of knowledge about Lean Construction concepts, Unskilled Human Resources, and insufficient financial resources.

  12. Construction method for plant facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Hirono, Hideharu; Kyoda, Shigeru; Hanawa, Minoru; Sato, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    A caisson structure is disposed on a construction site for facilities of nuclear power plants. A digging work is performed below the caisson structure and, simultaneous with the digging work, a construction of a base, construction of plant facilities including a building and installation of plant facility are performed on the caisson structure. Then, the caisson structure is sank together with the structures on a base rock in association with the progress of the digging work and secured on the base rock. When securing them on the base rock, a groove is formed to the base rock along tuyere of the caisson structure so that the tuyere and a ceiling portion of the caisson structure are in direct contact with the base rock. Since the construction for the containing building conducted on the caisson structure is performed simultaneous with the digging work conducted below the caisson structure, the term required for the construction of the plant facilities can greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  13. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  14. CRITICAL EVENTS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2009-01-01

    cause-effects of failures and defects in the construction industry by using an analytical approach (The bowtie model) which is developed in the accident research. Using this model clarifies the relationships within the chain of failures that causes critical events with undesirable consequences......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate....... In this way the causes of failures and the relationships between various failures are rendered visible. A large construction site was observed from start to finish as the empirical element in the research. The research focuses on all kinds of critical events identified throughout every phase during...

  15. Combinatorial designs constructions and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stinson, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    Created to teach students many of the most important techniques used for constructing combinatorial designs, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in combinatorial design theory. The text features clear explanations of basic designs, such as Steiner and Kirkman triple systems, mutual orthogonal Latin squares, finite projective and affine planes, and Steiner quadruple systems. In these settings, the student will master various construction techniques, both classic and modern, and will be well-prepared to construct a vast array of combinatorial designs. Design theory offers a progressive approach to the subject, with carefully ordered results. It begins with simple constructions that gradually increase in complexity. Each design has a construction that contains new ideas or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas previously introduced. A new text/reference covering all apsects of modern combinatorial design theory. Graduates and professionals in computer science, applie...

  16. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  17. Workshop presentation: research guidelines for Construction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alvise Bragadin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the European economic system challenges the construction sector to take part to industrial recovery of western countries. In co-operation with the Construction Production research group of the Tampere University of of research about construction management tools and methods were detected. Research guidelines: 1 Construction management: tools and methods to manage construction projects 2 environmental impact of construction projects 3 construction management and safety 4 project procurement 5 construction management for major public works & complex projects

  18. Case inflection of construct state constructions in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Dinka, a Nilo-Saharan language, is largely monosyllabic, but nevertheless it has a fairly rich morphology. Thus, most of its morphology is expressed by alternations in phonological material of the root. The inflectional categories of nouns manifested in this way include state and case in addition...... to number. The state category consists of an absolute state and two construct states. The case category includes a nominative, a genitive, an allative, and an essive/ablative. The present article shows how case inflection is manifested in complex noun phrases consisting of a noun in a construct state...... simultaneously carry state information and case information. Thus, the case inflection of construct state constructions in Dinka adds yet another layer of nonlinear morphology to nouns in this language....

  19. design and construction of design and construction of pilot scale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    construction of the extractor, evaporator, condensate receiver and the the extractor, evaporator ... The concept of overall heat transfer coefficient was adopted for calculating the heat ..... Evaporator. Residence time for evaporation = 14070.25s.

  20. Safety in construction industry - overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockalingam, S.; Nehru, R.M.; Ramprasad, K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry plays an important role in the social and economic development in a country. Safety in the construction industry is considered a major issue in developed and developing countries. In urban sector of India increasing numbers of workers have taken up construction work as a means of immediate employment, which provides cash earnings at the end of the day. Being as unorganized sector, the fatal injuries in DAE unit for the construction industry (Nuclear Power Project including BHAVINI: 62.7% from 1999 to 2014) is higher than the category for all other units (UCIL:13.3%; ECIL:6.7%; NFC and ZC: 4%; HWP: 2.7%; IREL:2.7%; Nuclear Power Plant: 2.7% etc., from 1999 to 2014). A variety hazards exist in the construction site. The best way to protect workers against workers against hazards is to control problems at the source. The problem regarding construction industry is not that the hazards and risks are unknown, but it very difficult to accurately identify in a constantly changing work environment. To prevent hazards at work, all possible hazards that may be encountered should be identified in advance through Job Hazard Analysis (JHA). The present scenario has deduced a fact that efficient Safety Management Techniques (SMT) are (essential for today's construction companies and adaptation of legal requirements including regulatory requirements and proactive safety management techniques will help organizations in providing a better workplace to its employees and reduce the accidents. (author)

  1. Constructibility assessment of APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Jae; Kang, Yong Chul; Lee, Jae Gon; Lim, Woo Sang

    2003-01-01

    APR1400 (formerly KNGR) development is one of national G-7 projects sponsored by government and KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD). It is an evolutionary standard reactor with the thermal output of 4000MWt and has been adopted for Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4. The government organizations, research institutes, universities and industries have participated in the project since 1992 along with KHNP, and the standard design certification program was issued in May 2002. The project set up the top-tier requirements about the safety, economy, operability and maintainability, and constructibility in the early design stage. The requirements have been evaluated periodically during the design process, and the results were reflected to the design. This paper describes the methods for constructibility enhancement and the results of schedule analysis to assure meeting construction duration target, which is set to 48 months from the first concrete pouring to the commercial operation on the condition that learning effects are maximized at Nth plant. To meet the target schedule, the design characteristics and constructibility studies such as new construction methods and construction schedule analysis were performed. The new construction methods presented here are over the top method for NSSS components, deck plate and steel from for concrete wall and slab, automatic welding for large bore piping, and modularization of components and structure, etc. (author)

  2. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  3. A theory of construction management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The links between theory and construction management (CM, and for that matter construction economics (CE, are not strong (see de Valence 2011. This may be one of the reasons why they have not gained complete acceptance as academic disciplines and are not seen as distinct branches of economics and management respectively. Another reason may be that products and production (the focus of management and economic theories respectively are not the same as projects and project management in general, and construction projects and CM in particular.

  4. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  5. Deposição de resíduos vegetais, matéria orgânica leve, estoques de Carbono e Nitrogênio e Fósforo remanescente sob diferentes sistemas de manejo no cerrado Goiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O sistema plantio direto (SPD, em função de seu tempo de estabelecimento, pode promover aumento na quantidade de resíduos vegetais adicionados à superfície do solo e, consequentemente, modificações nos seus atributos químicos e físicos. O trabalho teve por objetivo quantificar a deposição de resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo (RVS e as modificações nos teores de matéria orgânica leve (MOL, nos estoques de carbono e nitrogênio, nos teores de fósforo remanescente (Prem e nos atributos físicos do solo - densidade de partículas (Dp, densidade do solo (Ds e volume total de poros (VTP -, bem como avaliar a origem do carbono por meio de técnicas isotópicas (13C. Para isso, em Montividiu (GO foram selecionadas áreas sob SPD com diferentes tempos de implantação: SPD com três anos de implantação (SPD3, SPD com 15 anos de implantação (SPD15 e SPD com 20 anos de implantação (SPD20, as quais foram comparadas a uma área de Cerrado nativo stricto sensu (CE e a uma área de pastagem plantada de Brachiaria decumbens (PA. Em cada uma das áreas, foram coletadas amostras nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm. O solo das áreas de estudo foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Foi observado aumento nos teores de RVS, MOL, VTP, Prem, C e N em função do tempo de implantação do SPD. A área de SPD com 20 anos apresentou maiores valores de C e N e valores semelhantes de Ds e MOL, em relação ao CE. As análises de 13C demonstraram que as leguminosas estão contribuindo de forma significativa para a composição da matéria orgância nas áreas sob SPD. Nas áreas sob SPD, verificou-se aumento dos valores de estoque de C e de N em função do tempo de implantação em todas as profundidades analisadas; as áreas SPD15 e SPD20 apresentaram nas camadas superficiais valores semelhantes e, ou, superiores aos da área de CE. A área de PA apresentou os

  6. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e fósforo remanescente em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo Carbon, light organic matter and remaining phosphorus in different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de carbono orgânico total (COT, matéria orgânica leve (MOL e fósforo remanescente (Prem, em áreas de cerrado sob sistema de plantio direto com diferentes cultivos de coberturas do solo, e compará-los aos de áreas sob preparo convencional e pousio. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho, de agosto de 2000 a março de 2007. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas constituídas pelos cinco sistemas de manejo do solo avaliados - pousio, preparo convencional e plantio direto com uso dos cultivos de cobertura crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, milheto (Pennisetum americanum e braquiária (Urochloa brizantha -, e as subparcelas pelos cultivos de soja e milho. Em março de 2007, coletaram-se amostras de solo das profundidades 0,0-0,025, 0,025-0,05, 0,05-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, das quais foram quantificados COT, MOL, estoques de COT e Prem. Em áreas sob plantio direto, o aumento nos teores de MOL pode reduzir a adsorção de fósforo ao solo. Sistemas de manejo que não envolvem revolvimento do solo favorecem o aumento do estoque de carbono orgânico nas camadas superficiais, enquanto o preparo convencional e o plantio direto com uso do milheto como planta de cobertura propiciam a incorporação mais profunda do carbono.The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of total organic carbon (COT, light organic matter (MOL and remaining phosphorus (Prem on savanna areas under no tillage system using cover crops and to compare them to the ones observed under fallow and conventional tillage. The experiment was carried out in field conditions, in a Latossolo Vermelho (Rhodic Haplustox from August 2000 to March 2007. A randomized complete block design was used, in a split-plot arrangement, with plots consisting of the five soil management systems evaluated - fallow, conventional tillage, and no tillage using sunn hemp

  7. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo; Zhou, Shizhe; Liu, Ligang; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study

  8. Use sulfoferritic cements in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samchenko, Svetlana V.; Zorin, Dmitriy A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, high-rise construction has received increasing attention around the world. In the big cities under construction is less space and one solution is the high-rise construction. However, high-rise buildings use special requirements, such as strength, thermal insulation, wind load and others. When concrete is exposed to continuous loads by wind or to mechanical loads, it undergoes abrasion. Resistance to this process depends on the characteristics of materials that the concrete and finishing seams are made of. Research on increasing impact and abrasion resistance of calcium sulfoferrite-based cement stone from the perspective of formation of cement stone structure will be instrumental in developing durable materials for application in high-rise construction.

  9. Constructive memory: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-03-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

  10. The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

  11. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  12. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  13. IRT-based test construction

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Theunissen, T.J.J.M.; Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen; Kelderman, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Four discussions of test construction based on item response theory (IRT) are presented. The first discussion, "Test Design as Model Building in Mathematical Programming" (T.J.J.M. Theunissen), presents test design as a decision process under certainty. A natural way of modeling this process leads to mathematical programming. General models of test construction are discussed, with information about algorithms and heuristics; ideas about the analysis and refinement of test constraints are also...

  14. Construct Measurement in Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Far too often do management scholars resort to crude and often inappropriate measures of fundamental constructs in their research; an approach which calls in question the interpretation and validity of their findings. Scholars often legitimize poor choices in measurement with a lack of availability......, this research note raises important questions about the use of proxies in management research and argues for greater care in operationalizing constructs with particular attention to matching levels of theory and measurement....

  15. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  16. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.

  17. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksit Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing “greener” construction without making significant changes in the urban environment.

  18. Financial management of construction contractors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lacaria, Chris J.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to discuss the financial management of a construction contractor. This paper attempts to approach this subject in a logical and systematic way. It communicates the importance of financial analysis and planning along with cash planning and profit planning. This report is not intended to be an all inclusive discussion of financial management in construction. Contractor's Financial Management is an extremely important subject. It has been told ...

  19. Modern optimization in earthwork construction

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Manuel; Correia, A. Gomes; Cortez, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Earthworks tasks are often regarded in transportation projects as some of the most demanding processes. In fact, sequential tasks such as excavation, transportation, spreading and compaction are strongly based on heavy mechanical equipment and repetitive processes, thus becoming as economically demanding as they are time-consuming. Moreover, actual construction requirements originate higher demands for productivity and safety in earthwork constructions. Given the percentual weight of costs an...

  20. Housing and construction chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •The new residential and renovation construction markets in the US and the Eurozone were valued at $338.7 billion (305.5 billion euros) and $673.3 billion dollars (614.4 billion euros), respectively, in 2014. •In Europe, 55% of the value of the new residential and renovation construction markets in 2014 was in...

  1. Organizational analysis of construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Will

    1989-01-01

    This research project is about the analysis of construction project organizations. The work is based on organizational theory and is a development of Linear Responsibility Analysis (LRA). The aim is to assess the extent to which project success is affected by organizational structure. The analysis of four public sector case studies raises several issues. First is the need for a systematic model of describing and analysing construction project environments. A framework has been developed that ...

  2. ConStruct: Improved construction of RNA consensus structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steger Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aligning homologous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs correctly in terms of sequence and structure is an unresolved problem, due to both mathematical complexity and imperfect scoring functions. High quality alignments, however, are a prerequisite for most consensus structure prediction approaches, homology searches, and tools for phylogeny inference. Automatically created ncRNA alignments often need manual corrections, yet this manual refinement is tedious and error-prone. Results We present an extended version of CONSTRUCT, a semi-automatic, graphical tool suitable for creating RNA alignments correct in terms of both consensus sequence and consensus structure. To this purpose CONSTRUCT combines sequence alignment, thermodynamic data and various measures of covariation. One important feature is that the user is guided during the alignment correction step by a consensus dotplot, which displays all thermodynamically optimal base pairs and the corresponding covariation. Once the initial alignment is corrected, optimal and suboptimal secondary structures as well as tertiary interaction can be predicted. We demonstrate CONSTRUCT's ability to guide the user in correcting an initial alignment, and show an example for optimal secondary consensus structure prediction on very hard to align SECIS elements. Moreover we use CONSTRUCT to predict tertiary interactions from sequences of the internal ribosome entry site of CrP-like viruses. In addition we show that alignments specifically designed for benchmarking can be easily be optimized using CONSTRUCT, although they share very little sequence identity. Conclusion CONSTRUCT's graphical interface allows for an easy alignment correction based on and guided by predicted and known structural constraints. It combines several algorithms for prediction of secondary consensus structure and even tertiary interactions. The CONSTRUCT package can be downloaded from the URL listed in the Availability and

  3. Nuclear power plant containment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Danisch, R.; Strickroth, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Containment Construction includes the spherical steel safety enclosure for the reactor and the equipment associated with the reactor and requiring this type of enclosure. This steel enclosure is externally structurally protected against accident by a concrete construction providing a foundation for the steel enclosure and having a cylindrical wall and a hemispherical dome, these parts being dimensioned to form an annular space surrounding the spherical steel enclosure, the latter and the concrete construction heretofore being concentrically arranged with respect to each other. In the disclosed construction the two parts are arranged with their vertical axis horizontally offset from each other so that opposite to the offsetting direction of the concrete construction a relatively large space is formed in the now asymmetrical annular space in which reactor auxiliary equipment not requiring enclosure by the steel containment vessel or safety enclosure, may be located outside of the steel containment vessel and inside of the concrete construction where it is structurally protected by the latter

  4. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Workshop presentation: research guidelines for Construction Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alvise Bragadin

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the European economic system challenges the construction sector to take part to industrial recovery of western countries. In co-operation with the Construction Production research group of the Tampere University of of research about construction management tools and methods were detected. Research guidelines: 1) Construction management: tools and methods to manage construction projects 2) environmental impact of construction projects 3) construction management and safety 4) project p...

  6. Conceptual Model for Systematic Construction Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Mohd Hilmi Izwan; Kasim Narimah

    2017-01-01

    Development of the construction industry generated construction waste which can contribute towards environmental issues. Weaknesses of compliance in construction waste management especially in construction site have also contributed to the big issues of waste generated in landfills and illegal dumping area. This gives sign that construction projects are needed a systematic construction waste management. To date, a comprehensive criteria of construction waste management, particularly for const...

  7. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  8. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Relações entre controle executivo e memória episódica verbal no comprometimento cognitivo leve e na demência tipo Alzheimer Relationships between executive control and verbal episodic memory in the mild cognitive impairment and the Alzheimer-type dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou e relacionou o desempenho de idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve e Demência Tipo Alzheimer em testes de controle executivo e de memória episódica verbal. Para a avaliação da memória episódica verbal utilizamos a Tarefa de Recordação de Palavras Imediata e a Tarefa de Recordação de Palavras com Intervalo. Na avaliação do controle executivo foram utilizados, os seguintes testes: Random Number Generation, Trail Making Test, Fluência Verbal semântica e fonológica, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Reading Span Test e Brow-Peterson Test. Treze idosos do grupo controle foram equiparados quanto à idade e escolaridade com nove idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve e oito idosos com Demência Tipo Alzheimer. Foram encontradas diferenças e associações estatisticamente significantes em relação aos testes de controle executivo entre os grupos investigados. Apesar da presença de associações significativas entre a memória episódica verbal e o controle executivo, não foram evidenciados déficits do controle executivo nos idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve.This study compared and related the performance of older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer-type dementia in tests of executive control and of verbal episodic memory. In the evaluation of the verbal episodic memory we used the Task of Immediate Word Recall and the Task of Delayed Word Recall. In the evaluation of executive control we used the following tests: Random Number Generation, Trail Making Test, Semantic and Phonological Verbal Fluency, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Reading Span Test, and Brow-Peterson Test. Thirteen elders of the control group were compared by age and education with nine elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment and eight elders with Alzheimer-type dementia. Differences and significant statistical associations were found in relation to the tests of executive control with the groups investigated. Despite the

  10. Advances in power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

  11. National construction, Denmark. Flat roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, C

    1995-04-01

    The Paris meeting of IEA Annex 24 (held in the spring of 1991) declared a set of typical building constructions, the Heat, Air and Moisture characteristics of which should be dealt with as part of the Annex work. Each type of construction was assigned to one or more countries as their National Construction, and it has been the responsibility of each country to prepare a report on what may be regarded as common knowledge in the country on the hygrothermal behaviour of their construction. This knowledge is in part due to experimental work carried out by research bodies in the countries, and due to experience form practice. This report has two main sections: Section 2 gives a general overview of the design of the most common variants of flat roofs and common knowledge reported for such roofs. Section 3 gives an account of research projects carried out in Denmark on flat roofs to analyze their hygrothermal performance. Whenever possible, an emphasis will be put on the hygrothermal consequences of thermally insulating such constructions. (EG) 19 refs.

  12. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  13. 48 CFR 22.804-2 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 22.804-2... Construction. (a) Construction contractors that hold a nonexempt (see 22.807) Government construction contract... affirmative action requirements that specify goals for minorities and women in covered construction trades...

  14. 50 CFR 29.21-5 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 29.21-5 Section 29.21-5... Construction. (a) If construction is not commenced within two (2) years after date of right-of-way grant, the...) Proof of construction: Upon completion of construction, the applicant shall file a certification of...

  15. 38 CFR 18.423 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New construction. 18.423... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or... facility is readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons, if the construction was commenced...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.18 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 8b.18 Section 8b.18... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or... construction was commenced after the effective date of this part. (b) Alteration. Each facility or part of a...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.73 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 1040.73 Section 1040.73 Energy... § 1040.73 New construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed... the construction was commenced after the effective date of this subpart. (b) Alteration. Each facility...

  18. 23 CFR 660.113 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction. 660.113 Section 660.113 Highways FEDERAL... (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.113 Construction. (a) No construction shall be undertaken on any FH... construction of FHs will be performed by the contract method, unless construction by the FHWA, the FS, or a...

  19. 45 CFR 84.23 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New construction. 84.23 Section 84.23 Public... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or... of the facility is readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons, if the construction was...

  20. 10 CFR 50.23 - Construction permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction permits. 50.23 Section 50.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Description of Licenses § 50.23 Construction permits. A construction permit for the construction of a... part 52 of this chapter, the construction permit and operating license are deemed to be combined in a...

  1. 46 CFR 160.054-3 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 160.054-3 Section 160.054-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Construction. (a) Construction. The container shall be constructed of tough transparent material, not less than...

  2. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  3. Constructing nature behind the glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J.M.M. Alberti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available By way of introducing this special issue of Museum and Society, ‘Constructing nature behind glass’, this paper first surveys the literature devoted to analyses of natural history objects and collections. Such work is to be found in interesting places – not only in museum studies, history of science, and professional museum literature, but also in visual studies, anthropology and cultural geography. After exploiting this writing for different perspectives on the cultural and practical construction of museum nature, this paper moves on to consider one popular topic, taxidermy. The ambiguous nature of taxidermic mounts, or ‘remnant models’, leads to a discussion of the relative status of specimen and artefact. I identify four configurations of their relationship: museum nature as opposed to material culture; museum nature as material culture; museum nature and material culture sharing parallel processes; and finally, museum nature and material culture entangled. All offer perspectives on the construction of nature and culture behind glass.

  4. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  5. Architecture between construction and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lanini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I think that the problem is basically the same as always: to redefine the relationship between Construction and Expression. On one hand, construction is considered an endeavor, on the other hand, a tendency to contest architecture only with expression. The relationship between architecture and control of urban phenomena is a relationship that has been gradually lost in the past three decades and has been replaced by the relationship between finance and planning. A useful object is very different from a building: for its time and costs of construction. Buildings are expected to last many years and are paid with everybody’s taxes, a design object’s lifespan is perhaps fifty years, then it’s ready to be modernized or for the landfill ... I believe that the main tool that a designer must have, beyond necessary technical skills, is the capacity of his/her own critical thought.

  6. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  7. ATLAS construction: A status report

    CERN Document Server

    Sfyrla, Anna

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose p-p collider detector being constructed for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is located in one of the two high luminosity bunch crossing points (peak luminosity of 1 0 3 4 c m - 2 s _ 1 ) of the LHC. It consists of 3 main sections. Located close to the beam axis, the tracking system employs pixel detectors, silicon microstrip modules and transition radiation straws, all within a 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid. The tracker is surrounded by the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. In the outer part of the detector, 8 superconducting coils define an open toroidal magnetic field for muon detection. The construction status of the ATLAS detector towards being ready for the first collisions in 2007 will be presented, with particular emphasis on the construction and projected performance of the tracking system.

  8. Applications of constructive logic to sheaf constructions in toposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F.-J. de

    1987-01-01

    The internal logic of a topos is exploited to give an easy proof of the fact that topologies in a topos form a locale and to give simple internal reformulations of two well-known variants of associated sheaf constructions. We have two applications: (i) we extend Gödel's negative translation to a

  9. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  10. Item Construction and Psychometric Models Appropriate for Constructed Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    which involve only one attribute per item. This is especially true when we are dealing with constructed-response items, we have to measure much more...Service University of Ilinois Educacional Testing Service Rosedal Road Capign. IL 61801 Princeton. K3 08541 Princeton. N3 08541 Dr. Charles LeiS Dr

  11. A Construction Management Framework for Mass Customisation in Traditional Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Andújar-Montoya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mass Customisation model is discussed as a competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace adding value to the customer’s end-use. It includes the user as part of the construction process responding to the customer’s demands and wishes. To the present day, almost all proposals for Mass Customisation have been focused on the design phase and single family houses. The reality is that the processes carried out in the work execution are so inefficient that the costs of the Mass Customisation models are assumed by the customer and they do not offer solutions that support the change management. Furthermore, this inefficiency often makes Mass Customisation unfeasible in terms of deadlines and site management. Therefore, the present proposal focuses on achieving the paradigm of Mass Customisation in the traditional residential construction complementary to the existing proposals in the design phase. All this through the proposal of a framework for the integral management in the work execution, which will address change management introduced by the users offering an efficient and productive model that reduces costs in the process. This model will focus on the synergy between different strategies, techniques and technologies currently used in the construction management (such as Lean Construction or Six Sigma, together with, other strategies and technologies that have proven to be valid solutions in other fields (such as Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture, etc..

  12. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  13. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  14. Pipework in power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzbach, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of conventional power plant construction to large unit sizes and because of the stringent safety requirements in nuclear poer stations, pipework installation has developed into a difficult operation closely inter-related with safety engineering. It is an important factor as far as completion dates and costs are concerned during the timely implementation of a subsequent construction phase which is characterized by high capital intensiveness. In order to keep both under control, prior planning and execution supported by electronic data processing are essential. (orig.) [de

  15. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  16. Building constructions: architecture and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayatskaya Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimization of building structures is considered in architectural bionic modeling on the bionic principle basis. It is possible to get a reliable and durable constructions by studying the structure and the laws of organization of natural objects. Modern architects have created unique buildings using the bionic approach. There are such properties as symmetry, asymmetry, self-similarity and fractality used in the modern architecture. Using the methods of fractal geometry in the design of architectural forms allows finding a variety of constructive solutions.

  17. International Construction Disputes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses whether the very peculiar Danish system of resolution of construction disputes, which is an hybrid between arbitration and State-Court proceedings, is geared for disputes involving non-Danish parties, comes to the conclusion that it is not, and proposes amendments to the sys......The article discusses whether the very peculiar Danish system of resolution of construction disputes, which is an hybrid between arbitration and State-Court proceedings, is geared for disputes involving non-Danish parties, comes to the conclusion that it is not, and proposes amendments...

  18. Quality planning in Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I.; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate deeper on the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of quality planning, identifying the common problems encountered in quality planning, practices and ways for improvements in quality planning for construction projects. This paper involves data collected from construction company representatives across Malaysia that are obtained through semi-structured interviews as well as questionnaire distributions. Results shows that design of experiments (average index: 4.61), inspection (average index: 4.45) and quality audit as well as other methods (average index: 4.26) rank first, second and third most important factors respectively.

  19. Entangled entanglement: A construction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.Uchida@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Computer Science, Währinger Strasse 29, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bertlmann, Reinhold A., E-mail: Reinhold.Bertlmann@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C., E-mail: Beatrix.Hiesmayr@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-30

    The familiar Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states can be rewritten by entangling the Bell states for two qubits with a third qubit state, which is dubbed entangled entanglement. We show that in a constructive way we obtain all eight independent GHZ states that form the simplex of entangled entanglement, the magic simplex. The construction procedure allows a generalization to higher dimensions both, in the degrees of freedom (considering qudits) as well as in the number of particles (considering n-partite states). Such bases of GHZ-type states exhibit a cyclic geometry, a Merry Go Round, that is relevant for experimental and quantum information theoretic applications.

  20. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.