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Sample records for leukocyte function exposure

  1. Reversibility of peripheral blood leukocyte phenotypic and functional changes after exposure to and withdrawal from tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Kent J; Bukowski, Jack F; Brennan, Todd V; Noveck, Robert J; Staats, Janet S; Lin, Liwen; Stempora, Linda; Hammond, Constance; Wouters, Ann; Mojcik, Christopher F; Cheng, John; Collinge, Mark; Jesson, Michael I; Hazra, Anasuya; Biswas, Pinaki; Lan, Shuping; Clark, James D; Hodge, Jennifer A

    2018-06-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effects of tofacitinib treatment on peripheral blood leukocyte phenotype and function, and the reversibility of any such effects following treatment withdrawal in healthy volunteers. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive subjects received oral tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for 4 weeks and were followed for 4 weeks after drug withdrawal. There were slight increases in total lymphocyte and total T-cell counts during tofacitinib treatment, and B-cell counts increased by up to 26%. There were no significant changes in granulocyte or monocyte counts, or granulocyte function. Naïve and central memory T-cell counts increased during treatment, while all subsets of activated T cells were decreased by up to 69%. T-cell subsets other than effector memory cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, activated naïve CD4+ and effector CD8+ T-cell counts and B-cell counts, normalized 4 weeks after withdrawal. Following ex vivo activation, measures of CMV-specific T-cell responses, and antigen non-specific T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and interferon (IFN)-γ production, decreased slightly. These T-cell functional changes were most pronounced at Day 15, partially normalized while still on tofacitinib and returned to baseline after drug withdrawal. Total natural killer (NK)-cell counts decreased by 33%, returning towards baseline after drug withdrawal. NK-cell function decreased during tofacitinib treatment, but without a consistent time course across measured parameters. However, markers of NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production were decreased up to 42% 1 month after drug withdrawal. CMV DNA was not detectable in whole blood, and there were no cases of herpes zoster reactivation. No new safety concerns arose. In conclusion, the effect of short-term tofacitinib treatment on leukocyte composition and function in healthy CMV+ volunteers is modest and largely reversible 4 weeks after withdrawal

  2. Subacute Low Dose Nerve Agent Exposure Causes DNA Fragmentation in Guinea Pig Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    1 SUBACUTE LOW DOSE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE CAUSES DNA FRAGMENTATION IN GUINEA PIG LEUKOCYTES. Jitendra R. Dave1, John R. Moffett1, Sally M...DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes from guinea pigs by ‘Comet’ assay after exposure to soman at doses ranging from 0.1LD50 to 0.4 LD50, once per...computer. Data obtained for exposure to soman demonstrated significant increases in DNA fragmentation in circulating leukocytes in CWNA treated guinea pigs as

  3. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    1Israel Poison Information Center, Rambam Medical Center Haifa 31096, Israel. 2Kupat Holim Clalit ... ethical standards laid down by the 1964 Declaration of. Helsinki. ... from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA). 2.4 Lung function.

  4. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  5. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. - Highlights: • This is the first study to investigate a clear association between indoor air pollution and leukocyte telomere length. • Chronic exposure to household solid fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length presented a negative correlation. • Shortest leukocyte telomere length belonged to population cooking for longest time. • Education and occupation were remarkably associated with leukocyte telomere length via relating with indoor air pollution. - Long-term exposure to household solid fuel combustion is negatively associated with LTL.

  6. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the specific association between leukocyte telomere length and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 1,722 adults, between 60-85 years, with complete data on selected study variables. DNA was extracted from whole blood via the LTL assay, which is administered using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure telomere length relative to standard reference DNA (T/S ratio. Average telomere length was recorded, with two to three assays performed to control for individual variability. The DSST (Digit Symbol Substitution Test was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack or stroke at the baseline assessment. Leukocyte telomere length was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of gender, race-ethnicity, physical activity status, body mass index and other covariates. In this sample, there was a strong association between LTL and cognition; for every 1 T/S ratio increase in LTL, there was a corresponding 9.9 unit increase in the DSST (β = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-14.2; P [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 14-18

  7. Diterpenoids from Tetraclinis articulata that inhibit various human leukocyte functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Quílez del Moral, José F; Lucas, Rut; Payá, Miguel; Akssira, Mohamed; Akaad, Said; Mellouki, Fouad

    2003-06-01

    Ten new compounds, eight of them pimarane derivatives (1-8), together with a menthane dimer (9) and a totarane diterpenoid (10), were isolated from the leaves and wood of Tetraclinis articulata. The structures of 1-10 were established by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra. Pimaranes 1-5 were found to possess an unusual cis interannular union of the B and C rings, which, from a biogenetic perspective, could be derived from the hydration of a carbocation at C-8. Compounds 4-6 and a mixture of 7 and 11 modulated different human leukocyte functions at a concentration of 10 microM, mainly the degranulation process measured as myeloperoxidase release and, to a lesser extent, the superoxide production measured by chemiluminescence.

  8. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of serial-day exposure to nitrogen dioxide on airway and blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, C.; Chen, L.L.; Erle, D.J.; Balmes, J.R. [Univ. of California, Lung Biology Center and Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, San Francisco, CA (United States); Christian, D.L.; Welch, B.S.; Dunham, E. [Univ. of California, Lung Biology Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kleinman, M.T. [Univ. of California, Dept. of Community and Environmental Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is a free radical-producing oxidant gas. Inhalation of NO2 could cause airway inflammation, and decrease immune function. This experiment tested the hypothesis that exposure to NO{sub 2} would: (1) increase leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and (2) change the distribution of lymphocyte subsets and activation in BAL and peripheral blood (PB). Using a counter-balanced, repeated-measures design, 15 healthy volunteers were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 2.0 parts per million NO{sub 2} for 4 h.day{sup -1} (4 x 30 min of exercise), for three consecutive days. Bronchoscopy was performed 18 h following each exposure set, and PB was drawn pre-exposure and pre-bronchoscopy. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate lymphocyte subsets and activation makers in BAL and PB. In the bronchial fraction, there was an increase in the percentage of neutrophils following NO2 exposure compared to FA (median (interquartile range): 10.6 (4.8. 17.2)% versus 5.3 (2.5-8.3)%; p=0.005). In the BAL, there was a decrease in the percentage of T-helper cells following NO{sub 2} exposure compared to FA (55.9 (40.8-62.7)% versus 61.6 (52.6-65.2)%; p=0.022). For PB, there were no between-condition differences in any leukocyte or lymphocyte subsets, or activation. In conclusion exposure to nitrogen dioxide results in bronchial inflammation and a minimal change in bronchoalveolar lavage T-helper cells, and no changes in peripheral blood cells. (au)

  10. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (Peffect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  11. Leukocyte-reduction filters and radiation do not cause significant changes in platelet function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Yutaka; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Shibata, Yoichi; Takahashi, Koki

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of radiation and leukocyte-reduction filters on platelet function. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and ADP were measured prior to and after irradiation and filtration, as were the platelet recovery rate and complement factor C3. Four types of leukocyte-reduction filter were used, namely positively-, negatively-, and non-charged filters (all of polyester composition), as well as a polyurethane filter. Radiation itself did not significantly affect either the platelet recovery rate, platelet function, or C3 value. On the other hand, filtration through polyester leukocyte-reduction filters resulted in a significant reduction in the platelet recovery rate, an effect not observed with the polyurethane filter. However, none of the filters caused significant changes in platelet function or in C3 value. We concluded that radiation and filtration do not cause significant changes in platelet function, but polyurethane filters are superior to polyester filters in relation to platelet recovery. (author)

  12. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmina, Nina S., E-mail: nin-kuzmin@youndex.ru; Lapteva, Nellya Sh.; Rubanovich, Alexander V.

    2016-04-15

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24–77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19–77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2–51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62–11.76, p=3.9×10{sup −7}). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10{sup −5}). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10{sup −7}). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging

  13. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmina, Nina S.; Lapteva, Nellya Sh.; Rubanovich, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24–77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19–77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2–51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62–11.76, p=3.9×10 −7 ). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10 −5 ). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10 −7 ). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging and/or with

  14. Radiolabeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of nucleated cells that follow similar patterns of differentiation in the bone marrow. Although the various leukocyte cell types perform somewhat different functions, they act as a group to protect the host from hazards of the internal and external environment, such as infection and neoplasia, and they assist in the repair of damaged tissue. Leukocytes spend a small fraction of their life in the peripheral blood, using it only for transportation to sites where they are needed to perform their defensive functions. In adults, the mature types of leukocytes are neutrophils (59 percent of the leukocyte population), lymphocytes (34 percent), monocytes (four percent), eosinophils (three percent), and basophils (0.5 percent). Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils all contain nuclei with finitely granular, evenly distributed chromatin and are collectively called granulocytes. In addition to the main categories of leukocytes listed above, there are subsets of many of these classes of cells; for example, natural killer cells are a subset of lymphocytes

  15. Altered mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in leukocytes of anorexia nervosa patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M Victor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. PATIENTS: Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (P<0.05, mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01 and GSH levels (P<0.05, and an increase in ROS production (P<0.05 with respect to control subjects. Furthermore, a reduction of mitochondrial mass was detected in leukocytes of the anorexic patients (P<0.05, while the activity of mitochondrial complex I (P<0.001, but not that of complex III, was found to be inhibited in the same population. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress is produced in the leukocytes of anorexic patients and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results lead us to propose that the oxidative stress that occurs in anorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia.

  16. Ganglioside-specific IgG and IgA recruit leukocyte effector functions in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, N.M. van; Yuki, N.; Koga, M.; Susuki, K.; Jansen, M.D.; Kooten, C. van; Wokke, J.H.; Winkel, J.G.J. van de; Pol, W.L. van der; Berg, L.H. van den

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of ganglioside-specific autoantibodies to recruit leukocyte effector functions was studied. Serum samples from 87 patients with Guillain–Barré (GBS) or Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), containing GM1-, GQ1b-, or GD1b-specific IgG or IgA, were tested for leukocyte activating capacity.

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND LEUKOCYTE SUBSET RESPONSES TO EXERCISE AND COLD EXPOSURE IN COLD-ACCLIMATIZED SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated physiological responses and changes in circulating immune cells following exercise in cold and thermoneutral conditions. Participants were short track skaters (n=9 who were acclimatized to cold conditions, and inline skaters (n=10 who were not acclimatized. All skaters were young, and skating at a recreational level three days per week for at least one year. Using a cross-over design, study variables were measured during 60 min of submaximal cycling (65% ·VO2max in cold (ambient temperature: 5±1°C, relative humidity: 41±9% and thermoneutral conditions (ambient temperature: 21±1°C, relative humidity: 35±5%. Heart rate, blood lactate and tympanic temperature were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery. Plasma cortisol, calprotectin and circulating blood cell numbers were measured before and after 60 min of cold or thermoneutral conditions, and during recovery from exercise. Heart rate was lower in both groups during exercise in cold versus thermoneutral conditions (P<0.05. The increase in total leukocytes during recovery was primarily due to an increase in neutrophils in both groups. The cold-acclimatized group activated neutrophils after exercise in cold exposure, whereas the non-acclimatized group activated lymphocyte and cortisol after exercise in cold exposure. Lymphocyte subsets significantly changed in both groups over time during recovery as compared to rest. Immediately after exercise in both groups, CD16+ and CD69+ cells were elevated compared to rest or before exercise in both conditions. Acclimatization to exercise in the cold does not appear to influence exercise-induced immune changes in cold conditions, with the possible exception of neutrophils, lymphocytes and cortisol concentration.

  18. Human leukocyte antigen-G polymorphism in relation to expression, function, and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Hviid, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical class Ib molecule belonging to the major histocompatibility complex. HLA-G appears to play a role in the suppression of immune responses and contribute to long-term immune escape or tolerance. The focus of this review is polymorphism in the HLA......-G gene and protein and its possible importance in expression, function, and disease associations....

  19. Altered mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in leukocytes of anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Victor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcon, Vanessa; Sangüesa, Maria C; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bañuls, Celia; Falcón, Rosa; Castelló, Raquel; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (Panorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia.

  20. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrit Suástegui-Domínguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks.

  1. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Olsen, Yulia; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particles in the fine and ultrafine size range has been linked to induction of low-grade systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. Declining levels of endothelial progenitor cells within systemic circulation have likewise been linked to progression of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to determine if exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor and outdoor sources, assessed by personal and residential indoor monitoring, is associated with altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells, and whether such effects are related to leukocyte-mediated oxidative stress. The study utilized a cross sectional design performed in 58 study participants from a larger cohort. Levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, defined as either late (CD34 + KDR + cells) or early (CD34 + CD133 + KDR + cells) subsets were measured using polychromatic flow cytometry. We additionally measured production of reactive oxygen species in leukocyte subsets (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) by flow cytometry using intracellular 2′,7′-dichlorofluoroscein. The measurements encompassed both basal levels of reactive oxygen species production and capacity for reactive oxygen species production for each leukocyte subset. We found that the late endothelial progenitor subset was negatively associated with levels of ultrafine particles measured within the participant residences and with reactive oxygen species production capacity in lymphocytes. Additionally, the early endothelial progenitor cell levels were positively associated with a personalised measure of ultrafine particle exposure and negatively associated with both basal and capacity for reactive oxygen species production in lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively. Our results indicate that exposure to fine and ultrafine particles derived from indoor sources may have adverse effects on human vascular health.

  2. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances affects leukocyte telomere length in female newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Qian; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Lisu; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Evidence has shown that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth is related to the susceptibility to various diseases in later life and the setting of newborn LTL is influenced by the intrauterine environment. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as a kind of persistent organic pollutants, are commonly used in commercial and domestic applications and are capable of crossing the maternal-fetal barrier during pregnancy. We hypothesized that intrauterine exposure to PFASs may affect fetal LTL by increasing oxidative stress. To verify this hypothesis, LTL, concentrations of PFASs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in umbilical cord blood of 581 newborns from a prospective cohort. Our results showed that there were interactions between PFOS/PFDA and sex on LTL and ROS. The LTL was significantly shorter (0.926 ± 0.053 vs 0.945 ± 0.054, P = .023 for PFOS; 0.919 ± 0.063 vs 0.940 ± 0.059, P = .011 for PFDA) and the ROS levels were extremely higher (252.9 ± 60.5 [M] vs 233.5 ± 53.6 [M], P = .031 for PFOS; 255.2 ± 62.9 [M] vs 232.9 ± 58.3 [M], P = .011 for PFDA) in the female newborns whose PFOS or PFDA concentrations fell in the upmost quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for potential confounders. ROS levels were inversely associated with LTL in female newborns (β = -1.42 × 10 -4 , P = .022). 13% of the effect of PFOS on female LTL was mediated through ROS approximately by the mediation analyses. However, in male newborns, no relationships among PFASs, ROS and LTL were observed. Our findings suggest a "programming" role of PFASs on fetal telomere biology system in females in intrauterine stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leukocyte and platelet depletion improves blood flow and function in a renal transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Phillip J; Hosgood, Sarah A; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors are an important source of organs for transplantation. Due to warm and cold ischemic injury, DCD kidneys undergo a significant reperfusion insult when transplanted. This is manifested clinically as a high incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) and primary non-function (PNF). The importance of leukocytes in the generation of reperfusion injury is pivotal. Using an ex vivo porcine model of kidney transplantation, the effects of reperfusion with leukocyte and platelet depleted blood (LDB) and whole blood (WB) on renal blood flow and function were compared. Hemodynamic measurements were recorded, and biochemical, hematological, and histologic samples taken at set time-points. Reperfusion with LDB improved renal blood flow significantly compared with WB reperfusion. In addition, there was a significant improvement in creatinine clearance and renal oxygen consumption, but not fractional excretion of sodium, acid-base homeostasis, urinary nitric oxide (NO), or 8-isoprostane levels. This study represents a good model for the initial reperfusion period in renal transplantation. Improvement in only some functional markers and neither urinary NO nor 8-isoprostane levels indicates that improved blood flow alone is not sufficient to reverse the severe ischemic insult endured by DCD kidneys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Disintegrins: integrin selective ligands which activate integrin-coupled signaling and modulate leukocyte functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barja-Fidalgo C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix proteins lead to phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, activating different signaling pathways responsible for the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cytoskeleton mobilization. Once leukocytes are guided to sites of infection, inflammation, or antigen presentation, integrins can participate in the initiation, maintenance, or termination of the immune and inflammatory responses. The modulation of neutrophil activation through integrin-mediated pathways is important in the homeostatic control of the resolution of inflammatory states. In addition, during recirculation, T lymphocyte movement through distinct microenvironments is mediated by integrins, which are critical for cell cycle, differentiation and gene expression. Disintegrins are a family of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich peptides first identified in snake venom, usually containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motif, which confers the ability to selectively bind to integrins, inhibiting integrin-related functions in different cell systems. In this review we show that, depending on the cell type and the microenvironment, disintegrins are able to antagonize the effects of integrins or to act agonistically by activating integrin-mediated signaling. Disintegrins have proven useful as tools to improve the understanding of the molecular events regulated by integrin signaling in leukocytes and prototypes in order to design therapies able to interfere with integrin-mediated effects.

  5. Study on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in A-bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Imanaka, Fumio; Sakatani, Tatsuichiro; Fujikura, Toshio; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents data on lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from 91 exposed persons and 105 non-exposed persons matched for age and sex. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and β-glucuronidase (BGL) activities in PMN supernatants and % release of released activity divided by total activity were determined. Superoxide anion production was stimulated with synthetic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalamine and/or cytochalasin B. There was a significant influence of exposure doses on MPO activity (p < 0.05), although this was of borderline significance in the % release. BGL activity was independent of exposure doses. Age did not influence MPO activity but influenced BGL activity only marginally. The two enzyme activities seemed to be age-dependent. Regarding superoxide anion production, there was no influence of exposure doses. However, there was a significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups in the superoxide anion production. Neither sex nor age had any effect on it. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Intracellular lipid dysregulation interferes with leukocyte function in the ovaries of meat-type hens under unrestricted feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Su, Chia-Ming; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Chen, Jiang-Young; Wu, Shu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hui; Walzem, Rosemary L; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2016-04-01

    Meat-type Red-feather country hens fed ad libitum (AD-hens) exhibit obesity-associated morbidities and a number of ovarian irregularities. Leukocyte participations in ovarian activities are unstudied in AD-hens. In contrast to feed-restricted hens (R-hens), ovulatory process of the F1 follicle appeared delayed in AD-hens in association with reduced F1 follicle progesterone content, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and collagenase-3 (MMP-13) activities coincident with elevated IL-1β and no production (Pcultures of granulosa cells with increasing numbers of leukocytes from either AD-hens or R-hens exhibited dose dependent reductions in progesterone production and increases in cell death. AD-hen leukocytes were less proapoptotic than their R counterparts (Pcultures with heterophils or monocytes in a dose-dependent manner (Pcultures than their respective counterparts (P<0.05). Both basal and LPS-induced IL-1β secretion and MMP-22 or MMP-2 activities in freshly isolated AD-hen leukocytes were reduced (P<0.05). Exposure of AD or R leukocytes to 0.5mM palmitate impaired IL-1β secretion and MMP-22 or MMP-2 activity. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis with FB1 and ROS production with n-MPG scavenging rescued MMP activity and IL-1β production in palmitate treated heterophils, but exacerbated monocyte suppression. These latter findings suggest that intracellular lipid dysregulation in leukocytes contributes to ovarian dysfunction in AD-hens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aldh2 knockout mice were more sensitive to DNA damage in leukocytes due to ethyl tertiary butyl ether exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the genotoxicity of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), a gasoline additive, male and female C57BL/6 mice of Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- genotypes, aged 8 wk, were exposed to 0, 500, 1,750, or 5,000 ppm ETBE for 6 h/day, 5 d per week for 13 wk. DNA damage in leukocytes was measured by the alkaline comet assay and expressed quantitatively as Tail Intensity (TI). For male mice, TI was significantly higher in all three groups exposed to ETBE than in those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice, whereas within Aldh2+/+ mice, TI increased only in those exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with mice without exposure. For female mice, a significant increase in TI values was observed in the group exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice; TI in Aldh2-/- mice exposed to 1,750 and 5,000 ppm was significantly higher than in Aldh2+/+ mice without exposure. TI did not significantly increase in any of the groups exposed to ETBE within female Aldh2+/+ mice. Based on the results we suggest that Aldh2-/- mice are more sensitive to DNA damage caused by ETBE than Aldh2+/+ mice and that males seem more susceptible to this effect than females.

  8. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on defense function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Sakatani, Tatsuichiro; Brooks, G.T.; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of radiation on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were studied following irradiation with 60 Co γ radiation (30 - 3,000 rad) using PMN separated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The migration distances for all three measures of chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe (10 -8 M), chemokinesis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe, and random migration tended to decrease with increasing dose, showing 0.0054 μm/rad (p -5 M) in conjunction with cytochalasin B (CB, 5 μg/ml) there was a significant dose trend, showing the dose effects of decreasing 0.0022 % release/rad for BGL and 0.0030 % release/rad for LYZ with increasing dose. In superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, a slight and marginally significant linear dose trend was found. These results suggest that the defense function of PMN is not so resistant to radiation as predicted from the fact that PMN in the peripheral blood are differentiated and mature. It is thought that radiation inflicts substantially harmful effects on the defense function of peripheral PMN. (author)

  9. In Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Exposure of Human Blood Leukocytes Induces Cross-Tolerance to Multiple TLR Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Alex F.; Pater, Jennie M.; van den Pangaart, Petra S.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments in mice have shown that exposure of cells to the TLR4 ligand LPS induces tolerance toward a second exposure to LPS and induces cross-tolerance to certain other TLR ligands. Recently, we found that LPS tolerance in experimental human endotoxemia and Gram-negative

  10. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  11. Function of irradiated polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained by buffy-coat centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.G.; Abramson, J.S.; Ekstrand, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several studies suggest that transfusion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) may be beneficial in the treatment of septic neonatal patients. Because of expense, donor availability, and the technical effort involved in obtaining PMNs by intermittent or continuous flow leukapheresis, buffy coat centrifugation of whole blood has been suggested as an alternative source. An in vitro study was performed to determine whether PMNs collected by this method have adequate oxidative and migratory function measured by chemiluminescence (CL) and chemotaxis under agarose (CT), respectively. Whole blood samples from six adult volunteers were drawn into citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine-one and stored at 4 degrees C for 0 to 48 hours. One-half of each sample was irradiated with 1500 rads. PMNs isolated from the buffy coat of these samples had greater than 80 percent normal CT and CL following 0 to 28 hours of storage in whole blood. Irradiation caused no depression in function. Units of whole blood yielded 1.11 +/- 0.40 X 10(9) PMNs per unit. This study indicates that transfusion of radiated PMNs obtained from stored whole blood that is less than 28 hours old is reasonable to use in studies involving PMN transfusions

  12. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  13. In vitro effects on Indium-111-Oxine labeled leukocytes functions of N-etilmycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovo, R.D.; Perna, M.; Esposito, G.; Polese, C.; Frizzi, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study in vitro chemotaxis, phagocytosis and bactericydal efficiencies of granulocytes (PMN) and monocytes (Mo) of cancer patients with solid tumours, the authors have undertaken the evaluation of a method of measuring PMN and Mo chemotaxis with modified Boyden chambers, using In-111-oxine. The tests were performed in order to evaluate the interference of N-etilmycin with leukocyte functions, a currently fashionable antibiotic used in the treatment of gram-negative infections. The results both compare well with the visual method and are objective. Cancer patients, disease-free for a minimum of one year, were compared and evidenced normal chemotaxis and normal controls. No difference between the two groups was found (20.46% of those tested). The addition of N-etilmy-cin (6μg/ml) to PMN and Mo further decreased the chemotaxis from 20.46% to 16.07% (t=2.81, P=0.0102). The addition of 30μg/ml further decreased the chemotaxis from the mean control values to 5.925% (t=4.55,P 1%). The use of N-etilmycin in disease-free cancer patients should be avoided in the possible event of tumour enhancement

  14. Leukocyte Overexpression of Intracellular NAMPT Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Regulating PPARγ-Dependent Monocyte Differentiation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Dahl, Tuva Borresdatter; Medina, Indira; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Holm, Sverre; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rousch, Mat; Otten, Jeroen; Herias, Veronica; Varela, Lourdes M; Ranheim, Trine; Yndestad, Arne; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Nagy, Laszlo; Aukrust, Pal; Muriana, Francisco J G; Halvorsen, Bente; Biessen, Erik Anna Leonardus

    2017-06-01

    Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) mediates inflammatory and potentially proatherogenic effects, whereas the role of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT), the rate limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + generation, in atherogenesis is largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of iNAMPT overexpression in leukocytes on inflammation and atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice with hematopoietic overexpression of human iNAMPT (iNAMPT hi ), on a western type diet, showed attenuated plaque burden with features of lesion stabilization. This anti-atherogenic effect was caused by improved resistance of macrophages to apoptosis by attenuated chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2-dependent monocyte chemotaxis and by skewing macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The iNAMPT hi phenotype was almost fully reversed by treatment with the NAMPT inhibitor FK866, indicating that iNAMPT catalytic activity is instrumental in the atheroprotection. Importantly, iNAMPT overexpression did not induce any increase in eNAMPT, and eNAMPT had no effect on chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 expression and promoted an inflammatory M1 phenotype in macrophages. The iNAMPT-mediated effects at least partly involved sirtuin 1-dependent molecular crosstalk of NAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Finally, iNAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ showed a strong correlation in human atherosclerotic, but not healthy arteries, hinting to a relevance of iNAMPT/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ pathway also in human carotid atherosclerosis. This study highlights the functional dichotomy of intracellular versus extracellular NAMPT, and unveils a critical role for the iNAMPT-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ axis in atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Functional characterization of neotropical snakes peripheral blood leukocytes subsets: Linking flow cytometry cell features, microscopy images and serum corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Lourenço, Mariana Mathias; Levin, Gabriel; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images. Moreover, since corticosterone is an important immunomodulator in reptiles, hormone levels of all blood samples were measured. We provide novel and additional information which should contribute to better understanding of the development of the immune system of reptiles and vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flow cytometry as a tool in the evaluation of blood leukocyte function in Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rossi

    Full Text Available Chelonia mydas is a sea turtle that feeds and nests on the Brazilian coast and a disease called fibropapillomatosis is a threat to this species. Because of this, it is extremely necessary to determine a methodology that would enable the analysis of blood leukocyte function in these sea turtles. In order to achieve this aim, blood samples were collected from C. mydas with or without fibropapillomas captured on the São Paulo north coast. Blood samples were placed in tubes containing sodium heparin and were transported under refrigeration to the laboratory in sterile RPMI 1640 cell culture medium. Leukocytes were separated by density gradient using Ficoll-PaqueTM Plus, Amershan Biociences®. The following stimuli were applied in the assessment of leukocyte function: Phorbol Miristate-Acetate (PMA for oxidative burst activity evaluation and Zymosan A (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bio Particles®, Alexa Fluor® 594 conjugate for phagocytosis evaluation. Three cell populations were identified: heterophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Monocytes were the cells responsible for phagocytosis and oxidative burst.

  17. Blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2017-06-01

    The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, D.; Mars, M.; Oosterink, E.; Stalmach, A.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We

  19. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  20. One-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbánková, M

    1994-01-01

    The phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood was investigated after 2, 24, and 48 hr; 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks; and 6 and 12 months following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibers to Wistar rats. Asbestos and basalt fibers differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Both granulocyte count and phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the 1-year dynamic follow-up in both dust-exposed groups of animals changed in two phases, characterized by the initial stimulation of the acute phase I, followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase II. Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibers led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibers also significantly decreased phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibers did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. Results suggest that the monocytic component of leukocytes plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts, but basalt fibers have lesser biological effects than asbestos fibers. PMID:7882931

  1. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Michalak; Agnieszka Filipek; Piotr Chomicki; Małgorzata Pyza; Marta Woźniak; Barbara Żyżyńska-Granica; Jakub P. Piwowarski; Agnieszka Kicel; Monika A. Olszewska; Anna K. Kiss

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MSn) extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release) and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biol...

  2. Leukocyte subtype counts and its association with vascular structure and function in adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between leukocyte subtype counts and vascular structure and function based on carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, central augmentation index and cardio-ankle vascular index by gender in intermediate cardiovascular risk patients.This study analyzed 500 subjects who were included in the MARK study, aged 35 to 74 years (mean: 60.3±8.4, 45.6% women.Brachial ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (ba-PWV estimate by equation, Cardio-AnkleVascular Index (CAVI using the VaSera device and Carotid ultrasound was used to measure carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT. The Mobil-O-Graph was used to measure the Central Augmentation Index (CAIx.Total leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively correlated with IMT (p < 0.01 in men. Monocyte count was positively correlated with CAIx in women (p < 0.01. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the IMT mean maintained a positive association with the neutrophil count (β = 1.500, p = 0.007 in men. CAIx maintained a positive association with the monocyte count (β = 2.445, p = 0.022 in women.The results of this study suggest that the relationship between subtype circulating leukocyte counts and vascular structure and function, although small, may be different by gender. In men, the neutrophil count was positively correlated with IMT and in women, the monocyte count with CAIx, in a large sample of intermediate-risk patients. These association were maintained after adjusting for age and other confounders.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428934.

  3. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Manafikhi, Husseen; Reggi, Raffaella; Longhitano, Yaroslava; Zanza, Christian; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR), a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S) or with control cookies (HFHCM-C). Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides) and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes' count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  4. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR, a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S or with control cookies (HFHCM-C. Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes’ count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  5. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Depression of leukocyte protein synthesis, immune function and growth performance induced by high environmental temperature in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nancy N.; Ahmed, Ayman M. H.; Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-09-01

    In tropical and semitropical regions, raising broiler chickens out of their thermal comfort zone can cause an added economic loss in the poultry industry. The cause for the deleterious effects on immunity and growth performance of broilers under high environmental temperatures is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on leukocytes protein synthesis and immune function as a possible direct cause of low performance in broiler chickens under such condition. In this study, 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb500™) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 5 replicates of 30 chicks each. From 21 to 42 days of age, one group was exposed to non-stressed condition at 24 °C and 50% relative humidity (control group), while the other group was exposed to heat stress at 35 °C and 50% relative humidity (HS group). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from each group to evaluate stress indicators, immune function, and leukocytes protein synthesis. Production performance was also recorded. Noteworthy, protein synthesis in leukocytes was significantly ( P < 0.05) inhibited in HS group by 38% compared to control group. In contrast, the phosphorylation level on threonine 56 site (Thr56) of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF2), which indicates the suppression of protein translation process through altering the protein elongation phase, was significantly threefold higher in HS group than in control ( P < 0.05). In addition, an increase in stress indicators was markedly ( P < 0.05) presented in the HS birds by twofold increase in heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and threefold increase in plasma corticosterone level compared to control. Furthermore, the immune function was significantly ( P < 0.05) suppressed in HS birds than control (0.99 vs. 1.88 mg/mL plasma IgG, 89.2 vs. 148.0 μg/mL plasma IgM, 4.80 vs. 7.20 antibody titer against SRBC, and 1.38 vs. 3.39 stimulation index of lymphocyte

  7. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  8. Dysregulation of chemokine receptor expression and function in leukocytes from ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Caroline; Perner, Florian; Stubendorff, Beatrice; Förster, Martin; Witte, Otto W; Heidel, Florian H; Prell, Tino; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2018-03-28

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is rapidly progressive adult-onset motor neuron disease characterized by the neurodegeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons in the cortex and the spinal cord; the majority of patients succumb to respiratory failure. Although the etiology is not yet fully understood, there is compelling evidence that ALS is a multi-systemic disorder, with peripheral inflammation critically contributing to the disease process. However, the full extent and nature of this immunological dysregulation remains to be established, particularly within circulating blood cells. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify dysregulated inflammatory molecules in peripheral blood cells of ALS patients and analyze for functional consequences of the observed findings. To this end, we employed flow cytometry-based screening to quantify the surface expression of major chemokine receptors and integrins. A significantly increased expression of CXCR3, CXCR4, CCL2, and CCL5 was observed on T cells in ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Intriguingly, the expression was even more pronounced in patients with a slow progressive phenotype. To further investigate the functional consequences of this altered surface expression, we used a modified Boyden chamber assay to measure chemotaxis in ALS patient-derived lymphocytes. Interestingly, chemoattraction with the CXCR3-Ligand IP10 led to upregulated migratory behavior of ALS lymphocytes compared to healthy controls. Taken together, our data provides evidence for a functional dysregulation of IP10-directed chemotaxis in peripheral blood cells in ALS patients. However, whether the chemokine itself or its receptor CXCR3, or both, could serve as potential therapeutic targets in ALS requires further investigations.

  9. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter Horn; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    . Additionally, the early endothelial progenitor cell levels were positively associated with a personalised measure of ultrafine particle exposure and negatively associated with both basal and capacity for reactive oxygen species production in lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively. Our results indicate......Exposure to particles in the fine and ultrafine size range has been linked to induction of low-grade systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. Declining levels of endothelial progenitor cells within systemic circulation have likewise been linked...... to progression of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to determine if exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor and outdoor sources, assessed by personal and residential indoor monitoring, is associated with altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells, and whether such effects are related...

  10. Systematic correlation of environmental exposure and physiological and self-reported behaviour factors with leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Manrai, Arjun K; Corona, Erik; Kohane, Isaac S

    2017-02-01

    It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes. We correlated 461 environmental exposures, behaviours and clinical variables with telomere length, using survey-weighted linear regression, adjusting for sex, age, age squared, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education and born outside the USA, and estimated the false discovery rate to adjust for multiple hypotheses. We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the correlation between identified environmental variables and gene expression levels of telomere-associated genes in publicly available gene expression samples. After correlating 461 variables with telomere length, we found 22 variables significantly associated with telomere length after adjustment for multiple hypotheses. Of these varaibales, 14 were associated with longer telomeres, including biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls([PCBs; 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviation (SD) increase for 1 SD increase in PCB level, P  environmental exposures and chronic disease-related risk factors may play a role in telomere length. Our secondary analysis found no evidence of association between PCBs/smoking and gene expression of telomere-associated genes. All correlations between exposures, behaviours and clinical factors and changes in telomere length will require further investigation regarding biological influence of exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  11. PUFA Status and Methylmercury Exposure Are Not Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Mothers or Their Children in the Seychelles Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Alison J; Thurston, Sally W; Li, Huiqi; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Watson, Gene E; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Broberg, Karin

    2017-11-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (TL) is associated with age-related diseases and early mortality, but there is a lack of data on the determinants of TL in early life. Evidence suggests that dietary intake of marine n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is protective of telomere attrition, yet the effect of methylmercury exposure, also found in fish, on TL is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between prenatal PUFA status, methylmercury exposure, and TL in mothers and children in the SCDS (Seychelles Child Development Study), for whom fish consumption is high. Methods: Blood samples collected from 229 mothers (at 28 wk gestation and delivery) and children (at 5 y of age) in the SCDS first nutrition cohort were analyzed for PUFA concentrations. Prenatal mercury was measured in maternal hair collected at delivery. Postnatal mercury was also measured in children's hair samples with the use of a cumulative metric derived from values obtained at 3-5 y of age. Relative TL was measured in blood obtained from mothers at delivery, in cord blood, and in children at 5 y of age by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between PUFA status, methylmercury exposure, and TL. Results: Neither prenatal PUFA status or methylmercury exposure was associated with TL of the mother or child or with TL attrition rate. However, a higher prenatal n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly associated with longer TLs in the mothers (β = 0.001, P = 0.048). Child PUFA status and methylmercury exposure were not associated with child TL. However, higher family Hollingshead socioeconomic status (SES) scores at 9 mo of age were significantly associated with longer TLs in cord blood (β = 0.005, P = 0.03). Conclusions: We found no evidence that PUFA status or methylmercury exposure are determinants of TL in either the mother or child. However, our results support the hypothesis that

  12. Cancer resistance of SR/CR mice in the genetic knockout backgrounds of leukocyte effector mechanisms: determinations for functional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne M; Stehle, John R; Blanks, Michael J; Riedlinger, Gregory; Kim-Shapiro, Jung W; Monjazeb, Arta M; Adams, Jonathan M; Willingham, Mark C; Cui, Zheng

    2010-03-31

    Spontaneous Regression/Complete Resistant (SR/CR) mice are a colony of cancer-resistant mice that can detect and rapidly destroy malignant cells with innate cellular immunity, predominately mediated by granulocytes. Our previous studies suggest that several effector mechanisms, such as perforin, granzymes, or complements, may be involved in the killing of cancer cells. However, none of these effector mechanisms is known as critical for granulocytes. Additionally, it is unclear which effector mechanisms are required for the cancer killing activity of specific leukocyte populations and the survival of SR/CR mice against the challenges of lethal cancer cells. We hypothesized that if any of these effector mechanisms was required for the resistance to cancer cells, its functional knockout in SR/CR mice should render them sensitive to cancer challenges. This was tested by cross breeding SR/CR mice into the individual genetic knockout backgrounds of perforin (Prf-/-), superoxide (Cybb-/), or inducible nitric oxide (Nos2-/). SR/CR mice were bred into individual Prf-/-, Cybb-/-, or Nos2-/- genetic backgrounds and then challenged with sarcoma 180 (S180). Their overall survival was compared to controls. The cancer killing efficiency of purified populations of macrophages and neutrophils from these immunodeficient mice was also examined. When these genetically engineered mice were challenged with cancer cells, the knockout backgrounds of Prf-/-, Cybb-/-, or Nos2-/- did not completely abolish the SR/CR cancer resistant phenotype. However, the Nos2-/- background did appear to weaken the resistance. Incidentally, it was also observed that the male mice in these immunocompromised backgrounds tended to be less cancer-resistant than SR/CR controls. Despite the previously known roles of perforin, superoxide or nitric oxide in the effector mechanisms of innate immune responses, these effector mechanisms were not required for cancer-resistance in SR/CR mice. The resistance was

  13. Changes in coagulation-fibrinolysis function in alveolar lavage fluid of endotoxemic dogs after partial removal of peripheral leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-gang ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of partial removal of peripheral leucocytes on the coagulation-fibrinolysis function of alveolar lavage fluid(ALF in endotoxemic dogs,and explore the influence and mechanisms of activated leucocytes on lung injury in endotoxemic dogs.Methods Thirty male mongrel dogs were involved in present study and randomly divided into 3 groups(10 each: LPS group(group L,sham leukocytapheresis group(group S and leukocytapheresis group(group T.Endotoxemic model was reproduced in group L by administration of LPS(2mg/kg,but the animals did not receive leukocytapheresis.Animals in group T received leukocytapheresis using a continuous-flow blood cell separator 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.Animals in group S received sham leukocytapheresis(the end products were transfused back into the dogs at 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.At 36h after administration of LPS,the lung tissues were harvested to obtain ALF,and the levels of neutrophil elastase(NE,soluble thrombomodulin(sTM,activated protein C(APC and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1 in ALF were determined,the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was observed by immunohistochemical staining,while the routine pathological examination and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were performed.Results The APC level in ALF was significantly higher,while the NE,sTM and PAI-1 levels in ALF and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were significantly lower in group T than in group L and group S(P < 0.05.Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was higher in group T than in group L and group S.No significant difference was found between group L and group S in the indexes mentioned above.Pathological observation showed the incidence of acute lung injury was significantly lower in group T(2/10 than in group L(7/10 and group S(8/10,P < 0.05.Conclusion Partial removal of peripheral leukocytes may lower the level of NE in ALF

  14. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, Edith; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2013-01-01

    During inflammation, leukocytes play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis through elimination of pathogens and removal of damaged tissue. Leukocytes migrate to the site of inflammation by crawling over and through the blood vessel wall, into the tissue. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (ie,

  15. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Barbara; Filipek, Agnieszka; Chomicki, Piotr; Pyza, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Marta; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Piwowarski, Jakub P.; Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika A.; Kiss, Anna K.

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MSn) extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release) and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biological activity, and we included the positive control quercetin. Methods: The effect on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-α production by leukocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The surface expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry, and the neutrophil attachment to the endothelial cells was assessed fluorimetrically. The effects on p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation were determined using western blots. Results: Leaf extracts had the effect of decreasing TNF-α production in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells. The bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the following lignan aglycones: (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol, (−)-matairesinol, (+)-phillygenin, and (−)-arctigenin. Only phillygenin was able to stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages by inducing TGF-β release and IL-10 receptor surface expression. Arctigenin, phillygenin, and a metabolite produced by the gut microbiota, enterolactone, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β production and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, probably by attenuating the p38 and ERK kinase pathways. Conclusion: Forsythia x intermedia is a valuable source of active lignans, which may be potential candidates for treating inflammatory diseases that are associated with the excessive production of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:29740324

  16. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Barbara; Filipek, Agnieszka; Chomicki, Piotr; Pyza, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Marta; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika A; Kiss, Anna K

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MS n ) extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release) and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biological activity, and we included the positive control quercetin. Methods: The effect on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-α production by leukocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The surface expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry, and the neutrophil attachment to the endothelial cells was assessed fluorimetrically. The effects on p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation were determined using western blots. Results: Leaf extracts had the effect of decreasing TNF-α production in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells. The bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the following lignan aglycones: (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol, (-)-matairesinol, (+)-phillygenin, and (-)-arctigenin. Only phillygenin was able to stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages by inducing TGF-β release and IL-10 receptor surface expression. Arctigenin, phillygenin, and a metabolite produced by the gut microbiota, enterolactone, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β production and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, probably by attenuating the p38 and ERK kinase pathways. Conclusion: Forsythia x intermedia is a valuable source of active lignans, which may be potential candidates for treating inflammatory diseases that are associated with the excessive production of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β.

  17. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Michalak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MSn extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biological activity, and we included the positive control quercetin.Methods: The effect on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-α production by leukocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The surface expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry, and the neutrophil attachment to the endothelial cells was assessed fluorimetrically. The effects on p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation were determined using western blots.Results: Leaf extracts had the effect of decreasing TNF-α production in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells. The bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the following lignan aglycones: (+-pinoresinol, (+-epipinoresinol, (−-matairesinol, (+-phillygenin, and (−-arctigenin. Only phillygenin was able to stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages by inducing TGF-β release and IL-10 receptor surface expression. Arctigenin, phillygenin, and a metabolite produced by the gut microbiota, enterolactone, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β production and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, probably by attenuating the p38 and ERK kinase pathways.Conclusion:Forsythia x intermedia is a valuable source of active lignans, which may be potential candidates for treating inflammatory diseases that are associated with the excessive production of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β.

  18. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic Bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 1 - Quantification of the relative number and proportion of leukocyte populations in the spleen and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used in manufacturing of a broad range of consumer products worldwide. Due to its widespread use, human exposure to BPA is virtually ubiquitous. Broad human exposure coupled with a large scientific literature describing estrogenic activity of BPA in animals has raised public health concerns. To comprehensively evaluate the health effects of BPA exposure, a chronic toxicity study using a wide-range of BPA doses (2.5-25000 μg/kg bw/day) was conducted jointly by the NTP, thirteen NIEHS-supported grantees, and the FDA, which is called the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of chronic BPA exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats on the relative number and proportion of defined leukocyte populations in the spleen and the thymus. Toward this end, lymphoid tissues from a total of 641 rats were assayed after being continuously dosed with BPA or controls for up to one year. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of BPA on leukocyte compositions, extensive endpoints that cover major populations of leukocytes were assessed, including B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, of the 530 measurements in BPA-treated rats, 10 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls and were mainly associated with either the macrophage or dendritic cell populations. Most, if not all, of these alterations were found to be transient with no persistent trend over the one-year time period. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and not dose-dependent. Due to the aforementioned, it is unlikely that the observed BPA-mediated changes alone would adversely affect immune competence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  20. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  1. Assessment of DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes after occupational exposure to microwave radiation: the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.

    2002-01-01

    The people of industrialised societies are continuously exposed to increasing levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by various electrical installations and telecommunication systems. In recent years there has been growing interest in the health effects of the electromagnetic radiation's designated extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). It is known that exposure to microwave radiation has different biological effects on eye, the nervous system and its function, circulatory and the reproductive system. Available data on cytogenetic consequences of microwave exposure on the induction of chromosome damage are sometimes contradictory, mostly because of different experimental conditions of in vitro and in vivo studies. However, in occupationally exposed persons elevated levels of DNA damage as expressed by means of cytogenetic endpoints were observed. Positive results in induction of micronuclei are also reported after in vitro exposure to microwave radiation on human lymphocytes. It has been suggested that exposure to radiofrequency radiation may have genetic effects which predispose to the development of cancer, particularly lymphoma and leukaemia, and also birth defects such as Down's syndrome

  2. Leukocyte integrins and their ligand interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Min; Lefort, Craig T.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Although critical for cell adhesion and migration during normal immune-mediated reactions, leukocyte integrins are also involved in the pathogenesis of diverse clinical conditions including autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Leukocyte integrins therefore have been targets for anti-adhesive therapies to treat the inflammatory disorders. Recently, the therapeutic potential of integrin antagonists has been demonstrated in psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. However, current therapeutics broadly affect integrin functions and, thus, yield unfavorable side effects. This review discusses the major leukocyte integrins and the anti-adhesion strategies for treating immune diseases. PMID:19184539

  3. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  4. Leukocyte telomere length in major depression: correlations with chronicity, inflammation and oxidative stress--preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen M Wolkowitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of "accelerated aging" in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation.Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio and inflammation (IL-6. Analyses were controlled for age and sex.The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05. Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (≥9.2 years' cumulative duration was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05, corresponding to approximately seven years of "accelerated cell aging." Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01 and in the controls (p<0.05 and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05.These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is not an intrinsic feature. Rather, telomere shortening

  5. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  6. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  7. Determination of leukemia-associated gene rearrangements and ultrastructural changes in Chernobyl accident liquidators blood leukocytes long term after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenko, Z.A.; Smirnova, I.A.; Yanok, E.A.; Kishinskaya, E.G.; Zak, K.P.; Afanas'eva, V.V.; Mikhajlovskaya, Eh.V.

    1997-01-01

    The results of ultrastructural and molecular-genetic investigations of blood cells from 120 liquidators 7-10 years after Chernobyl accident with the total exposure radiation doses ranging from 5.1 to 75.0 cGy are presented. Electron microscopic studies revealed marked changes in ultrastructure of neutrophils nuclei - hyper segmentation, whimsical prominences, loops, swelling and destruction of cytoplasmic granules. There was an increase in the number of 'aberrant' forms of lymphocytes with disturbed structure of chromatin, additional nuclei and changed membrane contour. Structural polymorphism of the leukemia associated bcr and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes were studied using Southern blot hybridization. Allelic polymorphism of bcr gene with characteristic for chronic myeloid leukemia allele distribution and rearrangements of eRNA genes were detected in 11.5% of accident liquidators. This data point out to structure-functional leucocyte changes and possibility of arising leukemia associated gene rearrangements in blood cells of some liquidators many years after the exposure to radiation and serve for determination of group at risk of oncohematological diseases

  8. The functional polymorphism rs73598374:G>A (p.Asp8Asn) of the ADA gene is associated with telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concetti, Fabio; Carpi, Francesco M; Nabissi, Massimo; Picciolini, Matteo; Santoni, Giorgio; Napolioni, Valerio

    2015-02-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated a relevant role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in replicative senescence of T cells through its capacity to modulate telomerase activity (TA). Herein, we tested the impact of the functional polymorphism ADA rs73598374:G>A (c.22G>A, p.Asp8Asn) on telomere biology, by measuring TA and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in healthy subjects selected according to rs73598374 genotype. rs73598374-A carriers showed lower TA (P=0.019) and shorter LTL (P=0.003), respectively, compared to G/G carriers. rs73598374-A carriers showed a stronger cross-sectional age reduction of LTL (r=-0.314, P=0.005) compared to G/G carriers (r=-0.243, P=0.022). The reduced ADA activity associated to rs73598374-A variant predisposes those carriers to display higher levels of adenosine compared to G/G carriers. Consequently, it may lead to an accelerated process of replicative senescence, causing a stronger reduction of TA and in turn shorter LTL. In conclusion, the crucial role played by replicative senescence of the immune system in several human diseases and in the aging process underscores the relevance of the present findings and also spurs interest into the possible involvement of rs73598374 in shaping the susceptibility to several age-related diseases.

  9. Indium-111 labeling of leukocytes: a detrimental effect on neutrophil and lymphocyte function and an improved method of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.W.; Deteix, P.; Garcia, R.; Tooth, P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Allison, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for the labeling of cells with the gamma emitter indium-111 has recently been developed. In this study the effects of the labeling procedure on some in vitro functions of human neutrophils and lymphocytes were investigated. With the standard labeling procedure, neutrophil chemotaxis was reduced to approximately 50% of normal and lymphocytes lost surface receptors and failed to respond to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The 8-hydroxyquinoline that is used to chelate the indium is toxic to lymphocytes; accordingly the relationship between the quantity of oxine, the chelation of indium, and cell labeling were investigated. Optimal conditions for In-111 cell labeling were established: 100 million cells in 10 ml Hanks' balanced salt solution are mixed with 5 μg of oxine in a mixture of 50 μl of ethanol and 200 μl of saline; they are incubated at 37 0 C for 10 min and then washed. Initially, neutrophils and lymphocytes appear functionally normal, but after 24 to 48 hr lymphocyte function is impaired as a result of radiation damage. This toxicity may limit studies by external scanning on the distribution and kinetics of lymphocytes labeled with In-111

  10. Environmental exposure and altered menstrual function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keye, W.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of environmental agents and occupational factors on hypothalamic and pituitary function and menstruation are poorly understood. To date, most research related to environment, occupation, and reproduction has focused on pregnancy outcome, not menstrual function. It is imperative, however, that menstrual function be considered as an outcome variable in the study of reproduction and occupation.

  11. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets

  12. Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

  13. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 2 - Characterization of lymphoproliferative and immune effector responses by splenic leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in the manufacturing of a wide range of consumer products, including polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin that lines beverage and food cans, and some dental sealants. Consumption of food and beverages containing BPA represents the primary route of human BPA exposure, which is virtually ubiquitous. An increasing number of studies have evaluated the effects of BPA on immune responses in laboratory animals that have reported a variety of effects some of which have been contradictory. To address the divergent findings surrounding BPA exposure, a comprehensive chronic treatment study of BPA was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats, termed the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, our studies evaluated the effects of BPA on a broad range of immune function endpoints using spleen cells isolated from BPA or vehicle treated rats. This comprehensive assessment included measurements of lymphoproliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli, immunoglobulin production by B cells, and cellular activation of T cells, NK cells, monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, 630 different measurements in BPA treated rats were performed of which 35 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls. The most substantive alteration associated with BPA treatment was the augmentation of lymphoproliferation in response to pokeweed mitogen stimulations in 1 year old male rats, which was also observed in the reference estrogen ethinyl estradiol treated groups. With the exception of the aforementioned, the statistically significant changes associated with BPA treatment were mostly sporadic and not dose-dependent with only one out of five BPA dose groups showing a statistical difference. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and showed no persistent trend over the one-year time period

  14. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Qvenild Torgunn; Svendsen Kristin; Svedahl Sindre; Sjaastad Ann; Hilt Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled level...

  15. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  16. Alloactivated HLA class II-positive T-cell lines induce IL-2 reactivity but lack accessory cell function in mixed leukocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, N; Dickmeiss, E; Hofmann, B

    1989-01-01

    in the primary mixed leukocyte reaction (median counts per minute (cpm) 5.5 x 10(3] was significantly lower than that of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cpm: 44.0 x 10(3]. The stimulation by Ta was almost only seen when the Ta were specifically directed against the class II antigens of the responder...... peripheral blood mononuclear cells (i.e., in combinations with "backstimulation") (median cpm: 21,000). In mixed leukocyte reaction combinations without backstimulation, significantly weaker reactions were seen (median cpm: 1,000). This observation may explain previous controversies concerning...

  17. Impact of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 Blockade on Endogenous Allospecific T Cells to Multiple Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatched Cardiac Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Jean; Farris, Alton B; Song, Hyunjin; Mahle, William T; Burlingham, William J; Knechtle, Stuart J

    2015-12-01

    Blocking leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 in organ transplant recipients prolongs allograft survival. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of LFA-1 blockade in preventing chronic rejection are not fully elucidated. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the preeminent cause of late cardiac allograft failure characterized histologically by concentric intimal hyperplasia. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibody was used in a multiple minor antigen-mismatched, BALB.B (H-2B) to C57BL/6 (H-2B), cardiac allograft model. Endogenous donor-specific CD8 T cells were tracked down using major histocompatibility complex multimers against the immunodominant H4, H7, H13, H28, and H60 minor Ags. The LFA-1 blockade prevented acute rejection and preserved palpable beating quality with reduced CD8 T-cell graft infiltration. Interestingly, less CD8 T cell infiltration was secondary to reduction of T-cell expansion rather than less trafficking. The LFA-1 blockade significantly suppressed the clonal expansion of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CD8 T cells during the expansion and contraction phase. The CAV development was evaluated with morphometric analysis at postoperation day 100. The LFA-1 blockade profoundly attenuated neointimal hyperplasia (61.6 vs 23.8%; P < 0.05), CAV-affected vessel number (55.3 vs 15.9%; P < 0.05), and myocardial fibrosis (grade 3.29 vs 1.8; P < 0.05). Finally, short-term LFA-1 blockade promoted long-term donor-specific regulation, which resulted in attenuated transplant arteriosclerosis. Taken together, LFA-1 blockade inhibits initial endogenous alloreactive T-cell expansion and induces more regulation. Such a mechanism supports a pulse tolerance induction strategy with anti-LFA-1 rather than long-term treatment.

  18. The expression and functional activity of membrane-bound human leukocyte antigen-G1 are influenced by the 3'-untranslated region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Signe Goul; Hantash, Basil M; Zhao, Longmei

    2013-01-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is an immunosuppressive molecule acting on both the innate and adaptive immune system. A 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs66554220) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the HLA-G gene has been associated with a number of diseases, pregnancy complication...

  19. CD44 antibody stimulates adhesion of peripheral blood T cells to keratinocytes through the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynzeel, I.; Koopman, G.; van der Raaij, L. M.; Pals, S. T.; Willemze, R.

    1993-01-01

    Close contact between T lymphocytes and keratinocytes is an important feature of many inflammatory skin diseases. In vitro studies showed that stimulation of keratinocytes with interferon-gamma or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and of T cells with phorbol esters results in a leukocyte

  20. Metal dust exposure and lung function deterioration among steel workers: an exposure-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Nurul Ainun; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2016-07-01

    Metallic dust is a heterogeneous substance with respiratory sensitizing properties. Its long term exposure adversely affected lung function, thus may cause acute or chronic respiratory diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a steel factory in Terengganu, Malaysia to assess the metal dust exposure and its relationship to lung function values among 184 workers. Metal dust concentrations values (Co, Cr, and Ni) for each worker were collected using air personal sampling. Lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC) were determined using spirometer. Exposure to cobalt and chromium were 1-3 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL) while nickel was not exceeding the PEL. Cumulative of chromium was the predictor to all lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC). Frequency of using mask was positively associated with FVC (Adj b = 0.263, P = 0.011) while past respiratory illnesses were negatively associated with %FEV 1 /FVC (Adj b = -1.452, P = 0.026). Only few workers (36.4%) were found to wear their masks all times during the working hours. There was an exposure-response relationship of cumulative metal dust exposure with the deterioration of lung function values. Improvement of control measures as well as proper and efficient use or personal protection equipment while at work could help to protect the respiratory health of workers.

  1. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of

  2. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very...

  3. Neuromotor function in ship welders after cessation of manganese exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Sallsten, Gerd; Bast-Pettersen, Rita; Barregard, Lars

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether previous long-term exposure to manganese (Mn) via inhalation of welding fumes can cause persistent impairment in neuromotor function even long after cessation of exposure. Quantitative tests of tremor, motor speed, manual dexterity, diadochokinesis, eye-hand coordination and postural stability were administered to 17 retired ship welders (mean age 69 years), with mean exposure time 28 years. The welders' exposure had ceased on average 18 years before the study. A cumulative exposure index (CEI) was calculated for each of the former welders. The welders were compared with 21 referents from the same shipyards (mean age was 66 years). Former welders performed less well than referents in the grooved pegboard test, and poorer performance was associated with CEI. The performance in most of the other neurobehavioral tests was similar between groups, but the welders tended to perform slightly better than the referents in tests demanding hand steadiness. The latter finding may be due to a training effect from their former working tasks or selection bias into or out of this occupation. In the present study of welders with previous welding fume exposure, former welders and referents performed similarly in most of the neurobehavioral tests. Previous adverse effects on the neuromotor system might have ceased, and decreased neuromotor function due to normal aging processes in both groups might have disguised any slight effect of previous Mn exposure. The poorer performance in the grooved pegboard test among welders may indicate an adverse effect on motor function of long-term exposure to Mn, but this finding has to be confirmed by other studies.

  4. Exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Park, Dong-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Tae; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with increase in pulmonary disease. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of personal nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) samplers as a means of measuring exposure to air pollution and to investigate the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function. We measured individual exposures to NO(2) using passive personal NO(2) samplers for 298 healthy university students. Questionnaire interview was conducted for traffic-related factors, and spirometry was performed when the samplers were returned after 1 day. Personal NO(2) concentrations varied, depending on the distance between residence and a main road (P=0.029). Students who used transportation for more than 1 h were exposed to higher levels of NO(2) than those using transportation for less than 1 h (P=0.032). In terms of transportation, riding in a bus or subway caused significantly higher exposure than not using them (P=0.046). NO(2) exposure was not significantly associated with forced vital capacity (FVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) but was associated with the ratio of FEV(1)/FVC and mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75)) (Ppollution and are associated with decreased pulmonary function.

  5. Early cannabinoid exposure influences neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in male mice: I. Prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalterio, S; Steger, R; Mayfield, D; Bartke, A

    1984-01-01

    Maternal exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent in marihuana, or to the non-psychoactive cannabinol (CBN) or cannabidiol (CBD) alters endocrine functions and concentrations of brain biogenic amines in their male offspring. Prenatal CBN exposure on day 18 of gestation resulted in decreased plasma FSH levels, testicular testosterone (T) concentrations, and seminal vesicles weights, but increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) post-castration in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to THC significantly enhanced the responsiveness of the testes to intratesticular LH injection in vivo and tended to increase human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated T production by decapsulated testes in vitro. In the CBN-exposed mice, hCG-stimulated T production was enhanced, while CBD exposure had no effect. Prenatal THC exposure altered the negative feedback effects of exogenous gonadal steroids in castrated adults, with lower plasma T and FSH levels after 20 micrograms T than in castrated controls. In contrast, CBD-exposed mice had higher levels of LH in plasma post-castration. In CBN-exposed adults, two weeks post-castration the concentration of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in hypothalamus and remaining brain were reduced, while levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, were elevated compared to that in castrated OIL-controls. Prenatal CBD-exposure also reduced NE and elevated 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but did not affect DA levels post-castration. Concentrations of brain biogenic amines were not influenced by prenatal THC exposure in the present study. A single prenatal exposure to psychoactive or non-psychoactive components of marihuana results in long term alterations in the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Changes in the concentrations of brain biogenic amines may be related to these effects of prenatal cannabinoids on endocrine function in adult male mice.

  6. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvenild Torgunn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET. The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03. The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

  7. Discovery and development of 5-[(5S,9R)-9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3,7-triazaspiro[4.4]non-7-yl-methyl]-3-thiophenecarboxylic acid (BMS-587101)--a small molecule antagonist of leukocyte function associated antigen-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potin, Dominique; Launay, Michele; Monatlik, Francoise; Malabre, Patrice; Fabreguettes, Maud; Fouquet, Andre; Maillet, Magali; Nicolai, Eric; Dorgeret, Loïc; Chevallier, François; Besse, Dominique; Dufort, Monique; Caussade, François; Ahmad, Syed Z; Stetsko, Dawn K; Skala, Stacey; Davis, Patricia M; Balimane, Praveen; Patel, Karishma; Yang, Zheng; Marathe, Punit; Postelneck, Jennifer; Townsend, Robert M; Goldfarb, Valentina; Sheriff, Steven; Einspahr, Howard; Kish, Kevin; Malley, Mary F; DiMarco, John D; Gougoutas, Jack Z; Kadiyala, Pathanjali; Cheney, Daniel L; Tejwani, Ravindra W; Murphy, Denette K; Mcintyre, Kim W; Yang, Xiaoxia; Chao, Sam; Leith, Leslie; Xiao, Zili; Mathur, Arvind; Chen, Bang-Chi; Wu, Daugh-Rurng; Traeger, Sarah C; McKinnon, Murray; Barrish, Joel C; Robl, Jeffrey A; Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Suchard, Suzanne J; Dhar, T G Murali

    2006-11-30

    LFA-1 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1), is a member of the beta2-integrin family and is expressed on all leukocytes. This letter describes the discovery and preliminary SAR of spirocyclic hydantoin based LFA-1 antagonists that culminated in the identification of analog 8 as a clinical candidate. We also report the first example of the efficacy of a small molecule LFA-1 antagonist in combination with CTLA-4Ig in an animal model of transplant rejection.

  8. Intrauterine exposure to tobacco and executive functioning in high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Richardson, Mark A; Buchanan-Howland, Kathryn; Chen, Clara A; Cabral, Howard; Heeren, Timothy C; Liebschutz, Jane; Forman, Leah; Frank, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures. A prospective low-income birth cohort (51% male; 89% African American/Caribbean) was followed through late adolescence (16-18 years old). At birth, intrauterine exposures to cocaine and other substances (52% cocaine, 52% tobacco, 26% marijuana, 26% alcohol) were identified by meconium and/or urine assays, and/or maternal self-report. High school teachers knowledgeable about the student and unaware of study aims were asked to complete the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Teacher Form (BRIEF-TF) annually. Teachers completed at least one BRIEF-TF for 131 adolescents. Multivariable analyses included controls for: demographics; intrauterine cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol exposures; early childhood exposures to lead; and violence exposure from school-age to adolescence. IUTE was associated with less optimal BRIEF-TF Behavioral Regulation scores (p <0.05). Other intrauterine substance exposures did not predict less optimal BRIEF-TF scores, nor did exposures to violence, lead, nor adolescents' own substance use. IUTE is associated with offspring's less optimal EF. Prenatal counseling should emphasize abstinence from tobacco, as well as alcohol and illegal substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah Jo; Robien, Kim; Zota, Ami R

    2017-04-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999-2002). Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional associations between LTL and serum concentrations of vitamin A, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, folate, and vitamin B-12 (1999-2002; n = 7458) and α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene (2001-2002; n = 4018) in a nationally representative sample of US adults (≥20 y of age) with the use of multivariable linear regression. We further investigated whether vitamin and carotenoid concentrations modified associations between blood cadmium and LTL with models stratified by serum nutrient concentrations and the inclusion of an interaction term. Results: Blood cadmium was inversely associated with LTL (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = -3.74; 95% CI: -5.35, -2.10). Serum vitamin A was positively associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.26, 7.90) and γ-tocopherol was inversely associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/dL = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.21, -0.73) with LTL. Serum folate ( P -trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol ( P -trend = 0.10) were marginally positively associated with LTL, whereas vitamin B-12 ( P -trend = 0.78) was not associated with LTL. Serum carotenoids were generally positively associated with LTL. Serum vitamin and carotenoid concentrations did not modify blood cadmium and LTL associations ( P -interaction > 0.10). Conclusions: Results from this

  10. Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999–2002). Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional associations between LTL and serum concentrations of vitamin A, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, folate, and vitamin B-12 (1999–2002; n = 7458) and α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene (2001–2002; n = 4018) in a nationally representative sample of US adults (≥20 y of age) with the use of multivariable linear regression. We further investigated whether vitamin and carotenoid concentrations modified associations between blood cadmium and LTL with models stratified by serum nutrient concentrations and the inclusion of an interaction term. Results: Blood cadmium was inversely associated with LTL (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = −3.74; 95% CI: −5.35, −2.10). Serum vitamin A was positively associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.26, 7.90) and γ-tocopherol was inversely associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/dL = −2.49; 95% CI: −4.21, −0.73) with LTL. Serum folate (P-trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (P-trend = 0.10) were marginally positively associated with LTL, whereas vitamin B-12 (P-trend = 0.78) was not associated with LTL. Serum carotenoids were generally positively associated with LTL. Serum vitamin and carotenoid concentrations did not modify blood cadmium and LTL associations (P-interaction > 0.10). Conclusions: Results from

  11. Effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Rosenman, Kenneth D; Reilly, Mary Jo; Rice, Carol H

    2002-08-01

    To assess the effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function. Epidemiologic evaluation based on employee interview, plant walk-through, and information abstracted from company medical records, employment records, and industrial hygiene measurements. Drawn from 1,072 current and former hourly wage workers employed before January 1, 1986. Thirty-six individuals with radiographic evidence of parenchymal changes consistent with asbestosis or silicosis were excluded. In addition, eight individuals whose race was listed as other than white or black were excluded. Analysis of spirometry data (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) only using the test results that met American Thoracic Society criteria for reproducibility and acceptability shows decreasing percent-predicted FVC and FEV1 and decreasing FEV1/FVC in relationship to increasing silica exposure among smokers. Logistic regression analyses of abnormal FVC and abnormal FEV1 values (where abnormal is defined as OSHA)-allowable level of 0.1 mg/m3. Longitudinal analyses of FVC and FEV1 measurements show a 1.6 mL/yr and 1.1 mL/yr, respectively, decline per milligram/cubic meter mean silica exposure (p = 0.011 and p = 0.001, respectively). All analyses were adjusted for weight, height, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and other silica exposures. Systematic problems leading to measurement error were possible, but would have been nondifferential in effect and not related to silica measurements. There is a consistent association between increased pulmonary function abnormalities and estimated measures of cumulative silica exposure within the current allowable OSHA regulatory level. Despite concerns about the quality control of the pulmonary function measurements use in these analyses, our results support the need to lower allowable air levels of silica and increase efforts to encourage cessation of cigarette smoking among silica-exposed workers.

  12. Lifetime Exposure to Ambient Pollution and Lung Function in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary B; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A; Gold, Diane R

    2016-04-15

    Few studies have examined associations between exposure to air pollution and childhood lung function after implementation of strict air quality regulations in the 1990s. To assess traffic-related pollution exposure and childhood lung function. We geocoded addresses for 614 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy in the Boston area 1999-2002 and followed them until a mid-childhood visit (median age, 7.7). We calculated the proximity of the home to the nearest major roadway. We estimated first year of life, lifetime, and prior-year exposure to particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) by a hybrid model using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth, and to black carbon (BC) by a land-use regression model. Residential proximity to roadway and prior-year and lifetime PM2.5 and BC exposure were all associated with lower FVC. Associations with FEV1 were also negative and proportionally similar. Pollution exposures were not associated with the FEV1/FVC ratio or bronchodilator response. Compared with distances greater than or equal to 400 m, living less than 100 m from a major roadway was associated with lower FVC (-98.6 ml; -176.3 to -21.0). Each 2 μg/m(3) increment in prior-year PM2.5 was associated with lower FVC (-21.8 ml; -43.9 to 0.2) and higher odds of FEV1 less than 80% predicted (1.41; 1.03-1.93). Each 0.2 μg/m(3) increment in prior-year BC was associated with a 38.9 ml (-70.4 to -7.3) lower FVC. Estimates of long-term exposure to ambient pollution, including proximity to major roadway, PM2.5, and BC (a traffic-related PM2.5 constituent), were associated with lower lung function in this Boston-area cohort of children with relatively low pollution exposures.

  13. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    , consistent with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions This study suggests that adults exposed to MeHg may be at risk for deficits in neurocognitive function. The functions disrupted in adults, namely attention, fine-motor function and verbal memory, are similar to some of those previously reported in children with prenatal exposures.

  14. Inflammation, leukocytes and menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jemma; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2012-12-01

    Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory properties, and its rapidly declining levels (along with those of estrogen) in the late secretory phase of each non-conception cycle, initiates a sequence of interdependent events of an inflammatory nature involving local inter-cellular interactions within the endometrium. Intracellular responses to loss of progesterone (in decidualized stromal, vascular and epithelial cells) lead to decreased prostaglandin metabolism and loss of protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS results in release of NFκB from suppression with activation of target gene transcription and increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The resultant leukocyte recruitment, with changing phenotypes and activation, provide further degradative enzymes and MMP activators, which together with a hypoxic environment induced by prostaglandin actions, lead to the tissue breakdown and bleeding characteristic of menstruation. In parallel, at sites where shedding is complete, microenvironmentally-induced changes in phenotypes of neutrophils and macrophages from pro- to anti-inflammatory, in addition to induction of growth factors, contribute to the very rapid re-epithelialization and restoration of tissue integrity.

  15. Antibody-mediated suppression of grafted lymphoma. III. Evaluation of the role of thymic function, non-thymus-derived lymphocytes, macrophages, platelets, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in syngeneic and allogeneic hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.S.; Hayden, M.; Langley, S.; Kaliss, N.; Smith, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Syngeneic or allogeneic mice pretreated with sublethal whole-body irradiation were rendered incapable of suppressing the growth of grafted tumor cells sensitized with alloantibody. The growth of sensitized tumor cells was suppressed when they were mixed with donor effector cells from mice syngeneic or allogeneic to the recipients and then were inoculated in irradiated recipients. Three donor-host combinations were used to study the suppression of the murine lymphoma 6C3HED indigenous to C3H mice. These were C3H donor cells in C3H recipients, C57BL/6 donor cells in C3H recipients, or C57BL/6 donor cells in C57BL/6 recipients. In all three combinations, macrophages obtained from an inflammatory exudate, exudate lymphocytes not bearing theta antigen, and platelets were, in descending order of effectiveness, consistently active in restoring antibody-mediated suppression of tumor growth in irradiated hosts. Prior irradiation of the transferred lymphocytes somewhat diminished their effectiveness. Freeze-thawed or heat-killed macrophages (but not freeze-thawed platelets or lymphocytes) were effective in restoration. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and splenic lymphoid cells were not active in the recipients syngeneic to the donor cells but were active in recipients allogeneic to the donor cells. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from peripheral blood or an inflammatory exudate were not active. Intact thymic function seems unimportant since antibody-mediated suppression took place as effectively in thymectomized mice as in normal controls. (U.S.)

  16. Functional recovery of biofilm bacterial communities after copper exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, Marie-Elene Y.; Massieux, Boris; Breure, Anton M.; Greve, Gerdit D.; Rutgers, Michiel; Admiraal, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Potential of bacterial communities in biofilms to recover after copper exposure was investigated. Biofilms grown outdoor in shallow water on glass dishes were exposed in the laboratory to 0.6, 2.1, 6.8 μmol/l copper amended surface water and a reference and subsequently to un-amended surface water. Transitions of bacterial communities were characterised with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Exposure to 6.8 μmol/l copper provoked distinct changes in DGGE profiles of bacterial consortia, which did not reverse upon copper depuration. Exposure to 2.1 and 6.8 μmol/l copper was found to induce marked changes in CLPP of bacterial communities that proved to be reversible during copper depuration. Furthermore, copper exposure induced the development of copper-tolerance, which was partially lost during depuration. It is concluded that bacterial communities exposed to copper contaminated water for a period of 26 days are capable to restore their metabolic attributes after introduction of unpolluted water in aquaria for 28 days. - Genetically different bacterial communities can have similar functions and tolerance to copper

  17. Vascular and lung function related to ultrafine and fine particles exposure assessed by personal and indoor monitoring: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Yulia; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Jensen, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    -related effects. Methods: Associations between vascular and lung function, inflammation markers and exposure in terms of particle number concentration (PNC; d = 10-300 nm) were studied in a cross-sectional design with personal and home indoor monitoring in the Western Copenhagen Area, Denmark. During 48-h, PNC...... and PM2.5 were monitored in living rooms of 60 homes with 81 non-smoking subjects (30-75 years old), 59 of whom carried personal monitors both when at home and away from home. We measured lung function in terms of the FEV1/FVC ratio, microvascular function (MVF) and pulse amplitude by digital artery...... tonometry, blood pressure and biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, and leukocyte counts with subdivision in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in blood. Results: PNC from personal and stationary home monitoring showed weak correlation (r = 0.15, p = 0.24). Personal UFP...

  18. Changes in ventricular function during emotional stress and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiess, M.C.; Moore, R.A.; Dimsdale, J.; Alpert, N.M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with cardiac disease frequently develop symptoms with emotional stress or cold exposure. To investigate the effects of these stresses in normal subjects, an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST) (previously reported to measure EFs which correlate well with gamma camera measurements) was employed to record sequential 2 minute time activity curves from the left ventricles of 6 healthy men (ages 19-24) during a control period and during a 30 minute stress interview with a psychiatrist. Four of the subjects were also monitored in a cold room (1 0 C) for 20 min. In addition to the left ventricular time-activity curve, heart rate (HR), and BP (cuff) were recorded. All subjects had increases in HR, BP and EF during the stress interview. Cold, however, produced decreases in HR and EF and an increase in BP. The results (mean +- SD) are tabulated. End-systolic and end-diastolic counts and hence volume decreased during the interview and increased during cold exposure. The results suggest that (1) ambulatory changes in ventricular function can be measured with the VEST, and (2) significant changes in cardiovascular physiology are seen in normal subjects during a stress interview and exposure to cold

  19. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Tihányi, Juraj; Jurečková, Dana; Kováč, Ján; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Drobná, Beata; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented adverse associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and otological outcomes. Previously, we documented decreased distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in children exposed to PCBs, up to the age of 45 months, amongst a cohort of children in eastern Slovakia. The objective of the present study is to evaluate cochlear dysfunction at 72 months of age in 214 children from this same cohort and to compare the otoacoustic test sensitivity to that of pure tone audiometry (PTA). The association between DPOAE, PTA, and PCBs was estimated by means of multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) and linear regression models. ROC curves were computed to estimate the DPOAE-test power in children. The DPOAE level at 72 months was related to PCB-153 serum levels. The DPOAE Input/Output function test at mid-frequency (2kHz) has shown instead nonmonotonic dependence on PCB exposure, for the left ears of children, over the whole growth curve. No significant association was found between PTA hearing levels and PCB-153 concentration. High diagnostic power of the DPOAE-test was found in children, similar to that found by the same authors in adults. In conclusions the DPOAE-PCB correlation obtained at 72 months is similar to that at 45 months suggesting a permanent and stable ototoxic effect of the PCB exposure. The lack of statistical significance of the PCB-PTA correlation suggests that DPOAEs are sensitive biomarkers of cochlear damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio and leukocyte function are related to reduction of Walker-256 tumor growth after β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Diogo; Paro de Oliveira, Heloísa Helena; Fonseca Guimarães, Fernando de Souza; de Lima, Carina; Alves, Luciana; Machado, Andressa Franzói; Coelho, Isabela; Yamaguchi, Adriana; Donatti, Lucélia; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms by which β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration in rats reduces Walker-256 tumor growth. Male Wistar rats were supplemented with HMB (76 mg/kg/day) (HW), or a placebo (W), during 8 wk by gavage. At the 6th wk, rats were inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 tumor cells (3 × 10(7)/mL). Fifteen days after inoculation, the HW group showed higher glycemia (109.4 ± 5.53 vs. 89.87 ± 7.02 mg/dL, P HMB-treated rats displayed a 36.9% decrement in rates of proliferation ex vivo and a significant increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio in comparison to those extracted from the placebo-treated rats (P HMB supplementation decreases tumor burden by modifying the inner environment of tumor cells and by interfering with blood leukocyte function.

  1. Assessment of carbon nanoparticle exposure on murine macrophage function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro-Maldonado, Raquel M.

    There is growing concern about the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5uM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. Nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their ability to penetrate into the lung and potentially elicit health effects triggering immune responses. Nanoparticles are structures and devises with length scales in the 1 to 100-nanometer range. Black carbon (BC) nanoparticles have been observed to be products of combustion, especially flame combustion and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to be found in both indoor and outdoor air. Furthermore, asbestos, which have been known to cause mesothelioma as well as lung cancer, have been shown to be structurally identical to MWCNTs. The aims of these studies were to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on murine macrophage function and clearance mechanisms. Macrophages are immune cells that function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticles. Our research focused on two manufactured nanoparticles, MWCNT and BC. The two were tested against murine-derived macrophages in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that long-term chronic exposure to carbon nanoparticles would decrease macrophages ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cell surface macrophage; activation markers, reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and antigen processing and presentation were examined in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a 144hr exposure to the particulates. Data demonstrated an increase in TNF-alpha, and NO production; a decrease in phagocytosis and antigen processing and presentation; and a decrease in the expression levels of cell surface macrophage

  2. Passive Heat Exposure Alters Perception and Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Malcolm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings regarding the influence of passive heat exposure on cognitive function remain equivocal due to a number of methodological issues including variation in the domains of cognition examined. In a randomized crossover design, forty-one male participants completed a battery of cognitive function tests [Visual Search, Stroop, Corsi Blocks and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP tests] prior to and following 1 h of passive rest in either hot (39.6 ± 0.4°C, 50.8 ± 2.3% Rh or moderate (21.2 ± 1.8°C, 41.9 ± 11.4% Rh conditions. Subjective feelings of heat exposure, arousal and feeling were assessed alongside physiological measures including core temperature, skin temperature and heart rate, at baseline and throughout the protocol. Response times were slower in the hot trial on the simple (main effect of trial, P < 0.001 and complex (main effect of trial, P < 0.001 levels of the Stroop test (Hot: 872 ± 198 ms; Moderate: 834 ± 177 ms and the simple level of the visual search test (Hot: 354 ± 54 ms; Moderate: 331 ± 47 ms (main effect of trial, P < 0.001. Participants demonstrated superior accuracy on the simple level of the Visual Search test in the hot trial (Hot: 98.5 ± 3.1%; Moderate: 97.4 ± 3.6% (main effect of trial, P = 0.035. Participants also demonstrated an improvement in accuracy on the complex level of the visual search test following 1 h passive heat exposure (Pre: 96.8 ± 5.9%; Post: 98.1 ± 3.1%, whilst a decrement was seen across the trial in the moderate condition (Pre: 97.7 ± 3.5; Post: 97.0 ± 5.1% (time*trial interaction, P = 0.029. No differences in performance were observed on the RVIP or Corsi Blocks tests (all P > 0.05. Subjective feelings of thermal sensation and felt arousal were higher, feeling was lower in the hot trial, whilst skin temperature, core temperature and heart rate were higher (main effects of trial, all P < 0.001. The findings of the present study suggest that response times for perception

  3. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Subchronic toxicity of Nile tilapia with different exposure routes to Microcystis aeruginosa: Histopathology, liver functions, and oxidative stress biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. R. Abdel-Latif

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs] have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. Aim: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M. aeruginosa (containing 3500 μg/g MC-LR, immersion in 500 μg MC-LR/L, intraperitoneal injection of M. aeruginosa MC-LR with a dose of 0.1 ml of extracted toxin at a dose of 200 μg/kg bwt, and the fourth one served as a control group, then the fish were sacrificed at the end of 3rd week of exposure. Results: The results revealed no recorded mortality with obvious behavioral changes and an enlarged liver with the congested gall bladder. Histopathology demonstrated fragmentation, hyalinization, and necrosis of the subcutaneous musculature marked fatty degeneration, and vacuolation of hepatopancreatic cells with adhesion of the secondary gill lamellae associated with severe leukocytic infiltration. Furthermore, liver functions enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidase, and catalase enzymes were significantly increased in all treatments starting from the 2nd week as compared to the control levels. Conclusion: In this context, the study addresses the possible toxicological impacts of toxic M. aeruginosa contain MC-LR to Nile tilapia, and the results investigated that MC-LR is toxic to Nile tilapia in different routes of exposure as well as different doses.

  5. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  6. Effect of streptavidin-biotin on endothelial vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bernard P; Reichert, William M; Truskey, George A

    2004-08-01

    The current study examines whether the adhesion promoting arginine-glycine-aspartate-streptavidin mutant (RGD-SA) also affects two important endothelial cell (EC) functions in vitro: vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion. EC adherent to surfaces via fibronectin (Fn) or Fn plus RGD-SA were subjected to laminar shear flow and media samples were collected over a period of 4h to measure the concentration of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI(2)), and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Western blot analysis was used to quantify the levels of endothelial-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX II). In a separate set of experiments, fluorescent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to EC was quantified for EC with and without exposure to flow preconditioning. When cell adhesion was supplemented with the SA-biotin system, flow-induced production of NO and PGI(2) increased significantly relative to cells adherent on Fn alone. Previous exposure of EC to shear flow also significantly decreased PMN attachment to SA-biotin supplemented EC, but only after 2h of exposure to shear flow. The observed decrease in PMN-EC adhesion was negated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an antagonist of NO synthesis, but not by indomethacin, an inhibitor to PGI(2) synthesis, indicating the induced effect of PMN-EC interaction is primarily NO-dependent. Results from this study suggest that the use of SA-biotin to supplement EC adhesion encourages vasodilation and PMN adhesion in vitro under physiological shear-stress conditions. We postulate that the presence of SA-biotin more efficiently transmits the shear-stress signal and amplifies the downstream events including the NO and PGI(2) release and leukocyte-EC inhibition. These results may have ramifications for reducing thrombus-induced vascular graft failure.

  7. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  8. Variation in sister chromatid exchange frequencies between human and pig whole blood, plasma leukocyte, and mononuclear leukocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larramendy, M.L.; Reigosa, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by ultraviolet (UV) light was studied in both human and pig whole blood cultures (WBC) and plasma leukocyte cultures (PLC). No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig WBC and PLC in control as well as in treated cells. Conversely, SCE frequencies of human PLC were consistently higher than those of WBC in control and UV-exposed cells. Thus, red blood cells (RBCs) do not influence the sensitivity of lymphocytes to UV LIGHT exposure, and there must be some different culture condition(s) in the inducation of SCEs between human WBC and PLC but not in swine lymphocyte cultures. Since the BrdUrd/lymphocyte ratio of WBC was halved in PLC, the effect of BrdUrd concentration in inducing the SCE baseline frequency of PLC may be ruled out. Neither the cell separation technique nor polymorphonuclear leukocytes had a significant role in the elevated SCE frequency of human PLC or MLC. Experiments where human RBCs were titrated into human PLC showed that the induction of an elevated SCE frequency of PLC was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the presence of RBCs in the culture medium. Since the incorporation of pig or human RBCs into human PLC as well as into MLC reduced the SCE frequency to that of WBC, a common component and/or function existing in these cells is suggested. Analysis of different RBC components showed that RBCs, specifically RBC ghosts, release a diffusible but not dialyzable corrective factor into culture medium that is able to reduce the SCE frequencies of PLC

  9. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  10. Technetium-99m HMPAO labeled leukocytes in inflammation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Yoshikawa, Kyousan; Imazeki, Keiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Arimizu, Noboru

    1991-01-01

    Technetium-99m-HMPAO (Tc-99m-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte imaging was carried out in 19 patients at 3-5 hr after reinjection. There were no side effects noted. Tc-99m leukocyte images showed gall bladder, colon, kidney, and urinary bladder activity in normal distribution as a result of excretion of the eluted Tc-99m complex. They yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 95%. They were correctly positive in 14 out of 19 cases. But one false negative case was seen in a patient with pyonephrosis showing a lack of renal function with decreased renal blood flow. It was concluded that they have some advantages over In-111 leukocyte images, but we have to consider the fact that the ureteral obstruction or the lack of renal function with decreased renal blood flow may result in a false positive or a false negative case. (author)

  11. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  12. Leukocyte removal efficiency of cell-washed and unwashed whole blood: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, M. ten; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Feron, JC; Meer, W. van der; Brouwer, René

    2005-01-01

    Leukocyte filtration of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) perfusate after cardiac surgery has evolved as an important technique to prevent effector functions mediated by activated leukocytes. However, little is known about the filtration efficiency. Therefore, an in vitro study was conducted to

  13. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  14. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  15. Chemotaxis of nurse shark leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauf, S D; Smith, S H

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the ability of leukocytes from the nurse shark to migrate in an in vitro micropore filter chemotaxis assay and to determine optimal assay conditions and suitable attractants for such an assay. A migratory response was seen with several attractants: activated rat serum, activated shark plasma, and a pool of shark complement components. Only the response to activated rat serum was chemotactic, as determined by the checkerboard assay.

  16. Changes in physico-chemical characteristics of leukocyte membranes as late effects of low doses of radioactivity and their correlation with several functions of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnina, I.; Meirovics, I.; Bruvere, R.; Heisele, O.; Volrate, A.; Feldmane, G.; Zvagule, T.; Klimkane, L.

    1998-01-01

    Membrane damage is considered to play key role in cell killing by ionising radiation and also in the loss of many different membrane functional properties induced by ionising radiation. The aim of this work was to characterize structural changes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMC) membranes and their relationship to several functions of the immune system in Latvia' s residents who have been doing the clean-up work in Chernobyl in 1986. The correlative relationships between the fluorescence intensity and the fluorescence maxima wavelength of ABM in PBMC suspension, and several parameters of the immune state as well as the total anti oxidative activity of serum were determined in 97 clean-up workers. Conclusions: Obtained patterns of spectra suggest that specific and qualitatively different changes of membrane properties are evident in Chernobyl clean-up worker's PBMC. The revealed changes correlates with changes of the immune state of the individuals

  17. Liking and Memory for Musical Stimuli as a Function of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Pliner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments examined changes in liking and memory for music as a function of number of previous exposures, the ecological validity of the music, and whether the exposure phase required focused or incidental listening. After incidental listening, liking ratings were higher for music heard more often in the exposure phase and this association…

  18. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number observed in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Koya

    2013-01-01

    The Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture has been known by that the black rain fell after dropping atomic bomb. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number was measured in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture after dropping atomic bomb. This phenomenon differs from the general knowledge that the leukocyte number decreases by the radiation exposure. This has been noticed as a rare record confirmed by the residual radiation effect to the human body using the group data. (M.H.)

  19. Effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojima, Hiromi; Sawada, Umihiko; Horie, Takashi; Itoh, Takeyoshi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency, we studied platelet recovery, leukocyte reduction rate, content of platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin in platelet products, platelet functions, and positive rates of platelet surface membranes CD42 and CD62, prior to and after treatment. We also evaluated the efficiency of platelet transfusion by estimating post- transfusion (1 and 24 hour) corrected count increment (CCI), and transfusion side effects. Recovery of platelets was 91.8±6.5% and depletion rate of leukocytes was 1.7±1.1 log. There was no significant difference in platelet activation markers or function tests prior to and after the procedure. The mean post-transfusion CCI and 1 and 24 hours were 16,550 (n=114) and 13,310 (n=93), respectively, with 30-Gy irradiation and leukocyte reduction filter. Those treated solely with leukocyte reduction filter were 14,970 (n=114) and 10,880 (n=118), respectively. There was no increase in transfusion side effects after the treatment of platelet concentrate with 30-Gy irradiation combined with leukocyte reduction filter compared with treatment by leukocyte reduction filter alone. These results indicate that treatment with 30 Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter is safe and effective in platelet transfusion. (author)

  20. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 μg/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function

  1. Lung function and airway inflammation in rats following exposure to combustion products of carbon-graphite/epoxy composite material: comparison to a rodent model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Gregory S; Grasman, Keith A; Kimmel, Edgar C

    2003-02-01

    Pulmonary function and inflammation in the lungs of rodents exposed by inhalation to carbon/graphite/epoxy advanced composite material (ACM) combustion products were compared to that of a rodent model of acute lung injury (ALI) produced by pneumotoxic paraquat dichloride. This investigation was undertaken to determine if short-term exposure to ACM smoke induces ALI; and to determine if smoke-related responses were similar to the pathogenic mechanisms of a model of lung vascular injury. We examined the time-course for mechanical lung function, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung, and the expression of three inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Male Fischer-344 rats were either exposed to 26.8-29.8 g/m(3) nominal concentrations of smoke or were given i.p. injections of paraquat dichloride. Measurements were determined at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days post exposure. In the smoke-challenged rats, there were no changes in lung function indicative of ALI throughout the 7-day observation period, despite the acute lethality of the smoke atmosphere. However, the animals showed signs of pulmonary inflammation. The expression of TNF-alpha was significantly increased in the lavage fluid 1 day following exposure, which preceded the maximum leukocyte infiltration. MIP-2 levels were significantly increased in lavage fluid at days 2, 3, and 7. This followed the leukocyte infiltration. IFN-gamma was significantly increased in the lung tissue at day 7, which occurred during the resolution of the inflammatory response. The paraquat, which was also lethal to a small percentage of the animals, caused several physiologic changes characteristic of ALI, including significant decreases in lung compliance, lung volumes/capacities, distribution of ventilation, and gas exchange capacity. The expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 increased significantly in the lung tissue as well as in the

  2. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  3. Impact of sex, MHC, and age of recipients on the therapeutic effect of transferred leukocytes from cancer-resistant SR/CR mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jonathan M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous Regression/Complete Resistant (SR/CR mice are resistant to cancer through a mechanism that is mediated entirely by leukocytes of innate immunity. Transfer of leukocytes from SR/CR mice can confer cancer resistance in wild-type (WT recipients in both preventative and therapeutic settings. In the current studies, we investigated factors that may impact the efficacy and functionality of SR/CR donor leukocytes in recipients. Results In sex-mismatched transfers, functionality of female donor leukocytes was not affected in male recipients. In contrast, male donor leukocytes were greatly affected in the female recipients. In MHC-mismatches, recipients of different MHC backgrounds, or mice of different strains, showed a greater negative impact on donor leukocytes than sex-mismatches. The negative effects of sex-mismatch and MHC-mismatch on donor leukocytes were additive. Old donor leukocytes performed worse than young donor leukocytes in all settings including in young recipients. Young recipients were not able to revive the declining function of old donor leukocytes. However, the function of young donor leukocytes declined gradually in old recipients, suggesting that an aged environment may contain factors that are deleterious to cellular functions. The irradiation of donor leukocytes prior to transfers had a profound suppressive effect on donor leukocyte functions, possibly as a result of impaired transcription. The cryopreserving of donor leukocytes in liquid nitrogen had no apparent effect on donor leukocyte functions, except for a small loss of cell number after revival from freezing. Conclusion Despite the functional suppression of donor leukocytes in sex- and MHC-mismatched recipients, as well as old recipients, there was a therapeutic time period during the initial few weeks during which donor leukocytes were functional before their eventual rejection or functional decline. The eventual rejection of donor

  4. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent lysis of Fas+ (CD95+/Apo-1+) innocent bystanders by antigen-specific CD8+ CTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H; Eshima, K; Takayama, H; Sitkovsky, M V

    1997-09-15

    Exquisite specificity toward Ag-bearing cells (cognate targets) is one of the most important properties of CD8+ CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Using highly Ag-specific CD8+ CTL lines and clones, which spare noncognate, Ag-free targets, we found that in the presence of Ag-bearing targets the CTL acquire the ability to lyse noncognate target cells (bystanders). It is shown that the unexpectedly rapid and efficient lysis of bystanders by Ag-activated CTL is mediated by a Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-based mechanism and does not depend on perforin. The CTL lysed Fas-expressing bystanders, but spared the Fas-negative or anti-Fas mAb-resistant bystander cells. Accordingly, the FasL-deficient gld/gld CTL did not kill bystanders, while perforin-deficient CTL did. Unlike anti-Fas mAb-induced cell death, the lysis of bystanders was not only FasL/Fas dependent but also required adhesion molecule LFA-1 on the surface of the activated CTL. Lysis of bystanders is viewed as acceptable "collateral" damage, but the persistent presence of activated CTL could result in immunopathologies involving functional Fas-expressing tissues.

  5. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. [Mechanisms of leukocyte formation of endogenous pyrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1982-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of endogenous pyrogen production by rabbit blood and exudate leukocytes and possible role played by the products of activated leukocytes in autoregulation of the process. It was established that accumulation of endogenous pyrogen in the cell precedes its release by stimulated cells. Then the processes of active pyrogen formation and release gel interdependent: pyrogen formed releases from the cell; the lowering of pyrogen concentration in the cell is accompanied by the decrease of its content in the medium. No stimulating effect of the products activated during leukocyte inflammation on pyrogen formation by blood leukocytes was discovered.

  7. Studies for labelling of leukocytes with sup 99m Tc-HM-PAO in vitro and animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoxiang, Gu; Xiangtong, Lin [Shanghai Medical Univ. (China). Huashan Hospital

    1989-05-01

    A technigue for in vitro labelling of human leukocytes with {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO is described. The percentage of labelled leukocytes is 43.0 +- 5.0 (mean +- SD, n = 6). Cell function was not impaired by the labelling procedure. Sterility and exclusion of bacterial endotoxins in the final cell suspensions were demonstrated. In experiments on dogs with abscess, scintigraphic imaging showed accumulation of radioactivity in inflammation lesions, indicating the viability of the labelled leukocytes.

  8. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  9. Leukocyte telomere dynamics in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Mortensen, Laust H

    2013-01-01

    Limited data suggest that leukocytes of the elderly display ultra-short telomeres. It was reported that in some elderly persons leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shows age-dependent elongation. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal models, we characterized LTL dynamics in participants...

  10. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders.

  11. Lymphatic pump treatment mobilizes leukocytes from the gut associated lymphoid tissue into lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lisa M; Bearden, Melissa K; Schander, Artur; Huff, Jamie B; Williams, Arthur; King, Hollis H; Downey, H Fred

    2010-06-01

    Lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) are used clinically by osteopathic practitioners for the treatment of edema and infection; however, the mechanisms by which LPT enhances lymphatic circulation and provides protection during infection are not understood. Rhythmic compressions on the abdomen during LPT compress the abdominal area, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into the lymphatic circulation. This study is the first to document LPT-induced mobilization of leukocytes from the GALT into the lymphatic circulation. Catheters were inserted into either the thoracic or mesenteric lymph ducts of dogs. To determine if LPT enhanced the release of leukocytes from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) into lymph, the MLN were fluorescently labeled in situ. Lymph was collected during 4 min pre-LPT, 4 min LPT, and 10 min following cessation of LPT. LPT significantly increased lymph flow and leukocytes in both mesenteric and thoracic duct lymph. LPT had no preferential effect on any specific leukocyte population, since neutrophil, monocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, IgG+B cell, and IgA+B cell numbers were similarly increased. In addition, LPT significantly increased the mobilization of leukocytes from the MLN into lymph. Lymph flow and leukocyte counts fell following LPT treatment, indicating that the effects of LPT are transient. LPT mobilizes leukocytes from GALT, and these leukocytes are transported by the lymphatic circulation. This enhanced release of leukocytes from GALT may provide scientific rationale for the clinical use of LPT to improve immune function.

  12. Ecstasy exposure & gender: examining components of verbal memory functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa S Price

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables.Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18-35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0-2310 ecstasy tablets. Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview.Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users.Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed.

  13. Ecstasy exposure & gender: examining components of verbal memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jenessa S; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18-35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0-2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed.

  14. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  15. In vitro evaluation of canine leukocytes radiolabeled in whole blood with 99mTc stannous colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushhiwa, Mohamed H.; Salehi, Nouria S.; Whitton, Robert C.; Charles, Jennifer A.; Finnin, Peter J.; Lording, Peter M.; Caple, Ivan W.; Parry, Bruce W.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Technetium-99m stannous colloid ( 99m TcSnC)-labeled leukocytes are used to investigate a variety of inflammatory diseases in human medicine. The present study investigates the in vitro behavior of canine leukocytes labeled in whole blood with 99m TcSnC. Methods: Blood samples from 10 healthy dogs were labeled with 99m TcSnC using a standard procedure. The distribution of radioactivity among blood components (plasma, leukocyte layers and erythrocytes) was measured following separation of the radiolabeled samples across Histopaque density gradients. Phagocytic function of labeled and unlabeled leukocytes was estimated using zymosan particles. Labeling retention by leukocytes was determined at 1, 3, 4 and 7 h postlabeling. Results: The mean±standard error percentage of radioactivity associated with plasma, erythrocyte and leukocyte fractions was 2.0±0.21%, 55.5±0.60% and 42.5±0.54%, respectively (the last comprising 70.2±0.83% in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and 29.8±0.83% in mononuclear leukocytes). Labeled canine leukocytes had a phagocytic activity of 91.3±0.28% (control, 91.7±0.26%). The radiolabeled canine leukocytes retained 94.1±0.30% of radioactivity at 7 h postlabeling. Conclusions: Radiolabeling of canine leukocytes in whole blood with 99m TcSnC has minor adverse effect on their phagocytic function. The radiolabeled canine leukocytes retained a large percentage of radioactivity for at least 7 h postlabeling

  16. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities.

  17. Assessment of exposure-response functions for rocket-emission toxicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Rocket-Emission Toxicants, National Research Council

    ... aborted launch that results in a rocket being destroyed near the ground. Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emmission Toxicants evaluates the model and the data used for three rocket emission toxicants...

  18. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  19. Measurement of leukocyte rheology in vascular disease: clinical rationale and methodology. International Society of Clinical Hemorheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, J L; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Nash, G B

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of leukocyte rheology in vascular disease is a recent development with a wide range of new opportunities. The International Society of Clinical Hemorheology has asked an expert panel to propose guidelines for the investigation of leukocyte rheology in clinical situations. This article first discusses the mechanical, adhesive and related functional properties of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) which influence their circulation, and establishes the rationale for clinically-related measurements of parameters which describe them. It is concluded that quantitation of leukocyte adhesion molecules, and of their endothelial receptors may assist understanding of leukocyte behaviour in vascular disease, along with measurements of flow resistance of leukocytes, free radical production, degranulation and gene expression. For instance, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) is abnormally present on endothelial cells in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory conditions. Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) or VCAM can be found elevated in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or infections disease. In the second part of the article, possible technical approaches are presented and possible avenues for leukocyte rheological investigations are discussed.

  20. Lung function and long-term exposure to cement dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F V; Borchsenius, L; Holstein, B

    1977-01-01

    occupational category. Each occupational category was further subdivided according to smoking habits and in all categories the well-known association between tobacco consumption and decrease in ventilatory capacity was found. White collar workers, who smoke less and had experienced better housing conditions...... throughout life had better ventilatory lung function than any of the other three occupational categories. No significant differences in lung function between cement factory workers and other blue collar workers with comparable smoking habits could be demonstrated by use of the maximal midexpiratory flow...

  1. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the oognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from indu...

  2. Reduced fetal androgen exposure compromises Leydig cell function in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of normal fetal development can influence functioning of organs and cells in adulthood. Circumstantial evidence suggests that subtle reductions in fetal androgen production may be the cause of adult male reproductive disorders due to reduced testosterone production. The mechanisms through

  3. Environmental Hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  4. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered Leukocyte Sphingolipid Pathway in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa P. Maia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolism pathway is essential in membrane homeostasis, and its dysfunction has been associated with favorable tumor microenvironment, disease progression, and chemotherapy resistance. Its major components have key functions on survival and proliferation, with opposing effects. We have profiled the components of the sphingolipid pathway on leukocytes of breast cancer (BC patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment and without, including the five sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptors, the major functional genes, and cytokines, in order to better understand the S1P signaling in the immune cells of these patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the sphingolipid pathway in whole blood of BC patients. Skewed gene profiles favoring high SPHK1 expression toward S1P production during BC development was observed, which was reversed by chemotherapy treatment, and reached similar levels to those found in healthy donors. Such levels were also correlated with high levels of TNF-α. Our data revealed an important role of the sphingolipid pathway in immune cells in BC with skewed signaling of S1P receptors, which favored cancer development even under chemotherapy, and may probably be a trigger of cancer resistance. Thus, these molecules must be considered as a target pathway for combined BC therapeutics.

  7. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-02-02

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.

  8. Synthesis of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D M; Murphy, P A; Chesney, P J; Wood, W B

    1973-05-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them.

  9. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  10. Telomere Length, Long-Term Black Carbon Exposure, and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicino, Elena; Wilson, Ander; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Prada, Diddier; Power, Melinda C; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Weisskopf, Marc G; Schwartz, Joel D; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2017-01-01

    Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with age-related cognitive impairment, possibly because of enhanced inflammation. Leukocytes with longer telomere length (TL) are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli, yet TL has not been evaluated in relation to air pollution and cognition. We assessed whether TL modifies the association of 1-year exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, with cognitive function in older men, and we examined whether this modification is independent of age and of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation. Between 1999 and 2007, we conducted 1-3 cognitive examinations of 428 older men in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measure logistic regression to estimate associations of 1-year BC exposure with relative odds of being a low scorer (≤ 25) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is a proxy of poor cognition. Confounders included age, CRP, and lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. Each doubling in BC level was associated with 1.57 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.05) times higher odds of low MMSE scores. The BC-MMSE association was greater only among individuals with longer blood TL (5th quintile) (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.59; p = 0.04 for BC-by-TL-interaction). TL and CRP were associated neither with each other nor with MMSE. However, CRP modified the BC-MMSE relationship, with stronger associations only at higher CRP (5th quintile) and reference TL level (1st quintile) (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.79; p = 0.04 for BC-by-CRP-interaction). TL and CRP levels may help predict the impact of BC exposure on cognitive function in older men. Citation: Colicino E, Wilson A, Frisardi MC, Prada D, Power MC, Hoxha M, Dioni L, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA. 2017. Telomere length, long-term black carbon exposure, and cognitive function in a cohort of older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect

  11. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and academic problems develop in parallel. Timing of violence exposure and the developmental stage of the child during exposure complicate our understanding of the underlying mechanism. A model is presented that explores pathways linking violence exposure to aspects of school-related functioning, both academically and behaviorally. Early life stress, in the form of violence exposure, is related to neurocognitive deficits, including executive functioning and problems in self-regulation. Deficits in self-regulation at the level of behavior, and cognitive control and executive functioning, at the level of brain processing, are related to both academic and mental health problems, suggesting a possible psychological mechanism. Biological mechanisms are also included in the model to illustrate the contribution of the stress response, neuroendocrine system response, and neuroanatomical structural and functional impairments associated with violence exposure.

  12. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and academic problems develop in parallel. Timing of violence exposure and the developmental stage of the child during exposure complicate our understanding of the underlying mechanism. A model is presented that explores pathways linking violence exposure to aspects of school-related functioning, both academically and behaviorally. Early life stress, in the form of violence exposure, is related to neurocognitive deficits, including executive functioning and problems in self-regulation. Deficits in self-regulation at the level of behavior, and cognitive control and executive functioning, at the level of brain processing, are related to both academic and mental health problems, suggesting a possible psychological mechanism. Biological mechanisms are also included in the model to illustrate the contribution of the stress response, neuroendocrine system response, and neuroanatomical structural and functional impairments associated with violence exposure. PMID:22837647

  13. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M; Wiesenberger, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  14. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  15. Influence of chronic x-ray exposure on adrenal glucocorticoid function and adrenocorticocyte membrane potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorban', Je.M.; Topol'nikova, N.V.

    1998-01-01

    The peculiarities of adrenal glucocorticoid function and membrane potential (MP) of zona fasciculata adrenocorticocyte (ACC) in rats after chronic x-ray exposure was studied. The changes of adrenal glucocorticoid function caused by chronic x-ray exposure within a relatively small period of irradiation (1.5 months) are obscure and manifest themselves only at physiological load. With the prolongation of the period (8 and 15 months), more considerable inhibition of the adrenal glucocorticoid function and disturbances in the membrane mechanisms of ACC MP level regulation are revealed

  16. The Role of Stress Exposure and Family Functioning in Internalizing Outcomes of Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Strachan, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    Although research suggests that stress exposure and family functioning are associated with internalizing problems in adolescents and caregivers, surprisingly few studies have investigated the mechanisms that underlie this association. To determine whether family functioning buffers the development of internalizing problems in stress-exposed families, we assessed the relation between stress exposure, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms among a large sample of inner-city male youth and their caregivers living in poverty across five waves of data collection. We hypothesized that stress exposure and family functioning would predict development of subsequent youth and caregiver internalizing problems and that family functioning would moderate this relation, with higher functioning families demonstrating greater resiliency to stress exposure. We used a longitudinal, prospective design to evaluate whether family functioning (assessed at waves one through four) activated or buffered the effects of stress exposure (assessed at wave one) on subsequent internalizing symptoms (assessed at waves four and five). Stress from Developmental Transitions and family functioning were significant predictors of depressive symptoms and anxiety in youth; however, family functioning did not moderate the relation. Family functioning mediated the relation between stress from Daily Hassles and internalizing outcomes suggesting that poor parenting practices, low structure, and low emotional cohesion activate depression and anxiety in youth exposed to chronic and frequent everyday stressors. Surprisingly, only family functioning predicted depressive symptoms in caregivers. Results validate the use of a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of stress when investigating internalizing outcomes in youth and support using family-based interventions in the treatment and prevention of internalizing.

  17. Activation of human leukocytes on tantalum trabecular metal in comparison to commonly used orthopedic metal implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, T A; Peter, E; Muhr, G; Köller, M

    2009-02-01

    We analyzed leukocyte functions and cytokine response of human leukocytes toward porous tantalum foam biomaterial (Trabecular Metaltrade mark, TM) in comparison to equally sized solid orthopedic metal implant materials (pure titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, pure tantalum, and tantalum coated stainless steel). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) were cocultured with equally sized metallic test discs for 24 h. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to the other used test materials there was a significant increase in the release of IL (interleukin)-1ra and IL-8 from PMN, and of IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha from PBMC in response to the TM material. The cytokine release correlated with surface roughness of the materials. In contrast, the release of IL-2 was not induced showing that mainly myeloid leukocytes were activated. In addition, supernatants of these leukocyte/material interaction (conditioned media, CM) were subjected to whole blood cell function assays (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, bacterial killing). There was a significant increase in the phagocytotic capacity of leukocytes in the presence of TM-conditioned media. The chemotactic response of leukocytes toward TM-conditioned media was significantly higher compared to CM obtained from other test materials. Furthermore, the bactericidal capacity of whole blood was enhanced in the presence of TM-conditioned media. These results indicate that leukocyte activation at the surface of TM material induces a microenvironment, which may enhance local host defense mechanisms.

  18. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Israeli adolescents with ongoing exposure to terrorism: suicidal ideation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Madan, Anita; Pitman, Seth R; Wang, Yanping; Doppelt, Osnat; Burns, Kelly Dugan; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationships among terrorism exposure, functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and probable partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from exposure to terrorism in adolescents continuously exposed to this threat in Israel. A convenience sample of 2,094 students, aged 12 to 18, was drawn from 10 Israeli secondary schools. In terms of demographic factors, older age was associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation, OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.09, 1.62], p terrorism was associated with increased risk for each of the measured outcomes including probable partial or full PTSD, functional impairment, and suicidal ideation. When age, gender, level of exposure to terrorism, probable partial or full PTSD, and functional impairment were examined together, only terrorism exposure and functional impairment were associated with suicidal ideation. This study underscores the importance and feasibility of examining exposure to terrorism and functional impairment as risk factors for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Quality assurance procedure for functional performance of industrial gamma radiography exposure devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Yadav, R.K.; Rajoo Kumar; Bhatt, B.C.; Sivaraman, G.; Nandkumar, A.N.

    2003-05-01

    An Industrial Gamma Radiography Exposure Device (IGRED) consists of various moving parts and accessories and wear and tear take place often. This may increase the possibility of radiation incidents and result in avoidable radiation exposure. Quality assurance tests of the equipment for functional performance plays a major role in ensuring that the exposure device and its accessories perform their intended functions and satisfy radiation safety requirements to avert potential exposures to operators. Therefore, in India it is practiced as mandatory requirement that each IGRED is tested for its functional performance and only after ascertaining that features of operational safety are satisfactory, loading of the source into the radiography exposure device can be permitted. This procedure which is being. practiced since the late 1970s, has contributed significantly towards the safe use of IGREDs and minimising the occurrence of radiation accidents. The purpose of this document is to highlight the importance of periodic functional performance check of each IGRED as per the checklist for the testing procedures. It is also proposed to entrust this activity to accredited laboratories, which have the necessary infrastructure to carry out this activity. The prerequisites for accreditation of such laboratories to carry out this activity and the testing procedures to be adopted for checking the functional performance of various models of IGREDs used in this country are given in this report. (author)

  1. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  2. Observation of X-ray occupational exposure on psychological function of medical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhaolong; Li Xiuqin

    1988-01-01

    The present research is an attempt to study the psychological effects of long-term exposure to low-level X-ray on man. The subjects included 50 exposed people and 50 control. The battery of psychological tests consists of 10 subtests mainly involving memory and coordination ability. The results indicate that there are no statistical differences in all subtests between exposure and control group, but exposure group appears to be a little lower on most subtests about memory. With age, decline of psychological function is observed in all subtests in both groups. The subjects are further divided into three subgroups according to the number of X-ray exposed years. No statistical differences are found in all subgroups between exposure and control. Factor analysis has been made and two factors are obtained. factor 1 is mainly about speed of coordination, factor 2 is mainly about memory and attention. No statistical differences in factor scores are observed in all subgroups between exposure and control. Yet decline is found in factor 1 and factor 2 in both exposure and control groups with age. The results show that there is no significant effect of current dose level of X-ray exposure on human psychological function

  3. Derivation of pulse height to exposure rate conversion functions for aerial radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for deriving conversion functions that can be used to convert pulse height spectra taken at altitude to the exposure rate at the 1-m level. An integral equation is set up which involves the integration of a calculated pulse height spectrum multiplied by an unknown conversion function and then set equal to the exposure rate at ground level. This equation is then solved for the conversion function by assuming as a solution a three-term polynomial. Conversion functions have been derived for various source distributions, including surface, uniform, and exponentially distributed sources. These conversion functions are independent of source energy, which means that a conversion can be made without any knowledge of the isotopic content of the source. In the case of a uniform distribution, these conversion functions provide conversions that agree to within 10% with ground truth measurements

  4. Influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on full-term infant neurobehavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C E; Bandstra, E S; Anthony, J C; Ofir, A Y; Xue, L; Reyes, M L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure status through maternal interview and urine and meconium toxicology assays. Infants were assessed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) during the newborn period (0-6 postnatal days). Findings from multivariate profile analyses support a consistent, modest effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on neurobehavioral functioning in full-term neonates. All of the BNBAS cluster scores, with the exception of abnormal reflexes, were similarly affected, sharing a common slope (D=-0.14; 95% CI=-0.27, -0.003; P=.046) representing a -0.14 point difference between cocaine-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed infants after controlling for prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana (ATM); maternal age, education, employment, primigravida status, and prenatal care visits; and infant sex and postnatal age in days. Fetal growth was also related to neurobehavioral functioning and, in part, mediated the relationship between cocaine exposure and the BNBAS cluster scores. Cocaine exposure during each trimester similarly influenced infant neurobehavioral profiles, with cocaine-associated deficits most pronounced in infants with exposure in all three trimesters. Results from qualitative and quantitative urine and meconium bioassay indicators further substantiated these results. Findings, while significant, represent modest effect sizes in full-term infants.

  5. Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal Markers of Metabolic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Hystad, Perry; Johnson, Markey; Crouse, Dan L.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sun, Liu; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renée; Fraser, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy could alter fetal metabolic function, which could increase the risk of obesity in childhood. However, to our knowledge, no epidemiologic study has investigated the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and indicators of fetal metabolic function. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with mixed-effects linear regression models among 1,257 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, conducted in Canada (2008–2011). We observed that an interquartile-range increase in average exposure to fine particulate matter (3.2 µg/m3) during pregnancy was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 4, 17) increase in adiponectin levels. We also observed 13% (95% confidence interval: 6, 20) higher adiponectin levels per interquartile-range increase in average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (13.6 parts per billion) during pregnancy. Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored. PMID:27026336

  6. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedde, Mickaël; Oort, Folkert van; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. - Highlights: ► We linked pollution, exposure routes and impacts on soil invertebrates. ► Proportions of exposed animals accurately depicted pollution effects. ► Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than exposure by contact. ► Geophages decline reflected changes in soil organic matter. ► Soft-body proportions were mainly influenced by TM pools. - A trait-based approach hierarchized impacts of soil pollution on soil invertebrate communities following ways of exposure

  7. Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Functioning in School-Aged Children With Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Connie E.; Culbertson, Jan L.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler,1991) shortform, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler,1993) Screener by e...

  8. Decline of blood leukocyte counts 1947-59, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ueda, Shoichi; Blaisdell, R K

    1963-03-03

    Earlier reports of progressive decline in leukocyte counts in Hiroshima from about 1948 to 1954 have been confirmed. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Nagasaki. Analysis indicates that this decline in white cell count with time is not related to exposure to the 1945 atomic bombs, to sex, to age, to commonly diagnosed diseases, or to the disproportionate influence of a subgroup. The principal white cells affected were neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The precise etiologic factors accounting for the decline, and the biological significance of the present lower range of leukocyte values in Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain to be determined. 16 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Environmental exposure to manganese and motor function of children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bonilla, D; Schilmann, A; Montes, S; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rodríguez-Dozal, S; Solís-Vivanco, R; Ríos, C; Riojas-Rodríguez, H

    2011-10-01

    Occupational manganese (Mn) exposure has been associated with motor deficits in adult workers, but data on the potential effects of environmental exposure to Mn on the developing motor function for a children population is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between exposure to Mn and motor function of school aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional study selecting 195 children (100 exposed and 95 unexposed) between 7 and 11 years old. The following tests were used to evaluate the motor function: Grooved pegboard, finger tapping, and Santa Ana test. Mn exposure was assessed by blood (MnB) and hair concentrations (MnH). We constructed linear regression models to evaluate the association between exposure to Mn and the different test scores adjusting for age, sex, maternal education, hemoglobin and blood lead. The median concentration of MnH and MnB was significantly higher in exposed (12.6 μg/g and 9.5 μg/L) compared to unexposed children (0.6 μg/g and 8.0 μg/L). The exposed children on average performed the grooved pegboard test faster, but made more errors, although these results did not reach statistical significance with neither one of the Mn exposure biomarkers. MnB showed an inverse association on the execution of the finger tapping test (average in 5 trials β -0.4, p=0.02), but no association was observed with MnH. A subtle negative association of Mn exposure on motor speed and coordination was shown. In adults, the main effect of environmental Mn exposure has been associated with motor skills, but these results suggest that such alterations are not the main effect on children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship of Welding Fume Exposure, Smoking, and Pulmonary Function in Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between occupational exposure to welding fumes and pulmonary function in an effort to add supportive evidence and clarity to the current body of research. This study utilized a retrospective chart review of pulmonary function testing and pulmonary questionnaires already available in charts from preplacement physicals to the most recent test. When comparing smokers to nonsmokers, utilizing multiple regression and controlling for age and percentage of time using a respirator, years welding was statistically significant at p = .04. Data support that smoking has a synergistic effect when combined with welding fume exposure on pulmonary decline.

  11. Total hip and knee replacement surgery results in changes in leukocyte and endothelial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclean Kirsty M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 8 million people in the United Kingdom suffer from osteoarthritis. These patients may require orthopaedic surgical intervention to help alleviate their clinical condition. Investigations presented here was to test the hypothesis that total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR orthopaedic surgery result in changes to leukocyte and endothelial markers thus increasing inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Methods During this 'pilot study', ten test subjects were all scheduled for THR or TKR elective surgery due to osteoarthritis. Leukocyte concentrations were measured using an automated full blood count analyser. Leukocyte CD11b (Mac-1 and CD62L cell surface expression, intracellular production of H2O2 and elastase were measured as markers of leukocyte function. Von Willebrand factor (vWF and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 were measured as markers of endothelial activation. Results The results obtained during this study demonstrate that THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery result in similar changes of leukocyte and endothelial markers, suggestive of increased inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in a leukocytosis, this being demonstrated by an increase in the total leukocyte concentration following surgery. Evidence of leukocyte activation was demonstrated by a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression by neutrophils and monocytes respectively. An increase in the intracellular H2O2 production by neutrophils and monocytes and in the leukocyte elastase concentrations was also evident of leukocyte activation following orthopaedic surgery. With respect to endothelial activation, increases in vWF and sICAM-1 concentrations were demonstrated following surgery. Conclusion In general it appeared that most of the leukocyte and endothelial markers measured during these studies peaked between days 1

  12. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  14. Leukocyte scintiscanning for the diagnosis of inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1988-01-01

    The value of leukocyte scintiscanning for clinical diagnostics is examined with regard to various areas of indications, and as a method of first examination, or as an alternative to, or additional method to be combined with, the other usual techniques. Leukocyte scintiscanning is indicated as a good first examination method in case of chronic enteritis in a highly active stage, stenosis of the colon, or when abscess is suspected, or infected renal cysts, or infection of angioplasty, osteomyelitis, or in case of fiever of unknown origin and impossible focal diagnosis. It also is applicable for follow-up diagnostics in chronic enteritis, suspected abdominal abscess, prosthetic valvular endocarditis, and infection of hip joint prothesis. The method also may yield additional information in case of renal graft rejection, coronary inflammations, for differential diagnosis of brain tumor or abcess, edematous or antodigestive pancreatitis, and in chronic polyarthritis. For leukocyte labelling, indium-111 and Tc-99m are primarily used. (ECB) [de

  15. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, G; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Taudorf, E; Sigsgaard, T

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg x year x m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV(1) was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted for confounders, including smoking, height and age. An additional difference of -14.50 mL x yr(-1) and -27.97 mL x yr(-1) was revealed for females exposed to 3.75-4.71 mg x yr x m(-3) or to >4.71 mg x yr x m(-3), respectively, compared with non-/low-exposed females. For females, a positive trend between wood dust exposure and the cumulative incidence proportion of FEV(1)/FVC <70% was suggested. In conclusion, in the present low-exposed cohort, female woodworkers had an accelerated decline in lung function, which may be clinically relevant.

  16. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  18. Effects of methyl mercury exposure on pancreatic beta cell development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Lauren; Abbott, Louise C

    2017-01-01

    Methyl mercury is an environmental contaminant of worldwide concern. Since the discovery of methyl mercury exposure due to eating contaminated fish as the underlying cause of the Minamata disaster, the scientific community has known about the sensitivity of the developing central nervous system to mercury toxicity. Warnings are given to pregnant women and young children to limit consumption of foods containing methyl mercury to protect the embryonic, fetal and postnatally developing central nervous system. However, evidence also suggests that exposure to methyl mercury or various forms of inorganic mercury may also affect development and function of other organs. Numerous reports indicate a worldwide increase in diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes. Quite recently, methyl mercury has been shown to have adverse effects on pancreatic beta (β) cell development and function, resulting in insulin resistance and hyperglycemia and may even lead to the development of diabetes. This review discusses possible mechanisms by which methyl mercury exposure may adversely affect pancreatic β cell development and function, and the role that methyl mercury exposure may have in the reported worldwide increase in diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes. While additional information is needed regarding associations between mercury exposure and specific mechanisms of the pathogenesis of diabetes in the human population, methyl mercury's adverse effects on the body's natural sources of antioxidants suggest that one possible therapeutic strategy could involve supplementation with antioxidants. Thus, it is important that additional investigation be undertaken into the role of methyl mercury exposure and reduced pancreatic β cell function. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Köhler, Hubert; Cierpka, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K). Lower levels of maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation and by trend also of the family functionality were found among the mothers from the at-risk sample in comparison to the low-risk sample. The level of maternal stress was similar in both samples. The results underpin the negative effects of a socio-economic risk exposure on the mother-child relationship. An early, sensitivity-focused family support could be encouraged to counteract the negative effects of early socioeconomic stress.

  20. Effects of exposure to flour dust on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of mill workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Mohammadien

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: Flour mill workers in Sohag Governorate, like grain workers elsewhere, were at an increased risk of developing pulmonary symptoms, a strong association exists between exposure to flour dust and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and functional impairments of the lungs. The result has implications for improved dust control measures in the grain industry in Egypt.

  1. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  2. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  3. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gritti

    Full Text Available The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  4. Optimizing cost-efficiency in mean exposure assessment--cost functions reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Bolin, Kristian

    2011-05-21

    Reliable exposure data is a vital concern in medical epidemiology and intervention studies. The present study addresses the needs of the medical researcher to spend monetary resources devoted to exposure assessment with an optimal cost-efficiency, i.e. obtain the best possible statistical performance at a specified budget. A few previous studies have suggested mathematical optimization procedures based on very simple cost models; this study extends the methodology to cover even non-linear cost scenarios. Statistical performance, i.e. efficiency, was assessed in terms of the precision of an exposure mean value, as determined in a hierarchical, nested measurement model with three stages. Total costs were assessed using a corresponding three-stage cost model, allowing costs at each stage to vary non-linearly with the number of measurements according to a power function. Using these models, procedures for identifying the optimally cost-efficient allocation of measurements under a constrained budget were developed, and applied on 225 scenarios combining different sizes of unit costs, cost function exponents, and exposure variance components. Explicit mathematical rules for identifying optimal allocation could be developed when cost functions were linear, while non-linear cost functions implied that parts of or the entire optimization procedure had to be carried out using numerical methods.For many of the 225 scenarios, the optimal strategy consisted in measuring on only one occasion from each of as many subjects as allowed by the budget. Significant deviations from this principle occurred if costs for recruiting subjects were large compared to costs for setting up measurement occasions, and, at the same time, the between-subjects to within-subject variance ratio was small. In these cases, non-linearities had a profound influence on the optimal allocation and on the eventual size of the exposure data set. The analysis procedures developed in the present study can be used

  5. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-03-01

    To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989-2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20-31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure.

  6. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G during pregnancy part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Louise; Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a class Ib molecule with restricted tissue distribution expressed on trophoblast cells and has been proposed to have immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy. Soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) can be generated by the shedding of membrane-bound HLA-G molecules; however...... of importance for production of sHLA-G in the mother and child, or it may support the theory that sHLA-G in the pregnant woman and the fetus is partly derived from a "shared organ", the placenta....

  7. PAMP INDUCED EXPRESSION OF IMMUNE RELEVANT GENES IN HEAD KIDNEY LEUKOCYTES OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Kania, Per Walter

    mykiss) to different PAMPs mimicking bacterial (flagellin and LPS), viral (poly I:C) and fungal infections (zymosan and ß-glucan). Transcript of cytokines related to inflammation (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a) were highly up-regulated following LPS exposure whereas flagellin or poly I:C induced merely...... of the invader. Phagocytic cells are known to initiate a respiratory burst following an exposure to the pathogen, but the underlying and associated specific elements are poorly elucidated in fish. The present study describes the differential response of head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus...... of LPS and zymosan became evident after 4 h exposure. This study suggests that rainbow trout leukocytes respond differently to viral, bacterial and fungal PAMPs, which may reflect activation of specific signaling cascades eventually leading to activation of different immune effector molecules....

  8. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy N Cheung

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux. Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group. All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and area under the curve (AUC for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  9. Structural and functional effects of acoustic exposure in goldfish: evidence for tonotopy in the teleost saccule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilley Ronald R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian and avian auditory hair cells display tonotopic mapping of frequency along the length of the cochlea and basilar papilla. It is not known whether the auditory hair cells of fishes possess a similar tonotopic organization in the saccule, which is thought to be the primary auditory receptor in teleosts. To investigate this question, we determined the location of hair cell damage in the saccules of goldfish (Carassius auratus following exposure to specific frequencies. Subjects were divided into six groups of six fish each (five treatment groups plus control. The treatment groups were each exposed to one of five tones: 100, 400, 800, 2000, and 4000 Hz at 176 dB re 1 μPa root mean squared (RMS for 48 hours. The saccules of each fish were dissected and labeled with phalloidin in order to visualize hair cell bundles. The hair cell bundles were counted at 19 specific locations in each saccule to determine the extent and location of hair cell damage. In addition to quantification of anatomical injury, hearing tests (using auditory evoked potentials were performed on each fish immediately following sound exposure. Threshold shifts were calculated by subtracting control thresholds from post-sound exposure thresholds. Results All sound-exposed fish exhibited significant hair cell and hearing loss following sound exposure. The location of hair cell loss varied along the length of the saccule in a graded manner with the frequency of sound exposure, with lower and higher frequencies damaging the more caudal and rostral regions of the saccule, respectively. Similarly, fish exposed to lower frequency tones exhibited greater threshold shifts at lower frequencies, while high-frequency tone exposure led to hearing loss at higher frequencies. In general, both hair cell and hearing loss declined as a function of increasing frequency of exposure tone, and there was a significant linear relationship between hair cell loss and hearing

  10. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  11. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    , all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially...

  12. Ibuprofen exposure in early neonatal life does not affect renal function in young adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Levtchenko, Elena; Simons, Sinno Hp; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Heuvel, Lambertus P van den; Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A; Allegaert, Karel

    2018-03-01

    Ibuprofen exposure results in acute transient renal dysfunction in preterm neonates, but we are unaware of data on long-term renal safety. In a previously studied cohort of extreme low birth weight (ELBW, ibuprofen. In this post hoc analysis, we linked markers of renal function in young adolescence in ELBW cases with their perinatal (prenatal maternal, setting at birth, treatment modalities including drug prescription during neonatal stay, neonatal creatinine values, postdischarge growth) characteristics, including but not limited to ibuprofen exposure during neonatal stay. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with significant differences in renal length or eGFR cysC . Moreover, we were unable to identify any other risk factor (perinatal characteristics, postnatal creatinine trends, postdischarge growth) on renal outcome in this cohort. Neonatal exposure to ibuprofen did not affect renal function. Larger studies are needed to explore the confounders of variability in renal function in former ELBW cases. This matters since ELBW relates to risk for hypertension, cardiovascular events and renal disease in later life and identification of risk factors holds the promise of secondary prevention. NCT02147457. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Effects of current inhalation exposure methods on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lay, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 9% of 84 3-mo-old dogs exposed to inhalation of radioactive aerosols have experienced respiratory failure during exposure. A study was conducted to evaluate effects of exposure on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs. Results indicate that the combination of nose breathing and breathing into the aerosol delivery cone quadrupled breathing effort of 3-mo-old dogs. Excitement exacerbated a failure to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and resulted in CO 2 retention and acidosis. General anesthesia and use of an endotracheal tube alleviated problems due to nasal airflow resistance and behaviorally-related increases in ventilatory requirement

  14. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294

  15. Palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor proteins in leukocyte signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Ondřej; Dráber, Peter; Hořejší, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2014), s. 895-902 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leukocyte * Adaptor * Palmitoylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.315, year: 2014

  16. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations and cognitive function among older Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Moreno-Banda, Grea Litai; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Lin, Hualiang

    2018-04-25

    Recent epidemiological research has shown that exposure to fine particulate pollution (PM 2.5 ) is associated with a reduction in cognitive function in older adults. However, primary evidence comes from high-income countries, and no specific studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries where higher air pollution levels exist. To estimate the association between the exposure to PM 2.5 and cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of older Mexican adults and the associated effect modifiers. Data for this study were taken from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition in Mexico carried out in 2012. A total of 7986 older adults composed the analytical sample. Cognitive function was assessed using two tests: semantic verbal fluency and three-word memory. The annual concentration of PM 2.5 was calculated using satellite data. Association between exposure to PM 2.5 and cognitive function was estimated using two-level logistic and linear regression models. In adjusted multilevel regression models, each 10 μg/m 3 increase in ambient PM 2.5 raised the odds of a poorer cognitive function using the three-word memory test (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.74), and reduced the number of valid animal named in the verbal fluency test (β = -0.72, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.40). Stratified analyses did not yield any significant modification effects of age, sex, indoor pollution, urban/rural dwelling, education, smoking and other factors. This study supports an association between exposure to PM 2.5 concentrations and cognitive function in older adults. This is particularly relevant to low- and middle-income countries, which are marked by a rapid growth of their aging population and high levels of air pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes, John

    2013-02-07

    A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as "Bicycle Boulevards." We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes - a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and city planners to expand infrastructure to

  18. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis enhances leukocyte rolling and adhesion in human microvasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mokarram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is a multifunctional signaling molecule that regulates important cellular events in inflammation including leukocyte recruitment. Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of NO synthesis induces leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and animal models. However, it is not known whether NO modulation has similar effects on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions within the human microvasculature. The present study explored the effect of systemic L-NAME treatment on leukocyte recruitment in the SCID-hu mouse model. Methods Human skin xenografts were transplanted in SCID mice to study human leukocyte dynamics in human vasculature. Early events of human leukocyte recruitment in human vasculature were studied using intravital microscopy. NO synthesis was pharmacologically inhibited using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to elucidate E-selectin expression in human xenograft skin. Human neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions were also studied in an in vitro flow chamber assay system. P- and E-selectin expression on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs was measured using ELISA. Platelet-activating factor (PAF synthesis was detected using a TLC-based assay. Results L-NAME treatment significantly enhanced the rolling and adhesion of human leukocytes to the human vasculature. Functional blocking of P- and E-selectins significantly inhibited rolling but not adhesion induced by inhibition of NO synthesis. Systemic L-NAME treatment enhanced E-selectin expression in human xenograft skin. L-NAME treatment significantly enhanced P- and E-selectin expression on HUVECs. L-NAME treatment did not significantly modify neutrophil rolling or adhesion to HUVECs indicating that L-NAME−induced subtle P- and E-selectin expression was insufficient to elicit dynamic neutrophil-HUVEC interactions in vitro. Moreover, synthesis of endothelial

  20. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike

    2018-04-01

    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  1. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraj, J.; Sedlak, J.; Chorvath, B.; Rauko, P.

    1997-01-01

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  2. LEUKOCYTE DIFFERENTIAL OF ANGUILLID EEL, Anguilla bicolor McClelland, EXPOSED TO VARIED SALINITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fita Fatimah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The anguillid eel is a catadromous eel capable of inhabiting freshwater growth habitat and seawater spawning habitat throughout their life cycle. At the juvenile to mature stage, they inhabit freshwater then migrate to marine water to spawn. Changes in salinity, which is one of the stressful environmental factors for the eel, affect their physiological condition by increasing the leukocytes number. This increase is an adaptation method to improve their immune system as a response to salinity change. This study intended to evaluate the leukocyte differential of anguillid eel (Anguilla bicolor McClelland exposed to various salinities. This research applied a Completely Randomized Design. The treatment was three levels of saline media including 4 ppt, 15 ppt, and 30 ppt with five replicates. The independent variable was the different salinity, and the dependent variable was the leukocyte differential. The parameters measured consisted of the different percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils in which the measurements administered after two months of the eel exposure. We analyzed the data with ANOVA at the confidence level of 95%. The results showed that exposure of salinity significantly affected the percentage of leukocyte differential (P < 0.05. The increase in salinity decreased the neutrophils and monocytes, but increased the lymphocytes, and showed no effect on eosinophils.

  3. Effect of environmental exposure to mercury on the functioning of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cyran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is classified as a heavy metal and thus is commonly referred to as a death metal due to its high toxicity. In the environment it occurs in metallic form or in combination with other compounds. Amidst the sources of exposure to mercury, the most important environmental sources are dental amalgam and mercury vapor from the production of chlorine which is the most important source of occupational exposure. Mercury is easily soluble in fats, so it penetrates through biological membranes. Both - acute and chronic mercury poisoning causes characteristic clinical symptoms. There are several connections between exposure to this metal and toxic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and kidneys. Thus mercury damages the structure of many organs and impairs their function

  4. Impact of Anthracene Exposure on Bacterial Community Composition and Function in an Egyptian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    2013-01-01

    The application of bioremediation technology for pollution treatment requires more knowledge about how do microbial communities respond to pollutant exposure. The main goals of this study are to investigate the behavior of natural bacterial microflora of Suez Gulf (SGM) in response to exposure to different concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different periods. In this study, anthracene, as a model of (PAHs) was added in different concentrations, (30,150 and 500 ppm) to fertilized Suez Gulf water in shaking microcosms to examine the possible shifts in bacterial community composition and function. Changes in bacterial community composition was followed up after different periods of exposure (0, 6, 12, and 18) days to the above mentioned concentrations of anthracene by profiling the amplified product of 16S rDNA via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of SGM in treated microcosm separately. DGGE profiles revealed remarkable changes in diversity due to exposure concentration and duration to anthracene. A diverse relationship between anthracene concentration and bacterial diversity was detected. On the other hand, changes in community function were determined by testing the biodegradation capabilities of the consortia after different exposures separately in microcosms containing 50 ppm of anthracene for 14 days. The remaining anthracene was extracted and monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DGGE profiles of amplified 16S rDNA extracted from parallel biodegradation microcosms were examined to indicate the effects of pre-exposure to different concentrations for different periods to PAHs on the bacterial community compositions. The results confirm that the long term effects of pre exposure to high concentrations of PAH on the bacterial community composition, suggesting that that some organisms can be used as a bio marker indicating the exposures of the marine environment to high concentrations of PAHs. HPLC

  5. One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Liu, Jiangtao; Narayan, Shilpa; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Le, Stephenie; Danforth, Olivia M; Pinnamaneni, Kranthi; Rodriguez, Hilda J; Luu, Emmy; Sievers, Richard E; Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton A; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-07-27

    Despite public awareness that tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) is harmful, many people still assume that marijuana SHS is benign. Debates about whether smoke-free laws should include marijuana are becoming increasingly widespread as marijuana is legalized and the cannabis industry grows. Lack of evidence for marijuana SHS causing acute cardiovascular harm is frequently mistaken for evidence that it is harmless, despite chemical and physical similarity between marijuana and tobacco smoke. We investigated whether brief exposure to marijuana SHS causes acute vascular endothelial dysfunction. We measured endothelial function as femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in rats before and after exposure to marijuana SHS at levels similar to real-world tobacco SHS conditions. One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS impaired FMD to a comparable extent as impairment from equal concentrations of tobacco SHS, but recovery was considerably slower for marijuana. Exposure to marijuana SHS directly caused cannabinoid-independent vasodilation that subsided within 25 minutes, whereas FMD remained impaired for at least 90 minutes. Impairment occurred even when marijuana lacked cannabinoids and rolling paper was omitted. Endothelium-independent vasodilation by nitroglycerin administration was not impaired. FMD was not impaired by exposure to chamber air. One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS substantially impairs endothelial function in rats for at least 90 minutes, considerably longer than comparable impairment by tobacco SHS. Impairment of FMD does not require cannabinoids, nicotine, or rolling paper smoke. Our findings in rats suggest that SHS can exert similar adverse cardiovascular effects regardless of whether it is from tobacco or marijuana. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Executive function and mental health in adopted children with a history of recreational drug exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Piper

    Full Text Available Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents. Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures.

  7. In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, Lesya M.; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 μM concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

  8. Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-10-25

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids. The pathology associated with FIP (multifocal granulomatous vasculitis) is considered to be elicited by exaggerated activation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes. As changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes precede their margination and emigration, we reasoned that the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules may be altered in FIP. In present study, the expression of principal adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte transmigration (CD15s, CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD49d, and CD54) on peripheral blood leukocytes from cats with naturally occurring FIP (n=15) and controls (n=12) was quantified by flow cytometry using a formaldehyde-based rapid leukocyte preparation technique. T- and B-lymphocytes from FIP patients exhibit higher expression of both subunits (CD11a and CD18) composing the β2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. In addition, the expression of the α4 subunit (CD49d) of the β1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 was elevated on B-lymphocytes from FIP patients. The expression of CD11b and CD18, that combine to form the β2 integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), was elevated on monocytes, whereas the density of CD49d was reduced on this population in FIP. Granulocytes of FIP cats displayed an increased expression of the α chain of Mac-1 (CD11b). These observations suggest that leukocytes from FIP patients show signs of systemic activation causing them to extravasate into surrounding tissues and ultimately contribute to pyogranuloma formation seen in FIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term exposure to air pollution and digital vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Petter L; Wilker, Elissa H; Rice, Mary B; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R; Koutrakis, Petros; Vita, Joseph A; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mittleman, Murray A; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2014-09-01

    We investigated associations between ambient air pollution and microvessel function measured by peripheral arterial tonometry between 2003 and 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts. We measured particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), black carbon, sulfates, particle number, nitrogen oxides, and ozone by using fixed monitors, and we determined moving averages for 1-7 days preceding vascular testing. We examined associations between these exposures and hyperemic response to ischemia and baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial tone (n = 2,369). Higher short-term exposure to air pollutants, including PM2.5, black carbon, and particle number was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude. For example, higher 3-day average PM2.5 exposure was associated with 6.3% higher baseline pulse amplitude (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 10.9). However, there were no consistent associations between the air pollution exposures assessed and hyperemic response. Our findings in a community-based sample exposed to relatively low pollution levels suggest that short-term exposure to ambient particulate pollution is not associated with vasodilator response, but that particulate air pollution is associated with baseline pulse amplitude, suggesting potentially adverse alterations in baseline vascular tone or compliance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Functional paraoxonase 1 variants modify the risk of Parkinson's disease due to organophosphate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Rhodes, Shannon L; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2013-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that carriers of the "slower metabolizer" MM genotype of paraoxonase (PON1) who were also exposed to ambient organophosphate (OP) pesticides at their residences were at increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, with a larger sample size, we extend our previous investigation to consider additional sources of ambient exposure and examined two additional functional PON1 variants. From 2001 to 2011, we enrolled incident cases of idiopathic PD and population controls living in central California. We genotyped three well-known functional PON1 SNPs: two exonic polymorphisms (PON1L55M and PON1Q192R) and the promoter region variant (PON1C-108T). Ambient exposures to diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion at residential and workplace addresses were assessed using a validated geographic information system-based model incorporating records of agricultural pesticide applications in California. The odds ratio (OR) for Caucasians exposed to OPs at either residential or workplace addresses varied by PON1 genotype; for exposed carriers of the "faster" metabolizer genotypes, ML or LL, we estimated lower odds ratios (range, 1.20-1.39) than for exposed carriers of the "slower" metabolizer genotype MM (range, 1.78-2.45) relative to unexposed carriers of the faster genotypes. We observed similarly increased ORs for exposure across PON1Q192R genotypes, but no differences across PON1C-108T genotypes. The largest ORs were estimated for exposed carriers of both PON1192QQ and PON155MM (OR range, 2.84-3.57). Several functional PON1 variants may act together to modify PD risk for ambient OP exposures. While either PON1L55M or PON1Q192R may be sufficient to identify increased susceptibility, carriers of both slow metabolizer variants seem most susceptible to OP exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Megan K., E-mail: megan.horton@mssm.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wapner, Ronald [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Whyatt, Robin [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Gennings, Chris [Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Factor-Litvak, Pam [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood

  13. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Megan K.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Wapner, Ronald; Whyatt, Robin; Gennings, Chris; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood

  14. Prenatal and childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure and childhood executive function and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Gold, Diane R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C; Belfort, Mandy B; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    Traffic-related air pollution exposure may influence brain development and function and thus be related to neurobehavioral problems in children, but little is known about windows of susceptibility. Examine associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with executive function and behavior problems in children. We studied associations of pre- and postnatal pollution exposures with neurobehavioral outcomes in 1212 children in the Project Viva pre-birth cohort followed to mid-childhood (median age 7.7years). Parents and classroom teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using validated spatiotemporal models, we estimated exposure to black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the third trimester of pregnancy, from birth to 3years, from birth to 6years, and in the year before behavioral ratings. We also measured residential distance to major roadways and near-residence traffic density at birth and in mid-childhood. We estimated associations of BC, PM 2.5 , and other traffic exposure measures with BRIEF and SDQ scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Higher childhood BC exposure was associated with higher teacher-rated BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) scores, indicating greater problems: 1.0 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.1) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in birth-age 6BC, and 1.7 points (95% CI: 0.6, 2.8) for BC in the year prior to behavioral ratings. Mid-childhood residential traffic density was also associated with BRI score (0.6, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.1). Birth-age 3BC was not associated with BRIEF or SDQ scores. Third trimester BC exposure was not associated with teacher-rated BRI scores (-0.2, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.8), and predicted lower scores (fewer problems) on the BRIEF Metacognition Index (-1.2, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2) and SDQ total difficulties (-0.9, 95% CI: -1.4, -0.4). PM 2.5 exposure was

  15. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Lung Function in the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower lung function. Few studies have examined whether these associations are detectable at relatively low levels of pollution within current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Objectives: To examine exposure to ambient air pollutants within EPA standards and lung function in a large cohort study. Methods: We included 3,262 participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts living within 40 km of the Harvard Supersite monitor in Boston, Massachusetts (5,358 examinations, 1995–2011) who were not current smokers, with previous-day pollutant levels in compliance with EPA standards. We compared lung function (FEV1 and FVC) after previous-day exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index to exposure in the “good” range. We also examined linear relationships between moving averages of pollutant concentrations 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days before spirometry and lung function. Measurements and Main Results: Exposure to pollutant concentrations in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index was associated with a 20.1-ml lower FEV1 for PM2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.4, −6.9), a 30.6-ml lower FEV1 for NO2 (95% CI, −60.9, −0.2), and a 55.7-ml lower FEV1 for O3 (95% CI, −100.7, −10.8) compared with the “good” range. The 1- and 2-day moving averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 before testing were negatively associated with FEV1 and FVC. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 within current EPA standards was associated with lower lung function in this cohort of adults. PMID:24200465

  16. Peripheral blood leukocyte phagocytosis and respiratory response to certain macromolecular substances in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barerras, R F; Finch, S C

    1974-01-01

    The functional integrity of the peripheral blood leukocytes of 10 heavily exposed subjects and 10 matched controls was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption following the addition of latex particles and E. coli endotoxin, and measuring sensitized and unsensitized starch granule phagocytosis. There was no significant difference in the responses of leukocytes from exposed subjects and controls following the addition of latex particles. The ultimate response of leukocytes from exposed subjects to the stimulus of E. coli endotoxin was comparable to that of the controls. Depressed early response in 5 of 10 exposed and 1 of 10 control subjects was observed. Interpretation is unclear. No evidence of radiation-related impairment of starch granule phagocytosis was observed. Results fail to demonstrate any late radiation-related functional impairment of peripheral blood leukocytes during phagocytosis. The serum-related changes were inconstant and probably were of little significance. (auth)

  17. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations.

  18. Effects of ozone exposure on lung function in man: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, L J

    1981-01-01

    Ozone, an important component of photochemical smog, has a decided impact on lung function in man. In this review, the effects of zone on human lung function are discussed with particular attention to levels which are near the threshold of producing no effect. Attempts to define dose-response relationships and effects on sensitive subject populations are described. The relationship between exercise and ozone toxicity is presented in addition to the potential impact of ambient ozone exposure on athletic performance. Effects of ozone on respiratory symptoms and the interaction of ozone with other pollutants are briefly examined. Considerable attention has been directed at the phenomenon of adaptation to repeated ozone exposure and to possible mechanism of action of ozone.

  19. Activation of lysosomal cathepsins in pregnant bovine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Md Abdus Shabur; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Shirozu, Takahiro; Kim, Sung Woo; Kunii, Hiroki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ito, Tsukino; Kimura, Koji; Takahashi, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    In ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT) - mediated expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can indicate pregnancy. Recently, type 1 IFN-mediated activation of lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins (CTSs) was observed in immune cells. This study investigated the status of lysosomal CTSs and lysosomes in PBLs collected from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) dairy cows, and conducted in vitro IFNT stimulation of NP blood leukocytes. Blood samples were collected 0, 7, 14 and 18 days post-artificial insemination, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) separated. The fluorescent activity of CTSB and CTSK in PMNs significantly increased with the progress of pregnancy, especially on day 18. In vitro supplementation of IFNT significantly increased the activities of CTSB and CTSK in NP PBMCs and PMNs. CTSB expression was significantly higher in PBMCs and PMNs collected from P day-18 cows than from NP cows, whereas there was no difference in CTSK expression. IFNT increased CTSB expression but did not affect CTSK expression. Immunodetection showed an increase of CTSB in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. In vitro stimulation of IFNT increased CTSB in NP PBMCs and PMNs. Lysosomal acidification showed a significant increase in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. IFNT also stimulated lysosomal acidification. Expressions of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1 and LAMP2 were significantly higher in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. The results suggest that pregnancy-specific activation of lysosomal functions by CTS activation in blood leukocytes is highly associated with IFNT during maternal and fetal recognition of pregnancy. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Sominsky

    Full Text Available Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p. exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli. Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of

  1. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish we...

  2. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter

    2009-01-01

    function and Clara cell 16 (CC16) protein release in healthy young subjects. Twenty-nine nonsmokers participated in a randomized, two-factor crossover study with or without biking exercise for 180 min and with 24-h exposure to particle-rich (6169-15,362 particles/cm(3); 7.0-11.6 microg/m(3) PM(2.5); 7...

  3. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  4. Learning disabilities and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E; Culbertson, Jan L; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991) short form, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler, 1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95% CI = 1.05, 7.67; p = .038; IQ >/= 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and caregiver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers.

  5. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  6. Prenatal marijuana exposure impacts executive functioning into young adulthood: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andra M; Mioduszewski, Ola; Hatchard, Taylor; Byron-Alhassan, Aziza; Fall, Carley; Fried, Peter A

    Understanding the potentially harmful long term consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure is important given the increase in number of pregnant women smoking marijuana to relieve morning sickness. Altered executive functioning is one area of research that has suggested negative consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure into adolescence. Investigating if these findings continue into young adulthood and exploring the neural basis of these effects was the purpose of this research. Thirty one young adults (ages 18-22years) from the longitudinal Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four tasks; 1) Visuospatial 2-Back, 2) Go/NoGo, 3) Letter 2-Back and 4) Counting Stroop task. Sixteen participants were prenatally exposed to marijuana while 15 had no prenatal marijuana exposure. Task performance was similar for both groups but blood flow was significantly different between the groups. This paper presents the results for all 4 tasks, highlighting the consistently increased left posterior brain activity in the prenatally exposed group compared with the control group. These alterations in neurophysiological functioning of young adults prenatally exposed to marijuana emphasizes the importance of education for women in child bearing years, as well as for policy makers and physicians interested in the welfare of both the pregnant women and their offspring's future success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and renal function in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Seo, Yong-Seok; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has a negative effect on many diseases, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Recent studies have reported a relationship between air pollution and renal function, but the results were limited to exposure to particulate matter (PM). This study was to identify associations between various air pollutants and renal function among Korean adults. Nationwide survey data for a total of 24,407 adults were analyzed. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for each individual to assess their renal function and used this to categorize those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate exposure to ambient air pollution, we used the annual mean concentrations of four ambient air pollutants: PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). We identified significant inverse relationships between the air pollutants PM 10 and NO 2 and eGFR in all statistical adjustment models (all p  ambient air pollutants were significantly related to an increased risk of CKD in the unadjusted model ( p   0.05). Exposures to PM 10 and NO 2 were significantly associated with decreases in eGFR levels, but not CKD, in Korean adults.

  8. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  9. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo

    2014-01-01

    (PNC, 10–300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter ... in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between...

  10. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis

  11. Effects of personal air pollution exposure on asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L; Finch, J; Edwards, K; Jeanjean, A; Leigh, R; Gonem, S

    2018-03-11

    There is evidence that air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalizations and healthcare utilization, but the effects on day-to-day asthma control are not fully understood. We undertook a prospective single-centre panel study to test the hypothesis that personal air pollution exposure is associated with asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation. Thirty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were provided with a personal air pollution monitor (Cairclip NO 2 /O 3 ) which was kept on or around their person throughout the 12-week follow-up period. Ambient levels of NO 2 and particulate matter were modelled based upon satellite imaging data. Directly measured ozone, NO 2 and particulate matter levels were obtained from a monitoring station in central Leicester. Participants made daily electronic records of asthma symptoms, peak expiratory flow and exhaled nitric oxide. Spirometry and asthma symptom questionnaires were completed at fortnightly study visits. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models and cross-correlation. Cairclip exposure data were of good quality with clear evidence of diurnal variability and a missing data rate of approximately 20%. We were unable to detect consistent relationships between personal air pollution exposure and clinical outcomes in the group as a whole. In an exploratory subgroup analysis, total oxidant exposure was associated with increased daytime symptoms in women but not men. We did not find compelling evidence that air pollution exposure impacts on day-to-day clinical control in an unselected asthma population, but further studies are required in larger populations with higher exposure levels. Women may be more susceptible than men to the effects of air pollution, an observation which requires confirmation in future studies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cement dust exposure and acute lung function: A cross shift study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Bente E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out on acute effects of cement dust exposure. This study is conducted to investigate the associations between current "total" dust exposure and acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function among cement factory workers. Methods A combined cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in Dire Dawa cement factory in Ethiopia. 40 exposed production workers from the crusher and packing sections and 20 controls from the guards were included. Personal "total" dust was measured in the workers' breathing zone and peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured for all selected workers before and after the shift. When the day shift ended, the acute respiratory symptoms experienced were scored and recorded on a five-point Likert scale using a modified respiratory symptom score questionnaire. Results The highest geometric mean dust exposure was found in the crusher section (38.6 mg/m3 followed by the packing section (18.5 mg/m3 and the guards (0.4 mg/m3. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms for the high exposed workers was stuffy nose (85% followed by shortness of breath (47% and "sneezing" (45%. PEF decreased significantly across the shift in the high exposed group. Multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between the percentage cross-shift change in PEF and total dust exposure. The number of years of work in high-exposure sections and current smoking were also associated with cross-shift decrease in PEF. Conclusions Total cement dust exposure was related to acute respiratory symptoms and acute ventilatory effects. Implementing measures to control dust and providing adequate personal respiratory protective equipment for the production workers are highly recommended.

  13. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in postoperative joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Uetani, Masataka; Aziz, A.; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in the patients with suspected postoperative joint infection, 41 scintigraphic examinations were performed in 24 patients. Scintigrams were interpreted by the degree of accumulation of labeled leukocytes, and were classified into 3 groups: positive, intermediate, and negative. In the cases of positive leukocyte scans, definite diagnosis of infection was made in all cases except one. In the cases of negative scans, there was no evidence of infection. In 13 cases, leukocyte scintigrams were interpreted in conjunction with bone scintigrams. Definite diagnosis of infection was made in all of the cases with positive combined leukocyte/bone scan, and there was no evidence of infection in cases with negative combined leukocyte/bone scan. This study demonstrates that In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is a useful method in diagnosis of postoperative joint infection, and accuracy of the examination improves when combined with bone scintigraphy. (author)

  14. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Michel, J.; Ferne, M.; Bergner-Rabinowitz, S.; Ginsburg, I.

    1979-01-01

    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  15. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  16. Photoperiod affects the expression of sex and species differences in leukocyte number and leukocyte trafficking in congeneric hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbo, S D; Dhabhar, F S; Viswanathan, K; Saul, A; Nelson, R J

    2003-11-01

    Sex differences in immune function are well documented. These sex differences may be modulated by social and environmental factors. Individuals of polygynous species generally exhibit more pronounced sex differences in immune parameters than individuals of monogamous species, often displaying an energetic trade-off between enhanced immunity and high mating success. During winter, animals contend with environmental conditions (e.g. low temperatures and decreased food availability) that evoke energetic-stress responses; many mammals restrict reproduction in response to photoperiod as part of an annual winter coping strategy. To test the hypothesis that extant sex and species differences in immune surveillance may be modulated by photoperiod, we examined leukocyte numbers in males and females of two closely related hamster species (Phodopus). As predicted, uniparental P. sungorus exhibited a robust sex difference, with total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells higher in females than males, during long days when reproduction occurs, but not during short days when reproduction usually stops. In contrast, biparental male and female P. campbelli exhibited comparable leukocyte numbers during both long and short days. To study sex differences in stress responses, we also examined immune cell trafficking in response to an acute (2 h) restraint stressor. During stressful challenges, it appears beneficial for immune cells to exit the blood and move to primary immune defense areas such as the skin, in preparation for potential injury or infection. Acute stress moved lymphocytes and monocytes out of the blood in all animals. Blood cortisol concentrations were increased in P. sungorus females compared to males at baseline (52%) and in response to restraint stress (38%), but only in long days. P. campbelli males and females exhibited comparable blood cortisol and stress responses during both long and short days. Our results suggest that interactions among

  17. Cognitive Change during the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, L.; Bendix, Laila; Harbo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    style. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two groups of men with negative (n = 97) and positive (n = 93) change in cognitive performance were selected from a birth cohort of 1985 Danish men born in 1953. Cognitive performance of each individual was assessed at age similar to 20 and 56 years. Leukocyte...... telomere length at age similar to 58 was measured using qPCR. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between cognitive function and leukocyte telomere length. Results: Men with negative change in cognitive performance during adult life had significantly shorter mean leukocyte...... telomere length than men with positive change in cognitive performance (unadjusted difference beta = -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02, p = 0.02). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol (adjusted...

  18. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (pacrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (pacrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  19. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors.

  20. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors

  1. Occupational Styrene Exposure on Auditory Function Among Adults: A Systematic Review of Selected Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis T. Pleban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A review study was conducted to examine the adverse effects of styrene, styrene mixtures, or styrene and/or styrene mixtures and noise on the auditory system in humans employed in occupational settings. The search included peer-reviewed articles published in English language involving human volunteers spanning a 25-year period (1990–2015. Studies included peer review journals, case–control studies, and case reports. Animal studies were excluded. An initial search identified 40 studies. After screening for inclusion, 13 studies were retrieved for full journal detail examination and review. As a whole, the results range from no to mild associations between styrene exposure and auditory dysfunction, noting relatively small sample sizes. However, four studies investigating styrene with other organic solvent mixtures and noise suggested combined exposures to both styrene organic solvent mixtures may be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone. There is little literature examining the effect of styrene on auditory functioning in humans. Nonetheless, findings suggest public health professionals and policy makers should be made aware of the future research needs pertaining to hearing impairment and ototoxicity from styrene. It is recommended that chronic styrene-exposed individuals be routinely evaluated with a comprehensive audiological test battery to detect early signs of auditory dysfunction. Keywords: auditory system, human exposure, ototoxicity, styrene

  2. [Study of the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Pan, L P; Ding, E M; Ge, Q J; Zhang, Z H; Xu, J N; Zhang, L; Zhu, B L

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To explore the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function. Methods: 526 workers who were occupationally exposed to glyphosate from 5 glyphosate-producing factories were selected as cases; and another 442 administrative staffs who were not exposed to glyphosate were selected as controls from April to November, 2014. All the subjects accepted occupational health examination. The concentration level of glyphosate in the air of workshop was detected and the time weighted average concentration (TWA) was calculated. And analyze the difference of hepatorenal fuction between case group and control group. Result: The age of the subjects in the case and control groups were separately (35.6±10.3), (34.3±9.7) years old, with the length of working for (6.5±5.7), (7.7±6.8) years. The TWA of glyphosate in the case group was between Glyphosate can affect the hepatic and renal function among occupational exposure population, and there was an association between the effect and the exposure dose.

  3. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghab, Masoud; Delikhoon, Mahdieh; Norouzian Baghani, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-10-01

    Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41), 0.13 (0.1), and 1.56 (0.41) mg/m 3 , respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 7 , PM 10 , and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was 3.31 (2.6), 12.21 (5.9), 44.16 (16.6), 57 (21.55) μg/m 3 , and 1.31 (1.11) mg/m 3 , respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (pcooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  4. Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Heffernan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered.

  5. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  6. Pulmonary leukocytic responses are linked to the acquired immunity of mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary cellular responses in C57BL/6 mice exposed to Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated by sampling cells from the respiratory airways with bronchoalveolar lavage. Mice exposed to cercariae attenuated with 20 krad gamma-radiation developed stronger and more persistent pulmonary leukocytic responses than animals exposed to equal numbers of normal parasites. Although vaccination with irradiated cercariae also stimulated T cell responses of greater magnitude and duration than normal infection, the lymphocytic infiltrate elicited by each regimen did not differ substantially in its composition, 5 wk after exposure. Studies with cercariae attenuated by different treatments established that a link exists between the recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs of vaccinated mice and resistance to reinfection. There was a strong association between pulmonary leukocytic responses and the elimination of challenge infections by vaccinated mice. Animals exposed to irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni were resistant to homologous challenge infection but were not protected against Schistosoma margrebowiei. Homologous challenge of vaccinated mice stimulated anamnestic leukocytic and T lymphocytic responses in the lungs, 2 wk postinfection, but exposure of immunized animals to the heterologous species failed to trigger an expansion in these populations of cells. Our studies indicate that pulmonary leukocytes and T lymphocytes are intimately involved in the mechanism of vaccine-induced resistance to S. mansoni. It remains unclear whether these populations of cells initiate protective inflammatory reactions against challenge parasites in the lungs, or accumulate in response to the activation of the protective mechanism by other means

  7. Multigenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dopamine D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John J; Johnson, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2013-05-01

    The use and misuse of prescription opiates in adolescent populations, and in particular, adolescent female populations, has increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given the significant role that opioids play in neuroendocrine function, exposure to opiates during this critical developmental period could have significant consequences for the female, as well as her offspring. In the current set of studies, we utilized the female rat to model the transgenerational impact of adolescent opiate exposure. We examined locomotor sensitization in response to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in the adult male progeny (F1 and F2 generations) of females exposed to morphine during adolescence. All females were drug-free for at least 3 weeks prior to conception, eliminating the possibility of direct fetal exposure to morphine. Both F1 and F2 progeny of morphine-exposed females demonstrated attenuated locomotor sensitization following repeated quinpirole administration. These behavioral effects were coupled with increased quinpirole-induced corticosterone secretion and upregulated kappa opioid receptor and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) gene expression within the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest significant modifications in response to repeated D2R activation in the progeny of females exposed to opiates during adolescence. Given the significant role that the D2R plays in psychopathology, adolescent opiate exposure could shift the vulnerability of future offspring to psychological disorders, including addiction. Moreover, that effects are also observed in the F2 generation suggests that adolescent opiate exposure can trigger transgenerational epigenetic modifications impacting systems critical for motivated behavior.

  8. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Neghab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. Objective: To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. Results: The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41, 0.13 (0.1, and 1.56 (0.41 mg/m3, respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs was 3.31 (2.6, 12.21 (5.9, 44.16 (16.6, 57 (21.55 μg/m3, and 1.31 (1.11 mg/m3, respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (p<0.05 more prevalent in exposed group. No significant difference was noted between the pre-shift mean of spirometry parameters of exposed and unexposed group. However, exposed workers showed cross-shift decrease in most spirometry parameters, significantly lower than the pre-shift values and those of the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to cooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  9. Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro; Bartolome, Maria Visitacion; Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; Salaices, Mercedes; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2011-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl 2 (1st dose 4.6 μg/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 μg/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and β-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na + -K + ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and α-1 isoform of NKA, whereas α-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: → Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. → Increases end diastolic pressure. → Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. → Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. → Small concentrations constitutes

  10. Prenatal cocaine exposure and its impact on cognitive functions of offspring: a pathophysiological insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioka, Eleana; Korou, Laskarina Maria; Daskalopoulou, Afrodite; Misitzi, Angelica; Batsidis, Eleni; Bakoyiannis, Ioannis; Pergialiotis, Vasilios

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that approximately 0.5%-3% of fetuses are prenatally exposed to cocaine (COC). The neurodevelopmental implications of this exposure are numerous and include motor skill impairments, alterations of social function, predisposition to anxiety, and memory function and attention deficits; these implications are commonly observed in experimental studies and ultimately affect both learning and IQ. According to previous studies, the clinical manifestations of prenatal COC exposure seem to persist at least until adolescence. The pathophysiological cellular processes that underlie these impairments include dysfunctional myelination, disrupted dendritic architecture, and synaptic alterations. On a molecular level, various neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, catecholamines, and γ-aminobutyric acid seem to participate in this process. Finally, prenatal COC abuse has been also associated with functional changes in the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that mediate neuroendocrine responses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal COC abuse, to describe the pathophysiological pathways that underlie these consequences, and to provide implications for future research in the field.

  11. Analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that by obtention the exposure-response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Meneses, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Pathway methodology, developed in the frame of Extern E project for estimating of the external costs or externalities of the energy use, has as one of their main steps the health impact evaluation. This evaluation is carried out through exposure-response functions. In previous estimates of the external costs of power generation in Cuba, functions obtained in international studies were used. The main objective of this work was to carry out a summarized critical analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that, according the exposed methodology, consider the main aspects specialized with views to the possible preliminary proposal of functions exposure-response (FER) based own in epidemiologic evidences. In agreement with the analysis, the results show that the great majority of the studies are not useful for the FER establishment, at least in their present form. A minority studies exists that contributes limited evidence and their reanalysis could increase their contribution to the propose purpose. Finally the main problems found in the studies are enumerated revision object

  12. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of

  13. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Healy, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  14. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.

    1986-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of [ 111 In]leukocytes. No accumulation of [ 111 In]leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by [ 111 In]leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determined by radiography, and [ 111 In]leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that [ 111 In]leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response

  15. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Verreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered.

  16. Environmental manganese exposure and associations with memory, executive functions, and hyperactivity in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Chrissie Ferreira de; Oulhote, Youssef; Martorelli, Marina; Carvalho, Carla Oliveira de; Menezes-Filho, José Antônio; Argollo, Nayara; Abreu, Neander

    2018-02-09

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, however high levels of Mn have been associated with lower neuropsychological performance and behavioral problems in children. We investigated the associations between hair Mn concentrations and neuropsychological and behavioral performances among children with long-term exposure to airborne Mn aged between 7 and 12 years. Neuropsychological performance included tests of: verbal memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and motor function. We used the Conners Abbreviated Rating Scale for teachers to assess students' behaviors of hyperactivity. Hair manganese (MnH) concentrations in children and exposure to airborne manganese from a ferro-manganese alloy plant were analyzed and correlated with tests scores. Multivariable linear models adjusting for potential confounders showed that elevated levels of MnH were associated with lower performance in verbal memory, as measured by the free recall after interference (β = - 1.8; 95% CI: - 3.4, - 0.2), which indicates susceptibility to interference, and Delayed Effect (β = -2.0; 95% CI: -3.7, - 0.2), representing a loss of information over time. Additionally, we found patterns of effect modification by sex in three subtests measuring verbal memory: the free recall after interference score, Interference Effect, and Delayed Effect (all at p < 0.10). Overall, the results suggest that long-term airborne Mn exposure may be associated with lower performance in verbal memory, and hyperactivity behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational Styrene Exposure on Auditory Function Among Adults: A Systematic Review of Selected Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, Francis T; Oketope, Olutosin; Shrestha, Laxmi

    2017-12-01

    A review study was conducted to examine the adverse effects of styrene, styrene mixtures, or styrene and/or styrene mixtures and noise on the auditory system in humans employed in occupational settings. The search included peer-reviewed articles published in English language involving human volunteers spanning a 25-year period (1990-2015). Studies included peer review journals, case-control studies, and case reports. Animal studies were excluded. An initial search identified 40 studies. After screening for inclusion, 13 studies were retrieved for full journal detail examination and review. As a whole, the results range from no to mild associations between styrene exposure and auditory dysfunction, noting relatively small sample sizes. However, four studies investigating styrene with other organic solvent mixtures and noise suggested combined exposures to both styrene organic solvent mixtures may be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone. There is little literature examining the effect of styrene on auditory functioning in humans. Nonetheless, findings suggest public health professionals and policy makers should be made aware of the future research needs pertaining to hearing impairment and ototoxicity from styrene. It is recommended that chronic styrene-exposed individuals be routinely evaluated with a comprehensive audiological test battery to detect early signs of auditory dysfunction.

  18. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  19. Exposure-in-vivo containing interventions to improve work functioning of workers with anxiety disorder : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Klingen, Elmer F.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are associated with functional disability, sickness absence, and decreased productivity. Effective treatments of anxiety disorders can result in remission of symptoms. However the effects on work related outcomes are largely unknown. Exposure in vivo is potentially well

  20. Workplace Exposures and Cognitive Function During Adulthood: Evidence From National Survey of Midlife Development and the O*NET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Lachman, Margie E

    2016-06-01

    Expand understanding of the role of selected workplace exposures (ie, occupational complexity, conflict in the workplace, pace of work, and physical hazards) in adults' cognitive function. Cross-sectional data (n = 1991) from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study; restricted to participants who completed telephone-based cognitive assessments of episodic memory, executive functioning, and self-perceived memory. Occupational exposure data were harvested from the ONET Release 6.0. Greater complexity was associated with better self-perceived memory among women and men, and better episodic memory and executive functioning among women. Greater physical hazards were independently associated with poorer episodic memory and executive functioning. Objective assessments of physical and psychosocial exposures in the workplace are independently associated with cognitive outcomes in adulthood, with psychosocial exposures being particularly pronounced among women.

  1. Respiratory dysfunction in swine production facility workers: dose-response relationships of environmental exposures and pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, K J; Reynolds, S J; Whitten, P; Merchant, J A; Burmeister, L; Popendorf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Human respiratory health hazards for people working in livestock confinement buildings have been recognized since 1974. However, before comprehensive control programs can be implemented, more knowledge is needed of specific hazardous substances present in the air of these buildings, and at what concentrations they are harmful. Therefore, a medical epidemiological and exposure-response study was conducted on 207 swine producers using intensive housing systems (108 farms). Dose-response relationships between pulmonary function and exposures are reported here. Positive correlations were seen between change in pulmonary function over a work period and exposure to total dust, respirable dust, ammonia, respirable endotoxin, and the interactions of age-of-producer and dust exposure and years-of-working-in-the-facility and dust exposure. Relationships between baseline pulmonary function and exposures were not strong and therefore, not pursued in this study. The correlations between exposure and response were stronger after 6 years of exposure. Multiple regression models were used to identify total dust and ammonia as the two primary environmental predictors of pulmonary function decrements over a work period. The regression models were then used to determine exposure concentrations related to pulmonary function decrements suggestive of a health hazard. Total dust concentrations > or = 2.8 mg/m3 were predictive of a work period decrement of > or = 10% in FEV1. Ammonia concentrations of > or = 7.5 ppm were predictive of a > or = 3% work period decrement in FEV1. These predictive concentrations were similar to a previous dose-response study, which suggested 2.5 mg/m3 of total dust and 7 ppm of NH3 were associated with significant work period decrements. Therefore, dust > or = 2.8 mg/m3 and ammonia > or = 7.5 ppm should be considered reasonable evidence for guidelines regarding hazardous exposure concentrations in this work environment.

  2. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Liu

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3 expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001. Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (p<0.05 and a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER by 180.0% (p<0.001. While the expression of tight junctional protein did not change in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05. Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  3. Long term impairment of cognitive functions and alterations of NMDAR subunits after continuous microwave exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tan, Shengzhi; Xu, Xinping; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Binwei; Gao, Yabing; Zhou, Hongmei; Peng, Ruiyun

    2017-11-01

    The long term effects of continuous microwave exposure cannot be ignored for the simulation of the real environment and increasing concerns about the negative cognitive effects of microwave exposure. In this study, 220 male Wistar rats were exposed by a 2.856GHz radiation source with the average power density of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10mW/cm 2 for 6min/day, 5days/week and up to 6weeks. The MWM task, the EEG analysis, the hippocampus structure observation and the western blot were applied until the 12months after microwave exposure to detect the spatial learning and memory abilities, the cortical electrical activity, changes of hippocampal structure and the NMDAR subunits expressions. Results found that the rats in the 10mW/cm 2 group showed the decline of spatial learning and memory abilities and EEG disorders (the decrease of EEG frequencies, and increase of EEG amplitudes and delta wave powers). Moreover, changes of basic structure and ultrastructure of hippocampus also found in the 10 and 5mW/cm 2 groups. The decrease of NR 2A, 2B and p-NR2B might contribute to the impairment of cognitive functions. Our findings suggested that the continuous microwave exposure could cause the dose-dependent long term impairment of spatial learning and memory, the abnormalities of EEG and the hippocampal structure injuries. The decrease of NMDAR key subunits and phosphorylation of NR 2B might contribute to the cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity challenges the hepatoprotective function of the integrated stress response to asparaginase exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, Inna A; Al-Baghdadi, Rana J T; Mirek, Emily T; Wang, Yongping; Goudie, Michael P; Wetstein, Berish B; Dixon, Joseph L; Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R; Adams, Christopher M; Wek, Ronald C; Anthony, Tracy G

    2017-04-21

    Obesity increases risk for liver toxicity by the anti-leukemic agent asparaginase, but the mechanism is unknown. Asparaginase activates the integrated stress response (ISR) via sensing amino acid depletion by the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) kinase GCN2. The goal of this work was to discern the impact of obesity, alone versus alongside genetic disruption of the ISR, on mechanisms of liver protection during chronic asparaginase exposure in mice. Following diet-induced obesity, biochemical analysis of livers revealed that asparaginase provoked hepatic steatosis that coincided with activation of another eIF2 kinase PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), a major ISR transducer to ER stress. Genetic loss of Gcn2 intensified hepatic PERK activation to asparaginase, yet surprisingly, mRNA levels of key ISR gene targets such as Atf5 and Trib3 failed to increase. Instead, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signal transduction was unleashed, and this coincided with liver dysfunction reflected by a failure to maintain hydrogen sulfide production or apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) expression. In contrast, obese mice lacking hepatic activating transcription factor 4 ( Atf4 ) showed an exaggerated ISR and greater loss of endogenous hydrogen sulfide but normal inhibition of mTORC1 and maintenance of ApoB100 during asparaginase exposure. In both genetic mouse models, expression and phosphorylation of Sestrin2, an ATF4 gene target, was increased by asparaginase, suggesting mTORC1 inhibition during asparaginase exposure is not driven via eIF2-ATF4-Sestrin2. In conclusion, obesity promotes a maladaptive ISR during asparaginase exposure. GCN2 functions to repress mTORC1 activity and maintain ApoB100 protein levels independently of Atf4 expression, whereas hydrogen sulfide production is promoted via GCN2-ATF4 pathway. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Aminoglycoside exposure and renal function before lung transplantation in adult cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel-Catin, Etienne; Pelletier, Solenne; Reynaud, Quitterie; Nove-Josserand, Raphaele; Durupt, Stephane; Dubourg, Laurence; Durieu, Isabelle; Fouque, Denis

    2018-04-18

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk of kidney injury even before undergoing lung transplantation, because of prolonged exposure to aminoglycosides (AGs), chronic dehydration and complications of diabetes mellitus. The usual equations estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), such as Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, are not adapted to the CF population due to patients' low body weight and reduced muscle mass. The aim of this study was to precisely measure GFR in adult CF patients and to see whether repeated AG treatment would impair renal function before lung transplantation. Inulin or iohexol clearances were performed in 25 adult CF patients when they entered the lung transplant waiting list. No patient was treated with AGs at the time of GFR measurement. Body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes mellitus and blood pressure were recorded. Exposure to intravenous (IV) AGs within 5 years prior to the GFR measurement was obtained from the patient's medical files. Urine samples were collected to check for albuminuria and proteinuria. The population was predominantly female (67%). The mean age was 32 years, the mean BMI was 19 kg/m2 and 28% had CF-related diabetes. Median exposure to IV AG within 5 years before GFR measurement was 155 days with a mean dosage of 7.7mg/kg/day. The mean measured GFR was 106 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the mean estimated GFR according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula was 124 mL/min/1.73 m2. Despite prolonged exposure to high-dose IV AG, no decline in GFR was observed in these patients.

  6. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. Design Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. Subjects 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973...... and those not exposed (n=3289), 43.1 versus 42.9 after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Our data indicate that exposure to uterotonic drugs does not affect cognitive function 20 years later....

  7. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  8. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine [George Washington University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Children' s National Health System, Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Laboratory, Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Du Plessis, Adre J. [Children' s National Health System, Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Robertson, Richard L. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Limperopoulos, Catherine [Children' s National Health System, Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Laboratory, Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Children' s National Health System, Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero. In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment. We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment. Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in functional outcomes or

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; Du Plessis, Adre J.; Robertson, Richard L.; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero. In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment. We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment. Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in functional outcomes or

  10. Consequences of bisphenol a perinatal exposure on immune responses and gut barrier function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisé, Yann; Ménard, Sandrine; Cartier, Christel; Lencina, Corinne; Sommer, Caroline; Gaultier, Eric; Houdeau, Eric; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    The potent immunomodulatory effect of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A during development and consequences during life span are of increasing concern. Particular interests have been raised from animal studies regarding the risk of developing food intolerance and infection. We aimed to identify immune disorders in mice triggered by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. Gravid mice were orally exposed to bisphenol (50 μg/kg body weight/day) from day 15 of pregnancy until weaning. Gut barrier function, local and systemic immunity were assessed in adult female offspring. Mice perinatally exposed to bisphenol showed a decrease in ileal lysozyme expression and a fall of fecal antimicrobial activity. In offspring mice exposed to bisphenol, an increase in colonic permeability was observed associated with an increase in interferon-γ level and a drop of colonic IgA + cells and fecal IgA production. Interestingly, altered frequency of innate lymphoid cells type 3 occurred in the small intestine, with an increase in IgG response against commensal bacteria in sera. These effects were related to a defect in dendritic cell maturation in the lamina propria and spleen. Activated and regulatory T cells were decreased in the lamina propria. Furthermore, perinatal exposure to bisphenol promoted a sharp increase in interferon-γ and interleukin-17 production in the intestine and elicited a T helper 17 profile in the spleen. To conclude, perinatal exposure to bisphenol weakens protective and regulatory immune functions in the intestine and at systemic level in adult offspring. The increased susceptibility to inflammatory response is an interesting lead supporting bisphenol-mediated adverse consequences on food reactions and infections.

  11. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  12. No effect of mercury exposure on kidney function during ongoing artisanal gold mining activities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luz Helena Sánchez; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Fiallo, Yolanda Vargas; Ordoñez, Álvaro; Gutiérrez, Myriam Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined whether people who are exposed to mercury (Hg) vapours in ongoing artisanal gold mining activities have alteration in kidney function monitoring parameters. The study enrolled 164 miners and 127 participant controls. The Hg concentrations for miners and control participants were measured in blood (B-Hg; median 7.0 vs. 2.5 µg/L), urine (U-Hg; median 3.9 vs. 1.5 µg/g creatinine) and hair (H-Hg; median 0.8 vs. 0.4 µg/g hair). The biomarkers of renal function were creatinine, albumin and excretion of β-2 microglobulin. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equation. Significant statistical differences were found in Hg concentrations and eGFR levels between the two study groups ( p association was found between the prevalence of reduced eGFR (associated with Hg vapour exposure in ongoing artisanal gold mining, whose population has a level of Hg exposure from low to moderate (B-Hg from 3.4 to 11.0 µg/L and U-Hg from 1.3 to 9.6 µg/g creatinine).

  13. The Many Faces of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an immunological paradox, where fetal antigens encoded by polymorphic genes inherited from the father do not provoke a maternal immune response. The fetus is not rejected as it would be theorized according to principles of tissue transplantation. A major contribution to fetal tolerance...... is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a nonclassical HLA protein displaying limited polymorphism, restricted tissue distribution, and a unique alternative splice pattern. HLA-G is primarily expressed in placenta and plays multifaceted roles during pregnancy, both as a soluble and a membrane-bound molecule......, differences in HLA-G isoform expression, and possible differences in functional activity. Furthermore, we highlight important observations regarding HLA-G genetics and expression in preeclampsia that future research should address....

  14. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Harrie E; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; van Burgsteden, Johan A; de Heer, Cees

    2005-10-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeated exposure. The influence of repeated and single exposure to representative biocidal active substances on the skin barrier was investigated in vitro. The biocidal active substances selected were alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC), boric acid, deltamethrin, dimethyldidecylammonium chloride (DDAC), formaldehyde, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, sodium bromide, and tebuconazole. Of these nine compounds, only the quaternary ammonium chlorides ADBAC and DDAC had a clear and consistent influence on skin permeability of the marker compounds tritiated water and [(14)C]propoxur. For these compounds, repeated exposure increased skin permeability more than single exposure. At high concentrations the difference between single and repeated exposure was quantitatively significant: repeated exposure to 300 mg/L ADBAC increased skin permeability two to threefold in comparison to single exposure. Therefore, single and repeated exposure to specific biocidal products may significantly increase skin permeability, especially when used undiluted.

  15. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  16. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.; Sawicki, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Indium- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was applied to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Thirty-two patients observed in the hospital for possible appendicitis were prospectively studied. Scanning was done 2 hr after radiopharmaceutical injection. Thirteen scans were positive for acute appendicitis, and all but one were confirmed at laparotomy. In addition, two cases of colitis and two cases of peritonitis were detected. Of 15 negative studies, 11 had a benign course. Four patients with negative studies had laparotomy; two were found to have appendicitis and two had a normal appendix. Of 14 proven cases of appendicitis, 12 scans were positive for appendicitis with one false-positive scan, providing a sensitivity of 86%. Specificity was 93%: all negative cases except one had negative scans. Overall accuracy was 91% (29 of 32), comparing favorably with the accepted false-positive laparotomy rate of 25%. Use of In- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy serves to reduce the false-positive laparotomy rate and to shorten the clinical observation time in patients with acute appendicitis

  17. Modeled Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposure and Liver Function in a Mid-Ohio Valley Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Groth, Alyx C; Winquist, Andrea; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Bartell, Scott M; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-08-01

    , Steenland K. 2016. Modeled perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and liver function in a Mid-Ohio Valley community. Environ Health Perspect 124:1227-1233; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510391.

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M; Webster, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: -4.7, -0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420-425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509755.

  19. Acupuncture attenuates hyperglycaemia and improves ovarian function in female rats subjected to continuous light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xuezhi; Jia, Lina; Li, Yaming; Zhang, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on glucose metabolism and ovarian function in female rats subjected to long-term continuous light exposure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were divided into three experimental groups: an LD group that was maintained under a normal light-dark cycle (healthy control); an LL group that was exposed to continuous light for 21 weeks but remained untreated; and an LL+EA group that received EA at ST36 and SP6 during weeks 17 to 21 of continuous light exposure. Oestrous cycles of female rats kept in a continuously lit environment for 21 weeks were disordered and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)-like changes occurred, accompanied by increased fasting blood glucose (6.23±0.33 vs 5.27±0.40 mmol/L in week 17, p=0.015) and reduced fasting levels of serum testosterone (0.07±0.018 vs 0.12±0.058 ng/L, p=0.043) and insulin (0.89±0.20 vs 1.43±0.46 ng/L, p=0.006). After 5 weeks of EA treatment at ST36 and SP6, ovarian cycle disruption was mitigated and blood glucose levels showed a gradual decline (5.18±0.37 vs 5.80±0.55 mmol/L, p=0.017; and 5.73±0.31 vs 6.62±0.13 mmol/L, p=0.004; in the fourth and fifth weeks of EA treatment, respectively). EA also attenuated the reductions otherwise seen in serum insulin and testosterone levels. Prolonged exposure to light can lead to a decline in ovarian and pancreatic function. EA at ST36 and SP6 may reduce abnormally elevated blood glucose levels and improve ovarian and pancreatic hormone levels. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Mitochondrial functions of THP-1 monocytes following the exposure to selected natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Nadin; Wanka, Heike; Zwicker, Paula; Lindequist, Ulrike; Haertel, Beate

    2017-02-15

    The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC 10 and IC 50 determined by MTT) of each compound. The cells showed concentration-dependent elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and induction of apoptosis (except DON) in response to the three test compounds. Mitochondrial functions were characterized by using bioenergetics profiling experiments. In THP-1 monocytes, the IC 50 of CsA decreased basal and maximal respiration as well as ATP production with an impact on spare capacity indicating a mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar reaction patterns were observed following CBD exposure. The basal respiration level and ATP-production decreased in the THP-1 cells exposed to the IC 50 of DON with no major impact on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired mitochondrial function was accompanied by elevated iROS and apoptosis level in a monocytic cell line exposed to CsA and CBD. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be one explanation for the cytotoxicity of CBD and CsA also in other in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute effects of 30 minutes of exposure to a smartphone call on in vitro platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Gelati, Matteo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Significant concerns are now regularly raised about the safety of excessive mobile phone use. This study was aimed to assess the acute effects of radiofrequency waves emitted by a commercial smartphone on platelet function. Two sequential citrated blood samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers recruited from laboratory staff. The first sample was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm distant from a commercial smartphone receiving a 30-min call and emitting 900 MHz radiofrequency waves. The second sample was placed in another plastic rack, isolated from radiofrequency wave sources, for the same period. The platelet count and the mean platelet volume were then assessed in all blood samples, whereas platelet function was evaluated using the platelet function analyser-100 (PFA-100). A 30-min exposure of citrated blood to smartphone radiofrequency waves induced significant prolongation of collagen-epinephrine aggregation (median increase, 10%) and a considerable increase of mean platelet volume (median increase, 5%), whereas collagen-adenosine diphosphate aggregation and platelet count remained unchanged. This study demonstrates that smartphone radiofrequency waves induce significant perturbation of platelet structure and function, thus providing further support to concerns regarding excessive use of mobile phones. Caution should also be taken with regards to blood products containing platelets, which should be kept far away from mobile phones and smartphones throughout the production pipeline and storage period.

  2. P1-11: Visual Function and Neurotoxic Symptoms Related to Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Jimenez Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Exposure to Perchloroethylene (PERC, a solvent used in dry-cleaning, is associated with neurotoxicity and changes in colour vision (CV and contrast sensitivity (CS. However, PERCs' impact on other aspects of visual function (VF such as chromatic contrast sensitivity (CCS, glass pattern detection (GPP, visual search (VS, and global motion sensitivity (GMS remains unclear. This study compared VF and neurotoxicity in two populations at risk, dry-cleaners (cases from Colombia and Australia. Control groups of people with community levels of exposure to PERC were also assessed. Methods: A case-control study of VF in people who are working in the dry-cleaning industry for at least 1 year (n = 40 Colombia; n= 34 Australia with controls (n = 35 each site. VF measures assessed were CSF, CCS, the FM Hue 100 test, VS, GPP, and GMS. Neurotoxic symptoms were assessed using the Q16 modified version questionnaire. Results: Cases had poorer CCS, hue discrimination, GPP, GMS, and higher Q16 scores than controls (p < .05. There was no effect of country. CS function was poorer than controls (p < .05 for spatial frequencies≥0.50 cpd for Australian cases but for ≥1.0 cpd for Colombian cases. There were no significant differences between cases and controls for serial and parallel VS. Conclusion: Our CSF and CV findings indicate that the CS deficit extends to lower spatial frequencies. Furthermore we report a reduction in the detection of form, motion, and CCS. These deficits were associated with neurotoxic symptoms. Because VS was unaffected, it suggests that PERC affects lower order visual functions more severely than higher level cognition.

  3. Loss of hfe function reverses impaired recognition memory caused by olfactory manganese exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) in the brain promotes a variety of abnormal behaviors, including memory deficits, decreased motor skills and psychotic behavior resembling Parkinson's disease. Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a prevalent genetic iron overload disorder worldwide. Dysfunction in HFE gene is the major cause of HH. Our previous study has demonstrated that olfactory Mn uptake is altered by HFE deficiency, suggesting that loss of HFE function could alter manganese-associated neurotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, Hfe-knockout (Hfe (-/-)) and wild-type (Hfe (+/+)) mice mice were intranasally-instilled with manganese chloride (MnCl2 5 mg/kg) or water daily for 3 weeks and examined for memory function. Olfactory Mn diminished both short-term recognition and spatial memory in Hfe (+/+) mice, as examined by novel object recognition task and Barnes maze test, respectively. Interestingly, Hfe (-/-) mice did not show impaired recognition memory caused by Mn exposure, suggesting a potential protective effect of Hfe deficiency against Mn-induced memory deficits. Since many of the neurotoxic effects of manganese are thought to result from increased oxidative stress, we quantified activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Mn instillation decreased superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) activity in Hfe (+/+) mice, but not in Hfe (-/-) mice. In addition, Hfe deficiency up-regulated SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase activities. These results suggest a beneficial role of Hfe deficiency in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the PFC. Furthermore, Mn exposure reduced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in the PFC, indicating that blunted acetylcholine signaling could contribute to impaired memory associated with intranasal manganese. Together, our model suggests that disrupted cholinergic system in the brain is involved in airborne Mn-induced memory deficits and loss of HFE function could in part prevent memory loss via a potential up-regulation of

  4. Damage and functional recovery of the mouse retina after exposure to genotoxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, Yu.V.; Tronov, V.A.; Lyakhova, K.N.; Ostrovskij, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    As is known, the mature retina is characterized by high radiation resistance. We showed earlier that ionizing radiation at a dose of ≥25 Gy and the chemical genotoxic agent methylnitrosourea (MNU) in a concentration of ≥60 mg/kg induce acute retinal degeneration, combined with proapoptotic protein expression. The process has a high genotoxic threshold, below which no degeneration signs were traced. The aim of this work was to study the damaging effect of ionizing radiation and MNU on the functional activity of the retina and its ability to recover after exposure to these genotoxicants. The functional activity of the mouse retina was evaluated with electroretinograms (ERG). In parallel, morphological changes in the retina were controlled, and the TUNEL detection of the death of its cell elements was performed. It has been shown that gamma rays or accelerated proton irradiation below 15 Gy cause no structural or functional changes in the mouse retina, which confirms the mature retina's high radiation resistance. Irradiation with a higher dose of 25 Gy leads to photoreceptor layer destruction. This goes along with an increase in the number of the TUNEL-positive photoreceptors, among which are cells with fragmented nuclei, which are typical of apoptosis. MNU in a concentration of 70 mg/kg caused the irreversible loss of the retina's physiological activity, and the morphological degeneration of photoreceptors and their mass death. In a concentration of 35 mg/kg, however, MNU had no cytotoxic effect on the retina. Moreover, this dose caused a reversible ERG amplitude decrease. Also, adaptive response was observed in the retina, which became apparent after two consecutive MNU injections - first, at a dose of 17 mg/kg; then, at a cytotoxic dose of 70 mg/kg. These results point to the possibility of the neurohormesis effect, which was described concerning the retina's exposure to ionizing radiation and some chemicals.

  5. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from rat pulmonary leukocytes exposed to ultrafine cobalt: in vivo and in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qunwei; Kusaka, Yukinori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Wang Deweng; Donaldson, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine cobalt (Uf-Co), one of the new category of ultrafine particles, is generated in some industrial situations and it also exists in environmental particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of rat pulmonary leukocytes to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after exposure to Uf-Co in vivo and in vitro. Rats were intratracheally instilled with 1 mg of Uf-Co, and then wet lung weight and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BASF) profile were analysed 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days later. The effects of Uf-Co on indices that can be presumed to reflect epithelial injury and permeability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein (TP)) were increased throughout the 30 day post-exposure period. Furthermore, at 3 days after exposure, leukocytes were collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). After 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation, TNF-alpha in supernatants were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that TNF-alpha secretion by activated leukocytes from rats instilled with Uf-Co was significantly higher than that of the controls. BAL leucocytes from the lung of exposed rats revealed time-and dose-related increases in TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, our results reveal, for the first time to our knowledge, that exposure to Uf-Co can stimulate leukocytes to secrete TNF-alpha. These data suggest that the TNF-alpha release from pulmonary leukocytes probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of 'cobalt lung'. (author)

  7. [Effect of dust aerosol exposure on lung function and lung histopathology in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fengfeng; Wang, Xuebin; Liu, Hua; Chen, Qizhang; Ma, Hui; Dong, Zhibao; Sang, Yingzhu

    2015-08-25

    To investigate the effect of dust aerosol exposure on lung function and lung histopathology in rats. According to random number table method, 120 Wistar male rats were divided into untreated control group, treated control group and experimental group, with 40 rats in each group. Experimental group were exposed to the wind tunnel simulation of sandstorm for 5 hours in every day; the untreated control group were put in the standard living environment next to the wind tunnel; the treated control group were exposed to the same wind tunnel simulation of sandstorm for 5 hours in every day, and the speed of wind was the same as the experimental group, but excluding dust. At different time points, the lung function and electron microscopy were performed in all rats. The level of Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn) ((0.227 ± 0.023), (0.198 ± 0.022) ml/cmH₂O, 1 cmH₂O=0.098 kPa) and forced vital capacity (FVC) ((6.24 ± 0.29), (5.59 ± 0.19) ml) were lower in the experimental group at 90 and 120 days, as compared to the untreated control group (Cdyn: (0.266 ± 0.014), (0.265 ± 0.018) ml/cmH2O; FVC: (7.15 ± 0.23), (7.17 ± 0.20) ml) and treated control group (Cdyn: (0.269 ± 0.015), (0.264 ± 0.019) ml/cmH2O; FVC: (7.14 ± 0.19), (7.15 ± 0.21) ml) (all Plung tissues had no obvious abnormalities at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days in untreated control group and treated control group. But in the experimental group, at 30 days, the endothelial cells of alveolar type I cells were swelled and the number of alveolar type II cells were increased; at 60 days, alveolar type II cells hyperplastic, basement membrane thinned and destructed; at 90 days, the number of alveolar type II cells decreased, Lamellar body evacuation; at 120 days, a lot of collagen fiber was formed in the alveolar septa. The strong sandstorm environmental exposure to a certain period of time can cause the decline of lung function and the damage of lung histopathology in rats. Exposure time was positively correlated with the

  8. Exposure to Gulf War Illness chemicals induces functional muscarinic receptor maladaptations in muscle nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B Y; Johnson, R D; Nutter, T J

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is a component of the multisymptom disease known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There is evidence that pain symptoms could have been a consequence of prolonged and/or excessive exposure to anticholinesterases and other GW chemicals. We previously reported that rats exposed, for 8 weeks, to a mixture of anticholinesterases (pyridostigmine bromide, chlorpyrifos) and a Nav (voltage activated Na(+) channel) deactivation-inhibiting pyrethroid, permethrin, exhibited a behavior pattern that was consistent with a delayed myalgia. This myalgia-like behavior was accompanied by persistent changes to Kv (voltage activated K(+)) channel physiology in muscle nociceptors (Kv7, KDR). In the present study, we examined how exposure to the above agents altered the reactivity of Kv channels to a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist (oxotremorine-M). Comparisons between muscle nociceptors harvested from vehicle and GW chemical-exposed rats revealed that mAChR suppression of Kv7 activity was enhanced in exposed rats. Yet in these same muscle nociceptors, a Stromatoxin-insensitive component of the KDR (voltage activated delayed rectifier K(+) channel) exhibited decreased sensitivity to activation of mAChR. We have previously shown that a unique mAChR-induced depolarization and burst discharge (MDBD) was exaggerated in muscle nociceptors of rats exposed to GW chemicals. We now provide evidence that both muscle and vascular nociceptors of naïve rats exhibit MDBD. Examination of the molecular basis of the MDBD in naïve animals revealed that while the mAChR depolarization was independent of Kv7, the action potential burst was modulated by Kv7 status. mAChR depolarizations were shown to be dependent, in part, on TRPA1. We argue that dysfunction of the MDBD could be a functional convergence point for maladapted ion channels and receptors consequent to exposure to GW chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Exposures to Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Chlorinated Bisphenol A Derivatives and Thyroid Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthi D Andrianou

    Full Text Available Although the increasing prevalence of thyroid nodular disease (TND has been partially attributed to the more frequent usage of improved diagnostics, environmental factors, such as exposures to thyroid-disrupting chemicals may contribute to TND and altered thyroid function. We investigated the association between exposures to bisphenol A (BPA, its chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA, and bisphenol F (BPF with TND and thyroid measures in adult women. A case-control study in Cyprus and Romania (n = 212 was conducted, where cases were those with thyroid nodules (diameter >3mm, and controls without nodules. Serum TSH and free thyroxine and urinary levels of BPA, BPF and ClxBPA were measured using immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The association between exposures to BPA compounds and TND, adjusting for age, BMI, thyroid hormones and urinary iodine was assessed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to explore associations between urinary BPA, BPF and ClxBPA and serum thyroid hormones. With the exception of a chlorinated BPA compound (30%, the rest of bisphenols were quantified in 100% of urine samples. A positive and significant (p<0.05 association was observed between urinary BPA and serum TSH that remained after adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, BMI, study site and disease status; there was no significant association between BPF or ClxBPA with TSH. None of the BPA compounds were associated with higher odds of TND. Our study found associations of urinary BPA with TSH but not with BPF or ClxBPA. A larger study would be justified.

  10. With medium-chain triglycerides, higher and faster oxygen radical production by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruimel, J W; Naber, A H; Curfs, J H; Wenker, M A; Jansen, J B

    2000-01-01

    Parenteral lipid emulsions are suspected of suppressing the immune function. However, study results are contradictory and mainly concern the conventional long-chain triglyceride emulsions. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were preincubated with parenteral lipid emulsions. The influence of the lipid emulsions on the production of oxygen radicals by these stimulated leukocytes was studied by measuring chemiluminescence. Three different parenteral lipid emulsions were tested: long-chain triglycerides, a physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides, and structured triglycerides. Structured triglycerides consist of triglycerides where the medium- and long-chain fatty acids are attached to the same glycerol molecule. Stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides showed higher levels of oxygen radicals (p triglycerides or structured triglycerides. Additional studies indicated that differences in results of various lipid emulsions were not caused by differences in emulsifier. The overall production of oxygen radicals was significantly lower after preincubation with the three lipid emulsions compared with controls without lipid emulsion. A physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides induced faster production of oxygen radicals, resulting in higher levels of oxygen radicals, compared with long-chain triglycerides or structured triglycerides. This can be detrimental in cases where oxygen radicals play either a pathogenic role or a beneficial one, such as when rapid phagocytosis and killing of bacteria is needed. The observed lower production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of parenteral lipid emulsions may result in immunosuppression by these lipids.

  11. Exposure to organic solvents used in dry cleaning reduces low and high level visual function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Astrid Jiménez Barbosa

    Full Text Available To investigate whether exposure to occupational levels of organic solvents in the dry cleaning industry is associated with neurotoxic symptoms and visual deficits in the perception of basic visual features such as luminance contrast and colour, higher level processing of global motion and form (Experiment 1, and cognitive function as measured in a visual search task (Experiment 2.The Q16 neurotoxic questionnaire, a commonly used measure of neurotoxicity (by the World Health Organization, was administered to assess the neurotoxic status of a group of 33 dry cleaners exposed to occupational levels of organic solvents (OS and 35 age-matched non dry-cleaners who had never worked in the dry cleaning industry. In Experiment 1, to assess visual function, contrast sensitivity, colour/hue discrimination (Munsell Hue 100 test, global motion and form thresholds were assessed using computerised psychophysical tests. Sensitivity to global motion or form structure was quantified by varying the pattern coherence of global dot motion (GDM and Glass pattern (oriented dot pairs respectively (i.e., the percentage of dots/dot pairs that contribute to the perception of global structure. In Experiment 2, a letter visual-search task was used to measure reaction times (as a function of the number of elements: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 100 in both parallel and serial search conditions.Dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents had significantly higher scores on the Q16 compared to non dry-cleaners indicating that dry cleaners experienced more neurotoxic symptoms on average. The contrast sensitivity function for dry cleaners was significantly lower at all spatial frequencies relative to non dry-cleaners, which is consistent with previous studies. Poorer colour discrimination performance was also noted in dry cleaners than non dry-cleaners, particularly along the blue/yellow axis. In a new finding, we report that global form and motion thresholds for dry cleaners were also

  12. Electronic equilibrium as a function of depth in tissue from cobalt-60 point source exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, J.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has set the basic criteria for assessing skin dose stemming from hot particle contaminations. Compliance with 10 CFR 20.101 requires that exposure to the skin be evaluated over a 1 cm 2 area at a depth of 0.007 cm. Skin exposure can arise from both the beta and gamma components of radioactive particles and gamma radiation can contribute significantly to skin doses. The gamma component of dose increases dramatically when layers of protective clothing are interposed between the hot particle source and the skin, and in cases where the hot particle is large in comparison to the range of beta particles. Once the protective clothing layer is thicker than the maximum range of the beta particles, skin dose is due solely to gamma radiation. Charged particle equilibrium is not established at shallow depths. The degree of electronic equilibrium establishment must be assessed for shallow doses to prevent the over-assessment of skin dose because conventional fluence-to-dose conversion factors are not applicable. To assess the effect of electronic equilibrium, selected thicknesses of tissue equivalent material were interposed between radiochromic dye film and a 60 Co hot particle source and dose was measured as a function of depth. These measured values were then compared to models which are used to calculate charged particle equilibrium. The Miller-Reece model was found to agree closely with the experimental data while the Lantz-Lambert model overestimated dose at shallow depths

  13. Early histological and functional effects of chronic copper exposure in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Felipe A; Tapia, Gladys; Arredondo, Miguel; Cartier-Ugarte, Denise; Romanque, Pamela; Sierralta, Walter D; Vial, María T; Videla, Luis A; Araya, Magdalena

    2005-10-01

    Cu is an essential trace element capable of producing toxic effects in animals and man when ingested acutely or chronically in excess. Although chronic Cu exposure is increasingly recognized as a public health issue, its early effects remain largely unknown. We approached the significance of a moderate chronic Cu load in young rats to correlate early hepatic histopathological changes with functional alterations of liver cells. For this purpose, supplementation with 1,200 ppm of Cu in rat food for 16 weeks was chosen. In these conditions, Cu load elicited a significant decrease in growth curves. There were mild light microscopy alterations in Cu-treated rats, although increasing intracellular Cu storage was correlated with longer Cu exposure both by histological and biochemical measurements. Ultrastructural alterations included lysosomal inclusions as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. Liver perfusion studies revealed higher rates of basal O(2) consumption and colloidal carbon-induced O(2) uptake in Cu-treated rats, with enhanced carbon-induced O(2)/carbon uptake ratios and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. These changes were time-dependent and returned to control values after 12 or 16 weeks. It is concluded that subchronic Cu loading in young rats induces early hepatic morphological changes, with enhancement in Küpffer cell-dependent respiratory burst activity and NF-kappaB DNA binding, cellular responses that may prevent or alleviate the hepatotoxicity of the metal.

  14. Childhood Exposure to Phthalates: Associations with Thyroid Function, Insulin-like Growth Factor I, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties. Objective We aimed to assess concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and to investigate the associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and growth. Methods In 845 children 4–9 years of age, we determined urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and IGF-I. Results Phthalate metabolites were detected in all urine samples, of which monobutyl phthalate was present in highest concentration. Phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with serum levels of free and total triiodothyronine, although statistically significant primarily in girls. Metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisononyl phthalate were negatively associated with IGF-I in boys. Most phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with height, weight, body surface, and height gain in both sexes. Conclusions Our study showed negative associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and thyroid hormones, IGF-I, and growth in children. Although our study was not designed to reveal the mechanism of action, the overall coherent negative associations between urine phthalate and thyroid and growth parameters may suggest causative negative roles of phthalate exposures for child health. PMID:20621847

  15. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase, Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters. The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  16. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  17. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  18. Early Postnatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Leads to Enhanced Neurogenesis and Impaired Communicative Functions in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Pang

    Full Text Available Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1 and anti-inflammatory (M2 phenotypes. More specifically, we found that microglial M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II were induced at relatively low levels in a regionally restricted manner, whereas M2 markers CD206 and TGFβ were strongly upregulated in a sub-set of activated microglia in multiple white and gray matter structures. This unique microglial response was associated with a marked decrease in naturally occurring apoptosis, but an increase in cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ and the dentate gyrus (DG of hippocampus. LPS exposure also leads to a significant increase in oligodendrocyte lineage population without causing discernible hypermyelination. Moreover, LPS-exposed rats exhibited significant impairments in communicative and cognitive functions. These findings suggest a possible role of M2-like microglial activation in abnormal neural development that may underlie ASD-like behavioral impairments.

  19. Estimating dose rates to organs as a function of age following internal exposure to radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Cristy, M.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-03-01

    The AGEDOS methodology allows estimates of dose rates, as a function of age, to radiosensitive organs and tissues in the human body at arbitrary times during or after internal exposure to radioactive material. Presently there are few, if any, radionuclides for which sufficient metabolic information is available to allow full use of all features of the methodology. The intention has been to construct the methodology so that optimal information can be gained from a mixture of the limited amount of age-dependent, nuclide-specific data and the generally plentiful age-dependent physiological data now available. Moreover, an effort has been made to design the methodology so that constantly accumulating metabolic information can be incorporated with minimal alterations in the AGEDOS computer code. Some preliminary analyses performed by the authors, using the AGEDOS code in conjunction with age-dependent risk factors developed from the A-bomb survivor data and other studies, has indicated that the doses and subsequent risks of eventually experiencing radiogenic cancers may vary substantially with age for some exposure scenarios and may be relatively invariant with age for other scenarios. We believe that the AGEDOS methodology provides a convenient and efficient means for performing the internal dosimetry

  20. Advances in RNAi therapeutic delivery to leukocytes using lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramishetti, Srinivas; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Peer, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) therapeutics has advanced into clinical trials for liver diseases and solid tumors, but remain a challenge for manipulating leukocytes fate due to lack of specificity and safety issues. Leukocytes ingest pathogens and defend the body through a complex network. They are also involved in the pathogeneses of inflammation, viral infection, autoimmunity and cancers. Modulating gene expression in leukocytes using siRNAs holds great promise to treat leukocyte-mediated diseases. Leukocytes are notoriously hard to transduce with siRNAs and are spread throughout the body often located deep in tissues, therefore developing an efficient systemic delivery strategy is still a challenge. Here, we discuss recent advances in siRNA delivery to leukocyte subsets such as macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. We focus mainly on lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) comprised of new generation of ionizable lipids and their ability to deliver siRNA to primary or malignant leukocytes in a targeted manner. Special emphasis is made on LNPs targeted to subsets of leukocytes and we detail a novel microfluidic mixing technology that could aid in changing the landscape of process development of LNPs from a lab tool to a potential novel therapeutic modality.

  1. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures.

  2. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675 Leukocyte...

  3. Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Ching; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2018-04-05

    There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men's arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig) levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03) ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16) ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22) ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman's correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.

  4. Exposure of Monocytes to Lipoarabinomannan Promotes Their Differentiation into Functionally and Phenotypically Immature Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Chávez-Galán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoarabinomannan (LAM is a lipid virulence factor secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. LAM can be measured in the urine or serum of tuberculosis patients (TB-patients. Circulating monocytes are the precursor cells of alveolar macrophages and might be exposed to LAM in patients with active TB. We speculated that exposing monocytes to LAM could produce phenotypically and functionally immature macrophages. To test our hypothesis, human monocytes were stimulated with LAM (24–120 hours and various readouts were measured. The study showed that when monocytes were exposed to LAM, the frequency of CD68+, CD33+, and CD86+ macrophages decreased, suggesting that monocyte differentiation into mature macrophages was affected. Regarding functionality markers, TLR2+ and TLR4+ macrophages also decreased, but the percentage of MMR+ expression did not change. LAM-exposed monocytes generated macrophages that were less efficient in producing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ; however, their phagocytic capacity was not modified. Taken together, these data indicate that LAM exposure influenced monocyte differentiation and produced poorly functional macrophages with a different phenotype. These results may help us understand how mycobacteria can limit the quality of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  5. Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ching Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men’s arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC, lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03 ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16 ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22 ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.

  6. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  7. Association between Air Pollution Exposure, Cognitive and Adaptive Function, and ASD Severity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Tara; Volk, Heather; Li, Weiyan; Lurmann, Fred; Eckel, Sandrah; McConnell, Rob; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk but no study has examined associations with ASD severity or functioning. Cognitive ability, adaptive functioning, and ASD severity were assessed in 327 children with ASD from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study using the…

  8. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine associations between...... with reduced lung function (FEV1 %predicted valuediseases may have...

  9. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Tributyltin exposure at noncytotoxic doses dysregulates pancreatic β-cell function in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Lan, Kuo-Cheng; Tsai, Jing-Ren; Weng, Te-I; Yang, Ching-Yao; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2017-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is an endocrine disruptor. TBT can be found in food and in human tissues and blood. Several animal studies revealed that organotins induced diabetes with decreased insulin secretion. The detailed effect and mechanism of TBT on pancreatic β-cell function still remain unclear. We investigated the effect and mechanism of TBT exposure at noncytotoxic doses relevant to human exposure on β-cell function in vitro and in vivo. The β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells and pancreatic islets from mouse and human were treated with TBT (0.05-0.2 μM) for 0.5-4 h. Adult male mice were orally exposed to TBT (25 μg/kg/day) with or without antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 1-3 weeks. Assays for insulin secretion and glucose metabolism were carried out. Unlike previous studies, TBT at noncytotoxic concentrations significantly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in β-cells. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC-pan) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were also increased. These TBT-triggered effects could be reversed by antiestrogen ICI182780 and inhibitors of ROS, [Ca 2+ ] i , and PKC, but not ERK. Similarly, islets treated with TBT significantly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which could be reversed by ICI182780, NAC, and PKC inhibitor. Mice exposed to TBT for 3 weeks significantly increased blood glucose and plasma insulin and induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which could be reversed by NAC. These findings suggest that low/noncytotoxic doses of TBT induce insulin dysregulation and disturb glucose homeostasis, which may be mediated through the estrogen receptor-regulated and/or oxidative stress-related signaling pathways.

  8. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates (ΣDAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the ΣDAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1 192 RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  9. Pulmonary function abnormalities associated with exposure to automobile exhaust in a diesel bus garage and roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Alam, J; Roychowdhury, A

    2003-01-01

    In Kolkata city the road transports are maintained by private and Government organization. A major work force belonged to the State Transport Corporation (KSTC), Government of West-Bengal. The pollution caused by these vehicles affects the workers health and caused different types of respiratory problems. This study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary function status of these workers. City KSTC garage workers were investigated and categorically divided into two group: garage mechanics and the (2) those transporting the passengers (drivers and conductors). Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were recorded by Spirovit-SP-10 (Schiller Ltd, Switzerland) and Wright's Peak Flow Meter (UK) on 236 workers. The different flow volumes, FEV(1), FEV(1%), and flow rates, FEF(02-121), FEF(25-75%), etc. were calculated. The administrative people had higher PFT than the other categories. Drivers and conductors have almost equal mean PFT values but mechanical workers had slightly higher. PFT values according to different age ranges and duration of exposure showed gradual decrement as age and duration of exposure increased. Non-smokers had higher lung volumes compared to smokers and ex-smokers. Restrictive, obstructive and combined types of impairments were noticed in 28.4%, 1.7% and 2.9%, respectively, workers. The restrictive impairment was found to be 30.4% in conductors; 28.9% in drivers, 27.9% in mechanics and 21.7% in administration people. Obstructive type of impairment was found to be 2.9% in both drivers and conductors. The effect of pollution by dust and fumes may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments, restrictive impairments being greater.

  10. Effects of methylmercury exposure on the immune function of juvenile common loons (Gavia immer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Grasman, K.A.; Hines, R.K.; Meyer, M.W.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.; Spalding, M.G.; Gray, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a dose-response laboratory study to quantify the level of exposure to dietary Hg, delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH3HgCl), that is associated with suppressed immune function in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. We used the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test to assess T-lymphocyte function and the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination test to measure antibody-mediated immunity. The PHA stimulation index among chicks receiving dietary Hg treatment did not differ significantly from those of chicks on the control diet (p = 0.15). Total antibody (immunoglobulin [Ig] M [primary antibody] + IgG [secondary response]) production to the SRBC antigen in chicks treated with dietary methylmercury (MeHg), however, was suppressed (p = 0.04) relative to chicks on control diets. Analysis indicated suppression of total Ig production (p = 0.025 with comparisonwise ?? level = 0.017) between control and 0.4 ??g Hg/g wet food intake treatment groups. Furthermore, the control group exhibited a higher degree of variability in antibody response compared to the Hg groups, suggesting that in addition to reducing the mean response, Hg treatment reduced the normal variation attributable to other biological factors. We observed bursal lymphoid depletion in chicks receiving the 1.2 ??g Hg/g treatment (p = 0.017) and a marginally significant effect (p = 0.025) in chicks receiving the 0.4 ??g Hg/g diet. These findings suggest that common loon chick immune systems may be compromised at an ecologically relevant dietary exposure concentration (0.4 ??g Hg/g wet wt food intake). We also found that chicks hatched from eggs collected from low-pH lakes exhibited higher levels of lymphoid depletion in bursa tissue relative to chicks hatched from eggs collected from neutral-pH lakes. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  11. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  12. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J.

    2000-01-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated dose rate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years reflect the

  13. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J

    2000-07-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated doserate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years

  14. Neonatal thyroid function in Seveso 25 years after maternal exposure to dioxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baccarelli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypothyroidism has been associated in animal models with maternal exposure to several environmental contaminants; however, evidence for such an association in humans is inconsistent. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a persistent and widespread toxic environmental contaminant, is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function in a large, highly exposed population in Seveso, Italy.Between 1994 and 2005, in individuals exposed to TCDD after the 1976 Seveso accident we conducted: (i a residence-based population study on 1,014 children born to the 1,772 women of reproductive age in the most contaminated zones (A, very high contamination; B, high contamination, and 1,772 age-matched women from the surrounding noncontaminated area (reference; (ii a biomarker study on 51 mother-child pairs for whom recent maternal plasma dioxin measurements were available. Neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (b-TSH was measured on all children. We performed crude and multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, birth weight, birth order, maternal age, hospital, and type of delivery. Mean neonatal b-TSH was 0.98 microU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.08 in the reference area (n = 533, 1.35 microU/ml (95% CI 1.22-1.49 in zone B (n = 425, and 1.66 microU/ml (95% CI 1.19-2.31 in zone A (n = 56 (p 5 microU/ml was 2.8% in the reference area, 4.9% in zone B, and 16.1% in zone A (p < 0.001. Neonatal b-TSH was correlated with current maternal plasma TCDD (n = 51, beta = 0.47, p < 0.001 and plasma toxic equivalents of coplanar dioxin-like compounds (n = 51, beta = 0.45, p = 0.005.Our data indicate that environmental contaminants such as dioxins have a long-lasting capability to modify neonatal thyroid function after the initial exposure.

  15. Hypoxia, leukocytes, and the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Davie, Neil J; Reeves, John T; Frid, Maria G

    2005-02-01

    Data are rapidly accumulating in support of the idea that circulating monocytes and/or mononuclear fibrocytes are recruited to the pulmonary circulation of chronically hypoxic animals and that these cells play an important role in the pulmonary hypertensive process. Hypoxic induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, stromal cell-derived factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, endothelin-1, and tumor growth factor-beta(1) in pulmonary vessel wall cells, either directly or indirectly via signals from hypoxic lung epithelial cells, may be a critical first step in the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to the pulmonary circulation. In addition, hypoxic stress appears to induce release of increased numbers of monocytic progenitor cells from the bone marrow, and these cells may have upregulated expression of receptors for the chemokines produced by the lung circulation, which thus facilitates their specific recruitment to the pulmonary site. Once present, macrophages/fibrocytes may exert paracrine effects on resident pulmonary vessel wall cells stimulating proliferation, phenotypic modulation, and migration of resident fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. They may also contribute directly to the remodeling process through increased production of collagen and/or differentiation into myofibroblasts. In addition, they could play a critical role in initiating and/or supporting neovascularization of the pulmonary artery vasa vasorum. The expanded vasa network may then act as a conduit for further delivery of circulating mononuclear cells to the pulmonary arterial wall, creating a feedforward loop of pathological remodeling. Future studies will need to determine the mechanisms that selectively induce leukocyte/fibrocyte recruitment to the lung circulation under hypoxic conditions, their direct role in the remodeling process via production of extracellular matrix and/or differentiation into myofibroblasts, their impact on the phenotype of resident smooth muscle

  16. The spectrum of resistance in SR/CR mice: the critical role of chemoattraction in the cancer/leukocyte interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlinger, Gregory; Adams, Jonathan; Stehle, John R; Blanks, Michael J; Sanders, Anne M; Hicks, Amy M; Willingham, Mark C; Cui, Zheng

    2010-05-03

    Spontaneous regression/complete resistance (SR/CR) mice are a unique colony of mice that possess an inheritable, natural cancer resistance mediated primarily by innate cellular immunity. This resistance is effective against sarcoma 180 (S180) at exceptionally high doses and these mice remain healthy. In this study, we challenged SR/CR mice with additional lethal transplantable mouse cancer cell lines to determine their resistance spectrum. The ability of these transplantable cancer cell lines to induce leukocyte infiltration was quantified and the percentage of different populations of responding immune cells was determined using flow cytometry. In comparison to wild type (WT) mice, SR/CR mice showed significantly higher resistance to all cancer cell lines tested. However, SR/CR mice were more sensitive to MethA sarcoma (MethA), B16 melanoma (B16), LL/2 lung carcinoma (LL/2) and J774 lymphoma (J774) than to sarcoma 180 (S180) and EL-4 lymphoma (EL-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that this lower resistance to MethA and LL/2 was due to the inability of these cancer cells to attract SR/CR leukocytes, leading to tumor cell escape from resistance mechanism. This escape mechanism was overcome by co-injection with S180, which could attract SR/CR leukocytes allowing the mice to resist higher doses of MethA and LL/2. S180-induced cell-free ascites fluid (CFAF) co-injection recapitulated the results obtained with live S180 cells, suggesting that this chemoattraction by cancer cells is mediated by diffusible molecules. We also tested for the first time whether SR/CR mice were able to resist additional cancer cell lines prior to S180 exposure. We found that SR/CR mice had an innate resistance against EL-4 and J774. Our results suggest that the cancer resistance in SR/CR mice is based on at least two separate processes: leukocyte migration/infiltration to the site of cancer cells and recognition of common surface properties on cancer cells. The infiltration of SR

  17. The spectrum of resistance in SR/CR mice: the critical role of chemoattraction in the cancer/leukocyte interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedlinger, Gregory; Adams, Jonathan; Stehle, John R Jr; Blanks, Michael J; Sanders, Anne M; Hicks, Amy M; Willingham, Mark C; Cui, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous regression/complete resistance (SR/CR) mice are a unique colony of mice that possess an inheritable, natural cancer resistance mediated primarily by innate cellular immunity. This resistance is effective against sarcoma 180 (S180) at exceptionally high doses and these mice remain healthy. In this study, we challenged SR/CR mice with additional lethal transplantable mouse cancer cell lines to determine their resistance spectrum. The ability of these transplantable cancer cell lines to induce leukocyte infiltration was quantified and the percentage of different populations of responding immune cells was determined using flow cytometry. In comparison to wild type (WT) mice, SR/CR mice showed significantly higher resistance to all cancer cell lines tested. However, SR/CR mice were more sensitive to MethA sarcoma (MethA), B16 melanoma (B16), LL/2 lung carcinoma (LL/2) and J774 lymphoma (J774) than to sarcoma 180 (S180) and EL-4 lymphoma (EL-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that this lower resistance to MethA and LL/2 was due to the inability of these cancer cells to attract SR/CR leukocytes, leading to tumor cell escape from resistance mechanism. This escape mechanism was overcome by co-injection with S180, which could attract SR/CR leukocytes allowing the mice to resist higher doses of MethA and LL/2. S180-induced cell-free ascites fluid (CFAF) co-injection recapitulated the results obtained with live S180 cells, suggesting that this chemoattraction by cancer cells is mediated by diffusible molecules. We also tested for the first time whether SR/CR mice were able to resist additional cancer cell lines prior to S180 exposure. We found that SR/CR mice had an innate resistance against EL-4 and J774. Our results suggest that the cancer resistance in SR/CR mice is based on at least two separate processes: leukocyte migration/infiltration to the site of cancer cells and recognition of common surface properties on cancer cells. The infiltration of SR

  18. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (n = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by a...

  19. A panel study of airborne particulate matter concentration and impaired cardiopulmonary function in young adults by two different exposure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Bloom, Michael S.; Nelson, Erik J.; Liu, Echu; Han, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yimin; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Komppula, Mika; Leskinen, Ari; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Roponen, Marjut; Jalava, Pasi; Bai, Zhipeng; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to clarify the correlation of individual exposure measurements and PM2.5 measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites in short-term panel study settings. To achieve this goal, 30 young, healthy adult participants were assigned to three groups with 4 samplers in each group to collect individual exposures during four weekends in March 2016. Participants also completed cardiopulmonary function tests during the same periods. For comparison, ambient air pollution data were obtained from the Air Pollution Surveillance Network in Guangzhou, China. The 8-h ambient pollutant averages and group sampler concentrations were used as separate indicators of air pollution exposure. Results showed that the 8-h mean concentration of personal PM2.5 exposure was 65.09 ± 22.18 μg/m3, which was 24.34 μg/m3 statistically higher than the ambient concentrations over the same period (p < 0.05). However, these concentrations were strongly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.937, p < 0.01). Separate mixed-effect models were fit for ambient and personal exposures to estimate their associations with cardiopulmonary outcomes. Higher PM2.5 and PM10 exposures were related to lower lung function of maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). A 10 μg/m3 higher PM was associated with 0.11 L/S to 0.52 L/S lower MMEF. No effects on cardiovascular function were found. In conclusion, personal PM2.5 exposure might be higher than ambient concentrations. Young, healthy adults in urban areas may experience reduced lung function (lower MMEF), even after just 8 h of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10.

  20. Changes in regional brain GFAP levels and behavioral functioning following subchronic lead acetate exposure in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, K.J. van den; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Kulig, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Adult male WAG/Rij/MBL rats were dosed with lead acetate at 0, 4.0, 8.0 or 12.5 mg/kg, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Animals were assessed prior to exposure, at the end of the 4-week exposure period and after a 2-week recovery period using a functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity

  1. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  2. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  3. Terrestrial exposure of oilfield flowline additives diminish soil structural stability and remediative microbial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.J.; Sherbone, J.; Hinz, C.; Tibbett, M.

    2011-01-01

    Onshore oil production pipelines are major installations in the petroleum industry, stretching many thousands of kilometres worldwide which also contain flowline additives. The current study focuses on the effect of the flowline additives on soil physico-chemical and biological properties and quantified the impact using resilience and resistance indices. Our findings are the first to highlight deleterious effect of flowline additives by altering some fundamental soil properties, including a complete loss of structural integrity of the impacted soil and a reduced capacity to degrade hydrocarbons mainly due to: (i) phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) prevented accumulation of scale in pipelines but also disrupted soil physical structure; (ii) glutaraldehyde (in biocides) which repressed microbial activity in the pipeline and reduced hydrocarbon degradation in soil upon environmental exposure; (iii) the combinatory effects of these two chemicals synergistically caused severe soil structural collapse and disruption of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. - Highlights: → Effects of flowline additives on soil structure and microbial function highlighted. → Phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) were found to disrupt soil physical structure. → Glutaraldehyde (in biocides) caused significant reduction of hydrocarbon degradation in soil. → Flowline additive chemicals synergistically affects soil structure and remediative microbial function. - Scale inhibitor and biocide oilfield flowline additives interactively affect soil physical and microbial properties

  4. The effect of noise exposure during the developmental period on the function of the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been growing evidence that development and maturation of the auditory system depends substantially on the afferent activity supplying inputs to the developing centers. In cases when this activity is altered during early ontogeny as a consequence of, e.g., an unnatural acoustic environment or acoustic trauma, the structure and function of the auditory system may be severely affected. Pathological alterations may be found in populations of ribbon synapses of the inner hair cells, in the structure and function of neuronal circuits, or in auditory driven behavioral and psychophysical performance. Three characteristics of the developmental impairment are of key importance: first, they often persist to adulthood, permanently influencing the quality of life of the subject; second, their manifestations are different and sometimes even contradictory to the impairments induced by noise trauma in adulthood; third, they may be 'hidden' and difficult to diagnose by standard audiometric procedures used in clinical practice. This paper reviews the effects of early interventions to the auditory system, in particular, of sound exposure during ontogeny. We summarize the results of recent morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral experiments, discuss the putative mechanisms and hypotheses, and draw possible consequences for human neonatal medicine and noise health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation

  6. Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

  7. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  8. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.

  9. Influence of 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by X-rays in human leukocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijian, Chen; Xiaoxue, Li; Yezhen, Lu; Deqiang, Lu; Shijie, Chen; Lifen, Jin; Jianlin, Lou; Jiliang, He

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro comet assay was used to determine whether 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) can influence DNA repair in human leukocytes exposed to X-rays. The specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg (the current European safety limit) was applied. The leukocytes from four young healthy donors were intermittently exposed to RFR for 24 h (fields on for 5 min, fields off for 10 min), and then irradiated with X-rays at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. DNA damage to human leukocytes was detected using the comet assay at 0, 15, 45, 90, 150 and 240 min after exposure to X-rays. Using the comet assay, the percent of DNA in the tail (% tail DNA) served as the indicator of DNA damage; the DNA repair percentage (DRP) served as the indicator of the DNA repair speed. The results demonstrated that (1) the DNA repair speeds of human leukocytes after X-ray exposure exhibited individual differences among the four donors; (2) the intermittent exposures of 1.8-GHz RFR at the SAR of 2 W/kg for 24 h did not directly induce DNA damage or exhibit synergistic effects with X-rays on human leukocytes.

  10. Electrophoretic detection of protein p53 in human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paponov, V.D.; Kupsik, E.G.; Shcheglova, E.G.; Yarullin, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found an acid-soluble protein with mol. wt. of about 53 kD in peripheral blood leukocytes of persons with Down's syndrome. It was present in different quantities in all 20 patients tested, but was virtually not discovered in 12 healthy blood donors. This paper determines the possible identity of this protein with protein p53 from mouse ascites carcinoma by comparing their electrophoretic mobilities, because the accuracy of electrophoretic determination of the molecular weight of proteins is not sufficient to identify them. The paper also describes experiments to detect a protein with electrophoretic mobility identical with that of a protein in the leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome in leukocytes of patients with leukemia. To discover if protein p53 is involved in cell proliferation, the protein composition of leukocytes from healthy blood donors, cultured in the presence and absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was compared. Increased incorporation of H 3-thymidine by leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome is explained by the presence of a population of immature leukocytes actively synthesizing DNA in the peripheral blood of these patients, and this can also explain the presence of protein p53 in the leukocytes of these patients

  11. Acceptance-based interoceptive exposure for young children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Nancy; Mauro, Christian; Craske, Michelle; Wagner, H Ryan; Datta, Nandini; Hopkins, Hannah; Caldwell, Kristen; Kiridly, Adam; Marsan, Samuel; Maslow, Gary; Mayer, Emeran; Egger, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Cognitive behavioral treatments for FAP target primarily older children (9 + years) and employ strategies to reduce a focus on pain. The experience of pain may be an opportunity to teach viscerally hypersensitive children to interpret the function of a variety of bodily signals (including those of hunger, emotions) thereby reducing fear of bodily sensations and facilitating emotion awareness and self-regulation. We designed and tested an interoceptive exposure treatment for younger children (5-9 years) with FAP. Assessments included diagnostic interviews, 14 days of daily pain monitoring, and questionnaires. Treatment involved 10 weekly appointments. Using cartoon characters to represent bodily sensations (e.g., Gassy Gus), children were trained to be "FBI agents" - Feeling and Body Investigators - who investigated sensations through exercises that provoked somatic experience. 24 parent-child dyads are reported. Pain (experience, distress, and interference) and negative affect demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant change with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 71 for pain and from 0.38 to 0.61 for pain distress, total pain: X 2 (1, n = 24) = 13.14, p < 0.0003. An intervention that helps children adopt a curious stance and focus on somatic symptoms reduces pain and may help lessen somatic fear generally. NCT02075437. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in leukocyte populations of cows with milk fever or displaced abomasum after calving

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Kudo, Katsunori; Tomioka, Michiko; Koiwa, Masateru; Kimura, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    Most of the metabolic diseases of dairy cows occur within the first 2 wk after calving, and cows with a metabolic disease are prone to infectious diseases. Although metabolic diseases are generally recognized as a risk factor for infectious diseases owing to the associated decrease in immune function, the difference in immune status between cows with milk fever (MF) or displaced abomasum (DA) during the lactation period has not been clarified. Therefore, the peripheral blood leukocyte populat...

  13. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide : symptoms, sensory function, and cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, N.; Kipen, H.; Lioy, P.; Zhang, J.; Weisel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum refineries, kraft paper mills, and coke ovens are some of the sources of hydrogen sulfide exposure. In 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended an ambient exposure standard of .003 ppm for odor and .01 ppm for eye irritation. In communities with high exposure levels, health effects have been documented as being headaches, eye and nasal symptoms, coughs, breathlessness and decreased psychomotor performance. Refinery workers in some jurisdictions around the world have been subjected to higher exposure levels. This report presents results of clinical studies on the neurobehavioral effects in rats. The tasks of memory and learning in rats parallels those in humans. A pilot exposure study examined the health effects of controlled exposures to 3 concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (.05, .50, and 5 ppm). It was concluded that changes in neurobehavioral measurements can be directly associated with exposure and dose-response. 25 figs

  14. Genotoxicity of waterpipe smoke in buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amrah, Hadba Jar-Allah; Aboznada, Osama Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; ElAssouli, M-Zaki Mustafa; Mujallid, Mohammad Ibrahim; ElAssouli, Sufian Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe smoke causes DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes and in buccal cells of smokers. To determine the exposure effect of waterpipe smoke on buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes in regard to DNA damage using comet assay. The waterpipe smoke condensates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study was performed on 20 waterpipe smokers. To perform comet assay on bucaal cells of smokers, 10 µl of cell suspension was mixed with 85 µl of pre-warmed 1% low melting agarose, applied to comet slide and electrophoresed. To analyze the effect of smoke condensate in vitro, 1 ml of peripheral blood was mixed with 10 µl of smoke condensate and subjected for comet assay. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4on, nicotine, hydroxymethyl furancarboxaldehyde and 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the smoke condensates. Waterpipe smoking caused DNA damage in vivo in buccal cells of smokers. The tail moment and tail length in buccal cells of smokers were 186 ± 26 and 456 ± 71, respectively, which are higher than control. The jurak and moassel smoke condensates were found to cause DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. The moassel smoke condensate was more damaging. There is wide misconception that waterpipe smoking is not as harmful as cigarette smoking. This study demonstrated that waterpipe smoke induced DNA damage in exposed cells. Waterpipe smokes cause DNA damage in buccal cells. The smoke condensate of both jurak and moassel caused comet formation suggesting DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  15. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances.

  16. Structural and functional localization of airway effects from episodic exposure of infant monkeys to allergen and/or ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joad, Jesse P.; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Plopper, Charles G.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2006-01-01

    Both allergen and ozone exposure increase asthma symptoms and airway responsiveness in children. Little is known about how these inhalants may differentially modify airway responsiveness in large proximal as compared to small distal airways. We evaluated whether bronchi and respiratory bronchioles from infant monkeys exposed episodically to allergen and/or ozone differentially develop intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and whether eosinophils and/or pulmonary neuroendocrine cells play a role. Infant monkeys were exposed episodically for 5 months to: (1) filtered air, (2) aerosolized house dust mite allergen, (3) ozone 0.5 ppm, or (4) house dust mite allergen + ozone. Studying the function/structure relationship of the same lung slices, we evaluated methacholine airway responsiveness and histology of bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, intrinsic responsiveness was increased by allergen exposure, an effect reduced by bombesin antagonist. In respiratory bronchioles, intrinsic airway responsiveness was increased by allergen + ozone exposure. Eosinophils were increased by allergen and allergen + ozone exposure in bronchi and by allergen exposure in respiratory bronchioles. In both airways, exposure to allergen + ozone resulted in fewer tissue eosinophils than did allergen exposure alone. In bronchi, but not in respiratory bronchioles, the number of eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells correlated with airway responsiveness. We conclude that episodically exposing infant monkeys to house dust mite allergen with or without ozone increased intrinsic airway responsiveness to methacholine in bronchi differently than in respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells may play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness

  17. Ergonomics and Beyond: Understanding How Chemical and Heat Exposures and Physical Exertions at Work Affect Functional Ability, Injury, and Long-Term Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Shipp, Eva M; Trueblood, Amber B; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    To honor Tom Waters's work on emerging occupational health issues, we review the literature on physical along with chemical exposures and their impact on functional outcomes. Many occupations present the opportunity for exposure to multiple hazardous exposures, including both physical and chemical factors. However, little is known about how these different factors affect functional ability and injury. The goal of this review is to examine the relationships between these exposures, impairment of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems, functional outcomes, and health problems with a focus on acute injury. Literature was identified using online databases, including PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Google Scholar. References from included articles were searched for additional relevant articles. This review documented the limited existing literature that discussed cognitive impairment and functional disorders via neurotoxicity for physical exposures (heat and repetitive loading) and chemical exposures (pesticides, volatile organic compounds [VOCs], and heavy metals). This review supports that workers are exposed to physical and chemical exposures that are associated with negative health effects, including functional impairment and injury. Innovation in exposure assessment with respect to quantifying the joint exposure to these different exposures is especially needed for developing risk assessment models and, ultimately, preventive measures. Along with physical exposures, chemical exposures need to be considered, alone and in combination, in assessing functional ability and occupationally related injuries. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Probable Effects Of Exposure To Electromagnetic Waves Emitted From Video Display Terminals On Ocular Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing body of evidence that usage of computers can adversely affect the visual health. Considering the rising number of computer users in Egypt, computer-related visual symptoms might take an epidemic form. In view of that, this study was undertaken to find out the magnitude of the visual problems in computer operators and its relationship with various personal and workplace factors. Aim: To evaluate the probable effects of exposure to electromagnetic waves radiated from visual display terminals on some visual functions. Subjects and Methods: hundred fifty computer operators working in different institutes were randomly selected. They were asked to fill a pre-tested questionnaire (written in Arabic), after obtaining their verbal consent. The selected exposed subjects were were subjected to the following clinical assessment: 1-Visual acuity measurements 2-Refraction (using autorefractometer). 3- Measurements of the ocular dryness defects using the following different diagnostic tests: Schirmer test-,Fluorescein staining , Rose Bengal staining, Tear Break Up Time (TBUT) and LIPCOF test (lid parallel conjunctival fold). A control group included hundred fifty participants, they are working in a field does not necessitate exposure to video display terminals. Inclusion criteria of the subjects were as follows: minimum three symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS), minimum one year exposure to (VDT, s) and minimum 6 hs/day in 5working days/week. Exclusion criteria included candidates having ocular pathology like: glaucoma, optic atrophy, diabetic retinopathy, papilledema The following complaints were studied: 1-Tired eyes. 2- Burning eyes with excessive tear production. 3-Dry sore eyes 4-Blurred near vision (letters on the screen run together). 5-Asthenopia. 6-Neck, shoulder and back aches, overall bodily fatigue or tiredness. An interventional protective measure for the selected subjects from the exposed group was administered, it included the following (1

  19. Influence of exposure of pregnant rats to tritiated water (HTO) on swimming function and brain weight of their litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefeng

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the effects of HTO exposure on the development of central nervous system in rats, the influence of exposure of pregnant rat to HTO on the swimming ability of their litters was studies. Experiment was completed in 21 rats and their 237 litters. It was found that exposure of rats to HTO at activity of 0.185 MBq/ml of body water (5 μCi/ml) or 0.740 MBq/ml (20 μCi/ml), begining on the 8th day of gestation, may retard the development of swimming ability in young litters (up to 18 day of life). These findings indicate that exposure to HTO at lower doses (0.20-1.85 Gy) may resut in a retardation of the function of the development of central nervous system in rats

  20. Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-feng XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

  1. Prevention of alloimmunization by ultraviolet-B irradiation. Inactivation of leukocytes and the generation of active oxygen and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsuneo; Mogi, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi; Akasaka, Junichi; Kamo, Naoki; Kuwabara, Mikinori.

    1994-01-01

    UV-B irradiation of platelet concentrates (PC) has been tried in several institutes to inactivate leukocytes in PC and prevent alloimmunization on platelet transfusion. However, the mechanism of inactivation of leukocytes contaminating PC has not been fully understood. It is known that UV-B light is absorbed by photosensitizers in cells and produces active oxygen and radicals, such as singlet oxygen, superioxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. These active oxygen or radicals should injure cellular components and this could cause the suppression of cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the relationships among UV-B irradiation, free radical generation and leukocyte inactivation. We found the evidence that active oxygen and radicals were produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation suppressed the stimulatory function of leukocytes in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and the suppression depended on the dosage of UV-B. Even a low dosage of UV-B, 10 J/m 2 , could inhibit the MLR if the irradiated cells were incubated at 37degC for 24 hours before co-culture with responder cells. Treatments of cells with the exogenous singlet oxygen or superoxide anions also caused suppression of the stimulatory function in the MLR, inhibition of capping formation of HLA-DR antigens, and an increase of intracellular free Ca 2+ levels as did the UV-B treatment. These results indicate that the active oxygen or radicals generated in UV-B-irradiated leukocytes could be one of the causes of leukocyte inactivation. (author0

  2. The decline in kidney function with chromium exposure is exacerbated with co-exposure to lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chung, Yu-Teh; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Wu, Trong-Neng; Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-09-01

    Environmental factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. However, these factors, and particularly the toxic effects of heavy metals, have not been completely evaluated. Chromium is a widespread industrial contaminant that has been linked to nephrotoxicity in animal and occupational population studies. Nevertheless, its role in population renal health and its potential interactions with other nephrotoxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, remain unknown. We assessed the association between exposure to chromium, lead, and cadmium with renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in an analysis of 360 Taiwanese adults aged 19-84 years from the National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2005-2008). Doubling of urinary chromium or lead decreased the eGFR by -5.99 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (95% confidence interval -9.70, -2.27) and -6.61 (-9.71, -3.51), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, cigarette smoking, sodium intake, education, urinary volume, and other metals. For those in the highest tertile of cadmium exposure, the eGFR decreased by -12.68 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (95% confidence interval -20.44, -4.93) and -11.22 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (-17.01, -5.44), as urinary chromium or lead levels doubled, respectively. Thus, there is a significant and independent association between chromium exposure and decreased renal function. Furthermore, co-exposure to chromium with lead and cadmium is potentially associated with additional decline in the glomerular filtration rate in Taiwanese adults. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mendelian randomization analysis of a time-varying exposure for binary disease outcomes using functional data analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Rajan, Suja S; Wei, Peng

    2016-12-01

    A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is performed to analyze the causal effect of an exposure variable on a disease outcome in observational studies, by using genetic variants that affect the disease outcome only through the exposure variable. This method has recently gained popularity among epidemiologists given the success of genetic association studies. Many exposure variables of interest in epidemiological studies are time varying, for example, body mass index (BMI). Although longitudinal data have been collected in many cohort studies, current MR studies only use one measurement of a time-varying exposure variable, which cannot adequately capture the long-term time-varying information. We propose using the functional principal component analysis method to recover the underlying individual trajectory of the time-varying exposure from the sparsely and irregularly observed longitudinal data, and then conduct MR analysis using the recovered curves. We further propose two MR analysis methods. The first assumes a cumulative effect of the time-varying exposure variable on the disease risk, while the second assumes a time-varying genetic effect and employs functional regression models. We focus on statistical testing for a causal effect. Our simulation studies mimicking the real data show that the proposed functional data analysis based methods incorporating longitudinal data have substantial power gains compared to standard MR analysis using only one measurement. We used the Framingham Heart Study data to demonstrate the promising performance of the new methods as well as inconsistent results produced by the standard MR analysis that relies on a single measurement of the exposure at some arbitrary time point. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Functional Impact of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Exposure on Tau Phosphorylation and Axon Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Le

    Full Text Available Stress exposure or increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF induce hippocampal tau phosphorylation (tau-P in rodent models, a process that is dependent on the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1. Although these preclinical studies on stress-induced tau-P provide mechanistic insight for epidemiological work that identifies stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, the actual impact of stress-induced tau-P on neuronal function remains unclear. To determine the functional consequences of stress-induced tau-P, we developed a novel mouse neuronal cell culture system to explore the impact of acute (0.5hr and chronic (2hr CRF treatment on tau-P and integral cell processes such as axon transport. Consistent with in vivo reports, we found that chronic CRF treatment increased tau-P levels and caused globular accumulations of phosphorylated tau in dendritic and axonal processes. Furthermore, while both acute and chronic CRF treatment led to significant reduction in CREB activation and axon transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, this was not the case with mitochondrial transport. Acute CRF treatment caused increased mitochondrial velocity and distance traveled in neurons, while chronic CRF treatment modestly decreased mitochondrial velocity and greatly increased distance traveled. These results suggest that transport of cellular energetics may take priority over growth factors during stress. Tau-P was required for these changes, as co-treatment of CRF with a GSK kinase inhibitor prevented CRF-induced tau-P and all axon transport changes. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insight into the consequences of stress peptide-induced tau-P and provide an explanation for how chronic stress via CRF may lead to neuronal vulnerability in AD.

  5. Negotiating a new day: parents' contributions to supporting students' school functioning after exposure to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eline Grelland Røkholt,1 Jon-Håkon Schultz,2,3 Åse Langballe2 1Department of Allied Health, Bereavement Support Center, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, 3Department of Education, University of Tromsø, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Abstract: Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social support and restore the supportive structure of everyday life. This study explores parents' experiences of supporting adolescents in regaining school functioning after the July 2011 massacre at Utøya summer camp in Norway. One year after the attack, 87 parents of 63 young people who survived the massacre were interviewed using qualitative interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. All parents were actively supportive of their children, and described a demanding process of establishing new routines to make school attendance possible. Most parents described radical changes in their adolescents. The struggle of establishing routines often brought conflict and frustration into the parent–adolescent relationship. Parents were given general advice, but reported being left alone to translate this into action. The first school year after the trauma was described as a frustrating and lonely struggle: their adolescents were largely unable to restore normal daily life and school functioning. In 20% of the cases, school–home relationships were strained and were reported as a burden because of poor understanding of needs and insufficient educational adaptive measures; a further 20% reported conflict in school–home relationships, while 50% were either positive or neutral. The last 10%, enrolled in apprenticeship, dropped out, or started working, instead of finishing school. Implications for supporting parents with traumatized adolescent students are indicated. Keywords

  6. Executive function in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (12-15years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnes, Sonia; Min, Meeyoung O; Short, Elizabeth J; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine (PCE) may alter areas of the brain dense with monoamine receptors such as the prefrontal cortex and negatively affect cognitive processes implicated in executive function (EF). This study investigated the effects of PCE on EF at 12 and 15years. EF was examined in 189 PCE and 183 non-cocaine exposed (NCE) children who were primarily African American and of low socioeconomic status. Caregivers rated their child on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) at ages 12 and 15. The BRIEF includes two summary scales and eight subscales: Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) (Inhibit, Shift, and Emotion) and Metacognition Index (MI) (Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials and Task Completion). Two additional measures were included at age 15 (BRIEF Self-Report and the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge (SOC)). Girls with PCE were perceived by caregivers to have more behavioral regulation problems at age 12 (p<0.005) and more metacognitive problems at age 12 (p<0.003) than NCE females, but there was no association for males. PCE girls improved in behavioral regulation (p<0.05) and metacognition (p<0.04) from 12 to 15years compared to NCE girls based on caregiver report. By self-report PCE was associated with problems of inhibition (p<0.006). Girls with PCE performed more poorly on number of moves to complete the SOC, requiring planning and problem solving, than NCE girls. Prenatally cocaine exposed girls were perceived by caregivers as having problems of behavioral regulation, and by self-report, inhibitory control problems. Girls with PCE also performed more poorly on a task of planning and problem solving at age 15 which corresponded to caregiver report at age 12. Early assessment and remediation of these weaknesses in girls may improve school performance and behavior associated with poor EF. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  8. Pulmonary Function and Incidence of Selected Respiratory Diseases Depending on the Exposure to Ambient PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Badyda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential in pulmonary disease research to take into account traffic-related air pollutant exposure among urban inhabitants. In our study, 4985 people were examined for spirometric parameters in the presented research which was conducted in the years 2008–2012. The research group was divided into urban and rural residents. Traffic density, traffic structure and velocity, as well as concentrations of selected air pollutants (CO, NO2 and PM10 were measured at selected areas. Among people who live in the city, lower percentages of predicted values of spirometric parameters were noticed in comparison to residents of rural areas. Taking into account that the difference in the five-year mean concentration of PM10 in the considered city and rural areas was over 17 μg/m3, each increase of PM10 by 10 μg/m3 is associated with the decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration by 1.68%. These findings demonstrate that traffic-related air pollutants may have a significant influence on the decline of pulmonary function and the growing rate of respiratory diseases.

  9. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2 facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (O2*1 is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism.

  11. Technique of leukocyte harvesting and labeling: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.; Gagne, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mixed leukocyte suspensions obtained after gravity sedimentation of red cells and labeled with 111 In lipophilic chelates are now widely used clinically for abscess localization at many medical centers. So far, labeling with 111 In-oxine or tropolone has been more successful than any 99 mTc method. More sophisticated approaches are available for isolation and labeling of specific leukocyte cell types, to study their migration in vivo. The most significant advances in cell harvesting include newer density gradients for isopyknic centrifugation, centrifugal elutriation, and flow cytometry. Unlike current radioactive agents which label many cell types indiscriminately, more selective ligands are being developed which bind to specific cell surface receptors. These will label certain leukocyte populations or subtypes while not reacting with others, thereby avoiding laborious separation techniques. Monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte cell-surface antigens appear particularly promising as agents for selective cell labeling

  12. Influence of glucose on the leukocyte response in women athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of glucose on the leukocyte response in women athletes during ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... Total WBC counts were raised at all stages in all three trials when compared with ...

  13. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    1999-01-01

    to the central nervous system.1 Several studies have reported an association between oxytocic drugs and neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia,2 which might influence long term cognitive function.3 Little is known, however, of the long term consequences of exposure to uterotonic drugs. We investigated whether in utero...

  14. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  15. Long-term exposure to anticholinergic and sedative drugs and cognitive and physical function in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.; Hilmer, S.; Gnjidic, D.; Van Campen, J.; Teichert, M.; Van Der Meer, H.; Schaap, L.; Huisman, M.; Denig, P.; Lamoth, C.; Taxis, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anticholinergic and sedative drugs from various therapeutic classes are frequently prescribed to older people. These drugs are known to impair cognitive and physical function in the short-term. However, long-term exposure to these drugs remains less examined. Methods: Data from the

  16. Genes and pathways underlying susceptibility to impaired lung function in the context of environmental tobacco smoke exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Jong (Kim); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Imboden (Medea); L. Lahousse (Lies); A. Hofman (Albert); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); N.M. Probst-Hensch (Nicole M.); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); H.M. Boezen (Marike)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies aiming to assess genetic susceptibility for impaired lung function levels upon exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have thus far focused on candidate-genes selected based on a-priori knowledge of potentially relevant biological pathways, such as glutathione

  17. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of Heart Function During Exposure to Subacute Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, Petra; Finderle, Zarko; Schlegel, Todd T.; Princi, Tanja; Starc, Vito

    2010-01-01

    High altitude climbing presents a wide spectrum of health risks, including exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Risks are also typically exacerbated by the difficulty in appropriately monitoring for early signs of organ dysfunction in remote areas. We investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool (e.g., instead of Doppler echocardiography) for evaluating early signs of heart overload in hypobaric hypoxia. Nine non-acclimatized healthy trained alpine rescuers (age 43.7 plus or minus 7.3 years) climbed in four days to the altitude of 4,200 m on Mount Ararat. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position on different days but at the same time of day at four different altitudes: 400 m (reference altitude), 1,700 m, 3,200 m and 4,200 m. Changes in conventional and advanced resting ECG parameters, including in beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG was estimated by calculation of the regression coefficients in independent linear regression models. A p-value of less than 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with trends k = -96 ms/1000 m with p = 0.000 and k = -9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.001, respectively. Significant changes were found in P-wave amplitude, which nearly doubled from the lowest to the highest altitude (k = 41.6 microvolt/1000 m with p = 0.000), and nearly significant changes in P-wave duration (k = 2.9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.059). Changes were less significant or non-significant in other studied parameters including those of waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG. High resolution ECG analysis, particularly of the P wave, shows promise as a tool for monitoring early changes in heart function

  18. Roles of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor amniotic membrane in oral wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Munadziroh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI is serine protease inhibitor. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor is a protein found in secretions such as whole saliva, seminal fluid, cervical mucus, synovial fluid, breast milk, tears, and cerebral spinal fluid, as in secretions from the nose and bronchi, amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane etc. These findings demonstrate that SLPI function as a potent anti protease, anti inflammatory, bactericidal, antifungal, tissue repair, extra cellular synthesis. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and often bacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in the process. The objectives of this article are to investigate the role of SLPI in oral inflammation and how it contributes to tissue repair in oral mucosa. The oral wound healing responses are impaired in the SLPI sufficient mice and matrix synthesis and collagen deposition are delayed. This study indicated that SLPI is a povital factor necessary for optimal wound healing.

  19. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Katherine S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functional impacts of air pollutants. This study systematically presents current data on the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation on lung function outcomes associated with air pollutant exposures in intact humans. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management and TOXNET were systematically searched for all studies published up to April 2009. Search terms relating to the concepts of respiratory tract diseases, respiratory function tests, air pollution, and antioxidants were used. Data was systematically abstracted from original articles that satisfied selection criteria for inclusion. For inclusion, the studies needed to have evaluated human subjects, given supplemental antioxidants, under conditions of known levels of air pollutants with measured lung function before and after antioxidant administration and/or air pollution exposure. Selected studies were summarized and conclusions presented. Results Eight studies investigated the role of antioxidant supplementation on measured lung function outcomes after subject exposure to air pollutants under controlled conditions; 5 of these studies concluded that pollutant-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diminution in lung function measurements were attenuated by antioxidant supplementation. The remaining five studies took place under ambient (uncontrolled exposures and unanimously concluded that antioxidant

  20. Immunotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the Leukocytes of Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ta; Chang, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Lo, Chieh; Wang, Lei-Ya; Pang, Victor Fei; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2018-04-04

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used and are considered as an emerging contaminant in the ocean. The environmental contamination of AgNPs is expected to increase greatly over time, and cetaceans, as the top ocean predators, will suffer the negative impacts of AgNPs. In the present study, we investigate the immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans using several methods, including cytomorphology, cytotoxicity, and functional activity assays. The results reveal that 20 nm Citrate-AgNPs (C-AgNP 20 ) induce different cytomorphological alterations and intracellular distributions in cetacean polymorphonuclear cells (cPMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cPBMCs). At high concentrations of C-AgNP 20 (10 and 50 μg/ml), the time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cPMNs and cPBMCs involving apoptosis is demonstrated. C-AgNP 20 at sub-lethal doses (0.1 and 1 μg/ml) negatively affect the functional activities of cPMNs (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and cPBMCs (proliferative activity). The current study presents the first evidence of the cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans and improves our understanding of environmental safety concerning AgNPs. The dose-response data of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans are invaluable for evaluating the adverse health effects in cetaceans and for proposing a conservation plan for marine mammals.

  1. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and male reproductive function in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    of environmental exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-153 on reproductive hormones and semen quality, including markers of DNA damage and apoptosis, in 299 spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Adjusted linear regression models indicated no strong associations between BDE-47 or BDE-153 exposure...

  2. Time characteristics of distortion product otoacoustic emissions recovery function after moderate sound exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to sound of moderate level temporarily attenuates the amplitude of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). These changes are similar to the changes observed in absolute hearing thresholds after similar sound exposures. To be able to assess changes over time across a broad...

  3. Dissociating mere exposure and repetition priming as a function of word type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Laurie T; Berry, Dianne C; Helman, Shaun

    2004-07-01

    The mere exposure effect is defined as enhanced attitude toward a stimulus that has been repeatedly exposed. Repetition priming is defined as facilitated processing of a previously exposed stimulus. We conducted a direct comparison between the two phenomena to test the assumption that the mere exposure effect represents an example of repetition priming. In two experiments, having studied a set of words or nonwords, participants were given a repetition priming task (perceptual identification) or one of two mere exposure (affective liking or preference judgment) tasks. Repetition priming was obtained for both words and nonwords, but only nonwords produced a mere exposure effect. This demonstrates a key boundary for observing the mere exposure effect, one not readily accommodated by a perceptual representation systems (Tulving & Schacter, 1990) account, which assumes that both phenomena should show some sensitivity to nonwords and words.

  4. Heavy Chronic Ethanol Exposure From Adolescence to Adulthood Induces Cerebellar Neuronal Loss and Motor Function Damage in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. R. da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, heavy ethanol consumption by teenagers/younger adults has increased considerably among females. However, few studies have addressed the long-term impact on brain structures’ morphology and function of chronic exposure to high ethanol doses from adolescence to adulthood in females. In line with this idea, in the current study we investigated whether heavy chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence to adulthood may induce motor impairments and morphological and cellular alterations in the cerebellum of female rats. Adolescent female Wistar rats (35 days old were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v during 55 days by gavage. At 90 days of age, motor function of animals was assessed using open field (OF, pole, beam walking and rotarod tests. Following completion of behavioral tests, morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of the cerebellum were performed. Chronic ethanol exposure impaired significantly motor performance of female rats, inducing spontaneous locomotor activity deficits, bradykinesia, incoordination and motor learning disruption. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that ethanol exposure induced atrophy and neuronal loss in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that heavy ethanol exposure during adolescence is associated with long-lasting cerebellar degeneration and motor impairments in female rats.

  5. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  6. Blast Exposure, White Matter Integrity, and Cognitive Function in Iraq and Afghanistan Combat Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Hazlett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM fractional anisotropy (FA in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40 scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis. Blast exposure was associated with decreased FA in several WM tracts. However, total blast exposure did not correlate well with neuropsychological testing performance and there were no differences in FA based on mTBI diagnosis. Yet, veterans with mTBI performed worse on every neurocognitive test administered. Multiple linear regression across all blast-exposed veterans using a six-factor prediction model indicated that the amount of blast exposure accounted for 11–15% of the variability in composite FA scores such that as blast exposure increased, FA decreased. Education accounted for 10% of the variability in composite FA scores and 25–32% of FA variability in the right cingulum, such that as level of education increased, FA increased. Total blast exposure, age, and education were significant predictors of FA in the left cingulum. We did not find any effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on cognition or composite FA. In summary, our findings suggest that greater total blast exposure is a contributing factor to poor WM integrity. While FA was not associated with neurocognitive performance, we hypothesize that FA changes in the cingulum in veterans with multiple combat exposures and no head trauma prior to deployment may represent a marker of vulnerability for future deficits. Future work needs to examine this longitudinally.

  7. Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic in drinking water: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphiné, David C; Ferreccio, Catterina; Guntur, Sandeep; Yuan, Yan; Hammond, S Katharine; Balmes, John; Smith, Allan H; Steinmaus, Craig

    2011-08-01

    Evidence suggests that arsenic in drinking water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city of Antofagasta (population 257,976) in northern Chile had high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water (>800 μg/l) from 1958 until 1970, when a new treatment plant was installed. This scenario, with its large population, distinct period of high exposure, and accurate data on past exposure, is virtually unprecedented in environmental epidemiology. We conducted a pilot study on early-life arsenic exposure and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects observed. We recruited a convenience sample consisting primarily of nursing school employees in Antofagasta and Arica, a city with low drinking water arsenic. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in 32 adults exposed to >800 μg/l arsenic before age 10 were compared to 65 adults without high early-life exposure. Early-life arsenic exposure was associated with 11.5% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (P = 0.04), 12.2% lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (P = 0.04), and increased breathlessness (prevalence odds ratio = 5.94, 95% confidence interval 1.36-26.0). Exposure-response relationships between early-life arsenic concentration and adult FEV(1) and FVC were also identified (P trend = 0.03). Early-life exposure to arsenic in drinking water may have irreversible respiratory effects of a magnitude similar to smoking throughout adulthood. Given the small study size and non-random recruitment methods, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure, sex, and relapse in the human laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Thomas; Radoncic, Vanya; Hien, Denise; Bedi, Gillinder; Haney, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Stress responding is linked to drug use, but little is known about stress responses in cannabis smokers. We investigated acute stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure and sex, and relationships between stress responses and cannabis relapse. 125 healthy, non-treatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers (23F, 102 M) completed the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), a standardized laboratory stressor; subsets also completed a trauma questionnaire (n = 106) and a laboratory cannabis relapse measure (n = 54). Stress responding was assessed with heart rate (HR), salivary cortisol (CORT), and self-rated mood. Cannabis smokers reporting at least one trauma exposure had higher CORT and anxiety overall compared to those reporting no trauma. Stress responding did not differ as a function of binary trauma exposure, although total number of exposures correlated positively with CORT and anxiety during stress. Females reported increased nervousness after stress relative to males matched to the females for cannabis and cigarette use. An interactive effect of sex and trauma on HR suggested that females with trauma exposure have increased cardiovascular stress responding relative to those without such exposure, with no differential effect in males. Stress responding did not predict laboratory cannabis relapse. We report differences in acute stress responding as a function of trauma, sex, and their interaction in a large sample of relatively homogenous cannabis smokers. Further investigation of how trauma impacts stress responding in male and female cannabis smokers, and how this relates to different aspects of cannabis use, is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of hepatitis B virus S protein exposure on sperm membrane integrity and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangJin Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. Viral infection can affect a man's fertility, but only scant information about the influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection on sperm quality is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus S protein (HBs on human sperm membrane integrity and functions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation (LP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and phosphatidylserine (PS externalization were determined. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays and flow cytometric analyses were performed. (1 After 3 h incubation with 25 µg/ml of HBs, the average rates of ROS positive cells, annexin V-positive/propidium iodide (PI-negative cells, Caspases-3,-8,-9 positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased in the test groups as compared to those in the control groups, while TAC level was decreased when compared with the control. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA in the sperm cells exposed to 50 µg/ml of HBs for 3 h was significantly higher than that in the control (P<0.05-0.01. (2 HBs increased the MDA levels and the numbers of ROS positive cells, annexin V-positive/PI-negative cells, caspases-3, -8, -9 positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. (3 HBs monoclonal antibody (MAb and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC reduced the number of ROS-positive sperm cells. (4 HBs decreased the TAC levels in sperm cells in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: HBs exposure could lead to ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, TAC reduction, PS externalization, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation, resulting in increased apoptosis of sperm cells and loss of sperm membrane integrity and causing sperm dysfunctions.

  10. Blue light Exposure And Long-Term Deficits In Visual Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. M.

    1980-10-01

    During the last 6 months of 1976, the fovea of two trained rhesus monkeys were exposed to a 10 nm bandwidth source, centered at 441 nm, at energy levels representing up to three times that required in the paramacula to cause minimal, ophthalmoscopically visible lesions to appear 48 hours postexposure (30 J/cm2 to 90 J/cm2, 1000 sec). After the acute period, a visual decrement lasting beyond 30 days postexposure occurred only for the 90 J/cm2, 1000 second fovea' exposure; the statistically significant criteria for recognition of the 20/20 (1.0 min of arc) Landolt ring target was not met, although the criteria for the 20/30 (1.5 min of arc) target was continuously met after 33 days of recovery. The animals are still regularly tested in the original protocol for visual acuity, and additionally have been examined for spectral sensitivity and changes in reaction time to the visual stimulus. During the last 6 months of 1979, only the eye originally exposed at the 90 J/cm2 level failed at any test session to meet the recognition criteria for 1.0 min targets, and all eyes met the criteria for 1.5 min targets at every session. This indicates no long-term changes in the visual acuity, ruling out physiologic repair mechanisms operating beyond the first 30 to 60 days postexposure, or long term degenerative changes accumulating after the initial recovery period. Additionally, the spectral sensitivity of the subject exposed to higher levels shows a mild red but no blue deficit for 20/50 (2.5 min) targets compared to the CIE photopic function. At 1.5 min however, the spectral sensitivity would seem to be better fit by a single photopigment curve, centered at 535 nm.

  11. [Exposure to toxic dose of adrenaline on the functional state of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, S V; Vlasova, K M; Anashkina, A A

    2017-01-01

    The blood biochemical parameters characterizing the functional state of the liver, and the morphological profile of the body after a single exposure to a toxic dose of adrenaline were studied. Studies were conducted on 60 adult rats (female) weighing 0.15-0.2 kg, were divided into groups: intact animals; experience - animals, injected with epinephrine hydrochloride intraperitoneally in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg. All kinds of Biological material (blood, liver) were collected out through one and ten days after the start of the experiment. The degree of influence of high doses of epinephrine were evaluated in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein (PSP) in liver homogenates, the concentration of average weight molecules (MSM), the activity of ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, total protein concentration, glucose and lactate in the blood plasma, as well as the determination of the prothrombin time (PTT) with the counting on the basis thereof of international normalized ration (INR). Histology of the liver was studied by light microscopy. It was found that throughout the experiment, there was an increased in the concentration of lipid peroxidation products and protein in liver homogenates, there was an increase in the concentration of MSM 1.7. Twenty-four hours after the administration of a toxic dose of adrenaline observed hyperenzymemia that manifested an increase in the activity of ALT and AST, was an increase in LDH. After 10-day five after the start of the experiment established the presence hyperenzymemia activity decreased ALT and AST, LDH activity remained elevated, total protein level was higher than in the group of animal in which investigations were conducted one day after the start of the experiment, PTV also continued to decline. In histological sections of the development of a pathological condition characterized by circulatory disturbance - plasmatization, both in central and in small vessels. From the hepatocytes both in the center and the periphery

  12. Exposure to occupational dust and changes in pulmonary function among cobblestone paving workers of Jimma, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkidan Abate Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic diseases of "dusty" occupations may be on decline, but they are not yet extinct. Studies have found associations between changes in ambient particulate air pollution and increased cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional comparative study design was employed on 127 male nonsmoker cobblestone paving workers and 194 matched employed office workers as a reference in order to assess changes in pulmonary function related to dust exposure among cobblestone road paving workers of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and spirometric measurements after ethical clearance was obtained. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-tests to examine the differences between the groups. P-values equal or less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant; odds were calculated at a 95% confidence interval. Cobblestone road paving workers had significantly higher odds of respiratory symptoms, dry cough (p < 0.05, cough (p < 0.01 and sore throat (p< 0.001 compared to the reference. The FEV1 for workers exposed to cobblestone road paving workers ranged between 3.12 - 4.73 L, with a mean of 3.96 ± 0.6 L, significantly lower than the reference groups who had a range of 3.3 - 4.78 L and a mean of 4.01 ± 0.6 L (p < 0.05. The mean value of the ratio of FEV1/FVC was significantly decreased in the cobblestone road paving workers compared to the controls (87.2 (SD 4.3 v 89.5 (SD 5.4, p = 0.01. In conclusion, the study revealed clear evidence of the need for health education and for the promotion of activities directed towards mitigating respiratory hazards in order to foster a safe and healthy work environment.

  13. Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalb, G.; Beyers, A.D.; Anderson, R.; Nel, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and greater the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug benoxaprofen caused dose-related activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. To identify the molecular mechanism of the prooxidative activity of benoxaprofen, the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on the activity of purified protein kinase C in a cell-free system were investigated. Benoxaprofen caused a dose-related activation of protein kinase C by interaction with the binding site for the physiological activator phosphatidylserine, but could not replace diacylglycerol. When autologous mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were cocultured with PMNL and benoxaprofen in combination, but not individually, the frequency of DNA strand breaks in MNL was markedly increased. UV radiation significantly potentiated damage to DNA mediated by benoxaprofen and PMNL. Inclusion of superoxide dismutase, H-7, and, to a much lesser extent, catalase during exposure of MNL to benoxaprofen-activated PMNL prevented oxidant damage to DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that potentially carcinogenic prooxidative interactions, which are unlikely to be detected by conventional assays of mutagenicity, may occur between phagocytes, UV radiation, and certain pharmacological agents

  14. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  15. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes

  16. Man-rem exposure--a forcing function in remote maintenance of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erion, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the need for remote tooling systems in order to comply with the proposed NRC strategies relative to occupational radiation exposure (ORE) during maintenance outages. In addition to developing tooling to help or remove man from a radiation environment, present efforts to make that environment a less hostile one in the future are underway. A program to decontaminate the channelhead is underway. The obvious benefit of reducing the radiation source strength, and therefore man-rem exposure, has been indicated. Specialized tooling for local decontamination purposes, development of an advanced computer-controlled manipulator, and comprehensive personnel training programs can all reduce downtime and personnel exposures

  17. Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking. PMID:7138793

  18. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  19. Diaphragmatic Breathing during Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Aviophobia: Functional Coping Strategy or Avoidance Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlbauer, Andreas; Shiban, Youssef; Diemer, Julia Elisabeth; Müller, Jana; Brütting-Schick, Johanna; Pauli, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Although there is solid evidence for the efficacy of in vivo and virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy for a specific phobia, there is a significant debate over whether techniques promoting distraction or relaxation have impairing or enhancing effects on treatment outcome. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of diaphragmatic breathing (DB) as a relaxation technique during VR exposure treatment. Method Twenty-nine patients with aviophobia were randomly a...

  20. The Biology of Bioavailability: The Role of Functional Ecology in Exposure Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    88. Comparison of 137Cs (black line) and luminophore ( grey line) profiles. The blue dotted line indicates the position of sediment- water interface... treatments in the exposure system. The entire system was allowed seven days for equilibration of the GAC treatment with sediment pore water and the...importance of water column exposure in all three sediment treatments . This finding further confirms conclusions in Section 13. The ERDC/EL TR-17-2 144 GAC

  1. Exposure-in-vivo containing interventions to improve work functioning of workers with anxiety disorder: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuijsen Karen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety disorders are associated with functional disability, sickness absence, and decreased productivity. Effective treatments of anxiety disorders can result in remission of symptoms. However the effects on work related outcomes are largely unknown. Exposure in vivo is potentially well fit to improve work-related outcomes. This study systematically reviews the effectiveness of exposure-in-vivo containing interventions in reducing work-related adverse outcomes in workers with anxiety disorders. Methods A systematic study search was conducted in Medline, Cinahl, Embase and Psycinfo. Two reviewers independently extracted data and from each study assessed the quality of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We performed a meta-analysis if data showed sufficient clinical homogeneity. Results Seven studies containing 11 exposure-in-vivo interventions were included. Four studies were focused on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, two on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, and one on a mixed group of OCD and severe phobias. The studies were grouped according to type of anxiety disorder and subsequently according to type of comparisons. For OCD, exposure-in-vivo containing interventions can yield better work-related outcomes compared to medication (SSRIs and relaxation but not better compared to response prevention. The results on anxiety outcomes were similar. The net contribution of exposure in vivo in two OCD intervention programs is also presented as a meta-analysis and shows significant positive results on work role limitations. The calculated pooled effect size with 95% confidence interval was 0.72 (0.28, 1.15. For PTSD, exposure-in-vivo containing interventions can yield better work-related and anxiety-related outcomes compared to a waiting-list but not better compared to imaginal exposure. Conclusions Exposure in vivo as part of an anxiety treatment can reduce work-related adverse outcomes in workers with OCD and PTSD

  2. Occupational and environmental lead exposure in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: analysis of its association with renal function indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasia, D D; Emem-Chioma, P C; Wokoma, F S

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the high risk of lead exposure in Nigeria, there is a paucity of data on the occupational and environmental burden of lead exposure and its impact on human health especially its nephrotoxic effects. This study aims to assess the degree of occupational and environmental lead exposure in Port Harcourt Nigeria and the relationship between lead exposure and indices of renal function. A cross sectional comparative study of 190 aduIt subjects with occupational lead exposure and 80 matched controls. Blood lead was used as the biomarker of lead exposure. Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, urine albumin and glomerular filtration rate were the renal function indices measured. Occupationally lead exposed subjects had higher mean blood lead 50.37 +/- 24.58 ug/dI, than controls 41.40 +/- 26.85 ug/dl (p = 0.008). The mean values of serum urea, creatinine and uric acid were significantly higher in study subjects compared to controls 3.06 +/- 0.81 mmol/L vs. 2.7 +/- 0.84 mmol/L (p = 0.002), 87.2 +/- 14.30 umol/L vs. 80.68 +/- 14.70 umol/L (p = 0.001) and 271.93 +/- 71.18 umol/L vs. 231.1 +/- 62.70 umol/L (p = 0.000) respectively. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in subjects compared to controls 98.86 +/- 21.26 mI/min/1.72m2 vs. 108.18 +/- 25.16 mI/min/1.72m2 (p = 0.002). Blood lead correlated positively only with blood urea [r = .031, r2 = .017, p = .031] and negatively [r = -.144, r2 = .02 1, p = .018] with serum phosphate. The level of environmental and occupational lead exposure in Port Harcourt, Nigeria is high, with occupational lead exposure increasing the risk of lead toxicity and renal function impairment.

  3. Insulin radioreceptor assay on murine splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, F.; Kahn, R.

    1982-01-01

    Insulin radioreceptor assays were developed using splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes from individual mice. Splenic leukocytes were prepared using an NH 4 Cl buffer which did not alter insulin binding, but gave much higher yields than density gradient methods. Mouse erythrocytes were isolated from heparinized blood by three passages over a Boyum gradient, and a similar buffer was used to separate cells from free [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at the end of the binding incubation. Insulin binding to both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes had typical pH, temperature, and time dependencies, and increased linearly with an increased number of cells. Optimal conditions for the splenic leukocytes (6 x 10 7 /ml) consisted of incubation with [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.0. In cells from 20 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 2.6 +/- 0.1% (SEM), and nonspecific binding was 0.3 +/- 0.04% (10.6% of total binding). Erythrocytes (2.8 x 10 9 /ml) were incubated with [ 125 ]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.2. In cells from 25 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 4.5 +/- 0.2%, and nonspecific binding was 0.7 +/- 0.03% (13.6% of total binding). In both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes, analysis of equilibrium binding data produced curvilinear Scatchard plots with approximately 3500 binding sites/leukocyte and 20 binding sites/erythrocyte. These data demonstrate that adequate numbers of splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes can be obtained from individual mice to study insulin binding in a precise and reproducible manner

  4. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2017-09-08

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way to explore their contribution to a particular cellular phenotype in a given disease context. Cell-penetrating peptides can be synthetically constrained through various chemical modifications that stabilize a given structural fold with the potential to improve competitive binding to specific targets. Theileria-transformed leukocytes display high PKA activity, but PKAis an enzyme that plays key roles in multiple cellular processes; consequently genetic ablation of kinase activity gives rise to a myriad of confounding phenotypes. By contrast, ablation of a specific kinase-substrate interaction has the potential to give more refined information and we illustrate this here by describing how surgically ablating PKA interactions with BAD gives precise information on the type of glycolysis performed by Theileria-transformed leukocytes. In addition, we provide two other examples of how ablating specific protein-protein interactions in Theileria-infected leukocytes leads to precise phenotypes and argue that constrained penetrating peptides have great therapeutic potential to combat infectious diseases in general.

  5. The Effect of Physical Activity agains the Telomere Length in the Leukocytes Cells of KONI Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are strands of non coding DNA at the ends of chromosomes that have the primary function to protect DNA from damage and maintain chromosomal stability. Physical exercise will increase the antioxidant activity can increase telomere proteins, lengthen telomeres and or protein networks associated with telomere so that the telomere remains long, or stopping telomere shortening. Telomere length was also associated with age. The purpose of the research was to determine telomere length of leukocyte cells in the KONI (Indonesian National Sports Committee athletes in Jakarta. The research method is descriptive, by measuring telomere length using quantitative PCR on leukocyte cells. Samples are KONI athletes from several sports, including men and women athletes, with ages between 15-20 years. Used a control group (not athletes is students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of YARSI. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between telomere length group of athletes with the control group in both sexes. Similarly, telomere length between athlete male with female athletes also showed no significant difference (p> 0.05. It was concluded that physical exercise in athletes KONI at the age of 15- 20 years had no effect on telomere length in leukocytes. The results of this study provide information about the telomere length in Indonesian athletes at an early age.

  6. Leukocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles: a circulating source for fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Romaric; Plawinski, Laurent; Robert, Stéphane; Doeuvre, Loïc; Sabatier, Florence; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Mezzapesa, Anna; Anfosso, Francine; Leroyer, Aurelie S.; Poullin, Pascale; Jourde, Noémie; Njock, Makon-Sébastien; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Anglés-Cano, Eduardo; Dignat-George, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently assigned a new fibrinolytic function to cell-derived microparticles in vitro. In this study we explored the relevance of this novel property of microparticles to the in vivo situation. Design and Methods Circulating microparticles were isolated from the plasma of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or cardiovascular disease and from healthy subjects. Microparticles were also obtained from purified human blood cell subpopulations. The plasminogen activators on microparticles were identified by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; their capacity to generate plasmin was quantified with a chromogenic assay and their fibrinolytic activity was determined by zymography. Results Circulating microparticles isolated from patients generate a range of plasmin activity at their surface. This property was related to a variable content of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and/or tissue plasminogen activator. Using distinct microparticle subpopulations, we demonstrated that plasmin is generated on endothelial and leukocyte microparticles, but not on microparticles of platelet or erythrocyte origin. Leukocyte-derived microparticles bear urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor whereas endothelial microparticles carry tissue plasminogen activator and tissue plasminogen activator/inhibitor complexes. Conclusions Endothelial and leukocyte microparticles, bearing respectively tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase-type plasminogen activator, support a part of the fibrinolytic activity in the circulation which is modulated in pathological settings. Awareness of this blood-borne fibrinolytic activity conveyed by microparticles provides a more comprehensive view of the role of microparticles in the hemostatic equilibrium. PMID:22733025

  7. Preschool outcomes following prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure: differences in language and behavior, but not cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katrina C; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is associated with language and behavioral outcomes in preschool-aged children, while accounting for confounds such as concomitant exposures and maternal mental illness. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study of mental illness in pregnancy was conducted at a university-based women's mental health clinic (April 2010-November 2012). A sample of 178 mother-child dyads participated in a laboratory visit at preschool age (2.5-5.5 years). The majority of women (87%) received psychotropic medication during pregnancy. Psychiatric status (based on DSM-IV), other medication use, and substance use were serially assessed and tested as confounds. Primary outcome measures included standardized measures of expressive language and cognitive function and mother and alternate caregiver ratings of child behavior problems, including the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for relevant covariates, expressive language scores from the Test of Early Language Development, 3rd edition, were negatively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = -0.15, t = -2.41), while the PDD behavioral problems subscales completed by alternate caregivers and mothers were positively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = 0.17, t = 2.01; β = 0.16, t = 2.00, respectively). Cognitive function, measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd edition, was not associated with any medication exposures. The current data suggest a small but significant association between prenatal SRI exposure and preschool outcomes, including expressive language and behavior problems. These data corroborate data from recent, population-based studies, although overall, published findings are mixed. Replication and identification of moderating risk factors are needed to understand potential clinical implications.

  8. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Childhood-Adolescence and Lung Function in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrowski, A; Kliś, K; Żurawiecka, M; Dereń, K; Barszcz, M; Nowakowski, D; Wronka, I

    2018-02-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of air pollution in the dwelling place during childhood-adolescence on respiratory function in early adulthood. The study was conducted in 220 female and 160 male university undergraduates in the cities of Cracow and Wroclaw in Poland and consisted of spirometry to assess lung function. The subjects' exposure to pollution during childhood-adolescence was assessed from the data acquired by the Polish Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection. We found differences in all spirometry variables depending on benz[a]piren exposure, in FVC% and FEV 1 /%FVC depending on PM 2.5 content, and in FVC% depending on NO 2 content . Statistically significant differences in spirometry variables were also found in relation to the degree of urbanization of the place of living during the early life period in question. The higher the urbanization, the higher is FEV 1 % and FCV%, and the lower FEV 1 /%FVC. Additionally, undergraduates of Cracow University had worse lung function compared to those of Wroclaw University. In conclusion, air pollution in the dwelling place during childhood-adolescence has an impact on lung function in early adulthood, independently of the current exposure to pollutants.

  9. Gestational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects the Function and Proteome Profile of F1 Spermatozoa in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2017-02-01

    Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14. We investigated the function, fertility, and related processes of F1 spermatozoa at postnatal day 120. We also evaluated protein profiles of F1 spermatozoa to monitor their functional affiliation to disease. BPA inhibited sperm count, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner. These effects appeared to be caused by reduced numbers of stage VIII seminiferous epithelial cells in testis and decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. We also found that BPA compromised average litter size. Proteins differentially expressed in spermatozoa from BPA treatment groups are known to play a critical role in ATP generation, oxidative stress response, fertility, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Our study provides mechanistic support for the hypothesis that gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through a PKA-dependent mechanism. In addition, we anticipate that the BPA-induced changes in the sperm proteome might be partly responsible for the observed effects in spermatozoa. Citation: Rahman MS, Kwon WS, Karmakar PC, Yoon SJ, Ryu BY, Pang MG. 2017. Gestational exposure to bisphenol-A affects the function and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:238-245; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP378.

  10. The impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on PTSD symptoms and psychosocial functioning among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by age-related changes in cognitive and social processes that may influence psychological adjustment following trauma exposure. Results revealed that older adults who experienced their currently most distressing traumatic event during childhood exhibited more severe symptoms of PTSD and lower subjective happiness compared with older adults who experienced their most distressing trauma after the transition to adulthood. Similar findings emerged for measures of social support and coping ability. The differential effects of childhood compared with later life traumas were not fully explained by differences in cumulative trauma exposure or by differences in the objective and subjective characteristics of the events. Our findings demonstrate the enduring nature of traumatic events encountered early in the life course and underscore the importance of examining the developmental context of trauma exposure in investigations of the long-term consequences of traumatic experiences.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfstedt, Håkan; Hagström, Katja; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Holmström, Mats; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers. Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured. The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1 second [FEV 1 ], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16-19 mg/m 3 ), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64-28 mg/m 3 ). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects. In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV 1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found.

  12. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  13. The characteristics of peripheral blood leukocytes in persons working with ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykova, I.A.; Sokolova, N.B.; Yas'kova, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Functional and qualitative changes of peripheral blood cellular composition were studied in persons working over a long period of time with ionizing radiation sources under the action of various factors of production upon an organism. Appression of a function and increase of T-lymphocyte chromosome damages were revealed against the background of a decrease both of enzymatic activity level and leukocyte number in persons operating for a long time (more than 10 years) with ionizing radiation sources. Discovered changes occurred under the action upon a human being not only of small doses of ionizing radiation but a whole complex of industrial factors which may initiate changes of adapted character

  14. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, Roberto G.; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11–14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 μg/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44–10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 μg/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00–24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 μg/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 μg/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  15. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Roberto G., E-mail: lucchini@med.unibs.it [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Zoni, Silvia [Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bontempi, Elza [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia (Italy); Micheletti, Serena [Cognition Psychology Neuroscience lab., University of Pavia and Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Civil Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Broberg, Karin [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Parrinello, Giovanni [Statistics and Biometry, University of Brescia (Italy); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  16. Work-related symptoms and dose-response relationships for personal exposures and pulmonary function among woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, J; Alwis, K U; Hocking, A D

    1999-05-01

    Four sawmills, a wood chipping mill, and five joineries in New South Wales, Australia, were studied for the effects of personal exposure to wood dust, endotoxins. (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi on lung function among woodworkers. Personal inhalable and respirable dust sampling was carried out. The lung function tests of workers were conducted before and after a workshift. The mean percentage cross-shift decrease in lung function was markedly high for woodworkers compared with the controls. Dose-response relationships among personal exposures and percentage cross-shift decrease in lung function and percentage predicted lung function were more pronounced among joinery workers compared with sawmill and chip mill workers. Woodworkers had markedly high prevalence of regular cough, phlegm, and chronic bronchitis compared with controls. Significant associations were found between percentage cross-shift decrease in FVC and regular phlegm and blocked nose among sawmill and chip mill workers. Both joinery workers and sawmill and chip mill workers showed significant relationships between percentage predicted lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%) and respiratory symptoms. Wood dust and biohazards associated with wood dust are potential health hazards and should be controlled.

  17. Human leukocytic pyrogen: purification and development of a radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A; Renfer, L; Wolff, S M

    1977-10-01

    Leukocytic pyrogen is a small endogenous protein that mediates fever. Because of the limitations of bioassays, circulating leukocytic pyrogen has not been demonstrated during fever in humans. The pyrogen was produced in vitro after phagocytosis of staphylococci by blood monocytes. Antibody against the pyrogen was obtained from rabbits immunized with leukocytic pyrogen and the antiserum was purified by solid-phase immunoadsorbants. Purified antibody to the pyrogen was attached to activated Sepharose 4B and used in conjunction with gel filtration to purify the pyrogen. The pyrogen was labeled with 125I and further purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The final preparation of 125I-labeled pyrogen demonstrated a homogeneous band during isoelectric focusing and other separation procedures. With antibody to pyrogen attached to Sepharose, less than 0.1 of a rabbit pyrogenic dose of human leukocytic pyrogen inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled pyrogen to this immunoadsorbant, and this inhibition was not affected by the presence of human serum. Thus, a radioimmunoassay for human leukocytic pyrogen has been developed that may be used to detect circulating pyrogen during fever in humans.

  18. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  19. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  20. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  1. Raw milk consumption and other early-life farm exposures and adult pulmonary function in the Agricultural Lung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Annah B; House, John S; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Hankinson, John L; Long, Stuart; Henneberger, Paul K; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P; O'Connell, Elizabeth Long; Cummings, Christie Barker; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J

    2018-03-01

    Literature suggests that early exposure to the farming environment protects against atopy and asthma; few studies have examined pulmonary function. We evaluated associations between early-life farming exposures and pulmonary function in 3061 adults (mean age=63) from a US farming population using linear regression. Childhood raw milk consumption was associated with higher FEV 1 (β=49.5 mL, 95% CI 2.8 to 96.1 mL, p=0.04) and FVC (β=66.2 mL, 95% CI 13.2 to 119.1 mL, p=0.01). We did not find appreciable associations with other early-life farming exposures. We report a novel association between raw milk consumption and higher pulmonary function that lasts into older adulthood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  3. Passive acquisition of leukocyte proteins is associated with changes in phosphorylation of cellular proteins and cell-cell adhesion properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibzadeh, S. S.; Kong, Q. F.; Kapur, S.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, we show that interaction of neoplastic epithelial cells with vesicles derived from leukocytes results in passive acquisition by tumor cells of a diverse group of leukocyte proteins. Vesicles shed from leukocytes were heterogeneous and exhibited the specific proteins expressed on leukocyte subsets. Accordingly, epithelial cells differentially acquired leukocyte proteins associated with vesicles. Ultrastructural localization demonstrated that acquired proteins were associated wi...

  4. Polysomnographic Sleep and Circadian Temperature Rhythms as a Function of Prior Shift Work Exposure in Retired Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J; Billy, Bart D; Fletcher, Mary E; Kennedy, Kathy S

    2013-04-29

    In an earlier published telephone interview study (n > 1,000) we have shown that retired shift workers subjectively report worse sleep than retired day workers. This laboratory study sought to determine whether these findings held up when objective polysomnograhic (PSG) measures of sleep were taken and whether retirees' circadian temperature rhythms differed as a function of shift work exposure. All completers of the telephone interview were invited to attend a 36-hour laboratory study for which participants were paid. This involved continuous core body temperature measurement (using an ingestible pill-based system) and 2 nights of PSG. Shift work exposure (plus other measures) was collected by taking a detailed work history. The second laboratory night was scored into sleep stages. Post hoc, we divided participants into 4 shift work exposure groups: 0 years (ie, no exposure to shift work), 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years. Sample sizes were 11, 16, 15, and 15, respectively, with approximate equality in mean age (71.7 years of age, 69.1 years of age, 70.0 years of age, and 70.4 years of age, respectively) and percent male (63%, 50%, 67%, and 73%, respectively). Shift work exposure was associated with worse PSG sleep in a dose-related fashion. The percentages of participants with sleep efficiency, 80% for the 0 years, 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years groups were 36%, 63%, 67%, and 73%, respectively ( P work exposure appeared to result ( P = 0.06) in an increased spread of phase angles (difference between habitual bedtime and time of temperature trough). In conclusion, it appears likely that shift work may be related to a scarring of sleep and circadian rhythms. This may be associated with a change in the relationship between habitual sleep timing and the phase of the circadian pacemaker.

  5. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  6. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qasim, Waseem; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Davies, E Graham

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare primary immune disorder caused by defects of the CD18 beta-integrin molecule on immune cells. The condition usually presents in early infancy and is characterized by deep tissue infections, leukocytosis with impaired formation of pus, and delayed...... of leukocyte adhesion deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation between 1993 and 2007 was retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected by the registries of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies/European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the Center for International......, with full donor engraftment in 17 cases, mixed multilineage chimerism in 7 patients, and mononuclear cell-restricted chimerism in an additional 3 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation offers long-term benefit in leukocyte adhesion deficiency and should be considered as an early...

  7. Shifts in the metabolic function of a benthic estuarine microbial community following a single pulse exposure to silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Paterson, Lynn; Aspray, Thomas J.; Porter, Joanne S.; Winson, Michael K.; Thornton, Barry; Hartl, Mark G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a biocidal agent and their potential accumulation in sediments may threaten non-target natural environmental bacterial communities. In this study a microcosm approach was established to investigate the effects of well characterized OECD AgNPs (NM-300) on the function of the bacterial community inhabiting marine estuarine sediments (salinity 31‰). The results showed that a single pulse of NM-300 AgNPs (1 mg L −1 ) that led to sediment concentrations below 6 mg Ag kg −1 dry weight inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant carbon substrates. As a result, the functional diversity changed, but recovered after 120 h under the experimental conditions. This microcosm study suggests that AgNPs under environmentally relevant experimental conditions can negatively affect bacterial function and provides an insight into the understanding of the bacterial community response and resilience to AgNPs exposure, important for informing relevant regulatory measures. - Highlights: • AgNPs affected the bacterial community function in estuarine marine sediments. • AgNPs inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant substrates. • Heterotrophic bacterial groups showed resilience to AgNPs after 120 h exposure. • AgNPs did not affect the bacterial community structure in sediments. - AgNPs inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant substrates and caused temporary shifts in the bacterial functional diversity in marine estuarine sediments

  8. Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Guifan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on developmental fluoride neurotoxicity support the hypothesis that exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride in water is neurotoxic during development. METHODS: We carried out a pilot study of 51 first-grade children in...

  9. Methamphetamine Exposure, Iron Deficiency, and Implications for Cognitive-Communicative Function: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Heiss, Cynthia J.; White, Letitia; Kaf, Wafaa A.; Becker, Alan; Schindler, Jessica B.; Dion, Nancy; Oswalt, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) exposure during fetal development has the potential to adversely affect the development of multiple organ systems. An interdisciplinary case study of a 4-year 11-month-old child born to a mother addicted to meth revealed significant cognitive and communicative delays. Possible meth-related consequences for these delays…

  10. Structural, Morphological, and Functional Correlates of Corneal Endothelial Toxicity Following Corneal Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    States Depart- ment of Agriculture certificate No. 51-F-0006). All procedures were in compliance with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in...exposure: pathological mechanism and poten- tial therapy. Toxicology. 2009;263:59–69. 9. Gordon MK, Desantis A, Deshmukh M, et al. Doxycycline hydrogels

  11. Reversing Implicit Gender Stereotype Activation as a Function of Exposure to Traditional Gender Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine

  12. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal

    2016-01-01

    release, and GABAergic dysregulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the transition to alcohol dependence. We investigated possible disruptions in CB1 signaling of rat CeA GABAergic transmission following intermittent ethanol exposure. In the CeA of alcohol-naive rats, CB1...

  13. The effect of noise exposure during the developmental period on the function of the auditory system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 352, sep (2017), s. 1-11 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory system * development * noise exposure Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Other medical science Impact factor: 2.906, year: 2016

  14. Lysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by high-intensity focused ultrasound as a function of exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy A; Xu, Jin; Stessman, Dan J; Yao, Linxing; Spalding, Martin H; Wang, Tong

    2014-05-01

    Efficient lysis of microalgae for lipid extraction is an important concern when processing biofuels. Historically, ultrasound frequencies in the range of 10-40 kHz have been utilized for this task. However, greater efficiencies might be achievable if higher frequencies could be used. In our study, we evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound to lyse microalgae for biofuel production while using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34 cm and an active diameter of 6.36 cm driven by 20 cycle sine-wave tone bursts at a pulse repetition frequency of 2 kHz (3.6% duty cycle). The time-average acoustic power output was 26.2 W while the spatial-peak-pulse-average intensity (ISPPA) for each tone burst was 41 kW/cm(2). The peak compressional and rarefactional pressures at the focus were 102 and 17 MPa, respectively. The exposure time was varied for the different cases in the experiments from 5s to 9 min and cell lysis was assessed by quantifying the percentage of protein and chlorophyll release into the supernate as well as the lipid extractability. Free radical generation and lipid oxidation for the different ultrasound exposures were also determined. We found that there was a statistically significant increase in lipid extractability for all of the exposures compared to the control. The longer exposures also completely fragmented the cells releasing almost all of the protein and chlorophyll into the supernate. The cavitation activity did not significantly increase lipid oxidation while there was a minor trend of increased free radical production with increased ultrasound exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury exposure as a function of fish consumption in two Asian communities in coastal Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Newman, Michael C

    2015-04-01

    Fish consumption and associated mercury exposure were explored for two Asian-dominated church communities in coastal Virginia and compared with that of two non-Asian church communities. Seafood-consumption rates for the Chinese (36.9 g/person/day) and Vietnamese (52.7 g/person/day) church communities were greater than the general United States fish-consumption rate (12.8 g/person/day). Correspondingly, hair mercury concentrations for people from the Chinese (0.52 µg/g) and the Vietnamese church (1.46 µg/g) were greater than the overall level for United States women (0.20 µg/g) but lower than the published World Health Organization exposure threshold (14 µg/g). A conventional regression model indicated a positive relationship between seafood consumption rates and hair mercury concentrations suggesting the importance of mercury exposure through seafood consumption. The annual-average daily methylmercury intake rate for the studied communities calculated by Monte Carlo simulations followed the sequence: Vietnamese community > Chinese community > non-Asian communities. Regardless, their daily methylmercury intake rates were all lower than the United States Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 µg/kg body weight-day. In conclusion, fish-consumption patterns differed among communities, which resulted in different levels of mercury exposure. The greater seafood and mercury ingestion rates of studied Asian groups compared with non-Asian groups suggest the need for specific seafood consumption advice for ethnic communities in the United States. Otherwise the health benefits from fish consumption could be perceived as trivial compared with the ill-defined risk of mercury exposure.

  16. Exposure to Inorganic Mercury Causes Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Functional Deficits in the Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Francisco B; de Oliveira, Ana C A; Leão, Luana K R; Fagundes, Nathália C F; Fernandes, Rafael M; Fernandes, Luanna M P; da Silva, Márcia C F; Amado, Lilian L; Sagica, Fernanda E S; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Crespo-Lopez, Maria E; Maia, Cristiane S F; Lima, Rafael R

    2018-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal that can be found in the environment in three different forms - elemental, organic and inorganic. Inorganic mercury has a lower liposolubility, which results in a lower organism absorption and reduced passage through the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, exposure models that use inorganic mercury in rats in order to evaluate its effects on the central nervous system are rare, especially in adult subjects. This study investigated if a chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2), an inorganic form of mercury, is capable of promoting motor alterations and neurodegenerative in the motor cortex of adult rats. Forty animals were exposed to a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day, for 45 days. They were then submitted to motor evaluation and euthanized to collect the motor cortex. Measurement of mercury deposited in the brain parenchyma, evaluation of oxidative balance, quantification of cellular cytotoxicity and apoptosis and density of mature neurons and astrocytes of the motor cortex were performed. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury caused a decrease in balance and fine motor coordination, formation of mercury deposits and oxidative stress verified by the increase of lipoperoxidation and nitrite concentration and a decrease of the total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we found that this model of exposure to inorganic mercury caused cell death by cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis with a decreased number of neurons and astrocytes in the motor cortex. Our results provide evidence that exposure to inorganic mercury in low doses, even in spite of its poor ability to cross biological barriers, is still capable of inducing motor deficits, cell death by cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and oxidative stress in the motor cortex of adult rats.

  17. Exposure to Inorganic Mercury Causes Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Functional Deficits in the Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B. Teixeira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic metal that can be found in the environment in three different forms – elemental, organic and inorganic. Inorganic mercury has a lower liposolubility, which results in a lower organism absorption and reduced passage through the blood–brain barrier. For this reason, exposure models that use inorganic mercury in rats in order to evaluate its effects on the central nervous system are rare, especially in adult subjects. This study investigated if a chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2, an inorganic form of mercury, is capable of promoting motor alterations and neurodegenerative in the motor cortex of adult rats. Forty animals were exposed to a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day, for 45 days. They were then submitted to motor evaluation and euthanized to collect the motor cortex. Measurement of mercury deposited in the brain parenchyma, evaluation of oxidative balance, quantification of cellular cytotoxicity and apoptosis and density of mature neurons and astrocytes of the motor cortex were performed. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury caused a decrease in balance and fine motor coordination, formation of mercury deposits and oxidative stress verified by the increase of lipoperoxidation and nitrite concentration and a decrease of the total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we found that this model of exposure to inorganic mercury caused cell death by cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis with a decreased number of neurons and astrocytes in the motor cortex. Our results provide evidence that exposure to inorganic mercury in low doses, even in spite of its poor ability to cross biological barriers, is still capable of inducing motor deficits, cell death by cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and oxidative stress in the motor cortex of adult rats.

  18. The alkaline comet assay as a biomarker of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether occupational exposure to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine departments may lead to genotoxicity. The alkaline comet assay was selected as a bio-marker of exposure to evaluate the levels of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of exposed and corresponding control subjects. Statistically significant differences were found between comet tail length and tail moment values measured in leukocytes from the exposed and control groups. Within exposed group significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage were assessed, indicating different genome sensitivity. In majority of exposed subjects the levels of DNA damage were in positive correlation with the duration of occupational exposure, while the influences of age and dosimeter readings could be excluded. However, the levels of primary DNA damage detected both in control and exposed subjects were significantly influenced by smoking. The present study indicates the possibility of genotoxic risks related to occupational exposure in nuclear medicine departments. Therefore, the exposed personnel should carefully apply the radiation protection procedures to minimize, as low as possible, radiation exposure to avoid possible genotoxic effects. According to results obtained, the alkaline comet assay could be usefully applied as a sensitive additional bio-marker in the regular health screening of workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. (authors)

  19. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Tzong-Shiun; Chung, Jui-Jung; Wang, Chung-Jing; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-02-13

    To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Tea

  20. Circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes of rotating night shift nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Edyta; Peplonska, Beata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Sobala, Wojciech; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Kjuus, Helge; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of elevated breast cancer risk among long-term, night-working women involves circadian genes expression alteration caused by exposure to light at night and/or irregular work hours. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of rotating night shift work on expression of selected core circadian genes. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 184 matched nurses and midwives, who currently work either day or rotating night shifts, to determine the effect of irregular work at night on circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Transcript levels of BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were determined by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After adjusting for hour of blood collection, there were no statistically significant changes of investigated circadian genes among nurses and midwives currently working rotating night shifts compared to nurses working day shifts. The highest expression of PER1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was observed for women currently working shifts who had worked >15 years in rotating night shift work. PER1 gene expression was associated with the lifetime duration of rotating night shift work among women currently working night shifts (P=0.04). PER1 and PER3 transcript levels in blood leukocytes were significantly down-regulated in the later versus early hours of the morning between 06.00-10.00 hours (β-coefficient -0.226, P=0.001 and β-coefficient -0.181, Pnight shift work does not affect circadian gene expression in human circulating leukocytes. In analysis of the peripheral clock in human studies, the hour of blood collection should be precisely specified.

  1. Detection of occult abscesses with 111In-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Gurevich, N.; Goris, M.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Clinicians are frequently faced with the problem of a patient in whom they suspect an occult abscess. In such a situation, there may be no clinical signs to localize the site of the abscess and often extensive investigations do not provide additional useful information. This report illustrates the efficacy of autologous leukocytes labeled with 111 In oxine in detecting the site and extent of occult abscesses in two patients. The technique of in vitro lebeling of leukocytes is simple and has been mastered by all of our nuclear medicine technologists

  2. Association between Exposure to the Chinese Famine in Different Stages of Early Life and Decline in Cognitive Functioning in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Feng, Lingli; Liu, Quanri; Lu, Yanhui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different life stages of early life is associated with cognitive functioning decline in adulthood. We recruited 1366 adults born between 1950 and 1964 and divided them into fetal-exposed, early childhood-exposed (1-3 years old during the famine), mid childhood-exposed (4-6 years old during the famine), late childhood-exposed (7-9 years old during the famine), and non-exposed groups. A selection of cognitive tests was administered to assess their cognitive performance. Association between malnutrition in different famine exposure periods and adult cognitive performance was estimated by multivariate logistic and multiple linear regression analyses. There were significant differences in cognitive performance between subjects exposed to famine during different life stages. For the general cognitive tests, fetal-exposed period was associated with decreased scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and late childhood-exposed with decreased scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We also found exposure to famine during mid and late childhood was associated with worse performance on the Stroop color and word test. Famine exposure in utero and during childhood is associated with overall and specific cognitive decline, affecting selective attention and response inhibition particularly.

  3. Nitrogen narcosis induced by repetitive hyperbaric nitrogen oxygen mixture exposure impairs long-term cognitive function in newborn mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Peng

    Full Text Available Human beings are exposed to compressed air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture, they will produce signs and symptoms of nitrogen narcosis such as amnesia or even loss of memory, which may be disappeared once back to the normobaric environment. This study was designed to investigate the effect of nitrogen narcosis induced by repetitive hyperbaric nitrogen-oxygen mixture exposure on long-term cognitive function in newborn mice and the underlying mechanisms. The electroencephalogram frequency was decreased while the amplitude was increased in a pressure-dependent manner during 0.6, 1.2, 1.8 MPa (million pascal nitrogen-oxygen mixture exposures in adult mice. Nitrogen narcosis in postnatal days 7-9 mice but not in adult mice induced by repetitive hyperbaric exposure prolonged the latency to find the platform and decreased the number of platform-site crossovers during Morris water maze tests, and reduced the time in the center during the open field tests. An increase in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus and cortex were observed immediately on the first day after hyperbaric exposure, and this lasted for seven days. Additionally, nitrogen narcosis induced loss of the dendritic spines but not of the neurons, which may mainly account for the cognitive dysfunction. Nitrogen narcosis induced long-term cognitive and emotional dysfunction in the postnatal mice but not in the adult mice, which may result from neuronal apoptosis and especially reduction of dendritic spines of neurons.

  4. Traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with allergic sensitization, asthma, and poor lung function in middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Knibbs, Luke D; Lowe, Adrian J; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B; Giles, Graham; Morrison, Stephen; Thompson, Bruce; Thomas, Paul S; Hui, Jennie; Perret, Jennifer L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure is associated with allergic airway diseases and reduced lung function in children, but evidence concerning adults, especially in low-pollution settings, is scarce and inconsistent. We sought to determine whether exposure to TRAP in middle age is associated with allergic sensitization, current asthma, and reduced lung function in adults, and whether these associations are modified by variants in Glutathione S-Transferase genes. The study sample comprised the proband 2002 laboratory study of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study. Mean annual residential nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) exposure was estimated for current residential addresses using a validated land-use regression model. Associations between TRAP exposure and allergic sensitization, lung function, current wheeze, and asthma (n = 1405) were investigated using regression models. Increased mean annual NO 2 exposure was associated with increased risk of atopy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28 per 1 interquartile range increase in NO 2 [2.2 ppb]) and current wheeze (aOR, 1.14; 1.02-1.28). Similarly, living less than 200 m from a major road was associated with current wheeze (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80) and atopy (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.99-1.62), and was also associated with having significantly lower prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV 1 and prebronchodilator forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity. We found evidence of interactions between living less than 200 m from a major road and GSTT1 polymorphism for atopy, asthma, and atopic asthma. Overall, carriers of the GSTT1 null genotype had an increased risk of asthma and allergic outcomes if exposed to TRAP. Even relatively low TRAP exposures confer an increased risk of adverse respiratory and allergic outcomes in genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa eWeise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  6. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and female reproductive function in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ernst, Erik

    2016-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects on female reproduction following intrauterine exposure to selected biopersistent organochlorines. METHODS: We used data from a Danish pregnancy cohort with follow-up on 436 eligible daughters at approximately 20years of age. Information on age of menarche (n=335), menstrual...... cycle length (n=230) and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones (n=243) was obtained. Number of antral follicles was counted by vaginal ultrasound (n=147). Of 244 daughters who attended clinical examination, 170 used hormonal contraceptives and 74 were non-users. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB...... and six PCB congeners were analysed in maternal serum samples obtained in pregnancy week 30. RESULTS: Age of menarche and menstrual cycle length were found not to be statistically significant associated with prenatal organochlorine exposure. Among non-users of hormonal contraceptives with information...

  7. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Functional Connectivity During Exposure to Favorite-Food, Stress, and Neutral-Relaxing Imagery Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Jastreboff, Ania M; Constable, R Todd; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco-use disorder is a complex condition involving multiple brain networks and presenting with multiple behavioral correlates including changes in diet and stress. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of neural responses to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers demonstrated blunted corticostriatal-limbic responses to favorite-food cues. Based on other recent reports of alterations in functional brain networks in smokers, the current study examined functional connectivity during exposure to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery in smokers and nonsmokers, using the same dataset. The intrinsic connectivity distribution was measured to identify brain regions that differed in degree of functional connectivity between groups during each imagery condition. Resulting clusters were evaluated for seed-to-voxel connectivity to identify the specific connections that differed between groups during each imagery condition. During exposure to favorite-food imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the supramarginal gyrus, and differences in connectivity between the supramarginal gyrus and the corticostriatal-limbic system. During exposure to neutral-relaxing imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed greater connectivity in the precuneus, and greater connectivity between the precuneus and the posterior insula and rolandic operculum. During exposure to stress imagery, smokers versus nonsmokers showed lower connectivity in the cerebellum. These findings provide data-driven insights into smoking-related alterations in brain functional connectivity patterns related to appetitive, relaxing, and stressful states. This study uses a data-driven approach to demonstrate that smokers and nonsmokers show differential patterns of functional connectivity during guided imagery related to personalized favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing cues, in brain regions implicated in attention

  9. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and acade...

  10. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, G.; Schluenssen, V.; Schaumburg, I.

    2008-01-01

    , including smoking, height and age. An additional difference of -14.50 mL.yr(-1) and -27.97 mL.yr(-1) was revealed for females exposed to 3.75-4.71 mg.yr.m(-3) or to >4.71 mg-yr.m(-3), respectively, compared with non-/Iow-exposed females. For females, a positive trend between wood dust exposure...

  11. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 99mTc-exametazime-labeled leukocytes is not useful for follow-up of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenherz, A.; Kletter, K.; Deicher, R.; Haas, M.; Hoerl, W.H.; Jilma, B.; Becherer, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of systemic vasculitis, for instance Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), was greatly improved by the introduction of immunosuppressive treatment. However, relapses are frequent and predictors are scarce. 111 In-leukocytes have been found to indicate unknown manifestations of WG and to predict later relapse. We prospectively investigated the value of 99m Tc-Exametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes with regard to specific patterns and for their usefulness in the follow-up of patients with WG. Methods: The vasculitis group consisted of 8 patients with WG and 2 with idiopathic necrotizing glomerulonephritis (ING). Seven patients with different inflammatory diseases served as controls. Leukocyte labeling with 99m Tc-HMPAO was done using a slightly modified Hammersmith protocol. Cell viability after labeling was verified in vivo by the exclusion of early lung and splenic uptake and in vitro by means of propidium iodide and FACS analysis. Static gamma camera images from the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained up to 18 hours after injection of approximately 300 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Scintigrams were analyzed visually; for semiquantitative analysis ROIs were drawn over the nasal region, the right lung, kidneys, and liver. Results: Increased nasal leukocyte accumulation was found in 7/8 patients with WG and in 2/2 patients with ING. Of 2 patients who had a relapse 6 months later, one presented with, and one without nasal uptake. The kidney/liver ratio was higher in controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11, p 99m Tc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy failed to indicate or exclude a later relapse and is therefore not suitable as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with systemic vasculitis. (author)

  12. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 99mTc-exametazime-labeled leukocytes is not useful for follow-up of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherer, A.; Dudczak, R.; Deicher, R.; Haas, M.; Hoerl, W.H.; Jilma, B.; Staudenherz, A.; Kletter, K.

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of systemic vasculitis, for instance Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), was greatly improved by the introduction of immunosuppressive treatment. However, relapses are frequent and predictors are scarce. 111 In-leukocytes have been found to indicate unknown manifestations of WG and to predict later relapse. We prospectively investigated the value of 99m Tc-Exametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes with regard to specific patterns and for their usefulness in the follow-up of patients with WG. The vasculitis group consisted of 8 patients with WG and 2 with idiopathic necrotizing glomerulonephritis (ING). Seven patients with different inflammatory diseases served as controls. Leukocyte labeling with 99m Tc-HMPAO was done using a slightly modified Hammersmith protocol. Cell viability after labeling was verified in vivo by the exclusion of early lung and splenic uptake and in vitro by means of propidium iodide and FACS analysis. Static gamma camera images from the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained up to 18 hours after injection of approximately 300 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Scintigrams were analyzed visually; for semiquantitative analysis ROls were drawn over the nasal region, the right lung, kidneys, and liver. Increased nasal leukocyte accumulation was found in 7/8 patients with WG and in 2/2 patients with ING. Of 2 patients who had a relapse 6 months later, one presented with, and one without nasal uptake. The kidney/liver ratio was higher in controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11, p 99m Tc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy failed to indicate or exclude a later relapse and is therefore not suitable as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with systemic vasculitis. (author)

  13. The Effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpiidae Venom on Leukocytes and the Leukocyte Subgroups in Peripheral Blood of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghafourian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom on leukocytes and the leukocyte subgroups in peripheral blood of rat.Methods: In this experimental study, sixty N-Mari rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. Then the rats in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the blood sampling time that was 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the venom injection, respectively. The control group did not receive anything, however, the first and the second ex­perimental groups received 0.1 and 0.01mg/kg of venom, subcutaneously. In accordance with a designated four sam­pling times, the blood sampling was carried out in three groups. After RBC lysis, the leukocytes and leukocyte sub­populations were determined and counted using appropriate hematological standard methods.Results: The leukocyte and the neutrophil count at two (P<0.05, six (P<0.01 and 24 (P<0.05 hours after the venom injection showed a significant decline compared with the control group, this decrease was significant at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg until 48 hours after the venom injection (P<0.05. The lymphocyte count showed a significant decline throughout the all hours of the experiment, compared with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Leukocytes are probably affected by the cytotoxicity effect of the H. lepturus venom in a dose-dependent manner. This could be a wakeup call for the medical staff to perform quick and accurate treatment in the least time possible.

  14. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    cells using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D9 resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in the IC-elicited PMN RB after 5 min of incubation, rising to 3.1-fold after 40 min. This enhancement was not due to increased IC deposition on PMN. Blockade of CR3 abrogated the mAb 3D9-induced rise in RB activity...... and inhibited the IC binding to PMN in a whole blood cell preparation, with or without mAb 3D9, by approximately 40% from 15-40 min while reducing their RB over 40 min to approximately one third. Blockade of CR1 on either erythrocytes (E) or leukocytes, before mixing the populations, revealed...... that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity remains unaffected by preceding exposure to aversive visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Léonie; Gschwind, Leo; Schicktanz, Nathalie; Deuring, Gunnar; Rosburg, Timm; Schwegler, Kyrill; Gerhards, Christiane; Milnik, Annette; Pflueger, Marlon O; Mager, Ralph; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Coynel, David

    2018-02-15

    While much is known about immediate brain activity changes induced by the confrontation with emotional stimuli, the subsequent temporal unfolding of emotions has yet to be explored. To investigate whether exposure to emotionally aversive pictures affects subsequent resting-state networks differently from exposure to neutral pictures, a resting-state fMRI study implementing a two-group repeated-measures design in healthy young adults (N = 34) was conducted. We focused on investigating (i) patterns of amygdala whole-brain and hippocampus connectivity in both a seed-to-voxel and seed-to-seed approach, (ii) whole-brain resting-state networks with an independent component analysis coupled with dual regression, and (iii) the amygdala's fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, all while EEG recording potential fluctuations in vigilance. In spite of the successful emotion induction, as demonstrated by stimuli rating and a memory-facilitating effect of negative emotionality, none of the resting-state measures was differentially affected by picture valence. In conclusion, resting-state networks connectivity as well as the amygdala's low frequency oscillations appear to be unaffected by preceding exposure to widely used emotionally aversive visual stimuli in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Swelling and functional disorders of isolated liver mitochondria induced by ultraviolet light exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayanagi, Hideaki

    1977-01-01

    Biochemical and morphological disruption of liver mitochondria exposed to ultraviolet light were discussed. The mitochondria was prepared from rat liver, and the suspension was exposed to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria prepared from group 1 (regular laboratory chow), caused the great acceleration of swelling of mitochondria and the loss of the ability to couple the phosphorylation with respiration chain. The irradiated mitochondria produced an increase of lipid peroxide which was proportional to the dose of ultraviolet energy. By the use of a difference spectra technic, the absorption bands of cytochrome b, c (c 1 ), and flavoprotein were found to decrease in absorption after ultraviolet exposure. However, mitochondrial suspension prepared from rat in group 2 (regular chow supplemented with 3 mg% riboflavin free form), 3 (with 3 mg% riboflavin tetrabutyrate), 4 (with 5 mg% glutathione (GSH)), provided some degree of protection against the above deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation. The irradiation effects could be reduced in the irradiated mitochondrial suspension which was incubated with riboflavin and GSH respectively after exposure. Riboflavin B 2 tetrabutyrate was found to show the significant effect of anti-oxidation. Riboflavin free-form was also active in this respect but to a lesser extent. (auth.)

  17. Assessment of Industrial Antimony Exposure and Immunologic Function for Workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2017-06-26

    This study investigated antimony exposure among employees in industries in Taiwan and evaluated whether their immunologic markers were associated with antimony exposure. We recruited 91 male workers and 42 male office administrators from 2 glass manufacturing plants, 1 antimony trioxide manufacturing plants, and 2 engineering plastic manufacturing plants. Air samples were collected at worksites and administrative offices, and each participant provided specimens of urine, blood, and hair to assay antimony levels. We also determined white blood cells, lymphocyte, and monocyte, IgA, IgE, and IgG in blood specimens. The mean antimony concentration in the air measured at worksites was much higher in the antimony trioxide plant (2.51 ± 0.57 mg/m³) than in plastic plants (0.21 ± 0.06 mg/m³) and glass plants (0.14 ± 0.01 mg/m³). Antimony levels in blood, urine, and hair measured for participants were correlated with worksites and were higher in workers than in administrators. The mean serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels were lower in workers than in administrators ( p industrial plants than for administrators. This study suggests serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels are negatively associated with antimony exposure.

  18. Empathy as a function of clinical exposure--reading emotion in the eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Handford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based largely on self-report data suggests that factors associated with medical education erode the critical human quality of empathy. These reports have caused serious concern among medical educators and clinicians and have led to changes in medical curricula around the world. This study aims to provide a more objective index of possible changes in empathy across the spectrum of clinical exposure, by using a behavioural test of empathic accuracy in addition to self-report questionnaires. Moreover, non-medical groups were used to control for maturation effects. METHODS: Three medical groups (N = 3×20 representing a spectrum of clinical exposure, and two non-medical groups (N = 2×20 matched for age, sex and educational achievements completed self-report measures of empathy, and tests of empathic accuracy and interoceptive sensitivity. RESULTS: Between-group differences in reported empathy related to maturation rather than clinical training/exposure. Conversely, analyses of the "eyes" test results specifically identified clinical practice, but not medical education, as the key influence on performance. The data from the interoception task did not support a link between visceral feedback and empathic processes. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice, but not medical education, impacts on empathy development and seems instrumental in maintaining empathetic skills against the general trend of declining empathic accuracy with age.

  19. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Schikowski, Tamara; Carsin, Anne Elie; Cai, Yutong; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Sanchez, Margaux; Vierkötter, Andrea; Marcon, Alessandro; Keidel, Dirk; Sugiri, Dorothee; Al Kanani, Zaina; Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Rochat, Thierry; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Eeftens, Marloes; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Villani, Simona; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Birk, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; Cirach, Marta; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Forsberg, Bertil; de Hoogh, Kees; Declerq, Christophe; Bono, Roberto; Piccioni, Pavilio; Quass, Ulrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah; Pin, Isabelle; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schindler, Christian; Sunyer, Jordi; Krämer, Ursula; Kauffmann, Francine; Hansell, Anna L.; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m−3 increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (−14.0 mL, 95% CI −25.8 to −2.1) and FVC (−14.9 mL, 95% CI −28.7 to −1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m−3 in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (−44.6 mL, 95% CI −85.4 to −3.8) and FVC (−59.0 mL, 95% CI −112.3 to −5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe. PMID:25193994

  20. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  1. Mercury exposure induces cytoskeleton disruption and loss of renal function through epigenetic modulation of MMP9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafizurrahman; Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Gangopadhyay, Siddhartha; Roy, Somendu Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Srivastava, Vikas

    2017-07-01

    Mercury is one of the major heavy metal pollutants occurring in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Due to ban on most inorganic mercury containing products, human exposure to mercury generally occurs as methylmercury (MeHg) by consumption of contaminated fish and other sea food. Animal and epidemiological studies indicate that MeHg affects neural and renal function. Our study is focused on nephrotoxic potential of MeHg. In this study, we have shown for the first time how MeHg could epigenetically modulate matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) to promote nephrotoxicity using an animal model of sub chronic MeHg exposure. MeHg caused renal toxicity as was seen by increased levels of serum creatinine and expression of early nephrotoxicity markers (KIM-1, Clusterin, IP-10, and TIM