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Sample records for leucopus naturally infected

  1. Modeling Powassan virus infection in Peromyscus leucopus, a natural host.

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    Luwanika Mlera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne flavivirus, Powassan virus (POWV causes life-threatening encephalitis in humans in North America and Europe. POWV is transmitted by ixodid tick vectors that feed on small to medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, which may serve as either reservoir, bridge or amplification hosts. Intraperitoneal and intracranial inoculation of 4-week old Peromyscus leucopus mice with 103 PFU of POWV did not result in overt clinical signs of disease. However, following intracranial inoculation, infected mice seroconverted to POWV and histopathological examinations revealed that the mice uniformly developed mild lymphocytic perivascular cuffing and microgliosis in the brain and spinal cord from 5 to 15 days post infection (dpi, suggesting an early inflammatory response. In contrast, intracranial inoculation of 4-week old C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice was lethal by 5 dpi. Intraperitoneal inoculation was lethal in BALB/c mice, but 40% (2/5 of C57BL/6 mice survived. We concluded that Peromyscus leucopus mice infected i.c. with a lethal dose of POWV support a limited infection, restricted to the central nervous system and mount an antibody response to the virus. However, they fail to develop clinical signs of disease and are able to control the infection. These results suggest the involvement of restriction factors, and the mechanism by which Peromyscus leucopus mice restrict POWV infection remains under study.

  2. Anti-leptospiral agglutinins in marmosets (Saguinus oedipus and Saguinus leucopus from illegal trade

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    Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the infection status with pathogenic Leptospira of one Saguinus oedipus and nine Saguinus leucopus at the Cali Zoo that had been confiscated in Colombia from illegal trade. Materials and methods. A full physical examination, blood work, urinalysis were conducted in all individuals during the reception health check-up, in addition to running the microagglutination test with a pool of 19 serovars, with a starting dilution of 1:50. Results. A high positive titer (≥1:3200 to Leptospira alexanderi serovar manhao in an asymptomatic S. oedipus was detected. All S. leucopus tested negative or less than 1:50. Conclusions. Captive locations have been documented to artificially enhance opportunities to come into contact with contaminated bodily fluids from peridomestic rodents. However, infectious diseases acquired during the illegal transport of wildlife to major metropolitan centers are rarely considered a wildlife conservation or public health threat. Infection with zoonotic pathogens should also be considered an additional threat to endangered wild primates involved in illegal trade, which could hamper reintroduction efforts or other population management procedures for primate species with restricted and fragmented distributions.

  3. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

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    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  4. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  5. The dynamics of natural Plasmodium falciparum infections.

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    Ingrid Felger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum has been widely studied, but its effects on parasite dynamics are poorly understood. Acquisition and clearance rates of untreated infections are key elements of the dynamics of malaria, but estimating these parameters is challenging because of frequent super-infection and imperfect detectability of parasites. Consequently, information on effects of host immune status or age on infection dynamics is fragmentary. METHODS: An age-stratified cohort of 347 individuals from Northern Ghana was sampled six times at 2 month intervals. High-throughput capillary electrophoresis was used to genotype the msp-2 locus of all P. falciparum infections detected by PCR. Force of infection (FOI and duration were estimated for each age group using an immigration-death model that allows for imperfect detection of circulating parasites. RESULTS: Allowing for imperfect detection substantially increased estimates of FOI and duration. Effects of naturally acquired immunity on the FOI and duration would be reflected in age dependence in these indices, but in our cohort data FOI tended to increase with age in children. Persistence of individual parasite clones was characteristic of all age-groups. Duration peaked in 5-9 year old children (average duration 319 days, 95% confidence interval 318;320. CONCLUSIONS: The main age-dependence is on parasite densities, with only small age-variations in the FOI and persistence of infections. This supports the hypothesis that acquired immunity controls transmission mainly by limiting blood-stage parasite densities rather than changing rates of acquisition or clearance of infections.

  6. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex formation in natural infections

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    MARIO GALINDO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic platyhelminth that is responsible for cystic hydatid disease. From the inner, germinal layer of hydatid cysts protoscoleces are generated, which are are the infective forms to the dog. Systematic studies on the cell biology of E. granulosus protoscolex formation in natural infections are scarce and incomplete. In the present report we describe seven steps in the development of protoscoleces. Cellular buds formed by a clustering of cells emerge from the germinal layer of hydatid cysts. The buds elongate and the cells at their bases seem to diminish in number. Very early on a furrow appears in the elongated buds, delimiting anterior (scolex and caudal (body regions. Hooks are the first fully-differentiated structures formed at the apical region of the nascent scolex. In a more advanced stage, the scolex shows circular projections and depressions that develop into suckers. A cone can later be seen at the center of the hooks, the body is expanded and a structured neck is evident between the scolex and the body. During protoscolex development this parasitic form remains attached to the germinative layer through a stalk. When fully differentiated, the stalk is cut off and the infective protoscolex is now free in the hydatid fluid

  7. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

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    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  8. CARIOTIPO DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus MEDIANTE BANDAS R-REPLICATIVAS KARYOTYPE OF TITÍ GREY (Saguinus leucopus THROUGH R-REPLICATIVE BANDS

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    Susana Posada Céspedes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Colombia es considerado un país megabiodiverso, ostentando varias especies endémicas como Saguinus leucopus. El Tití gris, como es vulgarmente llamado, habita bosques tropicales, es omnívoro y de hábitos diurnos, y se destaca como dispersor de semillas. Morfológicamente se caracteriza por su reducido tamaño, pelaje café y dorso plateado. Se organiza en grupos familiares formados por la pareja y su descendencia, con una hembra dominante, la cual es la única que cría. Debido a factores fundamentalmente de origen antrópico, se encuentra catalogada como especies en peligro de extinción por la UICN y está registrado en el apéndice I del CITES. Aun cuando se han realizados estudios sobre su biología básica, son pocos los reporte sobre la evaluación citogenética y ninguno sobre cariotipo con bandas R-Replicativa. En esta investigación se realizó el cariotipo y el idiograma, con bandas R-Replicativas, mediante la incorporación de 5'-bromo-2'-deoxiuridina (BrdU en sangre periférica estimulada con fitohemaglutinina de S. leucopus. Los resultados mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 46, con un número fundamental (NF de 76. Los cromosomas se organizaron en cinco grupos de acuerdo con su forma y tamaño. El grupo A, es conformado por 3 pares de cromosomas grandes submetacéntricos; el grupo B, por 5 pares de cromosomas de tamaño medio metacéntricos o submetacéntricos; el grupo C, por 6 pares acrocéntricos y el grupo D, por 8 pares subtelocéntricos y el par sexual XX/XY. El cromosoma "X" es de tamaño medio submetacéntrico y el "Y" es metacéntrico, y de los más pequeños del genoma. Finalmente, se propone un idiograma con bandas R- Replicativa con base en mitosis en estadio III de replicación.Abstract. Colombia is considered a mega-biodiverse country, boasting several endemic species such as Saguinus leucopus. The Marmoset gray, as is commonly called, inhabits tropical forests, is omnivorous and diurnal, and stands as seed

  9. Cariotipo del tit? gris (Saguinus leucopus): similitudes con el cariotipo humano

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    Tabares, Juan Hember; Fierro, Carlos Humberto; Pulido, Paola Del Pilar; Ossa Reyes, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    El tit? gris (Saguinus leucopus) es un primate end?mico de Colombia cuyo cariotipo se describe en el presente estudio a partir de una pareja de individuos ubicados en el Centro de Rehabilitaci?n de Fauna Silvestre del Oriente de Caldas, Colombia. Las muestras de sangre fueron recolectadas de la vena femoral y anticoaguladas con heparina de sodio. Los cromosomas se obtuvieron por el m?todo cl?sico de cultivo de linfocitos y bandeamiento Q y G Los individuos presentan 46 cromosomas (2n = 46: 30...

  10. LIBERACIÓN Y SEGUIMIENTO DE DOS GRUPOS DE TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TOLIMA

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    A. Leal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentes de decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados durante aproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrollo y recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos al medio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberación en un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellas para iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizó un estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentales derivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevó a cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación de los individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientos relacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interacciones sociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación, los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento, lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraron variaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre las dos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con su objetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  11. Bioactive activities of natural products against herpesvirus infection.

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    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Taeho; Shin, Yu Su; Cho, Hyosun; Lieberman, Paul M; Kang, Hyojeung

    2013-10-01

    More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one human herpesvirus, which establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host. While anti-viral drugs exist that limit herpesvirus replication, many of these are ineffective against latent infection. Moreover, drug-resistant strains of herpesvirus emerge following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, resistance to acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues can occur when mutations arise in either HSV thymidine kinase or DNA polymerases. Thus, there exists an unmet medical need to develop new anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action. In this Review, we discuss the promise of anti-herpetic substances derived from natural products including extracts and pure compounds from potential herbal medicines. One example is Glycyrrhizic acid isolated from licorice that shows promising antiviral activity towards human gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, we discuss anti-herpetic mechanisms utilized by several natural products in molecular level. While nucleoside analogues inhibit replicating herpesviruses in lytic replication, some natural products can disrupt the herpesvirus latent infection in the host cell. In addition, natural products can stimulate immune responses against herpesviral infection. These findings suggest that natural products could be one of the best choices for development of new treatments for latent herpesvirus infection, and may provide synergistic anti-viral activity when supplemented with nucleoside analogues. Therefore, it is important to identify which natural products are more efficacious anti-herpetic agents, and to understand the molecular mechanism in detail for further advance in the anti-viral therapies.

  12. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections.

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    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arabyan, Erik; Oo, Adrian; Zandi, Keivan

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses. We also present future perspectives on therapeutic applications of flavonoids against viral infections.

  13. Defective Natural Killer cell antiviral capacity in paediatric HBV infection

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    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Laura J., Pallett; Winther, Thilde Nordmann

    2015-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit dysregulated effector function in adult chronic HBV infection (CHB), which may contribute to virus persistence. The role of NK cells in children infected perinatally with HBV is less studied. Access to a unique cohort enabled the cross-sectional evaluation of NK...... cell frequency, phenotype and function in HBV-infected children relative to uninfected children. We observed a selective defect in NK cell IFN-γ production, with conserved cytolytic function, mirroring the functional dichotomy observed in adult infection. Reduced expression of NKp30 on NK cells...

  14. Pathogenesis of natural and experimental Pseudorabies virus infections in dogs.

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    Zhang, Letian; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Jushi; Lu, Zijie; Liu, Lei; Yang, Wanlian; Lyu, Yanli

    2015-03-18

    Since late 2011, cases of suspected canine pseudorabies have increased in north China with the outbreak of swine pseudorabies in the same area, but the pathogenesis of canine Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in China is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of canine pseudorabies. The pathological changes in 13 dogs that died of natural PRV infections (confirmed by pathogen detection) during 2011-2013 in Beijing were evaluated. An experimental study was also conducted in which healthy adult beagle dogs were administered PRV isolate BJ-YT by subcutaneous injection. The dog tissues were subjected to gross and microscopic examinations and immunohistochemical analysis and the dogs' serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) was measured. Systemic hemorrhage and/or congestion were the most marked pathological changes in both the naturally and experimentally PRV-infected dogs. Macroscopically, the major lesions consisted of petechiae and ecchymoses in both the endocardium and epicardium, thrombi in the mitral valves, hemorrhage in the lungs and thymus, and incomplete contraction of the spleen. Microscopically, the major histopathological findings were systemic hemorrhage and congestion, nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis (in the experimentally infected dogs, unexamined in the naturally PRV-infected dogs), brainstem encephalitis (in the naturally infected dogs), necrosis or exudation in the myocardium, and lymphoid depletion in many lymphoid organs and tissues. Viral antigens were only detected in the brainstems and peripheral ganglia of the infected dogs. Serum cTn-I was significantly higher in the experimentally PRV-infected dogs with myocardial lesions than in the dogs without myocardial lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that virally induced systemic hemorrhage, peripheral nervous system pathology, and/or cardiac injury can individually or collectively cause death in PRV-infected dogs. The respiratory signs of the disease are attributed to

  15. Intravascular detection of Giardia trophozoites in naturally infected mice

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    El-Shewy K.A.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available During routine transmission electron microscopic (TEM examination of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris, an intense infection with Giardia trophozoites was demonstrated within intestinal and renal tissues. Examination of randomly taken sections from these heavily infected tissues revealed marked deep affection with mixed pathology. Duodenal sections were found loaded with Giardia trophozoites in intimate contact with necrotic gut cells. Some of these trophozoites were detected within central lacteal of damaged villi and nearby blood vessels. Interestingly, and for the first time to be demonstrated, morphologically identical G. muris trophozoite was detected in a renal blood vessel. An intense cellular immune reaction was obviously demonstrated with remarkable interaction between giant macrophages and the trophozoites particulates. Involvement of deep tissues by Giardia trophozoites and their presence within vascular channels could open up questions about the possible invasive and disseminative behavior of G. muris, particularly in heavily and naturally infected hosts.

  16. Natural ventilation for reducing airborne infection in hospitals

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    Qian, Hua [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Li, Yuguo; Ching, W.H.; Sun, H.Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Seto, W.H.; Ching, Patricia [Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-03-15

    High ventilation rate is shown to be effective for reducing cross-infection risk of airborne diseases in hospitals and isolation rooms. Natural ventilation can deliver much higher ventilation rate than mechanical ventilation in an energy-efficient manner. This paper reports a field measurement of naturally ventilated hospital wards in Hong Kong and presents a possibility of using natural ventilation for infection control in hospital wards. Our measurements showed that natural ventilation could achieve high ventilation rates especially when both the windows and the doors were open in a ward. The highest ventilation rate recorded in our study was 69.0 ACH. The airflow pattern and the airflow direction were found to be unstable in some measurements with large openings. Mechanical fans were installed in a ward window to create a negative pressure difference. Measurements showed that the negative pressure difference was negligible with large openings but the overall airflow was controlled in the expected direction. When all the openings were closed and the exhaust fans were turned on, a reasonable negative pressure was created although the air temperature was uncontrolled. The high ventilation rate provided by natural ventilation can reduce cross-infection of airborne diseases, and thus it is recommended for consideration of use in appropriate hospital wards for infection control. Our results also demonstrated a possibility of converting an existing ward using natural ventilation to a temporary isolation room through installing mechanical exhaust fans. (author)

  17. Urbanization shapes the demographic history of a native rodent (the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus) in New York City.

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    Harris, Stephen E; Xue, Alexander T; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego; Boehm, Joel T; Joseph, Tyler; Hickerson, Michael J; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-04-01

    How urbanization shapes population genomic diversity and evolution of urban wildlife is largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of urbanization on white-footed mice,Peromyscus leucopus,in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area using coalescent-based simulations to infer demographic history from the site-frequency spectrum. We assigned individuals to evolutionary clusters and then inferred recent divergence times, population size changes and migration using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 23 populations sampled along an urban-to-rural gradient. Both prehistoric climatic events and recent urbanization impacted these populations. Our modelling indicates that post-glacial sea-level rise led to isolation of mainland and Long Island populations. These models also indicate that several urban parks represent recently isolated P. leucopus populations, and the estimated divergence times for these populations are consistent with the history of urbanization in NYC. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Urbanization shapes the demographic history of a native rodent (the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus) in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Stephen E.; Xue, Alexander T.; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego; Boehm, Joel T.; Joseph, Tyler; Hickerson, Michael J.; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-01-01

    How urbanization shapes population genomic diversity and evolution of urban wildlife is largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of urbanization on white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area using coalescent-based simulations to infer demographic history from the site-frequency spectrum. We assigned individuals to evolutionary clusters and then inferred recent divergence times, population size changes and migration using genome-wide single nucle...

  19. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

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    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  20. Changes in hemostasis in foals naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Krarup Nielsen, Martin; Jacobsen, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Strongylus vulgaris has been found endemic in equine populations subject to parasite control by targeted selective anthelmintic therapy. This study investigated hemostasis in foals naturally infected with S. vulgaris and monitored this response over the course of progressing infection stages...... 4. Strongylus vulgaris antibody levels were statistically associated with D-dimer (P = .0076) and fibrinogen (P = .0004) concentrations. Naturally acquired infection with S. vulgaris was associated with changes suggestive of mild activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. The results....... The hemostatic indices D-dimer, antithrombin III (ATIII), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time were evaluated in weekly blood samples for up to 50 weeks in 12 foals born into a herd with high prevalence of S. vulgaris. Results were compared with weekly S. vulgaris antibody...

  1. Natural resistance to HIV infection: The Vif-APOBEC interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malim, Michael H

    2006-11-01

    Members of the APOBEC family of cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases (e.g., APOBEC3G) are potent inhibitors of HIV infection. Wild type viral infections are largely spared from APOBEC function through the action of the viral Vif protein. In Vif's absence, inhibitory APOBEC proteins are encapsidated by budding virus particles leading to excessive cytidine (C) to uridine (U) hypermutation of negative sense reverse transcripts in newly infected cells. This registers as guanosine (G) to adenosine (A) mutations in plus stranded cDNA. Because the functions of Vif and APOBEC proteins oppose each other, it is likely that fluctuations in the Vif/APOBEC balance can influence the natural history of HIV infection. Experimental support for this notion would further justify and stimulate drug discovery initiatives in this area.

  2. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

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    Mika A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs. Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research.

  3. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny-Walsh, E

    2012-02-03

    The natural history of HCV infection remains ill-defined. The knowledge accumulated on the progression of HCV to date is important, however. It is now abundantly clear that the progression of disease is generally slow, and the development of cirrhosis and its complications is a possibility, not a probability as hitherto thought. Predicting the outcome remains a quandary for clinicians. Ultimately it will be possible to define the natural history of hepatitis C infection through a combination of research in the fields of virology, immunology, and molecular biology and by monitoring the biochemical and histologic progress of the disease. Only then will it be possible to intervene appropriately and develop new therapies to prevent the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. The dynamics of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection.

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    Mykola Pinkevych

    Full Text Available Severe malaria occurs predominantly in young children and immunity to clinical disease is associated with cumulative exposure in holoendemic settings. The relative contribution of immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle that results in controlling infection and limiting disease is not well understood. Here we analyse the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages in order to model naturally acquired immunity. We find that both delayed time-to-infection and reductions in asymptomatic parasitaemias in older age groups can be explained by immunity that reduces the growth of blood stage as opposed to liver stage parasites. We found that this mechanism would require at least two components - a rapidly acting strain-specific component, as well as a slowly acquired cross-reactive or general immunity to all strains. Analysis and modelling of malaria infection dynamics and naturally acquired immunity with age provides important insights into what mechanisms of immune control may be harnessed by malaria vaccine strategists.

  5. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from naturally infected nonhuman primates.

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    Honap, Tanvi P; Pfister, Luz-Andrea; Housman, Genevieve; Mills, Sarah; Tarara, Ross P; Suzuki, Koichi; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Stone, Anne C

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cynomolgus macaque M. leprae strain is most closely related to a human M. leprae strain from New Caledonia, whereas the chimpanzee and sooty mangabey M. leprae strains belong to a human M. leprae lineage commonly found in West Africa. Additionally, samples from ring-tailed lemurs from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, and chimpanzees from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were screened using quantitative PCR assays, to assess the prevalence of M. leprae in wild nonhuman primates. However, these samples did not show evidence of M. leprae infection. Overall, this study adds genomic data for nonhuman primate M. leprae strains to the existing M. leprae literature and finds that this pathogen can be transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates as well as between nonhuman primate species. While the prevalence of natural leprosy in nonhuman primates is likely low, nevertheless, future studies should continue to explore the prevalence of leprosy-causing pathogens in the wild.

  6. Honey ointment': a natural remedy of skin wound infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasleem, S.; Naqvi, S.B.S.; Hashimi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Honey is a gift of nature, principally identified and valued to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity and has been used as a natural remedy of wounds since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey against micro-organisms, to formulate a honey ointment and to evaluate the efficacy of such ointment by conducting clinical trials on skin wound infection. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi and Out-patient Department of Dermatology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from November 2009 to October 2010. The antimicrobial activity of Pakistani floral sources (Trachysperm copticum, Acacia nilotica species indica, Zizyphus) honey samples was investigated by disc diffusion method against freshly isolated wound infecting bacteria (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans), and Staphylococci aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9022, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albican ATCC 15146. An ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey was formulated. The efficacy of such ointment was evaluated by passing thought clinical trials. A total number of 27 patients (23 skin wound infection, and 4 diabetic foot ulcer) were involved in the study. Thin layer of newly formulated honey ointment on gauze were applied two to three times per day till complete healing. Results: In microbiological assay the honey samples were found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the micro-organisms tested. In clinical trial very significant results (99.15%) healing was observed in skin wound infections cases with mean healing time of 5.86 (2-20) days, and 95% diabetic foot ulcers healed with the mean healing time of 20 (8-40) days. Conclusion: Newly formulated

  7. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus populations in New York City

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    Jason Munshi-South

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus, and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In

  8. Vaccination delays maedi-visna lentivirus infection in a naturally-infected sheep flock

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    Gudnadóttir Margrét

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Maedi-Visna (MV lentivirus causes two slowly progressive eventually fatal diseases of sheep, Maedi, a progressive interstitial pneumonia, and Visna, a progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Other lentiviruses also cause fatal slow infections in their natural hosts, e.g. the HIV virus in humans. Results of experimental vaccination against any lentivirus where vaccinees are challenged by natural routes, may therefore be of general interest. From 1991–1998 experiments with formalin-inactivated whole Maedi-Visna virus vaccine were carried out in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Iceland. Western Blot tests showed good immune response to all major proteins of the virus. When aluminium hydroxide was added to the vaccine all vaccinees developed neutralizing antibodies to the vaccine strain at titers 1/8 – 1/256. After housing 5 twin pairs, one twin in each pair vaccinated, the other unvaccinated, with infected sheep for 4 years, all the unvaccinated twins became infected, but only 2 of their vaccinated siblings as confirmed by virus cultivation experiments on tissues from their lungs spleens lymph nodes and choroid plexuses. Results One twin in each of 40 female twin pairs, born into a Maedi-Visna-infected sheep flock and kept under natural farming conditions in Cyprus, was vaccinated at birth, 3 weeks and 3 months, with formalin-inactivated whole Maedi-Visna lentivirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. 17 mothers of the twins were seronegative, 13 seroconverting and 10 had old infection. Of 17 vaccinees born to seronegative mothers 9 were uninfected at 28 months, but only 2 of their unvaccinated siblings. Of 13 unvaccinated twins born to seroconverting mothers, 12 caught infection during their first 10 weeks, but only 4 of their vaccinated siblings. Vaccination had no effects on 10 vaccinees born to mothers with long-standing Maedi-Visna infections and broad andibody

  9. Activation of Natural Killer cells during microbial infections

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    Amir eHorowitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are large granular lymphocytes that express a diverse array of germline encoded inhibitory and activating receptors for MHC Class I and Class I-like molecules, classical co-stimulatory ligands and cytokines. The ability of NK cells to be very rapidly activated by inflammatory cytokines, to secrete effector cytokines and to kill infected or stressed host cells, suggests that they may be among the very early responders during infection. Recent studies have also identified a small number of pathogen-derived ligands that can bind to NK cell surface receptors and directly induce their activation. Here we review recent studies that have begun to elucidate the various pathways by which viral, bacterial and parasite pathogens activate NK cells. We also consider two emerging themes of NK cell-pathogen interactions, namely their contribution to adaptive immune responses and their potential to take on regulatory and immunomodulatory functions.

  10. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular and humoral immunity after vaccination or natural mumps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kihei; Hagihara, Kimiko; Oishi, Tomohiro; Miyata, Ippei; Akaike, Hiroto; Ogita, Satoko; Ohno, Naoki; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2017-08-01

    This study measured cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and serum antibody to clarify the basis of breakthrough after vaccination and reinfection after mumps. From a pool of 54 college students, 17 seronegative subjects and 14 subjects with intermediate level of antibodies against mumps were vaccinated with a monovalent mumps vaccine, and CMI was assessed using interferon-γ release assay. CMI positivity according to pre-existing antibody level, defined as titer  0.05), respectively. Vaccination or even natural mumps infection did not always induce both cellular and humoral immunity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Efficacy of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G C; Giordano-Fenton, D J; Tritschler, J P

    1994-07-09

    The activity of an oral drench of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep known to harbour Nematodirus species was evaluated at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight. Moxidectin was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the abomasum and 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the small intestine except for adult Trichostrongylus species, against which its efficacy was 94 per cent. It was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the large intestine except for Trichuris ovis, against which its efficacy was 83 per cent.

  13. Biology and natural history of human papillomavirus infection

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    Fernandes JV

    2013-01-01

    malignant lesion. In this review, we discuss the biology and natural history of HPV infection and its association with cervical cancer.Keywords: biology, HPV, cancer

  14. Homogeneity of Powassan virus populations in naturally infected Ixodes scapularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackney, Doug E.; Brown, Ivy K.; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Ebel, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV, Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is the sole North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis complex and consists of two distinct lineages that are maintained in ecologically discrete enzootic transmission cycles. The underlying genetic mechanisms that lead to niche partitioning in arboviruses are poorly understood. Therefore, intra- and interhost genetic diversity was analyzed to determine if POWV exists as a quasispecies in nature and quantify selective pressures within and between hosts. In contrast to previous reports for West Nile virus (WNV), significant intrahost genetic diversity was not observed. However, pN (0.238) and d N /d S ratios (0.092) for interhost diversity were similar to those of WNV. Combined, these data suggest that purifying selection and/or population bottlenecks constrain quasispecies diversity within ticks. These same selective and stochastic mechanisms appear to drive minor sequence changes between ticks. Moreover, Powassan virus populations seem not to be structured as quasispecies in naturally infected adult deer ticks.

  15. Natural Variation in Resistance to Virus Infection in Dipteran Insects

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    William H. Palmer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus–host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. Here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex. We first discuss antiviral immune mechanisms and describe the virus-specificity of these responses. In the following sections, we review genetic and microbiota-dependent variation in antiviral immunity. In the final sections, we explore less well-studied sources of variation, including abiotic factors, sexual dimorphism, infection history, and endogenous viral elements. We borrow from work on other pathogen types and non-dipteran species when it parallels or complements studies in dipterans. Understanding natural variation in virus–host interactions may lead to the identification of novel restriction factors and immune mechanisms and shed light on the molecular determinants of vector competence.

  16. Lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, J; Teifke, J P; Mettenleiter, T C; Aue, A; Stiefel, D; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2014-02-21

    In Germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) and the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) for which Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. Lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. Moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental data still hamper attempts to understand the distribution, prevalence, and in particular transmission of the virus. In an experimental study in E. serotinus a heterogeneous dissemination of EBLV-1 in tissues was detected. However, it is not clear whether the EBLV-1 distribution is similar in naturally infected animals. In an attempt to further analyze virus dissemination and viral loads within naturally infected hosts we investigated tissues of 57 EBLV-1 positive individuals of E. serotinus from Germany by RT-qPCR and compared the results with those obtained experimentally. Additionally, tissue samples were investigated with immunohistochemistry to detect lyssavirus antigen in defined structures. While in individual animals virus RNA was present only in the brain, in the majority of E. serotinus viral RNA was found in various tissues with highest relative viral loads detected in the brain. Interestingly, viral antigen was confirmed in various tissues in the tongue including deep intralingual glands, nerves, muscle cells and lingual papillae. So, the tongue appears to be a prominent site for virus replication and possibly shedding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in naturally infected gilts over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuti, Karine L; de Barcellos, David E S N; de Lara, Anne C; Kunrath, Cintia F; Pieters, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes a chronic respiratory infection in pigs and its transmission occurs mainly by direct contact and by vertical transmission (sow-to-piglet). The objective of this study was to assess the detection dynamics and persistence of M. hyopneumoniae natural infection in replacement gilts. Forty-four twenty-day-old gilts were selected from a M. hyopneumoniae positive farm and followed up to one day prior to their first weaning. Laryngeal swabs were collected every 30days, starting at day 20, for M. hyopneumoniae detection by real-time PCR, resulting in 12 samplings. Piglets born to selected females were sampled via laryngeal swabs one day prior to weaning to evaluate sow-to-piglet transmission. The M. hyopneumoniae prevalence was estimated at each one of the 12 samplings in gilts and a multiple comparison test and Bonferroni correction were performed. Bacterial detection in gilts started at 110days of age (doa) and a significant increase (phyopneumoniae prevalence remained above 20% from 140 to 230 doa, decreasing thereafter. However, it did not reach 0% at any sampling after 110 doa. In this study, M. hyopneumoniae was not detected in piglets sampled prior to weaning. The M. hyopneumoniae detection pattern showed that in natural infections, gilts were positive for M. hyopneumoniae for one to three months, but occasionally long-term detection may occur. Moreover, the lack of M. hyopneumoniae detection throughout the study in 18.2% of gilts indicated the existence of negative subpopulations in positive herds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural Besnoitia besnoiti infections in cattle: chronology of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollnick, Nicole S; Scharr, Julia C; Schares, Gereon; Langenmayer, Martin C

    2015-02-14

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an emerging protozoan disease in cattle. Neither vaccines nor chemotherapeutic drugs are currently available for prevention and treatment of Besnoitia besnoiti infections. Therefore the implementation of appropriate disease management strategies is of utmost importance. The aim of this longitudinal study was to complement current knowledge on the chronology of disease progression. This was realized by correlating clinical findings in early stages of naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis with results of real-time PCR of skin biopsies and of two western immunoblots and an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Animals for this study were obtained by i) closely monitoring a cow-calf operation with a high prevalence of bovine besnoitiosis for cases of acute disease, and by ii) conducting a 12-week cohabitation experiment on pasture with five healthy heifers, a healthy bull and five B. besnoiti infected cows. A control group of six healthy heifers was kept at a minimal distance of 20 m. Further, the spectrum of potential insect vectors was determined. Infected cattle were followed up to a maximum of 221 days after first detection of B. besnoiti antibodies. Two severely affected cows developed visible and palpable alterations of skin, a decrease in body condition despite good feed intake, and chronic bovine besnoitiosis-associated laminitis leading to non-healing sole ulcers. The cows also had high reciprocal IFAT titers and high loads of parasite DNA in skin samples. Two heifers developed a mild clinical course characterized by few parasitic cysts visible in the scleral conjunctivae and vestibula vaginae. Both heifers became infected during the time of high insect activity of the species Musca domestica, Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Stomoxys calcitrans. When a third heifer became subclinically infected, low insect activity was recorded. None of the six control heifers contracted a B. besnoiti infection. In chronic besnoitiosis

  19. Liberación y seguimiento de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en el departamento de Tolima

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    A. Leal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentesde decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados duranteaproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrolloy recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos almedio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberaciónen un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellaspara iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizóun estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentalesderivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevóa cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación delos individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientosrelacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interaccionessociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación,los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento,lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraronvariaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre lasdos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con suobjetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  20. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

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    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  1. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhaq, Sahar M; Arafa, Waleed M; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  3. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  4. Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

    2006-06-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (Pneurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes.

  5. Using Natural Products to Treat Resistant and Persistent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Robert W.

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to human health both worldwide and in the United States. Most concerning is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, especially the 'ESKAPE' pathogens for which treatment options are dwindling. To complicate the problem, approvals of antibiotic drugs are extremely low and many research and development efforts in the pharmaceutical industry have ceased, leaving little certainty that critical new antibiotics are nearing the clinic. New antibiotics are needed to continue treating these evolving infections. In addition to antibiotics, approaches that aim to inhibit or prevent antimicrobial resistance could be useful. Also, studies that improve our understanding of bacterial pathophysiology could lead to new therapies for infectious disease. Natural products, especially those from the microbial world, have been invaluable as resources for new antibacterial compounds and as insights into bacterial physiology. The goal of this dissertation is to find new ways to treat resistant bacterial infections and learn more about the pathophysiology of these bacteria. Investigations of natural products to find molecules able to be used as new antibiotics or to modulate resistance and other parts of bacterial physiology are crucial aspects of the included studies. The first included study, which is reported in chapter two, details a chemical investigation of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Purification efforts of the microbial metabolites were guided by testing against a resistance nodulation of cell division model of efflux pumps expressed in E. coli. These pumps play an important role in the resistance of MDR Gram negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Through this process, 3,4-dibromopyrrole-2,5-dione was identified as a potent inhibitor of the RND efflux pumps and showed synergistic effects against the E. coli strain with common antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, beta

  6. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  7. Clearance of Giardia muris infection in mice deficient in natural killer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth, M F; Kung, J E; Eriksson, E C

    1986-01-01

    Immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice and beige mice (which are deficient in natural killer cells) were infected with Giardia muris. Both types of mice cleared G. muris infection at similar rates. This observation suggests that clearance of G. muris parasites from the mouse intestine is not mediated by natural killer cells.

  8. Specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response during natural HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2006-01-01

    The specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response in natural HIV-1 infection were studied. First, to investigate the overall antibody response, overlapping linear peptides were used to screen sera taken from HIV-1-infected individuals. The polyclonal antibody response was relatively stable during long-term infection, compared with acute infection, and mostly directed against immunodominant regions. Low level, transient antibody responses were detected against membrane proximal exter...

  9. Immunodiagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' Disease Infection in Naturally Infected Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauricella MA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting specific antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi in naturally infected dogs. Sera from 182 mongrel dogs of all ages residing in four rural villages in Santiago del Estero, Argentina, were collected in November 1994 and preserved in buffered neutral glycerin. All sera were tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT, and ELISA using the flagellar fraction of T. cruzi as antigen. Dog sera from an area without vectorial transmission were used to calculate ELISA specificity and cut-off value. Eighty-six percent of sera had concordant results for all tests. All sera reactive for IHAT and IFAT were also reactive for ELISA, except in one case. Sera tested by ELISA when diluted 1:200 allowed a clearer division between non-reactive and reactive sera than when 1:100 with greater agreement among serologic techniques. The specificity of ELISA was 96.2%. Among 34 adult dogs with a positive xenodiagnosis, sensitivity was 94% both for ELISA and IFAT. ELISA is the first choice for screening purposes and one of the pair of techniques recommended for diagnostic studies in dog populations

  10. Natural infection of Lutzomyia tortura with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi in an Amazonian area of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Guevara, Angel G; Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania parasites was surveyed in an Amazonian area in Ecuador where leishmaniasis is endemic. Seventy-one female sand flies were dissected and one was positive for Leishmania protozoa. The species of this sand fly was identified as Lutzomyia (Lu.) tortura on the basis of morphologic characteristics. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene sequence identified the parasite as L. (Viannia) naiffi. We report the distribution of L. (V.) naiffi in Ecuador and detection of a naturally infected sand fly in the Ecuadorian Amazon and natural infection of Lu. tortura with Leishmania parasites in the New World.

  11. Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Kathleen A

    2008-09-01

    Infections of the lower urinary tract are common occurrences in young women, during pregnancy, and in peri- and postmenopausal women. Because of the chronic nature of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the potential for antibiotic resistance, a natural approach to prevention and treatment is desirable. Clinical research suggests the best natural options for long-term prevention include cranberry, mannose, and probiotics. Botanicals that can be effective at the first sign of an infection and for short-term prophylaxis include berberine and uva ursi. Estriol cream and vitamins A and C have also been shown to prevent UTIs, while potassium salts can alkalinize the urine and reduce dysuria.

  12. Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myoung-Heon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV, which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8, type II FCoV (n = 4, and types I and II co-infection (n = 2. Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212 of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83 and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129. Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

  13. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Casteel, Stan W; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A; Nichols, John R; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen L; Rattner, Barnett A; Schultz, Sandra L

    2018-01-29

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  14. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Casteel, Stan W.; Friedrichs, Kristen R.; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A.; Nichols, John W.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schultz, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  15. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  16. Quasispecies variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during natural infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Tony L.; Lowe, James F.; Milburn, Suzanne M.; Firkins, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing individual clones, we characterized viral diversity in nine animals from two farms. All animals harbored multiple PRRSV variants at both the nucleic and the amino acid levels. Structural variation and rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution were no different within known epitopes than elsewhere. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that differences between farms, among animals within farms, and within individual animals accounted for 92.94, 3.84, and 3.22% of the total viral genetic variability observed, respectively. PRRSV exists during natural infection as a quasispecies distribution of related genotypes. Positive natural selection for immune evasiveness does not appear to maintain this diversity

  17. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Roncal, Elisa; Quiñones-García, Stefany; Clipman, Steven J; Calcina, Juan; Gavidia, Cesar M; Sheen, Patricia; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-12-01

    The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3%) out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100%) out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared parental genotype.

  18. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3% out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100% out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared

  19. Didelphis albiventris naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Regina Lucas; Fornazari, Felipe; Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Langoni, Helio; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2017-10-01

    Hepatozoon species are vector-borne pathogens that infect domestic and wild animals. Marsupials of the species Didelphis albiventris are adapted to urban and peri-urban areas and act as reservoir hosts for several parasites. The present study evaluated the occurrence of infection by Hepatozoon species in synantropic D. albiventris from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 19 D. albiventris were collected from urban and peri-urban areas. Hepatozoon spp. detection was performed by microscopy and molecular analysis. One opossum was positive for Hepatozoon spp. in microscopy analysis and PCR, while another animal was positive only in PCR. The obtained sequences were 100% identical to Hepatozoon canis. Six species of ticks and two species of fleas were detected on D. albiventris. This is the first report of H. canis in synantropic D. albiventris. In Brazil, H. canis transmission among dog populations is not well established, which highlights the importance of investigating the role that opossums might play in the epidemiology of this protozoan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...... infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly...

  1. Natural Gastric Infection with Helicobacter pylori in Monkeys: A Model for Spiral Bacteria Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Methods: Infection and gastritis were have facilitated larger epidemiological studies. Another graded blindly by histological analysis and culture of...infec- with both types of bacteria by histological analysis and tion. Gastritis scores began to decrease 1 month after culture of H. pylori. In these 3...indicated that monkeys were not Infected. Gastritis score was :1.5 this organism belongs in the Helicobacter genus, and it in animals uninfected or

  2. Pathological and Molecular Based Study of Naturally Occurring Lentivirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Mahmood*, Ahrar Khan, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Riaz Hussain1, Shafia Tehseen Gul and Abu Baker Siddique2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the multicentric lymphosarcoma associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Pakistan. Serum samples from sheep (n=93 and goats (n=129 were screened for ovine lentivirus using agar gel immunodiffusion test. Overall, 7.52 and 3.87% seroprevalence was recorded in sheep and goat, respectively. During necropsy of sheep (n=3 and goats (n=4, gross lesions including dark color liver with multifocal whitish areas, unilaterally lungs consolidation with granular appearance of cut surface were observed. Mediastinal lymph nodes were swollen and arranged in chain like fashion. Histopathologically, liver parenchyma exhibited extensive proliferation of neoplastic cells of lymphocytic series. Metastatic cells in the form of follicular pattern in the lungs, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes were also observed. Brain tissue exhibited degenerative changes in the neuron and perivascular cuffing. The PCR product size approximately 300 bp from lung tissue confirmed viral infection.

  3. Infection or allergy? The multifaceted nature of vulvar dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Vij, MD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic dermatitis or pruritus affecting the female genital and perianal skin can be challenging to properly diagnose and manage. The differential diagnosis generally includes allergic, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with a 6-month history of a progressive, debilitating vulvar and perianal rash that highlights the multifaceted nature of female genital dermatoses.

  4. Spore load and immune response of honey bees naturally infected by Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Evans, Jay D; Li, Jianghong; Su, Songkun; Hamilton, Michele; Chen, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    Nosema ceranae causes widespread infection in adult workers of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, and has often been linked to honey bee colony losses worldwide. Previous investigations of honey bee immune response to N. ceranae infection were largely based on laboratory experiment, however, little is known about the immune response of honey bees that are naturally infected by N. ceranae. Here, we compared the infection levels of N. ceranae in three different categories of adult bees (emergent bees, nurses, and foragers) and detected the host immune response to the N. ceranae infection under natural conditions. Our studies showed that the Nosema spore load and infection prevalence varied among the different types of adult workers, and both of them increased as honey bees aged: No infection was detected in emergent bees, nurses had a medium spore load and prevalence, while foragers were with the highest Nosema infection level and prevalence. Quantification of the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (abaecin, apidaecin, defensin-1, defensin-2, and hymenoptaecin) and microbial recognition proteins (PGRP-S1, PGRP-S2, PGRP-S3, PGRP-LC, GNBP1-1, and GNBP1-2) confirmed the involvement of the Toll and/or Imd immune pathways in the host response to N. ceranae infection, and revealed an activation of host immune response by N. ceranae infection under natural conditions. Additionally, the levels of immune response were positively correlated with the Nosema spore loads in the infected bees. The information gained from this study will be relevant to the predictive modeling of honey bee disease dynamics for Nosema disease prevention and management.

  5. Natural transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from infected queen to kitten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Sheila de

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a naturally occurring lentivirus that infects cats. The primary mode of transmission occurs through bite wounds, and other routes are difficult to observe in nature. Findings The purpose of this study was to evaluate FIV transmission from queen to kitten in a colony of naturally infected stray cats. With this aim, a queen was monitored over a period of three years. A blood sample was taken to amplify and sequence gag, pol and env regions of the virus from the queen, two kittens and other cats from the colony. Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis showed evidence of queen to kitten transmission.

  6. Natural transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from infected queen to kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Sheila de Oliveira; Martins, Angelica Nascimento; Dias, Carlos Gabriel Almeida; Tanuri, Amilcar; Brindeiro, Rodrigo de Moraes

    2012-05-25

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring lentivirus that infects cats. The primary mode of transmission occurs through bite wounds, and other routes are difficult to observe in nature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FIV transmission from queen to kitten in a colony of naturally infected stray cats. With this aim, a queen was monitored over a period of three years. A blood sample was taken to amplify and sequence gag, pol and env regions of the virus from the queen, two kittens and other cats from the colony. Phylogenetic analysis showed evidence of queen to kitten transmission.

  7. Urban landscape genetics: canopy cover predicts gene flow between white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi-South, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of urban canopy cover on gene flow between 15 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City parklands. Parks in the urban core are often highly fragmented, leading to rapid genetic differentiation of relatively nonvagile species. However, a diverse array of 'green' spaces may provide dispersal corridors through 'grey' urban infrastructure. I identify urban landscape features that promote genetic connectivity in an urban environment and compare the success of two different landscape connectivity approaches at explaining gene flow. Gene flow was associated with 'effective distances' between populations that were calculated based on per cent tree canopy cover using two different approaches: (i) isolation by effective distance (IED) that calculates the single best pathway to minimize passage through high-resistance (i.e. low canopy cover) areas, and (ii) isolation by resistance (IBR), an implementation of circuit theory that identifies all low-resistance paths through the landscape. IBR, but not IED, models were significantly associated with three measures of gene flow (Nm from F(ST) , BayesAss+ and Migrate-n) after factoring out the influence of isolation by distance using partial Mantel tests. Predicted corridors for gene flow between city parks were largely narrow, linear parklands or vegetated spaces that are not managed for wildlife, such as cemeteries and roadway medians. These results have implications for understanding the impacts of urbanization trends on native wildlife, as well as for urban reforestation efforts that aim to improve urban ecosystem processes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Comunicación vocal de dos grupos de Tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en Mariquita, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Rueda-C.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio del repertorio vocal y su significado, de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en San Sebastián de Mariquita, departamento del Tolima. Uno de los grupos habita una zona urbana, la casa de la Fundación Segunda Expedición Botánica (Funbotánica y el otro se encuentra en el Bosque del Municipio (José Celestino Mutis. Se identificaron 27 tipos de sonidos, de los cuales se registraron 21 en el grupo Funbotánica y 13 en el grupo Bosque. Se caracterizaron cada una de las señales y en particular se hizo énfasis en la asociación entre las vocalizaciones y los patrones de comportamiento que exhibe la especie. Los titíes emitieron señales específicas en contextos como alimentación, alarma, amenaza y establecimiento de contacto con individuos que se encuentran fuera de vista (señales de llamada. Igualmente, se encontró relación entre las señales y algunos mensajes no conductuales (sexo, edad y posición jerárquica; esto demuestra que las vocalizaciones brindan gran cantidad de información sobre la identidad del emisor, acontecimientos en el ambiente y conductas específicas de los individuos. No se logró establecer diferencias estadísticas entre las señales emitidas en cada grupo, sin embargo, los titíes produjeron vocalizaciones similares en los dos ambientes, con algunas variaciones en frecuencia y duración; aspectos que podrían estar influenciados por las características propias del hábitat.

  9. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni infection in naturally infected cattle of northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mirzai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium commonly infects cattle throughout the world and Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the abundance and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle herds of northwestern Iran. A total number of 246 fecal samples from 138 (56.1% diarrheic (D and 108 (43.9% non-diarrheic (ND cattle were randomly collected and examined by fecal smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen. For molecular specification, DNA was extracted from collected Cryptosporidium oocysts and a fragment of 1325 bp in size from 18S rRNA gene was amplified. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 22.3% (55/246. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in examined calves less than 6 month-old was significantly higher than adult cattle. C. parvum and C. andersoni were identified in 20.3% (50/246 and 2.03% (5/246 of examined cattle, respectively. The highest prevalence of C. parvum infection was found in D calves < 6 month-old (13.4%, 33/246, while C. andersoni was only detected in ND cattle (8.9%, 22/246. There was significant difference in the prevalence between male than female cattle. There was no significant difference between prevalence and seasons of investigation. It was concluded that C. parvum was the prevalent species in younger animals compared to older ones as a potentially zoonotic agent in the region.

  10. Naturally Occurring Egg Drop Syndrome Infection in Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Biđin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the egg quality, production, fertility and hatchability without serious clinical signs of illness was recorded in turkey fl ocks in Croatia at the beginning of 2002. It was assumed that the egg drop syndrome virus might be one of the etiological agents responsible for the abnormalities in the egg production. The systematic serological monitoring, using a haemagglutination inhibition test, showed that the antibodies to the egg drop syndrome virus existed in 94.4 and 55.1% of the sera analysed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The haemagglutination inhibition titres ranged from 16 to 128. The sera samples were randomly collected from 11 - to 46-week-old hens from the affected fl ocks. The serological evidence of the egg drop syndrome virus infection was confirmed by detection of the presence of the virus genome in the turkey sera by the polymerase chain reaction. Vaccination of the 18- and 25-week-old turkey hens against the egg drop syndrome virus started in March 2003. After this period, the presence of antibodies to the egg drop syndrome virus (the haemagglutination inhibition titres between 16 and 256 was found in 96.7% of the analysed sera, while the egg production reached normal or higher values for the Nicholas hybrid line of turkeys.

  11. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Mara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

  12. Intravascular detection of Giardia trophozoites in naturally infected mice. An electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shewy, K A; Eid, R A

    2003-06-01

    During routine transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris, an intense infection with Giardia trophozoites was demonstrated within intestinal and renal tissues. Examination of randomly taken sections from these heavily infected tissues revealed marked deep affection with mixed pathology. Duodenal sections were found loaded with Giardia trophozoites in intimate contact with necrotic gut cells. Some of these trophozoites were detected within central lacteal of damaged villi and nearby blood vessels. Interestingly, and for the first time to be demonstrated, morphologically identical G. muris trophozoite was detected in a renal blood vessel. An intense cellular immune reaction was obviously demonstrated with remarkable interaction between giant macrophages and the trophozoites particulates. Involvement of deep tissues by Giardia trophozoites and their presence within vascular channels could open up questions about the possible invasive and disseminative behavior of G. muris, particularly in heavily and naturally infected hosts.

  13. Abundance, composition and natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes from two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoya

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Natural infection of A. darlingi and A. nuneztovari indicate that these malaria vectors continue to be effective carriers of Plasmodium in the localities under study in Valle del Cauca and Chocó. Additionally, the infected A. triannulatus s.l. collected in livestock corrals in the locality of the department of Córdoba suggests the need for further studies to define the epidemiological importance of this species given its abundance and opportunistic anthropophilic behavior.

  14. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Stanek, J F; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Oglesbee, M J; Rosypal, A C; Njoku, C J; Stich, R W; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Hamir, A N; Reed, S M

    2001-10-24

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses in the Americas and Sarcocystis neurona is the most common etiologic agent. The distribution of S. neurona infections follows the geographical distributions of its definitive hosts, opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris). Recently, cats and skunks were reported as experimental and armadillos as natural intermediate hosts of S. neurona. In the present report, raccoons (Procyon lotor) were identified as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. Two laboratory-raised opossums were found to shed S. neurona-like sporocysts after ingesting tongues of naturally-infected raccoons. Interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice fed raccoon-opossum-derived sporocysts developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was identified immunohistochemically in tissues of KO mice fed sporocysts and the parasite was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with infected KO mouse tissues. The DNA obtained from the tongue of a naturally-infected raccoon, brains of KO mice that had neurological signs, and from the organisms recovered in cell cultures inoculated with brains of neurologic KO mice, corresponded to that of S. neurona. Two raccoons fed mature S. neurona sarcocysts did not shed sporocysts in their feces, indicating raccoons are not likely to be its definitive host. Two raccoons fed sporocysts from opossum feces developed clinical illness and S. neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions.

  15. Natural Killer Cell Function and Dysfunction in Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla A. Holder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses must continually adapt against dynamic innate and adaptive responses of the host immune system to establish chronic infection. Only a small minority (~20% of those exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV spontaneously clear infection, leaving approximately 200 million people worldwide chronically infected with HCV. A number of recent research studies suggest that establishment and maintenance of chronic HCV infection involve natural killer (NK cell dysfunction. This relationship is illustrated in vitro by disruption of typical NK cell responses including both cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Expression of a number of activating NK cell receptors in vivo is also affected in chronic HCV infection. Thus, direct in vivo and in vitro evidence of compromised NK function in chronic HCV infection in conjunction with significant epidemiological associations between the outcome of HCV infection and certain combinations of NK cell regulatory receptor and class I human histocompatibility linked antigen (HLA genotypes indicate that NK cells are important in the immune response against HCV infection. In this review, we highlight evidence suggesting that selective impairment of NK cell activity is related to establishment of chronic HCV infection.

  16. Detection of prions in the faeces of sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Linda A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical scrapie is a naturally transmitted prion disease of sheep and goats. Contaminated environments may contribute to the spread of disease and evidence from animal models has implicated urine, blood, saliva, placenta and faeces as possible sources of the infection. Here we sought to determine whether sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie shed prions in their faeces. We used serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA along with two extraction methods to examine faeces from sheep during both the clinical and preclinical phases of the disease and showed amplification of PrPSc in 7 of 15 and 14 of 14 sheep respectively. However PrPSc was not amplified from the faeces of 25 sheep not exposed to scrapie. These data represent the first demonstration of prion shedding in faeces from a naturally infected host and thus a likely source of prion contamination in the environment.

  17. Deformed wing virus can be transmitted during natural mating in honey bees and infect the queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina D.; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    prevalence of deformed wing virus, queens (n = 30) were trapped upon their return from natural mating flights. The last drone’s endophallus (n = 29), if present, was removed from the mated queens for deformed wing virus quantification, leading to the detection of high-level infection in 3 endophalli. After...... oviposition, viral quantification revealed that seven of the 30 queens had high-level deformed wing virus infections, in all tissues, including the semen stored in the spermathecae. Two groups of either unmated queens (n = 8) with induced egg laying, or queens (n = 12) mated in isolation with drones showing...... comparatively low deformed wing virus infections served as control. None of the control queens exhibited high-level viral infections. Our results demonstrate that deformed wing virus infected drones are competitive to mate and able to transmit the virus along with semen, which occasionally leads to queen...

  18. Leukocyte profiles for western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, naturally infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Victoria L; Lewis, William D; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Plasmodium mexicanum is a malaria parasite that naturally infects the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis , in northern California. We set out to determine whether lizards naturally infected with this malaria parasite have different leukocyte profiles, indicating an immune response to infection. We used 29 naturally infected western fence lizards paired with uninfected lizards based on sex, snout-to-vent length, tail status, and the presence-absence of ectoparasites such as ticks and mites, as well as the presence-absence of another hemoparasite, Schellackia occidentalis. Complete white blood cell (WBC) counts were conducted on blood smears stained with Giemsa, and the proportion of granulocytes per microliter of blood was estimated using the Avian Leukopet method. The abundance of each WBC class (lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in infected and uninfected lizards was compared to determine whether leukocyte densities varied with infection status. We found that the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes per microliter of blood significantly differed (P lizard's immune response to increase the levels of circulating WBCs, but what effect this has on the biology of the parasite remains unclear.

  19. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  20. Histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Araujo Carreira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. A study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with T. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. Our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infected animals but never as intense as those described in Chagas' disease or in other animal models. The parasitism in both groups was always mild with very scarce amastigote nests in the tissues. In the experimentally infected animals, the inflammation was directly related to the presence of amastigotes nests. Four 24 days-old animals, still in embryonic stage, showed multiple amastigotes nests and moderate inflammatory reactions, but even so they survived longer and presented less severe lesions than experimentally infected adult mice. Parasites were found in smooth, cardiac and/or predominantly striated muscles, as well as in nerve cells. Differing from the experimentally infected opossums parasitism in the naturally infected animals predominated in the heart, esophagus and stomach. Parasitism of the scent glands did not affect the histopathological pattern observed in extraglandular tissues.

  1. Infections by Pasteuria do not protect its natural host Daphnia magna from subsequent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The existence of immunological memory in invertebrates remains a contentious topic. Exposure of Daphnia magna crustaceans to a noninfectious dose of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa has been reported to reduce the chance of future infection upon exposure to higher doses. Using clonal hosts and parasites, we tested whether initial exposure of the host to the parasite (priming), followed by clearing of the parasite with antibiotic, protects the host from a second exposure (challenge). Our experiments included three treatments: priming and challenge with the same or with a different parasite clone, or no priming. Two independent experiments showed that both the likelihood of infection and the degree of parasite proliferation did not differ between treatments, supporting the conclusion that there is no immunological memory in this system. We discuss the possibility that previous discordant reports could result from immune or stress responses that did not fade following initial priming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical investigation of airborne infection in naturally ventilated hospital wards with central-corridor type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Qian, Hua; Liu, Li

    2018-01-01

    Natural ventilation is believed to control airborne infection due to high ventilation rates while an undesired flow pattern may cause infection transmission in hospital wards. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was carried out in this study to investigate the impact of airflow pattern....... The results not only give direct evidence to strongly support World Health Organization’s recommendation but also suggest required amendment of the Chinese standard GB 51039-2014 to improve ventilation arrangement in general hospital wards in China. Our findings are useful for improving the future design...... of general hospital wards for airborne infection control....

  3. Reemergence of the Natural History of Otolaryngologic Infections: Lessons Learned from 2 American Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, James; Schwartz, Marissa; Eisen, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines.

  4. No evidence for a protective effect of naturally induced HPV antibodies on subsequent anogenital HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Sofie H.; Landén, Olivia; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; de Melker, Hester E.; Coutinho, Roel A.; van Eeden, Arne; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether HPV serum antibodies detected after natural infection protect against subsequent anal or penile infection with the same HPV type in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011), and

  5. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

  7. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

  8. Heavy metal exposure, reproductive activity, and demographic patterns in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting a contaminated floodplain wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M.; Heske, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of selected metals and selenium (Se) in the tissues of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) collected at a constructed wetland originally created as a retention basin for sediments dredged from Lake DePue, Illinois. These sediments were contaminated with high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and other elements as a result of nearby smelting operations. White-footed mice inhabiting the former retention basin experienced greater exposure to Cd, Pb, and Se than those from nearby reference sites. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in livers of mice from the contaminated wetland and adjacent floodplain reference site were greater than in mice from the more-distant reference sites. Judging by concentrations in their kidneys, white-footed mice inhabiting the floodplain adjacent to the contaminated wetland had greater exposure to Cd than those from the two more-distant reference sites. Concentrations of Hg in tissues of mice did not vary appreciably among sites. Concentrations of Cd and Se in the tissues of some white-footed mice from the contaminated wetland exceeded critical concentrations observed in experimental studies of laboratory mice and rats; with few exceptions tissue Pb concentrations were below published effects levels. However, we did not detect changes in abundance, demographics, or reproductive activity that might suggest population-level effects of contaminant exposure. Mean weight of embryos expressed as a function of crown-rump length did not differ among locations sampled, and no gross lesions indicative of exposure to heavy metals were observed. Kidney and liver weight, corrected for body weight, were nominally, though not significantly, lowest in both male and female mice from areas of increased Cd and Pb exposure. Metals dredged from Lake DePue were still bioavailable 25 years after deposition. However, small mammal populations are resilient to environmental stressors and we did not detect differences in

  9. Experimental and natural infections in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Most Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) signal via myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4). The combined roles of these two receptor families in the course of experimental infections have been assessed in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice for almost fifteen years. These animals have been shown to be susceptible to 46 pathogens: 27 bacteria, 8 viruses, 7 parasites, and 4 fungi. Humans with inborn MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency were first identified in 2003. They suffer from naturally occurring life-threatening infections caused by a small number of bacterial species, although the incidence and severity of these infections decrease with age. Mouse TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be vital to combat a wide array of experimentally administered pathogens at most ages. By contrast, human TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be effective in the natural setting against only a few bacteria and is most important in infancy and early childhood. The roles of TLRs and IL-1Rs in protective immunity deduced from studies in mutant mice subjected to experimental infections should therefore be reconsidered in the light of findings for natural infections in humans carrying mutations as discussed in this review. PMID:23255009

  10. A bovine cell line that can be infected by natural sheep scrapie prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja M Oelschlegel

    Full Text Available Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice. We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases.

  11. Transcriptional Changes during Naturally Acquired Zika Virus Infection Render Dendritic Cells Highly Conducive to Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Hua, Stephane; Chen, Hsiao-Rong; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Einkauf, Kevin; Tse, Samantha; Ard, Kevin; Ciaranello, Andrea; Yawetz, Sigal; Sax, Paul; Rosenberg, Eric S; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Yu, Xu G

    2017-12-19

    Although dendritic cells are among the human cell population best equipped for cell-intrinsic antiviral immune defense, they seem highly susceptible to infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using highly purified myeloid dendritic cells isolated from individuals with naturally acquired acute infection, we here show that ZIKV induces profound perturbations of transcriptional signatures relative to healthy donors. Interestingly, we noted a remarkable downregulation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes and innate immune sensors, suggesting that ZIKV can actively suppress interferon-dependent immune responses. In contrast, several host factors known to support ZIKV infection were strongly upregulated during natural ZIKV infection; these transcripts included AXL, the main entry receptor for ZIKV; SOCS3, a negative regulator of ISG expression; and IDO-1, a recognized inducer of regulatory T cell responses. Thus, during in vivo infection, ZIKV can transform the transcriptome of dendritic cells in favor of the virus to render these cells highly conducive to ZIKV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) as potential antiviral treatment in naturally BQCV infected honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Adriana C; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Erler, Silvio

    2016-08-15

    Viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. Apart from their innate immune system, including the RNAi machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of Laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with BQCV (Black queen cell virus). Total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1mg/ml). Higher extract concentrations (≥5mg/ml) significantly reduced virus replication. Measuring vitellogenin gene expression as an indicator for transcript homeostasis revealed constant RNA levels before and after treatment, suggesting that its expression was not impacted by the L. nobilis treatment. In conclusion, plant secondary metabolites can reduce virus loads and virus replication in naturally infected honeybees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural infection of the sand fly Phlebotomus kazeruni by Trypanosoma species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural infection of phlebotomine sand flies by Leishmania parasites was surveyed in a desert area of Pakistan where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Out of 220 female sand flies dissected, one sand fly, Phlebotomus kazeruni, was positive for flagellates in the hindgut. Analyses of cytochrome b (cyt b, glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences identified the parasite as a Trypanosoma species of probably a reptile or amphibian. This is the first report of phlebotomine sand flies naturally infected with a Trypanosoma species in Pakistan. The possible infection of sand flies with Trypanosoma species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  14. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks.

  15. Protective Effect of Natural Rotavirus Infection in an Indian Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Beryl P.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Rehman, Andrea M.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Gomara, Miren Iturriza; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.G.; Desselberger, Ulrich; Crawford, Sue E.; John, Jacob; Babji, Sudhir; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in India. Two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in Mexico. We studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in India (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has been lower than expected). METHODS We recruited children at birth in urban slums in Vellore; they were followed for 3 years after birth, with home visits twice weekly. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks, as well as on alternate days during diarrheal episodes, and were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Serum samples were obtained every 6 months and evaluated for seroconversion, defined as an increase in the IgG antibody level by a factor of 4 or in the IgA antibody level by a factor of 3. RESULTS Of 452 recruited children, 373 completed 3 years of follow-up. Rotavirus infection generally occurred early in life, with 56% of children infected by 6 months of age. Levels of reinfection were high, with only approximately 30% of all infections identified being primary. Protection against moderate or severe disease increased with the order of infection but was only 79% after three infections. With G1P[8], the most common viral strain, there was no evidence of homotypic protection. CONCLUSIONS Early infection and frequent reinfection in a locale with high viral diversity resulted in lower protection than has been reported elsewhere, providing a possible explanation why rotavirus vaccines have had lower-than-expected efficacy in Asia and Africa. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust.) PMID:21793745

  16. Human natural killer cells prevent infectious mononucleosis features by targeting lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijioke, Obinna; Müller, Anne; Feederle, Regina; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Krieg, Carsten; Emmel, Vanessa; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Leung, Carol S; Antsiferova, Olga; Landtwing, Vanessa; Bossart, Walter; Moretta, Alessandro; Hassan, Rocio; Boyman, Onur; Niedobitek, Gerald; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Capaul, Riccarda; Münz, Christian

    2013-12-26

    Primary infection with the human oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can result in infectious mononucleosis (IM), a self-limiting disease caused by massive lymphocyte expansion that predisposes for the development of distinct EBV-associated lymphomas. Why some individuals experience this symptomatic primary EBV infection, whereas the majority acquires the virus asymptomatically, remains unclear. Using a mouse model with reconstituted human immune system components, we show that depletion of human natural killer (NK) cells enhances IM symptoms and promotes EBV-associated tumorigenesis mainly because of a loss of immune control over lytic EBV infection. These data suggest that failure of innate immune control by human NK cells augments symptomatic lytic EBV infection, which drives lymphocyte expansion and predisposes for EBV-associated malignancies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Natural Killer Cells Prevent Infectious Mononucleosis Features by Targeting Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna Chijioke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with the human oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV can result in infectious mononucleosis (IM, a self-limiting disease caused by massive lymphocyte expansion that predisposes for the development of distinct EBV-associated lymphomas. Why some individuals experience this symptomatic primary EBV infection, whereas the majority acquires the virus asymptomatically, remains unclear. Using a mouse model with reconstituted human immune system components, we show that depletion of human natural killer (NK cells enhances IM symptoms and promotes EBV-associated tumorigenesis mainly because of a loss of immune control over lytic EBV infection. These data suggest that failure of innate immune control by human NK cells augments symptomatic lytic EBV infection, which drives lymphocyte expansion and predisposes for EBV-associated malignancies.

  18. Role of natural killer cells in innate protection against lethal ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Perkins, Jeremy G; Swenson, Dana L; Deal, Emily M; Bosio, Catharine M; Aman, M Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Young, Howard A; Bavari, Sina

    2004-07-19

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1-3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injection enhanced the numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in lymphoid tissues. In contrast to live Ebola virus, VLP treatment of NK cells enhanced cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive targets. Unlike wild-type mice, treatment of NK-deficient or -depleted mice with VLPs had no protective effect against Ebola virus infection and NK cells treated with VLPs protected against Ebola virus infection when adoptively transferred to naive mice. The mechanism of NK cell-mediated protection clearly depended on perforin, but not interferon-gamma secretion. Particles containing only VP40 were sufficient to induce NK cell responses and provide protection from infection in the absence of the viral GP. These findings revealed a decisive role for NK cells during lethal Ebola virus infection. This work should open new doors for better understanding of Ebola virus pathogenesis and direct the development of immunotherapeutics, which target the innate immune system, for treatment of Ebola virus infection.

  19. Neurodegenerative and Fatiguing Illnesses, Infections and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Use of Natural Supplements to Improve Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many chronic diseases and illnesses are associated with one or more chronic infections, dysfunction of mitochondria and reduced production of ATP. This results in fatigue and other symptoms that occur in most if not all chronic conditions and diseases. Methods: This is a review of the published literature on chronic infections in neurodegenerative diseases and fatiguing illnesses that are also typified by mitochondrial dysfunction. This contribution also reviews the use of natural supplements to enhance mitochondrial function and reduce the effects of chronic infections to improve overall function in various chronic illnesses. Results: Mitochondrial function can be enhanced by the use of various natural supplements, notably Lipid Replacement Therapy (LRT using glyerolphospholipids and other mitochondrial supplements. In various chronic illnesses that are characterized by the presence of chronic infections, such as intracellular bacteria (Mycoplasma, Borrelia, Chlamydia and other infections and viruses, LRT has proven useful in multiple clinical trials. For example, in clinical studies on chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome and other chronic fatiguing illnesses where a large majority of patients have chronic infections, LRT significantly reduced fatigue by 35-43% in different clinical trials and increased mitochondrial function. In clinical trials on patients with multiple intracellular bacterial infections and intractable fatigue LRT plus other mitochondrial supplements significantly decreased fatigue and improved mood and cognition. Conclusions: LRT formulations designed to improve mitochondrial function appear to be useful as non-toxic dietary supplements for reducing fatigue and restoring mitochondrial and other cellular membrane functions in patients with chronic illnesses and multiple chronic infections.

  20. Asymptomatic cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis present exacerbated tissue pathology and bacterial dissemination.

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    Álvaro Menin

    Full Text Available Rational discovery of novel immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate antigens to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB requires knowledge of disease immunopathogenesis. However, there remains a paucity of information on the Mycobacterium bovis-host immune interactions during the natural infection. Analysis of 247 naturally PPD+ M. bovis-infected cattle revealed that 92% (n = 228 of these animals were found to display no clinical signs, but presented severe as well as disseminated bTB-lesions at post-mortem examination. Moreover, dissemination of bTB-lesions positively correlated with both pathology severity score (Spearman r = 0.48; p<0.0001 and viable tissue bacterial loads (Spearman r = 0.58; p = 0.0001. Additionally, granuloma encapsulation negatively correlated with M. bovis growth as well as pathology severity, suggesting that encapsulation is an effective mechanism to control bacterial proliferation during natural infection. Moreover, multinucleated giant cell numbers were found to negatively correlate with bacterial counts (Spearman r = 0.25; p = 0.03 in lung granulomas. In contrast, neutrophil numbers in the granuloma were associated with increased M. bovis proliferation (Spearman r = 0.27; p = 0.021. Together, our findings suggest that encapsulation and multinucleated giant cells control M. bovis viability, whereas neutrophils may serve as a cellular biomarker of bacterial proliferation during natural infection. These data integrate host granuloma responses with mycobacterial dissemination and could provide useful immunopathological-based biomarkers of disease severity in natural infection with M. bovis, an important cattle pathogen.

  1. Intradermal tuberculin testing of wild African lions (Panthera leo) naturally exposed to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, D F; Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Becker, P; van Dyk, D S; van Vuuren, M; Rutten, V P M G; Penzhorn, B L

    2010-08-26

    African lions in the southern half of Kruger National Park (KNP) are infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Historically, reliable detection of mycobacteriosis in lions was limited to necropsy and microbiological analysis of lesion material collected from emaciated and ailing or repeat-offender lions. We report on a method of cervical intradermal tuberculin testing of lions and its interpretation capable of identifying natural exposure to M. bovis. Infected lions (n=52/95) were identified by detailed necropsy and mycobacterial culture. A large proportion of these confirmed infected lions (45/52) showed distinct responses to bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) while responses to avian tuberculin PPD were variable and smaller. Confirmed uninfected lions from non-infected areas (n=11) responded variably to avian tuberculin PPD only. Various non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were cultured from 45/95 lions examined, of which 21/45 were co-infected with M. bovis. Co-infection with M. bovis and NTM did not influence skin reactions to bovine tuberculin PPD. Avian tuberculin PPD skin reactions were larger in M. bovis-infected lions compared to uninfected ones. Since NTM co-infections are likely to influence the outcome of skin testing, stricter test interpretation criteria were applied. When test data of bovine tuberculin PPD tests were considered on their own, as for a single skin test, sensitivity increased (80.8-86.5%) but false positive rate for true negatives (18.75%) remained unchanged. Finally, the adapted skin test procedure was shown not to be impeded by persistent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus(Ple) co-infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis.

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    Paiva, Philipp Ricardo S O; Grego, Kathleen F; Lima, Valéria M F; Nakamura, Alex A; da Silva, Deuvânia C; Meireles, Marcelo V

    2013-11-15

    Infection by Cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. The objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against C. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, parasitological, and humoral immune response in snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis. Twenty-one snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis and housed at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, underwent clinical and parasitological analyses for C. serpentis infection through daily records of clinical signs and a monthly survey of fecal shedding of oocysts using the Kinyoun's acid-fast staining. The serological evaluation was performed monthly by indirect ELISA using crude total antigen from oocysts of C. serpentis to detect anti-C. serpentis antibodies. Clinical symptoms consisted of food regurgitation, inappetence, and progressive weight loss. The parasitological analysis revealed intermittent fecal shedding of a variable number of oocysts in all snakes, with positivity in 85.32% (157/184) of the samples. The indirect ELISA was positive in 68.25% (86/126) of the samples. A humoral immune response was observed in most animals; however, fluctuating antibodies levels, leading to alternating positive and negative results, were observed in most snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India.

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    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  4. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  5. Naturally infected Lutzomyia sand flies in a Leishmania-endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Andrade Filho, Jose D; Falcao, Alda L; Rocha Lima, Ana C V M; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2008-06-01

    In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, giving rise to different transmission cycles. The present study focused on naturally infected phlebotomines originating from Santa Luzia, a municipality near Belo Horizonte, capital of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, in which leishmaniasis are endemic. Systematic and non systematic approaches,involving the use of light traps and direct aspiration from resting sites, respectively, were used to collect females and flies. Identification of the captured insects and determination of natural infection by Leishmania spp. were performed using both conventional dissection methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dissection of 102 sand flies allowed five species of Lutzomyia to be identified, although no flagellate parasite forms were observed.In addition, 211 sand flies were identified, were separated according to species, and were combined into 11 pools of up to 20 individuals each. PCR analyses showed that two of these pools were infected with Leishmania:one pool of Lu. whitmani was infected with Le. (Viannia) spp. and another of Lu. cortelezzii was infected with Le. chagasi. This suggests that Lu. whitmani may be a possible vector of Leishmania in the study area, and more work needs to be performed to assess the role of Lu. cortelezzii as a vector.

  6. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  7. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-03-23

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n=17) and Memphis, TN (n=27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P<0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P=0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as 'healthy' and 'not healthy' at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P<0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization of tuberculous lesions in sheep naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Raquel; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Juste, Ramón Antonio; Muñoz-Mendoza, Marta; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Balseiro, Ana

    2018-05-04

    Sheep have been traditionally considered as less susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (Mbovis) infection than other domestic ruminants such as cattle and goats. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of this species as a domestic Mbovis reservoir, mostly when sheep share grazing fields with infected cattle and goats. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the pathogenesis and the immune response of Mbovis infection in sheep. The goals of this study were to characterize the granuloma stages produced by the natural infection of Mbovis in sheep, to compare them with other species and to identify possible differences in the sheep immune response. Samples from bronchial lymph nodes from twelve Mbovis-naturally infected sheep were used. Four immunohistochemical protocols for the specific detection of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages were performed to study the local immune reaction within the granulomas. Differences were observed in the predominant cell type present in each type of granuloma, as well as differences and similarities with the development of tuberculous granulomas in other species. Very low numbers of T-lymphocytes were observed in all granuloma types indicating that specific cellular immune response mediated by T-cells might not be of much importance in sheep in the early stages of infection, when macrophages are the predominant cell type within lesions. Plasma cells and mainly B lymphocytes increased considerably as the granuloma developed being attracted to the lesions in a shift towards a Th2 response against the increasing amounts of mycobacteria. Therefore, we have proposed that the granulomas could be defined as initial, developed and terminal. Results showed that the study of the lymphoid tissue granulomata reinforces the view that the three different types of granuloma represent stages of lesion progression and suggest an explanation to the higher resistance of sheep based on a higher effective innate

  9. IL-15 STIMULATED NATURAL KILLER CELLS CLEAR HIV-1 INFECTED CELLS FOLLOWING LATENCY REVERSAL EX VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Carolina; Abad-Fernandez, Maria; Tuyishime, Marina; Pollara, Justin J; Ferrari, Guido; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M

    2018-03-28

    Current efforts towards HIV eradication include approaches to augment immune recognition and elimination of persistently infected cells following latency reversal. Natural killer (NK) cells, the main effectors of the innate immune system, recognize and clear targets using different mechanisms than CD8 + T cells, offering an alternative or complementary approach for HIV clearance strategies. We assessed the impact of IL-15 treatment on NK cell function and the potential of stimulated NK cells to clear the HIV reservoir. We measured NK cell receptor expression, antibody-dependent cell-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and antiviral activity in autologous HIV replication systems. All NK cell functions were uniformly improved by IL-15, and more importantly, IL-15-treated NK cells were able to clear latently HIV infected cells after exposure to vorinostat, a clinically relevant latency reversing agent. We also demonstrate that NK cells from HIV infected individuals aviremic on antiretroviral therapy can be efficiently stimulated with IL-15. Our work opens a promising line of investigation towards future immunotherapies to clear persistent HIV infection using NK cells. IMPORTANCE In the search for an HIV cure, strategies to enhance immune function to allow recognition and clearance of HIV infected cells following latency reversal are being evaluated. Natural killer (NK) cells possess characteristics that can be exploited for immunotherapy against persistent HIV infection. We demonstrate that NK cells from HIV-positive donors can be strongly stimulated with IL-15, improving their antiviral and cytotoxic potential, and more importantly, clearing HIV infected cells after latency reversal with a clinically relevant drug. Our results encourage further investigation to design NK cell-based immunotherapies to achieve HIV eradication. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Pathology and morphology of Ichthyophonus hoferi in naturally infected fishes off the Swedish west coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, H

    1998-10-08

    The pathology and morphology of Ichthyophonus hoferi was studied in naturally infected Atlantic herring Clupea harengus, in sprat Sprattus sprattus, and in flounder Pleuronectes flesus from the west coast of Sweden. The pathogen was found in all organs examined, with the intensity of infection varying in different organs of the different fish species. Two main phases in the life of infecting parasites were identified, 'active' and 'passive', the latter being able to switch to active. The active phase of the infection in herring was usually accompanied by a lean and slender appearance of the body, a drastic decrease in intestinal fat, emaciation of the somatic muscles, swelling of the visceral organs, poor quality of flesh texture and a distinctive off-odour. The most characteristic macroscopic sign of ichthyophonosis in herring and flounder was the occurrence of creamy white nodules on the heart. The infection causes a chronic systemic granulomatous inflammation. The nature of the granulomatous inflammation was host- and tissue-dependent. The pathogenicity of the parasite in its active form and the side effects of host defence cells were also reflected in dramatic tissue damage and loss of structure and function of the infected organs. Three kinds of spores were identified: 'un-developing spore', 'developing spore' and 'plasmodio-spore'. The formation and spread of 'plasmodia', from plasmodio-spores, as a secondary infection agent is documented. Transmission electron microscopy revealed I. hoferi to be multinucleated, containing different organelles and structures. These included a cell wall, an undulating cell membrane, a thin paramural endoplasm, an endoplasmic reticulum, polymorphic but usually spherical mitochondria with short tubulo-vesicular cristae, dictyosomes with plate-like cristernae, large electron-dense lipid droplets and electron-lucid vacuoles, probably containing glycogen.

  11. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ann P; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2010-04-19

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by staining with S. neurona-specific antibodies, and by phylogenetic analyses of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. On the basis of intense schizogony in the nasal mucosa, we propose the possibility of an olfactory nerve pathway route of infection for S. neurona meningoencephalitis.

  12. Natural Infection of the South American Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Alexandre Welzel; De Oliveira, Gustavo Gomes; Menezes Santos, Leandro; da Silva Azuaga, Lucas Bezerra; Macedo Coutinho, Claudia Regina; Echeverria, Jessica Teles; Antunes, Tamires Ramborger; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Izabel de Souza, Alda

    2017-04-01

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by T. equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals.

  13. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai and Lutzomyia sallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Quaresma, Patrícia F; Lima, Ana C V M R; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2009-09-01

    Natural infections with Leishmania were found in females of the phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Nyssomyia neivai) and Lutzomyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho) (= Evandromyia sallesi) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lassance, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Promastigotes were found in the pyloric region of the former species and in the abdominal midgut of the latter species. Insects found to be infected by microscopic examination were macerated in saline solution and inoculated into hamsters. Subsequent analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed both isolates to belong to the species Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas.

  14. Hepatitis C infection in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders: epidemiology, natural history, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Argiana, Vasiliki; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary bleeding disorders include a group of diseases with abnormalities of coagulation. Prior to 1990, infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was mainly transmitted via pooled plasma products as a treatment for hereditary bleeding disorders. Anti-HCV positivity in these patients may be as high as >70% in some areas, while some of them have also been coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Since about 20% of HCV-infected patients clear the infection naturally, chronic HCV infection represents a significant health problem in this group of patients. Mortality due to chronic HCV infection is estimated to be >10 times higher in patients with hemophilia than in the general population, and is mainly due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The antiviral treatment of HCV in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders is not different from that of any other infected patients. Nevertheless, many patients with hereditary bleeding disorders have declined (Peg)interferon-based treatment because of side effects. In recent years, multiple orally administrated direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved for HCV treatment. Unfortunately, there is not much experience from treating these patients with DAA regimens, as major studies and real-life data did not include adequate numbers of patients with inherited hemorrhagic disorders. However, the available data indicate that DAAs have an excellent safety profile with a sustained virological response rate of >90%.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi: partial prevention of the natural infection of guinea pigs with a killed parasite vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basombrio, M A

    1990-07-01

    Guinea pigs are natural reservoirs of Chagas' disease. Domestic breeding and local trade of these animals are common practices among andean communities in South America. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi occurs when the animals live in triatomine-infested houses or yards. The preventive effect of a vaccine consisting of cultured T. cruzi killed by freezing and thawing plus saponin was tested both in mice and in the guinea pig ecosystem. Resistance against T. cruzi challenge in mice was improved by increasing the trypomastigote/epimastigote ratio in live attenuated vaccines but not in killed parasite vaccines. Although the killing of attenuated parasites sharply reduced their immunogenicity for mice, a protective effect against natural T. cruzi infection was detected in guinea pigs. A total of 88 guinea pigs were vaccinated in four intradermal sites on three occasions. Eighty controls received similar inoculations of culture medium plus saponin. All animals were kept in a triatomine-infested yard. Parasitemia was studied with the capillary microhematocrit method. After an exposure time averaging 4 months, natural T. cruzi infection occurred in 55% (44/80) of the controls and in 33% (29/88) of the vaccinated group (P less than 0.01). The number of highly parasitemic guinea pigs was also significantly decreased (6/80 vs 0/88, P less than 0.01). Thus, immunizing protocols which are only partially protective against artificial callenge with T. cruzi may nevertheless constrain the exchange of parasites between natural hosts and vectors.

  16. Role of Natural Killer and Gamma-Delta T cells in West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Welte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells and Gamma-delta T cells are both innate lymphocytes that respond rapidly and non-specifically to viral infection and other pathogens. They are also known to form a unique link between innate and adaptive immunity. Although they have similar immune features and effector functions, accumulating evidence in mice and humans suggest these two cell types have distinct roles in the control of infection by West Nile virus (WNV, a re-emerging pathogen that has caused fatal encephalitis in North America over the past decade. This review will discuss recent studies on these two cell types in protective immunity and viral pathogenesis during WNV infection.

  17. Verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by PCV2 on commercial swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Albanno Leonard Braz Campos; Bulos, Luiz Henrique Silva; Onofre, Thiago Souza; de Paula Gabardo, Michelle; de Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Guedes, Roberto Maurício Carvalho; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2013-06-01

    The porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Few studies have been done regarding PCV2 infection in other species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PCV2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in Brazil. Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated PCV2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. Viral DNA was detected in tissues by nested PCR assay. Partial sequences of PCV2 genomes detected in the rodents had strong identity with gene sequences of PCV2 isolates from pigs. These results show that the studied peridomestic rodent species can be naturally infected by PCV2. However, further studies are needed to confirm PCV2 transmission from rodents to pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii: infection natural congenital in cattle and an experimental inoculation of gestating cows with oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo Henrique Nogueira; da Costa, Alvimar José; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Esper, César Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista

    2011-01-01

    Two studies, of a natural infection and an experimental infection, were performed in order to study congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle. In the first study, 50 fetuses were harvested from gestating cows that were eutanasied at a municipal slaughterhouse in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the second study, 11 gestating cows were divided into four groups for inoculation with T. gondii: GI consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their first trimester of gestation; GII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their second trimester of gestation; GIII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their last trimester of gestation; and GIV consisted of two control cows, one during its first and the other during its second trimester of gestation. In both studies, the presence of T. gondii was confirmed both indirectly by immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). In the natural infection experiment, 18% (9/50) of the gestating cows were confirmed to have specific antibodies (IFAT--1:64) against T. gondii. The bioassay was able to diagnose the presence of T. gondii in the tissue samples from three calves. In the second experiment, the nine cows from groups I, II and III presented with specific antibodies (IFAT) against T. gondii. In contrast, T. gondii could not be detected by IFAT, histopathological examination or the bioassay in any of the nine calves born to cows experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts. Based on the results from both studies, we conclude that congenital infection of T. gondii in cattle, while infrequent, does occur naturally. The pathogenicity of the strain of T. gondii may influence the likelihood of this route of transmission. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Forkman, Björn

    2017-02-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social and feeding behaviours as well as the pattern of activity as indicators of reduced welfare in naturally infected sows. In total 13 T. solium naturally infected and 15 non-infected control sows were videotaped for 2 consecutive weeks using close circuit television cameras at research facilities at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Videos were analysed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the 2 week recording period. For each time point, videos were analysed during feeding, while the enrichment was provided, and by recording every half an hour the sows' behaviours performed over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed as this has so far been neglected. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  1. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J R; Rosypal, A C; Rosenthal, B M; Thomas, N J; Lindsay, D S; Stanek, J F; Reed, S M; Saville, W J

    2001-12-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 microm long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 microm long and up to 0.25 microm wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  2. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  3. Natural infection of the opossum Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia, Didelphidae with Leishmania donovani, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available An opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Jacobina, bahia State, was found naturally infected with Leishmania donovani, being the first non-canid wild mammal to be detected with agent of kala-azar in the New World.Um gambá, Didelphis albiventris, de Jacobina, Bahia, foi encontrado com infecção natural pela Leishmania donovani, sendo o primeiro mamífero silvestre não-canídeo a ser achado com o agente do calazar nas Américas.

  4. Description of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    PAŞA, Serdar; KIRAL, Funda; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; ATASOY, Abidin; SEYREK, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings recorded in 10 dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey were reported. The diagnosis was made by finding H. canis gamonts within leucocytes in Giemsa-stained blood smears. H. canis parasitaemia level was calculated manually by counting 500 neutrophils in blood smears. Parasitaemia varied from 1% to 23% of the circulating neutrophils. Anorexia, fever, depression, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy are the main clinical signs in...

  5. Oocysts of Hepatozoon canis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from a naturally infected dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Renata Lima; de Castro, Jacqueline Ribeiro; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Mundim, Antonio Vicente; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Eyal, Osnat; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Baneth, Gad

    2011-05-11

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon. Several tick species have been implicated as potential vectors. Therefore, extensive studies are needed to determine the 'natural' endemic cycle of this parasite. This paper presents the first report of the presence of Hepatozoon canis oocysts in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from an infected dog. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. First Case of Natural Infection in Pigs: Review of Trypanosoma cruzi Reservoirs in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz María Salazar-Schettino

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa, the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris. This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi

  7. Abundance, composition and natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes from two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Montoya; Priscila Bascuñán; Julián Rodríguez-Zabala; Margarita M. Correa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In Colombia there are three Anopheles species implicated in malaria transmission as primary vectors; however, the local role of some Anopheles species must still be defined. Objective: To determine the abundance, composition and natural infection rates for Anopheles mosquitoes with Plasmodium spp. in two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Materials and methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using the human-landing catches and while resting in livestock corrals in n...

  8. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  9. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC SITUATION BY NATURAL-FOCI INFECTIONS IN THE CRIMEA FEDERAL DISTRICT IN 2014-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A-Yu; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Shaposhnikova, L I; Kotenev, E S; Dubyansky, V M; Volynkina, A S; Lisitskaya, Ya V; Samarina, I V; Penkovskaya, N A; Evstafiev, I L; Tovpinets, N N; Tsapko, N V; Belova, O A; Agapitov, D S; Samoded, T N; Nadolny, A A; Kovalenko, I S; Yakunin, S N; Shvarsalon, N K; Zinich, L S; Tikhonov, S N; Lyamkin, G I; Zharnikova, I V; Evchenko, Yu M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of epidemic manifestations of natural-foci infections (NFI), clarification of spectrum of their causative agents, determination of epizootic activity of natural foci in the Crimea Federal District (KFD). Epizootologic examination of 10 administrative districts of KDF was carried out. 291 pools (2705 specimens) of ixodes ticks and 283 samples of organs of small mammals were studied by PCRmethod for the presence of DNA/RNA of causative agents of a number of NFI. Morbidity by NFI in KFD was registered by 6 nosologies: Lyme borreliosis, Marseilles fever, leptospirosis; tularemia, intestine yersiniosis and tick-borne viral encephalitis, wherein, transmissive infections made up 91.6%. Circulation of causative agents of Crimea hemorrhagic fever, Q fever, group of tick-borne spotted fever, Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, West Nile fever, tularemia and leptospirosis was established. Due to activity of natural foci of NFI further monitoring of epidemiologic and epizootologic manifestations of these infections in the Crimea, including using genetic methods of analysis, is necessary for ensuring sanitary-epidemiologic welfare of KFD population.

  10. Naturally induced humoral immunity to West Nile virus infection in raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Kratz, Gail E; Bates, Rebecca; Scherpelz, Judy A; Bowen, Richard A; Komar, Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection can be fatal to many bird species, including numerous raptors, though population- and ecosystem-level impacts following introduction of the virus to North America have been difficult to document. Raptors occupy a diverse array of habitats worldwide and are important to ecosystems for their role as opportunistic predators. We documented initial (primary) WNV infection and then regularly measured WNV-specific neutralizing antibody titers in 16 resident raptors of seven species, plus one turkey vulture. Most individuals were initially infected and seroconverted between July and September of 2003, though three birds remained seronegative until summer 2006. Many of these birds became clinically ill upon primary infection, with clinical signs ranging from loss of appetite to moderate neurological disease. Naturally induced WNV neutralizing antibody titers remained essentially unchanged in some birds, while eight individuals experienced secondary rises in titer presumably due to additional exposures at 1, 2, or 3 years following primary infection. No birds experienced clinical signs surrounding or following the time of secondary exposure, and therefore antibodies were considered protective. Results of this study have implications for transmission dynamics of WNV and health of raptor populations, as well as the interpretation of serologic data from free-ranging and captive birds. Antibodies in raptors surviving WNV may persist for multiple years and protect against potential adverse effects of subsequent exposures.

  11. Zika and Chikungunya virus detection in naturally infected Aedes aegypti in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Varsovia; Ponce, Patricio; Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Coloma, Josefina; Quiroga, Cristina; Morales, Diego; Cárdenas, Maria José

    2018-01-01

    The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Johansen, Maria V

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly lower (psolium infected (4.7±3.0pg/mg) compared to control pigs (9.0±3.7pg/mg) prior to arrival at the research facility, however no significant difference was observed between the two groups at arrival and after approximately two weeks. Similar patterns were also observed for DHEA concentrations (infected pigs 253.9±82.3pg/mg, control pigs 387.7±116.4pg/mg) (p<0.001). Results showed that lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural Babesia bovis Infection in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and Crossbred Cattle under Field Conditions in Egypt: a Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Mahmmod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt.A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group.Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle.This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes.

  14. Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffin, Elien Rl; Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; De Roover, Katrien; Van de Maele, Isabel; Saunders, Jimmy H; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats. Methods Data from client-owned, naturally infected FIV-positive cats were retrospectively reviewed. To obtain a control group, records were reviewed from age-matched, privately owned, FIV-negative cats. Results Data from 91 FIV-infected and 113 control cats were compared. FIV-infected cats showed a significantly lower SBP ( P 0.4) occurred more frequently in FIV-infected cats ( P <0.001). Renal ultrasonography showed abnormalities in 60/91 FIV-infected cats, with hyperechogenic cortices in 39/91 and enlarged kidneys in 31/91. Conclusions and relevance Hypertension can be excluded as a common cause of renal damage leading to proteinuria in FIV-infected cats. Proteinuria and poorly concentrated urine are common in naturally infected FIV-positive cats, in contrast to azotaemia. Clinicians should cautiously interpret ultrasonographic abnormalities as these occur in over half of FIV-infected cats.

  15. Histological assessment of granulomas in natural and experimental Schistosoma mansoni infections using whole slide imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia B Amaral

    Full Text Available The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, evaluation of granulomas by conventional microscopy methods is time-consuming and limited, especially in large-scale studies. Here, we used high resolution Whole Slide Imaging (WSI, which allows fast scanning of entire histological slides, and multiple morphometric evaluations, to assess the granulomatous response elicited in target organs (liver, small and large intestines of two models of schistosomiasis mansoni. One of the advantages of WSI, also termed virtual microscopy, is that it generates images that simultaneously offer high resolution and a wide field of observation. By using a model of natural (Nectomys squamipes, a wild reservoir captured from endemic areas in Brazil and experimental (Swiss mouse infection with Schistosoma mansoni, we provided the first detailed WSI characterization of granulomas and other pathological aspects. WSI and quantitative analyses enabled a fast and reliable assessment of the number, evolutional types, frequency and areas of granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates and revealed that target organs are differentially impacted by inflammatory responses in the natural and experimental infections. Remarkably, high-resolution analysis of individual eosinophils, key cells elicited by this helminthic infection, showed a great difference in eosinophil numbers between the two infections. Moreover, features such as the intestinal egg path and confluent granulomas were uncovered. Thus, WSI may

  16. Antibody response between pigs of Piau and a commercial breed naturally infected with Porcine circovirus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.S. Bulos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pig population is made up of several naturalized breeds; among them the Piau breed is known for its rusticity and large fat stores. The naturalized breeds, in comparison with commercial ones, may have an increased resistance to diseases circulating in their territory. Thus, this study aimed to verify if there are differences between the serologic profile against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 of Piau pigs and that of a commercial breed from a farm naturally infected by PCV2. The serum viral load was measured by qPCR, and levels of anti-PCV2 antibodies were measured by ELISA. The results showed that the serum viral load was similar across all animals. However, Piau piglets showed higher levels of antibodies compared to commercial piglets (P= 0.05, while sows of the commercial breed showed higher levels than the Piau breed (P< 0.01. There was not a statistical difference between pigs of different production stages in the seroprevalence of PCV2 or the blood viral load. This work demonstrates that, with regard to a natural PCV2 infection, the Piau breed has a different humoral immune response compared to the response developed by the commercial pigs. The results support the importance of conservation of native breeds.

  17. Widespread recombination, reassortment, and transmission of unbalanced compound viral genotypes in natural arenavirus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Stenglein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are one of the largest families of human hemorrhagic fever viruses and are known to infect both mammals and snakes. Arenaviruses package a large (L and small (S genome segment in their virions. For segmented RNA viruses like these, novel genotypes can be generated through mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Although it is believed that an ancient recombination event led to the emergence of a new lineage of mammalian arenaviruses, neither recombination nor reassortment has been definitively documented in natural arenavirus infections. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to survey the viral diversity present in captive arenavirus-infected snakes. From 48 infected animals, we determined the complete or near complete sequence of 210 genome segments that grouped into 23 L and 11 S genotypes. The majority of snakes were multiply infected, with up to 4 distinct S and 11 distinct L segment genotypes in individual animals. This S/L imbalance was typical: in all cases intrahost L segment genotypes outnumbered S genotypes, and a particular S segment genotype dominated in individual animals and at a population level. We corroborated sequencing results by qRT-PCR and virus isolation, and isolates replicated as ensembles in culture. Numerous instances of recombination and reassortment were detected, including recombinant segments with unusual organizations featuring 2 intergenic regions and superfluous content, which were capable of stable replication and transmission despite their atypical structures. Overall, this represents intrahost diversity of an extent and form that goes well beyond what has been observed for arenaviruses or for viruses in general. This diversity can be plausibly attributed to the captive intermingling of sub-clinically infected wild-caught snakes. Thus, beyond providing a unique opportunity to study arenavirus evolution and adaptation, these findings allow the investigation of unintended anthropogenic impacts on

  18. Natural history of polyomaviruses in men: the HPV infection in men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Giuliano, Anna R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J; Abrahamsen, Martha E; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E

    2015-05-01

    Several new polyomaviruses have been discovered in the last decade, including Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Little is known about the natural history of the more recently discovered polyomaviruses. We estimated the incidence, prevalence, and persistence of 9 polyomaviruses (MCPyV, BK polyomavirus, KI polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus, WU polyomavirus, Human polyomavirus 6 [HPyV6], HPyV7, HPyV9, and Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus) and examined factors associated with MCPyV infection in a prospective cohort of 209 men initially enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study. Participants enrolled at the US site of the HIM study were recruited into a substudy of cutaneous viral infections and followed for a median of 12.6 months. Eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens were obtained at each study visit, and the viral DNA load was measured using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. MCPyV infection showed the highest prevalence (65.1% of normal skin swab specimens and 30.6% of eyebrow hair specimens), incidence (81.7 cases per 1000 person-months among normal skin swab specimens, and 24.1 cases per 1000 person-months among eyebrow hair specimens), and persistence (85.8% of normal skin swab specimens and 58.9% of eyebrow hair specimens) among all polyomaviruses examined. Age of >44 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.33) and Hispanic race (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.01-6.88) were associated with an increased prevalence of MCPyV infection in eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens, respectively. MCPyV infection is highly prevalent in adults, with age and race being predisposing factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Metabolic cues for puberty onset in free grazing Holstein heifers naturally infected with nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torga, G S; Mejia, M E; González-Iglesias, A; Formia, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2001-07-01

    Leptin is a new plausible candidate for the molecular link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. In previous studies we described that continuous natural nematode infections in heifers retarded growth and delayed the onset of puberty, and that the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was involved. In the present study we monitored the leptin levels during development in heifers naturally parasitized versus those chronically treated with ivermectin and we investigated whether growth hormone (GH) accounted for the differences in IGF-I previously noted. Insulin levels were also measured. Prolactin hormone was recorded as an indicator of immune system activation. We found a direct correlation between leptin and body weight during development and a prepubertal surge of the hormone 2 weeks before the first progesterone peak that indicates the onset of puberty. This suggests that leptin may act as a signal for this event. Insulin did not vary during growth and prepuberty. On the other hand, GH as not responsible for diminished IGF-I levels in parasitized animals as levels were similar in both groups. The GH levels were high at birth and then diminished rapidly and remained constant during development and puberty. The last hormone studied, prolactin, followed seasonal changes of sunlight duration and presented sporadic bursts in infected animals. These were related to high nematode infection and are probably involved in the immune response of the host.

  20. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  1. Evaluation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis SO2 vaccine using a natural tuberculosis infection model in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, J; Casal, C; Álvarez, J; Roy, A; Romero, B; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Bárcena, C; Díez, A; Juste, R; Gortázar, C; Puentes, E; Aguiló, N; Martín, C; de Juan, L; Domínguez, L

    2017-05-01

    The development of new vaccines against animal tuberculosis (TB) is a priority for improving the control and eradication of this disease, particularly in those species not subjected to compulsory eradication programmes. In this study, the protection conferred by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis SO 2 experimental vaccine was evaluated using a natural infection model in goats. Twenty-six goats were distributed in three groups: (1) 10 goats served as a control group; (2) six goats were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG; and (3) 10 goats were subcutaneously vaccinated with SO 2 . Four months after vaccination, all groups were merged with goats infected with Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae, and tested over a 40 week period using a tuberculin intradermal test and an interferon-γ assay for mycobacterial reactivity. The severity of lesions was determined at post-mortem examination and the bacterial load in tissues were evaluated by culture. The two vaccinated groups had significantly lower lesion and bacterial culture scores than the control group (P<0.05); at the end of the study, the SO 2 vaccinated goats had the lowest lesion and culture scores. These results suggest that the SO 2 vaccine provides some protection against TB infection acquired from natural exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) env recombinants are common in natural infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Hughes, Joseph; Biek, Roman; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2014-09-17

    Recombination is a common feature of retroviral biology and one of the most important factors responsible for generating viral diversity at both the intra-host and the population levels. However, relatively little is known about rates and molecular processes of recombination for retroviruses other than HIV, including important model viruses such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). We investigated recombination in complete FIV env gene sequences (n = 355) isolated from 43 naturally infected cats. We demonstrated that recombination is abundant in natural FIV infection, with over 41% of the cats being infected with viruses containing recombinant env genes. In addition, we identified shared recombination breakpoints; the most significant hotspot occurred between the leader/signal fragment and the remainder of env. Our results have identified the leader/signal fragment of env as an important site for recombination and highlight potential limitations of the current phylogenetic classification of FIV based on partial env sequences. Furthermore, the presence of abundant recombinant FIV in the USA poses a significant challenge for commercial diagnostic tests and should inform the development of the next generation of FIV vaccines.

  3. Oxidative stress associated with pathological changes in the pancreas of cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertz, Claiton I; Gabriel, Mateus E; Henker, Luan C; Bottari, Nathieli B; Carmo, Guilherme do; Guarda, Naiara Dos S; Moresco, Rafael N; Machado, Gustavo; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stedille, Fernanda A; Baska, Piotr; Mattei, Vanessa; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mendes, Ricardo E

    2016-06-15

    Although Eurytrema coelomaticum is considered a parasite with low pathogenicity, it may be associated with mortality and loss of productive performance in animals due to chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oxidative stress caused by E. coelomaticum in naturally infected cattle, correlating the biochemical findings with the parasite load and histopathological changes. For this study, blood and pancreas samples from 51 cattle were collected, and levels of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in the serum and pancreas, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured in total blood. Parasite burden was determined opening the pancreatic ducts, and then fragments of pancreas were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for histopathology. From the 51 collected pancreas, 33 (63.5%) were parasitized. The average parasite burden per pancreas was 532 (12-2,578). TBARS and FRAP showed higher levels in serum and pancreas of infected animals (p<0.05), with a positive correlation between the histopathological changes and the number of parasites. SOD level in blood was 42% higher in parasitized group compared with control group (p<0.05), as well as AOPP in serum. Based on these results, we concluded that in natural infection by E. coelomaticum in cattle, oxidative stress occurs, characterized by the occurrence of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and activation of antioxidant system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Astrid; Goudenège, David; Versigny, Typhaine; Petton, Bruno; Calteau, Alexandra; Labreuche, Yannick; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2015-07-01

    Disease in oysters has been steadily rising over the past decade, threatening the long-term survival of commercial and natural stocks. Our understanding and management of such diseases are of critical importance as aquaculture is an important aspect of dealing with the approaching worldwide food shortage. Although some bacteria of the Vibrio genus isolated from diseased oysters have been demonstrated to be pathogenic by experimental infection, direct causality has not been established. Little is known about the dynamics of how the bacterial population hosted by oysters changes during disease progression. Combining experimental ecology, a high-throughput infection assay and genome sequencing, we show that the onset of disease in oysters is associated with progressive replacement of diverse benign colonizers by members of a phylogenetically coherent virulent population. Although the virulent population is genetically diverse, all members of that population can cause disease. Comparative genomics across virulent and nonvirulent populations identified candidate virulence factors that were clustered in population-specific genomic regions. Genetic analyses revealed that one gene for a candidate virulent factor, a putative outer membrane protein, is necessary for infection of oysters. Finally, analyses of oyster mortality following experimental infection suggest that disease onset can be facilitated by the presence of nonvirulent strains. This is a new form of polymicrobial disease, in which nonpathogenic strains contribute to increase mortality.

  5. Generation of a persistently infected MDBK cell line with natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongseob Tark

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD. Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE.

  6. Haematological and biochemical values in horses naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Kent, J; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S; Soulsby, E J

    1984-08-18

    The concentrations of serum proteins (beta 1, beta 2, gamma, alpha 1, alpha 2 globulins and albumin) and absolute numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes were examined in 64 naturally infected horses and ponies in which the number of larvae of Strongylus vulgaris in the cranial mesenteric artery and the severity of the lesion of verminous arteritis could be determined. The horses were grouped according to the number of larvae found and the severity of the arteritis. The results demonstrated that, although some significant deviation from a random distribution occurred in certain of the values (chi 2 test), there was considerable individual variation in the values obtained for individual animals within groups and overlap of the range of values between groups. Also the number of larvae present in the artery did not necessarily accurately reflect the severity of the arterial lesion. Thus, the parameters examined could not be used reliably to estimate the intensity of infection with S vulgaris in an individual animal.

  7. Rabies virus in a pregnant naturally infected southern yellow bat (Lasiurus ega

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    SD Allendorf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on bat lyssavirus infections in their native hosts is limited and little is known about the virulence, virus dissemination and transmission among free-living insectivorous bats. The present study is a brief description of rabies virus (RABV dissemination in tissues of a naturally infected pregnant southern yellow bat (Lasiurus ega and its fetuses, obtained by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The RT-PCR was positive in samples from the brain, salivary gland, tongue, lungs, heart, kidneys and liver. On the other hand, the placenta, three fetuses, spleen, intestine and brown fat tissue tested negative. This research demonstrated the absence of rabies virus in the fetuses, thus, in this specific case, the transplacentary transmission was not observed.

  8. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  9. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

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    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  10. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  11. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Espada, Liz; Santos, Rocío Del Pilar; Fernandez, Roberto; Urquia, Albino; Stoops, Craig A; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Lescano, Andres G; Vásquez, Gissella M; Valdivia, Hugo O

    2017-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the

  12. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zorrilla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission.Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR and nested Real time PCR for species identification.A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species and Brumptomyia (2 species were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia spp. (24%, Lu. whitmani (19.4% and Lu. yucumensis (15.8% in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools, Mavila (10 pools and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the

  13. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Espada, Liz; Santos, Rocío del Pilar; Fernandez, Roberto; Urquia, Albino; Stoops, Craig A.; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Lescano, Andres G.; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Valdivia, Hugo O.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. Methods Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. Results A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu

  14. Rapid evolution of the env gene leader sequence in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Biek, Roman; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity. We estimated that env evolved at a rate of 1.16×10−3 substitutions per site per year and demonstrated that recombinant sequences evolved faster than non-recombinant sequences. It was evident that the V3–V5 fragment of FIV env displayed higher evolutionary rates in healthy cats than in those with terminal illness. Our study provided the first evidence that the leader sequence of env, rather than the V3–V5 sequence, had the highest intra-host diversity and the highest evolutionary rate of all env fragments, consistent with this region being under a strong selective pressure for genetic variation. Overall, FIV env displayed relatively low intra-host diversity and evolved slowly in naturally infected cats. The maximum evolutionary rate was observed in the leader sequence of env. Although genetic stability is not necessarily a prerequisite for clinical stability, the higher genetic stability of FIV compared with human immunodeficiency virus might explain why many naturally infected cats do not progress rapidly to AIDS. PMID:25535323

  15. Expansion of highly activated invariant natural killer T cells with altered phenotype in acute dengue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladasa, A.; Wickramasinghe, N.; Adikari, T. N.; Gomes, L.; Shyamali, N. L. A.; Salio, M.; Cerundolo, V.; Ogg, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are capable of rapid activation and production of cytokines upon recognition of antigenic lipids presented by CD1d molecules. They have been shown to play a significant role in many viral infections and were observed to be highly activated in patients with acute dengue infection. In order to characterize further their role in dengue infection, we investigated the proportion of iNKT cells and their phenotype in adult patients with acute dengue infection. The functionality of iNKT cells in patients was investigated by both interferon (IFN)‐γ and interleukin (IL)−4 ex‐vivo enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays following stimulation with alpha‐galactosyl‐ceramide (αGalCer). We found that circulating iNKT cell proportions were significantly higher (P = 0·03) in patients with acute dengue when compared to healthy individuals and were predominantly of the CD4+ subset. iNKT cells of patients with acute dengue had reduced proportions expressing CD8α and CD161 when compared to healthy individuals. The iNKT cells of patients were highly activated and iNKT activation correlated significantly with dengue virus‐specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels. iNKT cells expressing Bcl‐6 (P = 0·0003) and both Bcl‐6 and inducible T cell co‐stimulator (ICOS) (P = 0·006) were increased significantly in patients when compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, our data suggest that in acute dengue infection there is an expansion of highly activated CD4+ iNKT cells, with reduced expression of CD161 markers. PMID:26874822

  16. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. Copyright

  17. Analysis of the cytokine profile in spleen cells from dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, R S; Oliveira, G C; Busek, S U; Guerra, L L; Giunchetti, R C; Corrêa-Oliveira, R; Reis, A B

    2007-01-15

    Recent studies suggest that asymptomatic dogs infected with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) develop a Th1 immunological profile whilst oligosymptomatic and symptomatic CVL-infected animals present a Th2 profile. In the present study, an RT-PCR method has been standardised and employed to evaluate the frequency and the semi-quantitative level of expression of the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, INF-gamma and TNF-alpha in splenocytes of 30 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and of 7 non-infected dogs (NID). An increase in the level of expression of IL-12 (p=0.059) was detected in all CVL-infected dogs compared with NID. In dogs exhibiting high parasitism, the frequency of expression of IL-10 was higher (p=0.011) than in animals presenting low parasitism or medium parasitism (MP) and in NID animals, whilst the level of expression of IL-10 was higher (p=0.0094) than in animals exhibiting MP and in the NID group. Positive correlations between the levels of expression of IL-10 with respect to the progression of the disease (IL-10: r=0.3510; p=0.0337) and the levels of expression of IL-10 and INF-gamma increase in parasitism (IL-10: r=0.3428; p=0.0438 and INF-gamma: r=0.4690; p=0.0045) were observed. Such data suggest that CVL is marked by a balanced production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, with a predominant accumulation of IL-10 as a consequence of an increase in parasitic load and progression of the disease, and INF-gamma was related with the increase in parasitic load.

  18. Isolation and in vitro maintenance of trypanosomes from naturally infected and commercially important Brazilian fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Moara; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2014-10-01

    Fish trypanosomes are widely distributed in commercially important fish, with high prevalence in some Brazilian species. This study provides the first record of the isolation and in vitro maintenance of trypanosomes from Brazilian fish. We produced 49 trypanosome isolates from naturally infected catfish (Hypostomus affinis and Hypostomus luetkeni), using 9 different culture media (out of 31 tested). Trypanosomes were maintained in culture for at least 15 mo and were successfully cryopreserved. Culture forms-epimastigotes and short trypomastigotes-were capable of dividing in vitro. Our study is an important step in the investigation of ultrastructure, taxonomy, and phylogeny of trypanosomes from commercially important Brazilian fish.

  19. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...

  20. Immunogenic multistage recombinant protein vaccine confers partial protection against experimental toxoplasmosis mimicking natural infection in murine model

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    Yaprak Gedik

    2016-01-01

    To generate a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis, multistage vaccines and usage of challenging models mimicking natural route of infection are critical cornerstones. In this study, we generated a BAG1 and GRA1 multistage vaccine that induced strong immune response in which the protection was not at anticipated level. In addition, the murine model was orally challenged with tissue cysts to mimic natural route of infection.

  1. Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.

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    Weimin Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724 were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706 or viral nucleic acids (n = 392. SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz; however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp, pol-RT (717 bp, and pol-IN (425 bp sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus monkey

  2. CARACTERÍSTICAS SEMINALES DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus BAJO CONDICIONES DE CAUTIVERIO, OBTENIDAS POR ESTIMULACIÓN VIBRATORIA DEL PENE (EVP

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    R. A. Poches

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de la técnica de estimulación vibratoria del pene (evP para obtener semen en quince especímenes de S. leucopus bajo condiciones de cautiverio, en cuatro diferentes sitios en Colombia. adicionalmente, se estandarizó la técnica evP y se deter-minaron algunas características seminales (color, viscosidad, volumen, pH, motilidad, morfología, viabilidad, concentración y morfometría espermática. se empleó clorhidrato de ketamina a dosis entre 5 y 10 mg/kg i.M. para la sedación previa al muestreo a fin de disminuir el estrés de la captura y del procedimiento, ya que los especímenes no estaban acostumbrados o entrenados para procesos de obtención de muestras biológicas. en el uso de la técnica se logró un 52,6% de éxito en la combinación de 90 Hz de vibración y 1 mm de amplitud; el tiempo de eyaculación promedio fue de 12:35±6:42 minutos; el pH, 7,5±0,26; el volumen, 24±18,82 μl; la motilidad masal fue de 3,7/5,0±0,5; la motilidad individual progresiva, 97,1±45,4%; la concentración espermática fue de 87.617±21.327 x 104 spz/μl; la normalidad fue del 69,3±11,06% y la viabilidad del 93,7±4,9%. Las características seminales fueron similares a las reportadas en otras es-pecies de callitríchidos y obtenidas por la misma técnica. se empleó satisfactoriamente el diluyente Talp-Hepes y el cual no afectó las características antes descritas. La evP es un método innovador, replicable, viable y seguro para la obtención de semen en S. leucopus y a otros callitríchidos bajo sedación con ketamina en condiciones de cautiverio.

  3. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded.

  4. [Natural infection by hemoparasites in calves submitted to chemoprophylaxis at 30 days of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosângela A; Corrêa, Fabíola do N; Botteon, Rita de Cássia C M; Botteon, Paulo de Tarso L

    2007-01-01

    The tick-borne disease (TBD) brings great damages to cattle breeding. The most important etiologic agents are Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale, being the tick Boophilus microplus the main vector. This work reports the occurrence of natural infection by hemoparasites of TBD in 36 calves with high ticks natural infestation submitted to chemoprophylaxis with 30 days year-old. The blood smears from animals of different ages were analized and were found B. bigemina (33.3%), B. bovis (11.1%) and A. marginale (13.9%). Six animals had clinical symptoms (16.7%) and one dead (2.8%). The number of clinical cases ocurred in consequence of an association of factors as high infestation of ticks and low passive immunity in period that calves had not developed enough active immunity.

  5. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  7. Serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody responses to anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin K; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Bellaw, Jennifer; Gravatte, Holli S; Cao, Xin; Rubinson, Emily F; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0). On day 55, horses were ranked according to ELISA titers and randomly allocated to the following three groups: no treatment followed by placebo pellets daily; ivermectin on day 60 followed by placebo pellets daily; or ivermectin on day 60 followed by daily pyrantel tartrate. Fecal and serum samples were collected at ∼28-day intervals until study termination on day 231. Increased ELISA values were observed for the first 53 days following ivermectin treatment. Titers were significantly reduced 80 days after ivermectin treatment. Horses receiving daily pyrantel tartrate maintained lower ELISA values from 137 days post ivermectin treatment until trial termination. These results illustrate that a positive ELISA result is indicative of either current or prior exposure to larval S. vulgaris infection within the previous 5 months.

  8. Unveiling the transcriptional features associated with coccolithovirus infection of natural Emiliania huxleyi blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagarete, António; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Tiwari, Bela; Ogata, Hiroyuki; de Vargas, Colomban; Wilson, William H; Allen, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Lytic viruses have been implicated in the massive cellular lysis observed during algal blooms, through which they assume a prominent role in oceanic carbon and nutrient flows. Despite their impact on biogeochemical cycling, the transcriptional dynamics of these important oceanic events is still poorly understood. Here, we employ an oligonucleotide microarray to monitor host (Emiliania huxleyi) and virus (coccolithovirus) transcriptomic features during the course of E. huxleyi blooms induced in seawater-based mesocosm enclosures. Host bloom development and subsequent coccolithovirus infection was associated with a major shift in transcriptional profile. In addition to the expected metabolic requirements typically associated with viral infection (amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as transcription- and replication-associated functions), the results strongly suggest that the manipulation of lipid metabolism plays a fundamental role during host-virus interaction. The results herein reveal the scale, so far massively underestimated, of the transcriptional domination that occurs during coccolithovirus infection in the natural environment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural history and outcome of antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in women: Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J P

    1964-04-23

    The present report is a review of data collected from 159 women whose positive urine cultures were detected during 4 years of a study of the late medical effects of ionizing radiation emitted during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Although there are always uncertainties in a retrospective analysis of data, a number of unusual features of the present series of patients provided the stimulus for undertaking the review. These features included the relatively unbiased nature of the study population, the finding of a group of patients who were untreated for sizeable intervals of time, the long follow-up after treatment and the use of quantitative bacteriologic techniques during the entire period of observation. Although the entire study population was not screened for urinary infection, the age distribution of patients with infections was similar of that found in surveys of the general population. Treatment was considered successful in about 84% of cases when evaluation was based on follow-up cultures approximately 3 months after the administration of antibiotics. When evaluation was based on 18 months or more follow-up after treatment, only about 50% of patients had negative urine cultures. These results were similar to those reported previously in hospital clinic patients. Observations on a small group of untreated patients suggest that for women, the long term results of gram negative urinary tract infections is not significantly altered by a single short course of antibiotic treatment. 27 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  10. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  11. Filamentous fungi associated with natural infection of noble rot on withered grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, M; Simonato, B; Favati, F; Bernardi, P; Sbarbati, A; Zapparoli, G

    2018-05-02

    The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs

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    Harel Josée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879 were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920. Only 4

  13. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

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    Essam A. Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  14. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  16. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  17. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

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    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  18. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia with Leishmania infantum in Brazil

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    Carreira João Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The opossum Didelphis have been considered as natural hosts of Leishmania parasites in the New World, suggesting an important role in the epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Among six extant species that belong to the genus Didelphis, only two (D. marsupialis and D. albiventris, have been mentioned as natural hosts of Leishmania infantum in Brazil and Colombia. In the present paper, it is reported for the first time, the observation of intracellular parasites (amastigotes in tissues of Didelphis aurita naturally infected with Leishmania infantum in Brazil. We also discuss some aspects associated to the relationship between L. infantum and the geographical distribution of some species of the genus Didelphis. Methods The opossums studied were caught by wire traps (Tomahawk in Barra de Guaratiba, a peri-urban area in Rio de Janeiro. The opossums were killed with an overdose of Thiopental sodium.At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were examined and samples from liver, spleen, lymph nodes, ear, abdominal skin, scent glands and bone marrow were collected for parasitological and molecular diagnoses. Results Forty-eight opossums were captured in an AVL endemic region, 30 being caught in a mangrove area and eighteen animals in a forest area near to some residential-yards. Among the thirty opossums trapped in the mangrove area, all of them were negative by both imprint and sera samples assayed on Dipstick Tests, that is a test based on a combination of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate and rk39 Leishmania antigen to detect anti-Leishmania antibody in serum or plasma. At the macroscopic examination one out of eighteen opossums, caught close to the forest, presented alterations compatible with spleen hypertrophy and three were positive by Dipstick Tests (16.6% and presented amastigotes in the spleen and in one of them, the parasites were also observed in a submandibular lymph node. Leishmania infantum infections were confirmed

  19. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia) with Leishmania infantum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, João Carlos Araujo; da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2012-06-07

    The opossum Didelphis have been considered as natural hosts of Leishmania parasites in the New World, suggesting an important role in the epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Among six extant species that belong to the genus Didelphis, only two (D. marsupialis and D. albiventris), have been mentioned as natural hosts of Leishmania infantum in Brazil and Colombia. In the present paper, it is reported for the first time, the observation of intracellular parasites (amastigotes) in tissues of Didelphis aurita naturally infected with Leishmania infantum in Brazil. We also discuss some aspects associated to the relationship between L. infantum and the geographical distribution of some species of the genus Didelphis. The opossums studied were caught by wire traps (Tomahawk) in Barra de Guaratiba, a peri-urban area in Rio de Janeiro. The opossums were killed with an overdose of Thiopental sodium.At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were examined and samples from liver, spleen, lymph nodes, ear, abdominal skin, scent glands and bone marrow were collected for parasitological and molecular diagnoses. Forty-eight opossums were captured in an AVL endemic region, 30 being caught in a mangrove area and eighteen animals in a forest area near to some residential-yards. Among the thirty opossums trapped in the mangrove area, all of them were negative by both imprint and sera samples assayed on Dipstick Tests, that is a test based on a combination of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate and rk39 Leishmania antigen to detect anti-Leishmania antibody in serum or plasma. At the macroscopic examination one out of eighteen opossums, caught close to the forest, presented alterations compatible with spleen hypertrophy and three were positive by Dipstick Tests (16.6%) and presented amastigotes in the spleen and in one of them, the parasites were also observed in a submandibular lymph node. Leishmania infantum infections were confirmed through dot blot hybridization using a L. infantum

  20. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  1. Neotropical echinococcosis: second report of Echinococcus vogeli natural infection in its main definitive host, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Pereira Soares, Manoel; Souza de Souza, Alex Junior; Pinheiro Malheiros, Andreza; Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Almeida Carneiro, Liliane; Alves, Max Moreira; Farias da Conceição, Bernardo; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Marins Póvoa, Marinete

    2014-04-01

    The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) acts as the natural definitive host in the life cycle of Echinococcus vogeli, the causative agent of polycystic hydatid disease, a zoonotic neglected disease in the South America. We report a case of natural infection by Echinococcus vogeli in a bush dog from the Brazilian Amazon, confirmed by the morphological and morphometric examination of adult parasites and their hooks obtained from the small intestine of the canid. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis corroborated these findings. This is the second report of natural infection by E. vogeli in a bush dog. © 2013.

  2. Dynamics of CD4 Lymphocytes and Viral Load at the Natural History of Perinatal HIV-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Daminov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of indicators of CD4 lymphocyte count and viral load in the natural history (in the absence of ART in perinatally HIV-infected children. It was revealed that perinatal way of transmission is characterized by a higher rate of immunodeficiency progression. It may be associated with intrauterine infection, as well as an early defeat HIV immature immune system of the child. The concentration of virus in perinatally infected children since the beginning of the observation and in 30 months after infection is more than in parenterally infected children in 5 and 2 times, respectively, which determines a infavourable version of the disease in perinatally infected children.

  3. Human herpesvirus-8 infection leads to expansion of the preimmune/natural effector B cell compartment.

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    Silvia Della Bella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS and of some lymphoproliferative disorders of B cells. Most malignancies develop after long-lasting viral dormancy, and a preventing role for both humoral and cellular immune control is suggested by the high frequency of these pathologies in immunosuppressed patients. B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells of peripheral lymphoid organs and blood represent the major reservoir of HHV-8. Due to the dual role of B cells in HHV-8 infection, both as virus reservoir and as agents of humoral immune control, we analyzed the subset distribution and the functional state of peripheral blood B cells in HHV-8-infected individuals with and without cKS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Circulating B cells and their subsets were analyzed by 6-color flow cytometry in the following groups: 1- patients HHV-8 positive with classic KS (cKS (n = 47; 2- subjects HHV-8 positive and cKS negative (HSP (n = 10; 3- healthy controls, HHV-8 negative and cKS negative (HC (n = 43. The number of B cells belonging to the preimmune/natural effector compartment, including transitional, pre-naïve, naïve and MZ-like subsets, was significantly higher among HHV-8 positive subjects, with or without cKS, while was comparable to healthy controls in the antigen-experienced T-cell dependent compartment. The increased number of preimmune/natural effector B cells was associated with increased resistance to spontaneous apoptosis, while it did not correlate with HHV-8 viral load. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that long-lasting HHV-8 infection promotes an imbalance in peripheral B cell subsets, perturbing the equilibrium between earlier and later steps of maturation and activation processes. This observation may broaden our understanding of the complex interplay between viral and immune factors leading HHV-8-infected individuals to develop HHV-8-associated malignancies.

  4. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients.

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    Caroline Petitdemange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy.We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients.We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV.Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

  5. Factors Leading to the Loss of Natural Elite Control of HIV-1 Infection.

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    Pernas, María; Tarancón-Diez, Laura; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Gómez, Josep; Prado, Julia G; Casado, Concepción; Dominguez-Molina, Beatriz; Olivares, Isabel; Coiras, Maite; León, Agathe; Rodriguez, Carmen; Benito, Jose Miguel; Rallón, Norma; Plana, Montserrat; Martinez-Madrid, Onofre; Dapena, Marta; Iribarren, Jose Antonio; Del Romero, Jorge; García, Felipe; Alcamí, José; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles; Vidal, Francisco; Leal, Manuel; Lopez-Galindez, Cecilio; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel

    2017-12-06

    HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) maintain undetectable viral load (VL) in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. However, these subjects have heterogeneous clinical outcomes including a proportion loosing HIV-1 control over time. In this work we compared, in a longitudinal design, transient EC, analyzed before and after the loss of virological control, versus persistent EC. The aim was to identify factors leading to the loss of natural virological control of HIV-1-infection with a longitudinal retrospective study design. Gag-specific T-cell response was assessed by in vitro intracellular poly-cytokine production quantified by flow cytometry. Viral diversity and sequence-dating were performed in proviral DNA by PCR amplification at limiting dilution in env and gag genes. The expression profile of 70 serum cytokines and chemokines was assessed by multiplex immunoassays. We identified transient EC as subjects with low Gag-specific T-cell polyfunctionality, high viral diversity and high proinflammatory cytokines levels before the loss of control. Gag-specific T-cell polyfunctionality was inversely associated with viral diversity in transient controllers before the loss of control (r=-0.8; p =0.02). RANTES was a potential biomarker of transient control. This study identified, virological and immunological factors including inflammatory biomarkers associated with two different phenotypes within EC. These results may allow a more accurate definition of EC, which could help in a better clinical management of these individuals and in the development of future curative approaches. IMPORTANCE There is a rare group of HIV-infected patients who have the extraordinary capacity to maintain undetectable viral load levels in the absence of antiretroviral treatment, the so called HIV-1 elite controllers (EC). However, there is a proportion within these subjects that eventually loses this capability. In this work we found differences in virological and immune factors including soluble

  6. Infectivity to Phlebotomus perniciosus of dogs naturally parasitized with Leishmania infantum after different treatments

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    Descalzo Miguel A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe most dogs with clinical leishmaniosis are treated with leishmanicides, typically antimonials combined with allopurinol and good clinical recovery is observed in a high number of these dogs. Through xenodiagnosis, the capacity of a treated animal to infect the vector of the disease under treatment is assessed as a measure of the chemotherapeutic efficacy of the drug used. The objective of the present study was to evaluate through direct xenodiagnosis the infectivity to Phlebotomus perniciosus of dogs naturally parasitized with Leishmania infantum after treatment, and to follow the clinical and parasite course of disease. Thirty two dogs with clinical leishmaniosis were assigned to one of three treatment groups: meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol (Group A, meglumine antimoniate (Group B or allopurinol (Group C. During the study, the dogs were examined before treatment (Day 0 and bimonthly thereafter until Day 180 (six months post-treatment onset. Results The three groups were scored over time according to the effects of treatment on clinical signs and clinical-pathological variables. Significant differences in clinical scores were observed between Group A and the other two groups, indicating the combined treatment was the most effective. After treatment, bone marrow cultures were positive for the parasite in 30.8% of dogs in some of the check ups (3 or 25% in Group A, 1 or 11.1% in Group B, and 4 or 80% in Group C. Our xenodiagnosis experiments revealed that 15.4% of treated dogs were still able to infect sand flies at some point after treatment (2 dogs or 16.6% in Group A, 2 or 22.2% in Group B and none in Group C. Only 7.7% of the entire study population could infect sand flies as from the second month post-treatment onset. Conclusion The three treatment regimens tested significantly reduced the infectivity of dogs towards sand flies, thus diminishing the epidemiological risks of treated dogs both for human

  7. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

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    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2016-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. Copyright © 2015 Yoshikawa et al.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF RESISTANCE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS

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    Manoranjan Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance status against natural infection to Haemonchus contortus as well as influence of season, sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type on resistance levels were evaluated in 309 numbers of Garole sheep. In adult Garole sheep, egg per gram(EPG of faeces for Haemonchus contortus was varied from 300 to 1600, but overall EPG in Garole have been recorded as 829.96 ± 20.60. The effects of season, sex, and body weight and haemoglobin type on EPG were all found to be highly significant (P < 0.01. EPG count was highest during monsoon (986.27 ± 28.26, followed by summer (832.88 ± 28.26 and lowest during winter (670.74 ± 28.26 which indicated the existence of a seasonal variation of EPG. Rams had higher EPG (954.32 ± 57.93 than ewes (705.60 ± 45.79 which reflected that males appeared to be more susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection compared to females. Animals with lower body weight (upto 10 kg showed higher EPG (1017.20 ± 54.82, then the infection level decreased as body weight increased (886.79 ± 56.23 for 10 kg to 12 kg and 737.18 ± 50.29 for 12 kg to 14 kg and lowest EPG was recorded in animals with above 14 kg body weight (678.68 ± 54.49. This study reveals Hb-BB type animals had higher EPG count (983.81 ± 18.22 in comparison to Hb-AB type animals (676.12 ± 33.96 indicating that Haemoglobin-A locus has some relation with resistance. From our study it can be concluded that resistant level of Garole sheep against Haemonchus contortus is influenced by some intrinsic factors like sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type of the sheep and also by extrinsic factor like season.

  9. The Role of Natural Antibodies to CC Chemokine Receptor 5 in HIV Infection

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    Assunta Venuti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is responsible for immune and inflammatory responses by mediation of chemotactic activity in leukocytes, although it is expressed on different cell types. It has been shown to act as co-receptor for the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Natural reactive antibodies (Abs recognizing first loop (ECL1 of CCR5 have been detected in several pools of immunoglobulins from healthy donors and from several cohorts of either HIV-exposed but uninfected subjects (ESN or HIV-infected individuals who control disease progression (LTNP as well. The reason of development of anti-CCR5 Abs in the absence of autoimmune disease is still unknown; however, the presence of these Abs specific for CCR5 or for other immune receptors and mediators probably is related to homeostasis maintenance. The majority of anti-CCR5 Abs is directed to HIV binding site (N-terminus and ECL2 of the receptor. Conversely, it is well known that ECL1 of CCR5 does not bind HIV; thus, the anti-CCR5 Abs directed to ECL1 elicit a long-lasting internalization of CCR5 but not interfere with HIV binding directly; these Abs block HIV infection in either epithelial cells or CD4+ T lymphocytes and the mechanism differs from those ones described for all other CCR5-specific ligands. The Ab-mediated CCR5 internalization allows the formation of a stable signalosome by interaction of CCR5, β-arrestin2 and ERK1 proteins. The signalosome degradation and the subsequent de novo proteins synthesis determine the CCR5 reappearance on the cell membrane with a very long-lasting kinetics (8 days. The use of monoclonal Abs to CCR5 with particular characteristics and mode of action may represent a novel mode to fight viral infection in either vaccinal or therapeutic strategies.

  10. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

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    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  11. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

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    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma.

  12. Innate-like behavior of human invariant natural killer T cells during herpes simplex virus infection.

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    Novakova, Lucie; Nevoralova, Zuzana; Novak, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, CD1d restricted T cells, are involved in the immune responses against various infection agents. Here we describe their behavior during reactivation of human herpes simplex virus (HSV). iNKT cells exhibit only discrete changes, which however, reached statistically significant level due to the relatively large patient group. Higher percentage of iNKT cells express NKG2D. iNKT cells down-regulate NKG2A in a subset of patients. Finally, iNKT cells enhance their capacity to produce TNF-α. Our data suggests that iNKT cells are involved in the immune response against HSV and contribute mainly to its early, innate phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Larval trematode infections in freshwater gastropods from the Albufera Natural Park in Spain.

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    Toledo, R; Muñoz-Antolí, C; Pérez, M; Esteban, J G

    1998-03-01

    Malacological samplings were made from January 1994 to December 1996 in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) to trace the dynamics of molluscan populations and the prevalence and intensity of infection by larval trematodes. A total of 10,533 freshwater gastropods belonging to seven species (Lymnaea auricularia, L. truncatula, L. palustris, L. peregra, Bithynia tentaculata, Physa acuta and Gyraulus chinensis) was examined, and 110 (1.04%) were found to harbour some of the nine distinguishable types of cercariae, namely four echinostome cercariae (Hypoderaeum conoideum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Euparyphium albuferensis, and Echinostoma sp.), four furcocercous cercariae, and one xiphidiocercous cercaria. This study shows that the composition of the snail and trematode communities may be determined by the particular environmental conditions present and the human intervention in the area.

  14. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

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    Naucke Torsten J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L. infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72. The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78. Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany.

  15. Natural infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum: characterisation of 3 dogs with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaus, T. M.; Schnyder, M.; Dennler, M.; Tschuor, F.; Wenger, M.; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), together with its accompanying clinical signs and underlying causes, e.g. pulmonary thrombosis, are more and more recognized as an important clinical entity also in dogs. This article characterizes the clinical picture of 3 dogs with PH caused by natural infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum. All 3 dogs were of small breeds ( 10 kg), the age at the time of diagnosis was 1, 2 and 11 years. Clinically, dyspnea and exercise intolerance were the predominating signs, 2 dogs developed hemoptysis, 1 dog developed right sided congestive heart failure. Severe arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 41 - 53 mmHg) reflected the severity of pulmonary parenchymal and vascular damage. Severe hyperglobulinemia (59 und 88 g/l) in two dogs implicated a long lasting infection. Anthelmintic treatment in 2 dogs resulted in quick clinical, radiographic and echocardiographic normalization. PH is the consequence of multiple causes and pathomechanisms, and the recognition of PH is primarily of differential diagnostic relevance. Prognosis and therapy in cases with PH mainly depend on the underlying cause, rather than on the PH and on its degree

  16. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

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    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Genetic resistance to natural coccidiosis infection in goats in a semi-arid region of India

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    P.K. Rout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is one of the major causes of kid mortality in tropical regions and causes significant loss to farmers by affecting growth and feed efficiency in the growing kid. The strategy to control the coccidiosis is mainly through drug usage and is not efficacious at present. Therefore, an alternative strategy is required to control the disease in goats. Increasing genetic resistance to coccidiosis may be an appropriate complementary control strategy. The purpose of this study was to analyse the genetic variation in severity of natural coccidiosis infections in kids in the semi-arid region. The observations were recorded in 227 kids of Barbari and Jamunapari goats. Barbari goats had higher mean faecal oocyst counts (FOC than Jamunapari goats at 3 and 6 months of age. The heritability for FOC was 0.05 and 0.15 at 3 and 6 months of age, respectively. All phenotypic and environmental correlations between FOC and live weight traits were low and negative, indicating a tendency for more heavily infected kids in the flock to grow more slowly. Genetic correlations were largely similar, but had large standard errors. The results suggest that genetic resistance control strategy can potentially be useful for the better performance in the existing managemental condition.

  18. Natural canine infection by Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis and their implications for disease control

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    Letícia da Cruz Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. Because Leishmania can adapt to new hosts or vectors, knowledge concerning the current etiological agent in dogs is important in endemic areas. This study aimed to identify the Leishmania species detected in 103 samples of peripheral blood from dogs that were naturally infected with these protozoa. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was determined through parasitological examination, the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The Leishmania species were identified by means of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The samples were subjected to PCR using oligonucleotide primers that amplify the intergenic region ITS1 of the rRNA gene in order to identify the species. The amplified DNA was digested using the restriction enzyme HaeIII. A restriction profile identical to L. amazonensis was shown in 77/103 samples and the profile was similar to L. infantum in 17/103. However, a mixed profile was shown in 9/103 samples, which impeded species identification. In conclusion, the infection in these dogs was predominantly due to L. amazonensis, thus indicating that diagnosing of cases of canine leishmaniasis needs to be reexamined, since the causative agent identified is not restricted to L. infantum.

  19. First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Petersen, Vivian; Lima, Antonio Fernando; Cunha, Marielton Dos Passos; Wiley, Michael R; Ladner, Jason T; Prieto, Karla; Palacios, Gustavo; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Suesdek, Lincoln; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2017-06-01

    The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil. During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV) and Dengue viruses (DENV) by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype. Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.

  20. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

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    Nerea García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT and direct (PCR, culture techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6% of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area.

  1. A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum

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    Kárita Cláudia Freitas-Lidani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA, the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite.

  2. First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas.

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    André Luis Costa-da-Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil.During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV, Zika (ZIKV and Dengue viruses (DENV by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA genotype.Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.

  3. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  4. Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Jane Costa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

  5. Bioprospecting Deep-Sea Actinobacteria for Novel Anti-infective Natural Products

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    Dongbo Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of drug resistance has created an urgent need for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs. The major source of antibiotics in current clinical practice is terrestrial actinobacteria; the less-exploited deep-sea actinobacteria may serve as an unprecedented source of novel natural products. In this study, we evaluated 50 actinobacteria strains derived from diverse deep water sponges and environmental niches for their anti-microbial activities against a panel of pathogens including Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More than half of the tested strains (27 were identified as active in at least one assay. The rare earth salt lanthanum chloride (LaCl3 was shown to be as an effective elicitor. Among the 27 strains, the anti-microbial activity of 15 were induced or enhanced by the addition of LaCl3. This part of study focused on one strain R818, in which potent antifungal activity was induced by the addition of LaCl3. We found that the LaCl3-activated metabolites in R818 are likely antimycin-type compounds. One of them, compound 1, has been purified. Spectroscopic analyses including HR-MS and 1D NMR indicated that this compound is urauchimycin D. The antifungal activity of compound 1 was confirmed with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 25 μg/mL; the purified compound also showed a moderate activity against C. difficile. Additional notable strains are: strain N217 which showed both antifungal and antibacterial (including P. aeruginosa activities and strain M864 which showed potent activity against C. difficile with an MIC value (0.125 μg/mL lower than those of vancomycin and metronidazole. Our preliminary studies show that deep-sea actinobacteria is a promising source of anti-infective natural products.

  6. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in hamsters infested with ticks collected from naturally infected dogs

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    Valter dos Anjos Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Almeida V. dos A., da Hora T.N., Leça Júnior N.F., Carvalho F.S., da Silva A.L., Wenceslau A.A., Albuquerque G.R. & Silva F.L. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in hamsters infested with ticks collected from naturally infected dogs. [Detecção do DNA de Leishmania infantum em hamsters infestados com carrapatos coletados de cães naturalmente infectados.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:329-333, 2016. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Hospital Veterinário, Km 16, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Ilhéus, BA 45662-900, Brasil. E-mail: fabiana.lessa@gmail.com The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, in the transmission of Leishmania infantum. To accomplish this, we used 24 adult golden hamsters of both genders, and divided them into two groups: a control group (n = 4 and an experimental group (n = 20. The animals from the experimental group were infested with ticks obtained from dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Hamsters of the control group were not infested and were maintained at the same conditions, as the infested animals. After three months of observation, animals were euthanized and they were posted to obtain samples of their blood, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. These samples were then processed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fourteen hamsters (70% of the experimental group tested PCR-positive for L. infantum DNA in samples of buffy coat. The results of this study indicated that R. sanguineus ticks can transmit some forms or parts of L. infantum to parasitized hamsters.

  7. Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data.

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    Elsa Jourdain

    Full Text Available Wild waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, are considered the main reservoir of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs. They carry viruses that may evolve and become highly pathogenic for poultry or zoonotic. Understanding the ecology of LPAIVs in these natural hosts is therefore essential. We assessed the clinical response, viral shedding and antibody production of juvenile mallards after intra-esophageal inoculation of two LPAIV subtypes previously isolated from wild congeners. Six ducks, equipped with data loggers that continually monitored body temperature, heart rate and activity, were successively inoculated with an H7N7 LPAI isolate (day 0, the same H7N7 isolate again (day 21 and an H5N2 LPAI isolate (day 35. After the first H7N7 inoculation, the ducks remained alert with no modification of heart rate or activity. However, body temperature transiently increased in four individuals, suggesting that LPAIV strains may have minor clinical effects on their natural hosts. The excretion patterns observed after both re-inoculations differed strongly from those observed after the primary H7N7 inoculation, suggesting that not only homosubtypic but also heterosubtypic immunity exist. Our study suggests that LPAI infection has minor clinically measurable effects on mallards and that mallard ducks are able to mount immunological responses protective against heterologous infections. Because the transmission dynamics of LPAIVs in wild populations is greatly influenced by individual susceptibility and herd immunity, these findings are of high importance. Our study also shows the relevance of using telemetry to monitor disease in animals.

  8. Follow up of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in two mammals species, Nasua narica and Procyon lotor (Carnivora: Procyonidae): evidence of infection control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Rendon-Franco, Emilio; Gama-Campillo, Lilia María; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Maravilla, Pablo; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Rivas, Nancy; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Muñoz-García, Claudia Irais; Villalobos, Guiehdani

    2014-08-29

    A large variety of mammals act as natural reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi (the causal agent of Chagas disease) across the American continent. Related issues are infection and parasite burden in these reservoirs, and whether they are able to control T. cruzi infections. These parameters can indicate the real role of mammals as T. cruzi reservoirs and transmitters. Here, two species of mammals, white-nosed coati (Nasua narica) and raccoon (Procyon lotor), were examined for to determine: a) T. cruzi presence, and; b) their ability to control T. cruzi infection. Multiple capture-recaptures of both species were carried out in semi-wild conditions in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, for 5 years. Two samplings per year (summer and winter) took place. Prevalence and pattern of T. cruzi infection were determined by PCR from both mammals' blood samples. Raccoon samples had a higher relative infection values (26.6%) compared to those of white-nosed coati (9.05%), being this difference significant in summer 2012 (P mammals are able to tolerate the infection). However, while infected, they may also be able to approach human dwellings and play a role important in linking sylvatic and domestic cycles.

  9. Removal of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity in salted natural casings by minor adaptation of standardized industrial procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, J J; Haas, B; Berends, B R

    2007-04-10

    Intestines are used for the production of natural casings as edible sausage containers. Derived from animals (pigs and sheep) experimentally infected with FMDV (initial dosage 10(7.3) PFU/ml, strain O(1Kaufbeuren)), these natural casings were treated with sodium chloride or a phosphate salts/sodium chloride mixture and the residual FMDV titres measured. After storage at about 20 degrees C, no remaining infectivity was found after either treatment, whereas casings stored at 4 degrees C still contained infectivity. Storage of salted casings at about 20 degrees C for 30 days is already part of the Standard Operating Procedures (included in HACCP) of the international casing industry and can therefore be considered as a protective measure for the international trade in natural casings.

  10. Neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus E protein derived from a naturally infected patient

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    Isern Sharon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies produced in response to infection with any of the four serotypes of dengue virus generally provide homotypic immunity. However, prior infection or circulating maternal antibodies can also mediate a non-protective antibody response that can enhance the course of disease in a subsequent heterotypic infection. Naturally occurring human monoclonal antibodies can help us understand the protective and pathogenic roles of the humoral immune system in dengue virus infection. Results Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV transformation of B cells isolated from the peripheral blood of a human subject with previous dengue infection was performed. B cell cultures were screened by ELISA for antibodies to dengue (DENV envelope (E protein. ELISA positive cultures were cloned by limiting dilution. Three IgG1 human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs were purified and their binding specificity to E protein was verified by ELISA and biolayer interferometry. Neutralization and enhancement assays were conducted in epithelial and macrophage-like cell lines, respectively. All three HMAbs bound to E from at least two of the four DENV serotypes, one of the HMAbs was neutralizing, and all were able to enhance DENV infection. Conclusions HMAbs against DENV can be successfully generated by EBV transformation of B cells from patients at least two years after naturally acquired DENV infections. These antibodies show different patterns of cross-reactivity, neutralizing, and enhancement activity.

  11. Cytomegalovirus-Driven Adaptive-Like Natural Killer Cell Expansions Are Unaffected by Concurrent Chronic Hepatitis Virus Infections

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    David F. G. Malone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive-like expansions of natural killer (NK cell subsets are known to occur in response to human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. These expansions are typically made up of NKG2C+ NK cells with particular killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR expression patterns. Such NK cell expansion patterns are also seen in patients with viral hepatitis infection. Yet, it is not known if the viral hepatitis infection promotes the appearance of such expansions or if effects are solely attributed to underlying CMV infection. In sizeable cohorts of CMV seropositive hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and hepatitis delta virus (HDV infected patients, we analyzed NK cells for expression of NKG2A, NKG2C, CD57, and inhibitory KIRs to assess the appearance of NK cell expansions characteristic of what has been seen in CMV seropositive healthy individuals. Adaptive-like NK cell expansions observed in viral hepatitis patients were strongly associated with CMV seropositivity. The number of subjects with these expansions did not differ between CMV seropositive viral hepatitis patients and corresponding healthy controls. Hence, we conclude that adaptive-like NK cell expansions observed in HBV, HCV, and/or HDV infected individuals are not caused by the chronic hepatitis infections per se, but rather are a consequence of underlying CMV infection.

  12. First detection of natural infection of Aedes aegypti with Zika virus in Brazil and throughout South America

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    Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has caused a major epidemic in Brazil and several other American countries. ZIKV is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. In this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of ZIKV suspected cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2015 to May 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. Three pools of Aedes aegypti were found with the ZIKV genome, one of which had only one male. This finding supports the occurrence of vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti in nature. None of the examined Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was positive. This is the first report of natural infection by ZIKV in mosquitoes in Brazil and other South American countries. So far, Ae. aegypti is the only confirmed vector of ZIKV during the ongoing Pan-American epidemics.

  13. Investigating on Besnoitia besnoiti (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae in naturally infected dairy cattle by an integrated approach.

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    Luca Villa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti, is a (reemerging disease in Europe (Cortes et al., 2014, including Italy (Gazzonis et al., 2014; 2017. However, its economic impact is scarcely considered and generally underestimated and there are still little studied aspects concerning both the parasite and the disease. Following a natural outbreak of besnoitiosis in a dairy herd, a study was planned to characterize B. besnoiti infection in cattle through a multidisciplinary approach. Suspicious abortions and clinical cases of besnoitiosis were reported in a dairy farm (September 2017, Northern Italy housing 216 Holstein cattle. Blood samples were collected; haematological and serological analyses (ELISA and confirmatory WB were performed (Fernandez-Garcia et al., 2009. Histology and molecular (endpoint ITS-1 PCR (Cortes et al., 2007 and sequencing analyses of tissues from a slaughtered cow with chronic besnoitiosis were carried out.  Out of 59 ELISA-positive animals, 50 (23% were confirmed by WB. B. besnoiti prevalence was higher in cows (41% than in calves (12%; any heifer did not result positive. Considering haematological parameters, a significant shift in the differential leucocyte formula from lymphocyte to granulocyte was recorded in infected cows (Mean±S.D.:L=46.1±18.4,G=53.9±18.4 if compared to negative animals (Student’s T-test,p=0.012. This finding could be helpful in diagnosis, treatment and control of besnoitiosis. Histology revealed a high load of B. besnoiti tissue cysts in skin, vulva, muzzle, sclera, eyelid, respiratory tract, emphasizing the possibility of parasite transmission through direct contact among animals. B. besnoiti was confirmed by PCR in other organs (heart, liver, aorta wall, tonsil and especially in ovary, uterus and vulva, suggesting that the infection could affect cows’ fertility. Parasite DNA was also found in masseters posing an important question for food security, even if B. besnoiti is not

  14. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, A A; Ambak, Mohd Azmi; Hassan, Marina; Sheriff, Shahreza Md; Nadirah, Musa; Draman, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Wahab, Wahidah; Ibrahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan; Aznan, Alia Syafiqah; Jabar, Amina; Najiah, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic and hemorrhagic choroid tissue, and retina

  15. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Laith Abdul Razzak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity, reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule

  16. Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis

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    Jacqueline Ribeiro de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Castro J.R., Silva C.B., Souza M.A., Salaberry S.R.S., Guimarães E.C., Mundim A.V. & Lima-Ribeiro A.M.C. [Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis.] Altera- ções hematológicas em cães naturalmente infectados por Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus e Brucella canis. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:49-54, 2014. Laboratório de Doenças Infectocontagiosas, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Ceará s/n, Bloco 2D, Sala 33, Campus Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: jack_ufu@yahoo.com.br The investigations of leptospirosis and brucellosis canine act as sanitary control in public health and zoonoses because they were established by close contact between dog and human. The aim was to determine the main hematological reagents in asymptomatic dogs against Leptospira spp. Brucella abortus and Brucella canis naturally infected, living in urban areas in the city of Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. We examined 140 blood samples from clinically healthy dogs, males and females and different ages. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT, with a collection of twelve serovars, whereas, brucellosis was identified through the tests of Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID for B. canis and buffered acidified antigen (TAA confirmed 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME for B. abortus. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics with the calculation of simple percentages, mean and standard deviation. He applied and short sample t test for two independent samples to assess whether there were significant differences (p<0.05 between hematological parameters obtained. Dogs evaluated, 15% (21/140 and 2.85% (4/140 were reactive to Leptospira spp. and B. abortus, respectively. There was no sample reagent against B. canis. It was concluded that although no specific thrombocytopenia may be a significant finding in dogs

  17. Natural History of Serum HBV-RNA in Chronic HBV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Yiqi; Li, Guojun; Shen, Chuan; Li, Jing; Chen, Shaolong; Zhang, Xiao; Zhu, Mengqi; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Song, Zhangzhang; Wu, Jing; Shao, Lingyun; Zhefeng, Meng; Wang, Xuanyi; Huang, Yuxian; Zhang, Jiming; Qiu, Chao; Zhang, Wenhong

    2018-04-10

    Virus-like particles encapsulating HBV-RNA represent a serum biomarker for assessing viral replication activity in clinical practice. However, baseline levels of serum HBV-RNA and their associations with viral replicative intermediates and liver disease in phases of chronic hepatitis B remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 102 patients were categorized into immune tolerant (IT), HBeAg-positive immune active (HBeAg+IA), inactive carrier (IC), and HBeAg-negative immune active (HBeAg-IA) phases. HBV-RNA in serum samples and in 66 paired liver biopsies were quantified and correlated with serum ALT levels, histopathological scores, and the levels of other viral replicative intermediates. Mean levels of serum HBV-RNA differed among phases, with the highest levels among IT (6.78±0.83 log 10 copies mL -1 ) patients, followed by HBeAg+IA (5.73±1.16 log 10 copies mL -1 ), HBeAg-IA (4.52±1.25 log 10 copies mL -1 ), and IC (2.96±0.40 log 10 copies mL -1 ) patients. Serum HBV-RNA levels correlated with HBV DNA in all phases, though correlations with other viral replicative intermediates weakened or disappeared when cases were stratified into phases. Distinct compositions of viral products were found among phases: the ratio of HBsAg to serum HBV-RNA was highest in IC patients, while the ratio of serum HBV-RNA to intrahepatic HBV-RNA and the ratio of intrahepatic HBV-DNA to intrahepatic HBV-RNA were significantly higher in IT patients. In conclusion, baseline levels of HBV-RNA and the composition of viral replicative intermediates differ significantly across the natural course of chronic HBV infection. These findings shed light on the nature of viral replication and pathogenesis of disease among different phases of chronic HBV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut micro...

  19. The nonstructural protein NSs induces a variable antibody response in domestic ruminants naturally infected with Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, José-Carlos; Billecocq, Agnès; Durand, Jean Paul; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Cardinale, Eric; Marianneau, Philippe; Pépin, Michel; Tordo, Noël; Bouloy, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonosis in Africa which has spread to Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar, and Comoros. RVF virus (RVFV) (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) causes a wide range of symptoms in humans, from benign fever to fatal hemorrhagic fever. Ruminants are severely affected by the disease, which leads to a high rate of mortality in young animals and to abortions and teratogenesis in pregnant females. Diagnostic tests include virus isolation and genome or antibody detection. During RVFV infection, the nucleoprotein encapsidating the tripartite RNA genome is expressed in large amounts and raises a robust antibody response, while the envelope glycoproteins elicit neutralizing antibodies which play a major role in protection. Much less is known about the antigenicity/immunogenicity of the nonstructural protein NSs, which is a major virulence factor. Here we have developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) enabling detection of low levels of NSs-specific antibodies in naturally infected or vaccinated ruminants. Detection of the NSs antibodies was validated by Western blotting. Altogether, our data showed that the NSs antibodies were detected in only 55% of animals naturally infected by RVFV, indicating that NSs does not induce a consistently high immune response. These results are discussed in light of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) tests distinguishing naturally infected animals and those vaccinated with NSs-defective vaccines.

  20. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.

  1. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.

  2. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    PCR identified 29 (85.3%). B. bovis infected animals showed high fever, anaemia, jaundice, haemoglobinuria, and accelerated heart and respiratory rates. Out of 15 animals clinically infected, PCR identified 14 animals (93.3%) as infected while ME identified only, 8 animals (53.3%). Out of 19 animals...

  3. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected...... protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  4. Gag- and env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); H. Broos; G.A. Drost; K. Weijer (Kees); R. van Herwijnen (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn order to monitor the antibody response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats, following experimental and natural infection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed using recombinant env and gag proteins and p24-specific monoclonal antibodies. It was shown

  5. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in equine serum after natural infection or vaccination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joó, K.; Bakonyi, T.; Szenci, O.; Ferenczi, E.; Barna, M.; Malik, P.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Fehér, O.; Kutasi, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0165-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Haemagglutination-inhibition test * Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay * Plaque reduction neutralization test * Vaccination * Natural infection Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2016

  6. Association of Xylella fastidiosa with Yield Loss and Altered Fruit Quality in a Naturally Infected Rabbiteye Blueberry Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a number of plants in the southeastern United States, including southern highbush blueberry, but little was known concerning its potential impact in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum). In a naturally infected orchard in Louisiana, mean yields of X. fastidi...

  7. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with

  8. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3−) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small

  9. Description of the Infection Status in a Norwegian Cattle Herd Naturally Infected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg O

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian surveillance and control programme for paratuberculosis revealed 8 seroreactors in a single dairy cattle herd that had no clinical signs of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis infection. Paratuberculosis had been a clinical problem in goats several years previously in this herd. All 45 cattle were culled and a thorough investigation of the infection status was conducted by the use of interferon-γ (IFN-γ immunoassay, measurement of antibodies, and pathological and bacteriological examination. In the IFN-γ immunoassay, 9 animals gave positive results, and 13 were weakly positive, while 19 animals were negative. In the serological test,10 animals showed positive reactions, and 5 were doubtful, while 30 animals gave negative reactions. There appeared to be a weak trend toward younger animals having raised IFN-γ and older animals having raised serological tests. Histopathological lesions compatible with paratuberculosis were diagnosed in 4 animals aged between 4 and 9 years. Three of these animals had positive serological reaction and one animal gave also positive results in the IFN-γ immunoassay. Infection was confirmed by isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from 2 of these 4 animals. One single bacterial isolate examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP had the same profile, B-C1, as a strain that had been isolated from a goat at the same farm several years previously. Despite many animals being positive in one or both of the immunological tests, indicative of a heavily infected herd, none of the animals showed clinical signs and only one cow was shown to be shedding bacteria. A cross-reaction with other mycobacteria might have caused some of the immunoreactions in these animals. It is also possible that the Norwegian red cattle breed is resistant to clinical infection with M. a. paratuberculosis.

  10. Serial haematology results in transfused and non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scheepers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia.

  11. Cacao families and parents selected as resistant to natural infection of Moniliophthora perniciosa

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    Carolina S. Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known sources of resistance to witches’ broom (WB, a severe disease of cacao, are limited. Aiming to identify families and parents resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa, a population of 22 families was evaluated by assessing the number of brooms formed per tree during 10 years under field conditions. The population was established in randomized blocks with three replications of 12 plants each. Significant differences were observed among families. The most outstanding families were NA33 x RB39 and RB39 x P4B, which presented the lowest WB incidence during 10 years. The increase in natural field infection of Scavina clones families and their descendants were clearly demonstrated after 2006. The existence of additive effects for resistance appears clearly for families, which had other source of resistance associated with Scavina. Clones RB39, RB36, P4B, NA33 and CSUL3 are promising parents for pyramiding resistance genes and increasing the stability and durability of resistance to WB.

  12. Natural infection of malignant catarrhal fever in Bali cattle: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever in Indonesia is caused by Ovine herpes virus 2 and considered as a disease with high mortality rate causing degeneratif and lymphoproliferative disease in cattle, buffalo and other ruminants. A total number of fifteen Bali cattle were naturally infected by Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF. Those cattle were meant to be experimental animals of research on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, Septicaemia epizootica (SE, and bovine brucellosis. The clinical signs of those animals were sudden high fever, depression, anorexia, corneal opacity, mucopurulent oculo-nasal discharges and diarrhoea. Six of them were dead and the remaining cattle were slaughtered at extremis. On the basis of clinical, gross-pathological and histopathological findings, all cases were shown to be consistent and pathognomonic of MCF cases. These cases were regarded as an outbreak of MCF affecting Bali cattle which occurred during wet season and while in other paddock in that area there were a number of lambing sheep. This result confirms that Bali cattle is a very susceptible animal of MCF and the cases were very likely due to the spread of MCF virus from lambing sheep.

  13. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Tisné

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease.

  14. Evaluation of activity of triclabendazole against Taenia solium metacestode in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Vargas-Calla; Luis A Gomez-Puerta; Juan Calcina; Omar Gonzales-Viera; Cesar Gavidia; Maria T Lopez-Urbina; Hector H Garcia; Armando E Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in porcine cysticercosis. Methods:Eighteen naturally infected cysticercotic pigs were divided into 3 groups of 6 individuals each. The first group was treated orally with TCBZ at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight, the second group was treated orally with oxfendazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight and the third group received a placebo (control group). All animals were kept under the same management conditions. The pigs were euthanized 17 wk post-treatment and the number of surviving cysts in muscles was assessed and compared between groups. Results: All pigs treated with oxfendazole had only degenerated cysts in their carcasses. In contrast, TCBZ had very little effect against the parasitic cysts. Cysts from pigs in the TCBZ group looked apparently normal after treatment. However, histological evaluation showed a mild to moderate degree of inflammation. Conclusions: TCBZ is not an efficacious drug against Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine using a single dose.

  15. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

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    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  16. OCCURENCE OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF WHEAT IN SLOVAKIA UNDER THE NATURAL INFECTION

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    Kamil Hudec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Fusarium head blight FHB was documented during two consecutive years in June 2011 2012 under the natural conditions in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. Observations were conducted at six different localities in four climatic regions in Slovakia. Incidence and severity of FHB were evaluated at the end of flowering stage in three replications. Each replication contained 100 spikes. These data served as a basis for FHB index calculations. Obtained FHB index values indicated that the environmental conditions of the year 2011 were more favourable to the development of FHB infection. Higher FHB index values were reached at localities with precipitation higher than 100% of long-term average. Although significantly higher incidence of heads with FHB symptoms was recorded in climatic region 02 quite warm, dry, hilly, correlation between the climatic regions was not confirmed. Except of the climatic conditions, the FHB development can be influenced by nitrogen application. The highest levels of FHB index was in coincidence with the highest and the lowest nitrogen rates applied. In all other cases, the effect of the mineral nutrition on head blight attack was unclear. Analyses of nitrogen forms applied revealed that nitrogen forms had no impact on FHB index value.

  17. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  18. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population.

  19. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. PMID:28592650

  20. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-06-07

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma , and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. Copyright © 2017 Tisné et al.

  1. Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticle-Modified Natural Diatomite with Anti-Infective Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haolin Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver as an alternative antibacterial agent of antibiotics has been researched for possible applications in various orthopedic implants. However, it is imperative to achieve controllable release of Ag+ to reduce its cytotoxic effect on normal tissue. Here, a nanosilver release system that has potential to be used in anti-infective bone cement was reported. Nanosilver modified diatomite was developed through the reaction of Tollens’ reagent to improve the antibacterial effect and natural diatomite was used as the carrier of Ag+ ions for controlled release. Cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the nanosilver release system were characterized. After 3 days, the NIH3T3 cells cultured in the extract of nanosilver modified diatomite with an initial concentration of 0.5 mg/ml showed better cell viability than cells cultured in α-MEM. The density of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the extract of nanosilver modified diatomite at the same concentration did not differ significantly from the density of cells cultured in α-MEM. The nanosilver modified diatomite exhibited antibacterial effect against E. coli and S. aureus when the concentration was higher than 0.5 mg/ml. With appropriate selection of Ag+ concentration, the nanosilver modified diatomite is promising for improving the antibacterial effect while not affecting the biocompatibility of reinforced calcium phosphate bone cement.

  2. A constitutively expressed antifungal peptide protects Tenebrio molitor during a natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrou, Sevasti; Paris, Véronique; Jensen, Annette B; Rolff, Jens; Meyling, Nicolai V; Zanchi, Caroline

    2018-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been well studied in the context of bacterial infections. Antifungal peptides have received comparatively less attention. Fungal pathogens of insects and their hosts represent a unique opportunity to study host-pathogen interactions due to the million of years of co-evolution they share. In this study, we investigated role of a constitutively expressed thaumatin-like peptide with antifungal activity expressed by the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, named Tenecin 3, during a natural infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We monitored the effect of the expression of Tenecin 3 on the survival of infected hosts as well as on the progression of the fungal infection inside the host. Finally, we tested the activity of Tenecin 3 against B. bassiana. These findings could help improving biocontrol strategies and help understanding the evolution of antifungal peptides as a defense mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Gisele Braziliano Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

  4. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  5. Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Pauszek, Steven J; Ahmed, Zaheer; Farooq, Umer; Naeem, Khalid; Shabman, Reed S; Stockwell, Timothy B; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. This study investigated the genetic dynamics of FMDV during persistent infections of naturally infected Asian buffalo. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) we obtained 21 near complete FMDV genome sequences from 12 sub-clinically infected buffalo over a period of one year. Four animals yielded only one virus isolate and one yielded two isolates of different serotype suggesting a serial infection. Seven persistently infected animals yielded more than one virus of the same serotype showing a long-term intra-host viral genetic divergence at the consensus level of less than 2.5%. Quasi-species analysis showed few nucleotide variants and non-synonymous substitutions of progeny virus despite intra-host persistence of up to 152 days. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype Asia-1 VP1 sequences clustered all viruses from persistent animals with Group VII viruses circulating in Pakistan in 2011, but distinct from those circulating on 2008-2009. Furthermore, signature amino acid (aa) substitutions were found in the antigenically relevant VP1 of persistent viruses compared with viruses from 2008-2009. Intra-host purifying selective pressure was observed, with few codons in structural proteins undergoing positive selection. However, FMD persistent viruses did not show a clear pattern of antigenic selection. Our findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV populations within naturally occurring subclinical and persistent infections that may have implications to vaccination strategies in the region.

  6. Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. This study investigated the genetic dynamics of FMDV during persistent infections of naturally infected Asian buffalo. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS we obtained 21 near complete FMDV genome sequences from 12 sub-clinically infected buffalo over a period of one year. Four animals yielded only one virus isolate and one yielded two isolates of different serotype suggesting a serial infection. Seven persistently infected animals yielded more than one virus of the same serotype showing a long-term intra-host viral genetic divergence at the consensus level of less than 2.5%. Quasi-species analysis showed few nucleotide variants and non-synonymous substitutions of progeny virus despite intra-host persistence of up to 152 days. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype Asia-1 VP1 sequences clustered all viruses from persistent animals with Group VII viruses circulating in Pakistan in 2011, but distinct from those circulating on 2008-2009. Furthermore, signature amino acid (aa substitutions were found in the antigenically relevant VP1 of persistent viruses compared with viruses from 2008-2009. Intra-host purifying selective pressure was observed, with few codons in structural proteins undergoing positive selection. However, FMD persistent viruses did not show a clear pattern of antigenic selection. Our findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of FMDV populations within naturally occurring subclinical and persistent infections that may have implications to vaccination strategies in the region.

  7. Comparative analysis of conventional natural killer cell responses to acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii strains of different virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria L Ivanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Natural Killer Cells (cNK, members of group 1 innate lymphoid cells, are a diverse cell subpopulation based on surface receptor expression, maturation and functional potential. cNK cells are critical for early immunity to T. gondii via IFNγ production. Acute cNK cell responses to infection with different strains of T. gondii have not yet been characterized in detail. Here we comprehensively performed this analysis with Type I virulent RH, and Type II avirulent ME49 and fully attenuated Type I cps1-1 strains. In response to these three parasite strains, murine cNK cells produce IFNγ, become cytotoxic and polyfunctional (IFNγ+CD107a+ at the site of infection. In contrast to virulent RH and avirulent ME49 T. gondii strains, attenuated cps1-1 induced only local cNK cell responses. Infections with RH and ME49 parasites significantly decreased cNK cell frequency and numbers in spleen 5 days post infection compared to cps1-1 parasites. cNK cell subsets expressing activating receptors Ly49H, Ly49D, NKG2D and inhibitory receptors Ly49I and NKG2A/CD94 were similar when compared between the strains and at 5 days post infection. cNK cells were not proliferating (Ki67- 5 days post infection with any of the strains. cNK cell maturation as measured by CD27, CD11b and KLRG1 was affected after infection with different parasite strains. RH and ME49 infection significantly reduced mature cNK cell frequency and increased immature cNK cell populations compared to cps1-1 infection. Interestingly, KLRG1 was highly expressed on immature cNK cells after RH infection. After RH and ME49 infections, CD69+ cNK cells were present at higher numbers than after cps1-1 infection, which may correlate with loss of the mature cNK cell population. Cytokine multiplex analysis indicated cNK cell responses correlated with peritoneal exudate cell (PEC, spleen and serum proinflammatory cytokine levels including IL-12. qPCR analysis of parasite-specific B1 gene revealed

  8. Comparison of infectious hematopoietic necrosis in natural and experimental infections of spawning salmonids by infectivity and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, C.K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) continues to be a serious virus disease of salmonids with epizootics recorded in both wild and hatchery populations (Williams and Amend 1976; Carlisle et al 1979; Groberg and Fryer 1983; Saft and Pratt 1986; Traxler 1987; Follett et al 1987; Meyers et al 1988). While originally enzootic in western North America, the virus appears to be spreading further (Sano et al 1977; de Kinkelin et al 1987; Bovo et al 1987). In hatchery outbreaks occurring in regions where the virus is not enzootic, it is often possible to trace the virus to the importation of infected fingerlings or contaminated eggs. In regions where the virus is widespread among stocks of fish, the source of virus infection is more difficult to establish particularly in watersheds where there are anadromous salmonids. Although salmonid fish surviving infection as fry and returning from the ocean to spawn are considered to be parental carriers of IHNV, there is very little data to support this hypothesis. Amend (1975) in the study of rainbow trout reported that in a population surviving infection and assayed a few years later found that a few trout were carrying virus. This is the study often cited as evidence for the carrier status of returning salmonids. LaPatra et al (1987) presented data that indicated IHNV has been transmitted horizontally through water from adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) at a hatchery in northern California. They suggested that horizontal transmission may be an important means for perpetuating IHN. However, the actual mechanisms for persistence and transmission of IHN among fish in a watershed is likely to be complex and involve multiple species and age groups as well as intermediate vectors and/or reservoirs.

  9. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  10. Lysis of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts by rIL-2 activated autologous natural killer cells from HIV-infected viremic individuals.

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    Manuela Fogli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular mechanisms that ensure an appropriate innate immune response against viral pathogens is an important challenge of biomedical research. In vitro studies have shown that natural killer (NK cells purified from healthy donors can kill heterologous cell lines or autologous CD4+ T cell blasts exogenously infected with several strains of HIV-1. However, it is not known whether the deleterious effects of high HIV-1 viremia interferes with the NK cell-mediated cytolysis of autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we stimulate primary CD4+ T cells, purified ex vivo from HIV-1-infected viremic patients, with PHA and rIL2 (with or without rIL-7. This experimental procedure allows for the significant expansion and isolation of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts detected by intracellular staining of p24 HIV-1 core antigen. We show that, subsequent to the selective down-modulation of MHC class-I (MHC-I molecules, HIV-1-infected p24(pos blasts become partially susceptible to lysis by rIL-2-activated NK cells, while uninfected p24(neg blasts are spared from killing. This NK cell-mediated killing occurs mainly through the NKG2D activation pathway. However, the degree of NK cell cytolytic activity against autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cell blasts that down-modulate HLA-A and -B alleles and against heterologous MHC-I(neg cell lines is particularly low. This phenomenon is associated with the defective surface expression and engagement of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs and with the high frequency of the anergic CD56(neg/CD16(pos subsets of highly dysfunctional NK cells from HIV-1-infected viremic patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the chronic viral replication of HIV-1 in infected individuals results in several phenotypic and functional aberrancies that interfere with the NK cell-mediated killing of autologous p24(pos blasts derived from primary T cells.

  11. [The role of natural environment in spreading of hantavirus--model of the correlation between host, pathogen and human infections].

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    Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.

  12. Histopathological changes in the liver and stomach of Didelphis virginiana (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) during natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, E H; Zazueta-Moreno, J M; Osuna-Martínez, L U; Castillo-Ureta, H; Silva-Hidalgo, G; López-Moreno, H S; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Noguera-Corona, E; Rendón-Maldonado, J G

    2017-11-06

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology - areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.

  13. The dynamics of immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during different stages of natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Soborg, Bolette; Diaz, Lars Jorge

    2017-01-01

    during different stages of infection over time and to observe sustainability of immunity. METHODS: In a cohort study comprising East Greenlanders aged 17-22 years (2012 to 2014) who had either; undetectable Mtb infection, ongoing or prior Mtb infection at enrolment, we measured immunity to 15 antigens...... over a one-year period. Quantiferon-TB Gold testing (QFT) defined Mtb infection status (undetected/detected). The eligible study population of East Greenlanders aged 17-22 years was identified from the entire population using the Civil Registration System. From the source population 65 participants......-infected. Immunity to Mtb infection fluctuated with high annual risk of conversion (range: 6-69%) and reversion (range: 5-95%). During follow-up, five (8%) participants were notified with TB; neither conversion nor reversion was associated with an increased risk of progressing to TB. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings...

  14. Current knowledge on alleviating Helicobacter pylori infections through the use of some commonly known natural products: bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Raman Murali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium, has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization and recognized as the causative agent for peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, and gastric cancer. Owing to their alarming rate of drug resistance, eradication of H. pylori remains a global challenge. Triple therapy consisting of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and either amoxicillin or metronidazole, is generally the recommended standard for the treatment of H. pylori infection. Complementary and alternative medicines have a long history in the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and various compounds has been tested for anti-H. pylori activity both in vitro and in vivo; however, their successful use in human clinical trials is sporadic. Hence, the aim of this review is to analyze the role of some well-known natural products that have been tested in clinical trials in preventing, altering, or treating H. pylori infections. Whereas some in vitro and in vivo studies in the literature have demonstrated the successful use of a few potential natural products for the treatment of H. pylori-related infections, others indicate a need to consider natural products, with or without triple therapy, as a useful alternative in treating H. pylori-related infections. Thus, the reported mechanisms include killing of H. pylori urease inhibition, induction of bacterial cell damage, and immunomodulatory effect on the host immune system. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the successful use of some potential natural products for the treatment of H. pylori-related infections. Nevertheless, the routine prescription of potential complementary and alternative medicines continues to be restrained, and evidence on the safety and efficacy of the active compounds remains a subject of ongoing debate.

  15. Suppression of NK cells and regulatory T lymphocytes in cats naturally infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ben L; Devriendt, Bert; Olyslaegers, Dominique A; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Favoreel, Herman W; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-05-31

    A strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be indispensable for protection against infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in cats. In this study, the role of natural killer (NK) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), central players in the innate and adaptive CMI respectively, was examined during natural FIPV infection. When quantified, both NK cells and Tregs were drastically depleted from the peripheral blood, mesenteric lymph node (LN) and spleen in FIP cats. In contrast, mesentery and kidney from FIP cats did not show any difference when compared to healthy non-infected control animals. In addition, other regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ and CD3+CD8+Foxp3+) were found to be depleted from blood and LN as well. Phenotypic analysis of blood-derived NK cells in FIP cats revealed an upregulation of activation markers (CD16 and CD25) and migration markers (CD11b and CD62L) while LN-derived NK cells showed upregulation of only CD16 and CD62L. LN-derived NK cells from FIPV-infected cats were also significantly less cytotoxic when compared with healthy cats. This study reveals for the first time that FIPV infection is associated with severe suppression of NK cells and Tregs, which is reflected by cell depletion and lowered cell functionality (only NK cells). This will un-doubtfully lead to a reduced capacity of the innate immune system (NK cells) to battle FIPV infection and a decreased capacity (Tregs) to suppress the immunopathology typical for FIP. However, these results will also open possibilities for new therapies targeting specifically NK cells and Tregs to enhance their numbers and/or functionality during FIPV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of thoracic computed tomography findings in dogs naturally infected by Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Mark E; Hammond, Gawain; Chan, Daniel; Drees, Randi; Walker, David; Murtagh, Kevin; Stone, Janine; Bexfield, Nicholas; Reeve, Lizzie; Helm, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum) is an important emerging disease of canidae. Cardiorespiratory signs are common in affected dogs, therefore thoracic imaging is critical for diagnosing and monitoring disease. Descriptions of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings in dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum are currently lacking. Aims of this multicenter, retrospective study were to describe thoracic CT findings in a group of dogs with confirmed disease, determine whether any changes were consistent among dogs, and propose standardized terms for describing thoracic CT findings. Nine UK-based referral centers' clinical and imaging databases were searched for dogs that had a confirmed diagnosis of A. vasorum, and had undergone thoracic CT examination. Eighteen dogs, from seven of the centers, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The lung lobes were divided into the following three zones and the CT changes described in each: pleural (zone 1), subpleural (zone 2), and peribronchovascular (zone 3). The predominent abnormality was increased lung attenuation due to poorly defined ground-glass opacity or consolidation. There were regions of mosaic attenuation due to peripheral bronchiectasis. Nine/18 (50%) dogs showed hyperattenuating nodules of varying sizes with ill-defined margins. The distribution always affected zones 1 and 2 with varied involvement of zone 3; this resulted in clear delineation between zones 2 and 3. Tracheobronchial lymphadenomegaly was frequently noted. Findings were nonspecific and there was considerable overlap with other pulmonary conditions. However, authors recommend that A. vasorum be considered a likely differential diagnosis for dogs with a predominantly peripheral distribution of lung changes. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Synergistic effects of fenbendazole and metronidazole against Giardia muris in Swiss mice naturally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Romera, Liara Izabela Lopes; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study were proposed different protocols for the treatment of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris. Male Swiss mice were divided into seven groups, with five animals each, in a blind, controlled, randomized by drawing lots and once-repeated experiment. Parasite detection and cure control were performed using the Faust method and search by trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa. Clinical parameters (weight, water and feed consumption, elimination of excreta, aspect of the fur and feces) were also evaluated. All animals were treated with metronidazole (M), fenbendazole (F), and probiotics (P), administered intragastrically, during 7 days. M1, FM1, and F1 groups were treated 1×/day; M3, FM3, and PM3 groups 3×/day; and ST (control group) received only water. After the 5th and 7th days of treatment, the animals in FM1/FM3 and PM3/M3 groups presented, respectively, negative results and remained negative in the following 10 days. Animals in F1 group consumed less water (p = 0.00010) compared with FM1/FM3/PM3. The animals in M1 group compared with FM3/M3, F1 compared with M3, and ST compared with FM1/FM3/M3/PM3 consumed a larger amount of feed (p = 0.00001). The animals in F1 group compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3, FM1 compared with FM3, and ST compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3 eliminated lower volume of excreta (p = 0.00001). The results show that the association between F and M potentiates the effects, indicating a synergistic action of these two drugs, and FM1 is the best protocol due to early negativity in the animals, lower concentrations of the drugs, lower risk of toxicity and stress, and less alterations in clinical parameters.

  18. Clinical and laboratory alterations in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Carneiro de Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is a zoonotic disease with different clinical manifestations. Parasitism often occurs in bone marrow, but changes have been observed in peripheral blood and serum biochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematological and biochemical parameters in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi. METHODS: Eighty-five adult dogs of both sexes and various weights and ages from the Zoonosis Control Center of Fortaleza (CCZ were used, selected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and considered positive with IFA titers greater than 1:40 and by visualizing amastigotes of Leishmania chagasi in smears obtained by bone marrow aspiration. The dogs (n = 85 were grouped according to clinical signs: negative (CN = 7, subclinical (CS = 10, and clinical (CC = 68. Blood samples were collected for determination of hematological and biochemical serum values. The experimental protocol was approved by the CEUA/UECE. RESULTS: The most frequent clinical signs were cachexia (77.9%, keratitis (61.8%, and lymphadenopathy (55.9%, and 86.8% of the animals showed more than one clinical sign characteristic of CVL. In CC were observed reductions in red blood cells (63%, hematocrit (72%, and hemoglobin (62%, as well as leukocytosis (33%, neutropenia (28%, thrombocytopenia (50%, uremia (45%, hyperproteinemia (53%, p<0.05, hypergammaglobulinemia (62%, p<0.01, and hypoalbuminemia (58%. CONCLUSIONS: Animals with the clinical form of the disease demonstrate hematological and biochemical changes consistent with anemia, uremia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia, which present themselves as strong clinical markers of visceral leishmaniasis associated with the signs previously reported.

  19. Natural selection on individual variation in tolerance of gastrointestinal nematode infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hayward

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hosts may mitigate the impact of parasites by two broad strategies: resistance, which limits parasite burden, and tolerance, which limits the fitness or health cost of increasing parasite burden. The degree and causes of variation in both resistance and tolerance are expected to influence host-parasite evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics and inform disease management, yet very little empirical work has addressed tolerance in wild vertebrates. Here, we applied random regression models to longitudinal data from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep to estimate individual tolerance, defined as the rate of decline in body weight with increasing burden of highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematode parasites. On average, individuals lost weight as parasite burden increased, but whereas some lost weight slowly as burden increased (exhibiting high tolerance, other individuals lost weight significantly more rapidly (exhibiting low tolerance. We then investigated associations between tolerance and fitness using selection gradients that accounted for selection on correlated traits, including body weight. We found evidence for positive phenotypic selection on tolerance: on average, individuals who lost weight more slowly with increasing parasite burden had higher lifetime breeding success. This variation did not have an additive genetic basis. These results reveal that selection on tolerance operates under natural conditions. They also support theoretical predictions for the erosion of additive genetic variance of traits under strong directional selection and fixation of genes conferring tolerance. Our findings provide the first evidence of selection on individual tolerance of infection in animals and suggest practical applications in animal and human disease management in the face of highly prevalent parasites.

  20. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

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    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  1. Effects of HIV infection and ART on phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabatanzi, Rose; Cose, Stephen; Joloba, Moses; Jones, Sarah Rowland; Nakanjako, Damalie

    2018-03-15

    HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery.

  2. A brief history of the discovery of natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in captive sooty mangabey monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormus, Bobby J; Martin, Louis N; Baskin, Gary B

    2004-01-01

    Experimental leprosy studies using Mycobacterium leprae inoculum isolated from a sooty mangabey monkey (SMM) resulted in the accidental discovery that SMM's asymptomatically carry simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is pathogenic in macaques. We showed that the SMM virus, SIVDelta, was antigenically related to SIVmac, which had been identified in macaques, and to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar asymptomatic natural SIV infections had been reported in African green monkeys (AGM). Our results together with observations of others led us to propose that both SIVmac and SIVDelta originated in SMM and that SIV emerged in humans as a result of early African nonhuman primate SIV trans-species infections in humans.

  3. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

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    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  4. An immunological analysis of natural resistance to moise hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) infection in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C A; Pickel, K [Wurzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Virologie und Immunbiologie

    1987-01-01

    Since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during JHMV infection. Adult C3H mice naturally resistant to JHMV were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal {sup 60}Co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. Resistance or susceptibility dependend on the number of cells used for reconstitution and the interval between reconsitution and infection. Spleen cells from suckling mice affected neither resistance nor susceptibility and peritoneal cells from adult mice and thymus cells reduced resistance. Persistence of JHMV was demonstrated by virus reactivation. Animals infected with JHMV only once before being rendered immunoincompetent showed a different pattern of resistance. One to four months after infection, 15 to 35% of the animals died after reconstitution without having been reinfected, and persisting JHMV was found in their liver, spleen and peritoneal exudate. The survivors (47 to 87%) were resistant to further JHMV infection during immunodeficiency. Animals immunized 3 times with JHMV before irradiation did not show virus reactivation and were fully resistant to JHMV reinfection after reconstitution. The level of neutralizing anti JHMV serum antibodies in the group of mice immunized only once was comparable with the level of those immunized 3 times. The role of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity in this model are discused as an explanation for the resistance to, and persistence of, JHMV. (author).

  5. An immunological analysis of natural resistance to moise hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) infection in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.A.; Pickel, K.

    1987-01-01

    Since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during JHMV infection. Adult C3H mice naturally resistant to JHMV were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal 60 Co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. Resistance or susceptibility dependend on the number of cells used for reconstitution and the interval between reconsitution and infection. Spleen cells from suckling mice affected neither resistance nor susceptibility and peritoneal cells from adult mice and thymus cells reduced resistance. Persistence of JHMV was demonstrated by virus reactivation. Animals infected with JHMV only once before being rendered immunoincompetent showed a different pattern of resistance. One to four months after infection, 15 to 35% of the animals died after reconstitution without having been reinfected, and persisting JHMV was found in their liver, spleen and peritoneal exudate. The survivors (47 to 87%) were resistant to further JHMV infection during immunodeficiency. Animals immunized 3 times with JHMV before irradiation did not show virus reactivation and were fully resistant to JHMV reinfection after reconstitution. The level of neutralizing anti JHMV serum antibodies in the group of mice immunized only once was comparable with the level of those immunized 3 times. The role of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity in this model are discused as an explanation for the resistance to, and persistence of, JHMV. (author) [pt

  6. Natural co-infection of Solanum tuberosum crops by the Potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in Colombia

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    Angela Villamil-Garzón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.

  7. Molecular characterization of leishmania infection from naturally infected sand flies caught in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (eastern iran.

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    Mohammad Akhoundi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is a serious and increasing problem affecting many rural areas of 17 out of 31 provinces in Iran. Little is known about sand fly fauna and leishmaniases in Eastern Iran and no study has been carried out in Sarbisheh County. The aim of this study was to determine sand flies composition and probable Leishmania infection to find the probable vectors of leishmaniasis in Sarbisheh district.Sand flies were caught using both sticky papers and CDC light traps in August 2010. They were identified morphologically and analyzed for Leishmania infection by amplification of ITS-rDNA.Totally, 842 specimens were caught and 8 species recorded. They belonged to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia: P. (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. (Paraphlebotomus sergenti, P. (Pa. caucasicus, P. (Pa. mongolensis, P. (Pa. jacusieli, S. (Sergentomyia dentata, S. (Se. sintoni and S. (Sintonius clydei. All collected females were processed for Leishmania DNA detection by PCR amplifying of Internal Transcribed Spacer1 (partial sequence, 5.8S (complete sequence and ITS2 (partial sequence fragments. Thirteen females were positive for Leishmania DNA. The sequencing of the 430 bp amplicons indicated that 9 P. papatasi and 3 females belonging to the Caucasicus group carried L. major DNA whereas one P. sergenti carried L. tropica DNA.Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are, like in several places, the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniases in this emerging or unknown focus of cutaneous leishmaniases.

  8. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    are coding for immunological factors and tissue regeneration. Locale, inflammatory responses were seen as strong up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-8 in both groups of fish, but it was more pronounced in infected fish. Expression of the toll-like receptors showed induction of TLR-5m following infection, but TLR-9...

  9. The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection

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    Ana M. Montalvo-Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from other organisms. The humoral response elicited against this protein during Leishmania infection has been investigated in natural infected humans and dogs, and in experimentally infected hamsters. Leishmania HSP20 is a prominent antigen for canine hosts; on the contrary, the protein seems to be a poor antigen for human immune system. Time-course analysis of appearance of anti-HSP20 antibodies in golden hamsters indicated that these antibodies are produced at late stages of the infection, when clinical symptoms of disease are patent. Finally, the protective efficacy of HSP20 was assessed in mice using a DNA vaccine approach prior to challenge with Leishmania amazonensis.

  10. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in inflammatory (mainly...

  11. [Natural infection of Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis with trypanosomatid parasites (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Los Montes de Maria, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochero, Suljey; Anaya, Yosed; Díaz, Yirys; Paternina, Margaret; Luna, Arturo; Paternina, Luis; Eduar Elías, Bejarano

    2007-01-01

    The presence of sand flies naturally infected with trypanosomatid parasites was determined in Los Montes de Maria, Colombia, a region considered endemic for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Phlebotomines were collected using CDC light-traps, and sticky traps soaked with castor oil placed in the peri and intradomestic habitats. Six species of Lutzomyia were morphologically identified among the 159 sand flies captured: Lu. evansi, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. trinidadensis, Lu. atroclavata, Lu. gomezi and Lu. dubitans. A DNA band of 800 pb corresponding to the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssrRNA) of the family Trypanosomatidae was amplified in one pool of nine females of Lu. cayennensis cayennensis. This finding constitutes the first evidence of natural infection of this sand fly species with trypanosomatid parasites in Los Montes de Maria.

  12. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  13. Dengue virus activates polyreactive, natural IgG B cells after primary and secondary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavamalar Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and has four serotypes. Cross-protection to other serotypes lasting for a few months is observed following infection with one serotype. There is evidence that low-affinity T and/or B cells from primary infections contribute to the severe syndromes often associated with secondary dengue infections. such pronounced immune-mediated enhancement suggests a dengue-specific pattern of immune cell activation. This study investigates the acute and early convalescent B cell response leading to the generation of cross-reactive and neutralizing antibodies following dengue infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assayed blood samples taken from dengue patients with primary or secondary infection during acute disease and convalescence and compared them to samples from patients presenting with non-dengue related fever. Dengue induced massive early plasmablast formation, which correlated with the appearance of polyclonal, cross-reactive IgG for both primary and secondary infection. Surprisingly, the contribution of IgG to the neutralizing titer 4-7 days after fever onset was more than 50% even after primary infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Poly-reactive and virus serotype cross-reactive IgG are an important component of the innate response in humans during both primary and secondary dengue infection, and "innate specificities" seem to constitute part of the adaptive response in dengue. While of potential importance for protection during secondary infection, cross-reactive B cells will also compete with highly neutralizing B cells and possibly interfere with their development.

  14. Clinical evaluation and outcomes of naturally acquired West Nile virus infection in raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Kratz, Gail E; Bates, Rebecca; Scherpelz, Judy A; Bowen, Richard A; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection and associated disease and mortality have been documented in numerous North American raptor species. Information regarding clinical presentations and long-term outcomes of WNV-infected raptors is important in the clinic for the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of prognosis, as well as for understanding potential population level effects on raptor species. Raptors of 22 species admitted to a rehabilitation clinic were tested, from 2002 to 2005, for previous and acute WNV infection, while comparing clinical syndromes, trauma, and rehabilitation outcomes. Forty-two percent of admitted raptors (132/314) had been infected with WNV, and these presented with a WNV-attributed clinical disease rate of 67.4% (89/132). West Nile virus-infected raptors were less likely to be released (79/132 [59.8%]) than negative raptors (138/182 [75.8%]) and more likely to die or be euthanized (47/132 [35.6%] for WNV-infected vs. 32/182 [17.6%] for WNV-negative). However, WNV-infected raptors with neurologic disease were no less likely to be released (29/53 [54.7%]) than those without neurologic disease (50/79 [63.3%]). Clinical WNV-associated syndromes varied among species. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were more likely to have neurologic signs, whereas American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsonii) were less likely to have neurologic signs. These results suggest that free-ranging raptors are frequently infected with WNV and that clinical syndromes differ among species. WNV has potentially devastating effects on raptors; however, rehabilitation of WNV-infected raptors can lead to positive outcomes, even for those having had severe neurologic disease.

  15. Identification, characterisation and expression analysis of natural killer receptor genes in Chlamydia pecorum infected koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Katrina M; Mathew, Marina; Waugh, Courtney; Ujvari, Beata; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Belov, Katherine

    2015-10-15

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), an iconic Australian marsupial, are being heavily impacted by the spread of Chlamydia pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. Koalas vary in their response to this pathogen, with some showing no symptoms, while others suffer severe symptoms leading to infertility, blindness or death. Little is known about the pathology of this disease and the immune response against it in this host. Studies have demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells, key components of the innate immune system, are involved in the immune response to chlamydial infections in humans. These cells can directly lyse cells infected by intracellular pathogens and their ability to recognise these infected cells is mediated through NK receptors on their surface. These are encoded in two regions of the genome, the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the natural killer complex (NKC). These two families evolve rapidly and different repertoires of genes, which have evolved by gene duplication, are seen in different species. In this study we aimed to characterise genes belonging to the NK receptor clusters in the koala by searching available koala transcriptomes using a combination of search methods. We developed a qPCR assay to quantify relative expression of four genes, two encoded within the NK receptor cluster (CLEC1B, CLEC4E) and two known to play a role in NK response to Chalmydia in humans (NCR3, PRF1). We found that the NK receptor repertoire of the koala closely resembles that of the Tasmanian devil, with minimal genes in the NKC, but with lineage specific expansions in the LRC. Additional genes important for NK cell activity, NCR3 and PRF1, were also identified and characterised. In a preliminary study to investigate whether these genes are involved in the koala immune response to infection by its chlamydial pathogen, C. pecorum, we investigated the expression of four genes in koalas with active chlamydia infection, those with past infection and

  16. Blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2017-06-01

    The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral Determinants of FeLV Infection and Pathogenesis: Lessons Learned from Analysis of a Natural Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Levy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analysis has been performed over many years of a geographic and temporal cohort of cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV. Molecular analysis of FeLV present in the diseased tissues and application of those viruses to experimental systems has revealed unique isolates with distinctive disease potential, previously uncharacterized virus-receptor interactions, information about the role of recombinant viruses in disease induction, and novel viral and cellular oncogenes implicated in pathogenesis, among other findings. The studies have contributed to an understanding of the selective forces that lead to predominance of distinctive FeLV isolates and disease outcomes in a natural population.

  18. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Joulié, A.; Laroucau, K.; Bailly, X.; Prigent, M.; Gasqui, P.; Lepetitcolin, E.; Blanchard, B.; Rousset, E.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Jourdain, E.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain divers...

  19. Quantitative molecular viral loads in 7 horses with naturally occurring equine herpesvirus-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Dawson, D R; Magdesian, K G; Swain, E; Laing, S T; Siso, S; Mapes, S; Pusterla, N

    2015-11-01

    Data associating quantitative viral load with severity, clinical signs and survival in equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have not been reported. To report the clinical signs, treatment, and temporal progression of viral loads in 7 horses with naturally occurring EHM and to examine the association of these factors with survival. Retrospective case series. The population included 7 horses with EHM presented to the University of California, Davis William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from May to September 2011. Horses were graded using a neurological grading scale. Daily quantitative PCR was performed on nasal secretions and whole blood. Treatment, survival, outcome and histopathology were reported. At presentation, one horse was neurological grade 5/5, 3 were grade 4/5 and 3 were grade 3/5. All were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, valacyclovir and management in a sling if necessary. All were infected with equine herpesvirus-1 of DNA polymerase D752 genotype. Peak viral load in nasal secretions and blood of 5 survivors ranged from 6.9 × 10(3) to 2.81 × 10(5) (median 5.11 × 10(4) ) and from 143 to 4340 gB gene copies/million eukaryotic cells (median 3146), respectively. The 2 nonsurvivors presented with grade 3/5 neurological signs and progressed to encephalopathy. Peak viral load was higher in nonsurvivors, with levels in nasal secretions of 1.9 × 10(9) and 2.2 × 10(9) and in blood of 2.05 × 10(4) and 1.02 × 10(5) gB gene copies/million eukaryotic cells. Case fatality was 2/7. Nonsurvivors had viral loads 1000-fold higher in nasal secretions and 10-fold higher in blood than survivors. There was no relationship between severity of clinical signs at presentation and survival. Thus, encephalopathy and high viral load were negatively associated with survival in this population. Further research should be performed to determine whether high viral loads are associated with encephalopathy and poor prognosis. The Summary is

  20. Plasma disposition, milk excretion and parasitological efficacy of mebendazole in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Aksit, Dilek; Santoro, Mario; Roncoroni, Cristina; Mariani, Ugo; Buono, Francesco; Rufrano, Domenico; Fagiolo, Antonio; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-02-15

    Mebendazole (MBZ) has been licensed for use in horses and donkeys, however there are no data available in the literature regarding its pharmacokinetic disposition and efficacy in donkeys. This study was designed to determine the plasma disposition, milk excretion and anthelmintic efficacy of MBZ in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae. The animals were allocated to three groups, each of six donkeys. One group was untreated control (C-group) and the others were treated using a paste formulation of MBZ administered per os at the manufacturer's recommended horse dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 1) and at the double horse dosage 20 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 2). Blood and milk samples were collected at various times between 1h and 120 h post treatment and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Individual FECs (Faecal Egg Counts) were performed on each animal before the treatment (day-3) and weekly from day 7 until day 56 post treatment using a modified McMaster technique. The plasma concentrations and systemic exposure of MBZ in donkeys were relatively lower compared with the other methylcarbamate benzimidazoles. Dose-dependent plasma dispositions of MBZ were observed at the increased dosage (10 mg/kg vs 20 mg/kg) in donkeys. MBZ was not detected in any milk samples at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. However, the parent drug reached 0.01 μg/ml peak milk concentration at 10.66 h and AUCmilk/AUCplasma value was 0.18 ± 0.02 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. This study indicated that per os administration of MBZ has a minimal disposition rate into the milk and may be used in lactating donkeys with zero milk-withdrawal period. The results of FECRT for both MBZ dosages were efficient (>95% efficacy) until day 28. This trial demonstrates that MBZ oral paste at horse dosage (10 mg/kg B.W.) was effective and safety for the treatment of Cyathostominae in donkeys. Therefore, similar dosage regimens of MBZ could be used for horses and

  1. Concurrent presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts, Besnoitia darlingi tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis inghami sarcocysts in naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, H M; Fitzgerald, S D; Rosenthal, B M; Mansfield, L S

    2004-07-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) are exposed to a wide range of coccidia through feeding on a variety of foods, including, but not limited to, carrion, insects, and nestling birds. Abundant D. virginiana populations in urban and suburban areas can be important reservoirs of parasitic infection because of their profuse and prolonged excretion of the sporocysts of several species of Sarcocystis, their omnivorous diet, and their relatively long life span. This report describes 2 adult female opossums found to be simultaneously infected with the tissue cysts of Besnoitia darlingi, sarcocysts of Sarcocystis inghami, as well as with the intestinal sporocysts of S. neurona. Cysts typical of B. darlingi based on gross, histological, and ultrastructural characteristics were disseminated throughout the visceral organs, musculature, ears, and skin. The S. neurona and B. darlingi infections were confirmed by comparative sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified diagnostic genetic loci. Sarcocysts of S. inghami are also described. Such examples of multiple parasitic infections show that concurrent infections occur naturally. The propensity for species to coexist should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa and may have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of iNOS expression in the spleen of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernando Rocha; Vieira, Paula Melo Abreu; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta

    2011-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), the product of the nitric oxide synthase enzymes has been detected in Leishmania-infected animals. Besides its role on the immunity to infection, the role of NO and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is not well understood. This study aimed at evaluating immunohistochemically the iNOS expression in the spleen of dogs naturally infected (ID) with Leishmania (L.) chagasi compared with non-infected dogs (NID). The ID was grouped according to the clinical form and the parasite load. Symptomatic dogs (SD) presented higher parasite load in relation to oligosymptomatic (OD) and asymptomatic (AD). The qualitative expression of iNOS was observed only in ID. SD presented strong and prominent labeling of iNOS, followed by OD and AD. Quantitatively, the results showed that the median expression of iNOS was higher in SD and OD compared to NID. Also, dog spleens with high parasitism load showed marked iNOS expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the expression of iNOS in the spleen of infected dogs with CVL was associated with clinical worsening of the disease and with high parasitism.

  3. Apoptosis in T lymphocytes from spleen tissue and peripheral blood of L. (L.) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Fattori, Karina Reinaldo; de Souza, Fausto; Eugênio, Flavia Rezende; dos Santos, Paulo Sérgio Patto; Rozza, Daniele Bernadete; Machado, Gisele Fabrino

    2012-03-23

    Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite may cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Infected symptomatic dogs show disorganization in the white pulp in spleen tissue and a reduction in T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. To investigate whether apoptosis is involved in white pulp disorganization and diminished T cell counts in peripheral blood, apoptotic T cells from the spleen and peripheral blood of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi and presenting clinical manifestations were quantified and compared with healthy dogs. Thirteen symptomatic adult dogs infected by L. (L.) chagasi and six healthy dogs from a nonendemic area (controls) were included in the study. Samples from spleen and peripheral blood were used to quantify apoptosis in CD3 lymphocytes by flow cytometry using Anexin V and Multicaspase kits; the results were compared using the Mann Whitney test. The percentage of total T cells was lower in Leishmania infected dogs compared to healthy controls (Pspleen were higher in infected dogs than in controls (Pspleen white pulp and the percentage of apoptosis in the spleen. A significant effect on the level of white pulp morphological disorganization and percentage of apoptosis in spleen T cells was observed (F=20.45; P=0.0014). These data suggest that apoptosis is an important for the immunopathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early activation of natural killer and B cells in response to primary dengue virus infection in A/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shresta, Sujan; Kyle, Jennifer L.; Robert Beatty, P.; Harris, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Dengue virus (DEN) causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans worldwide. Immune mechanisms that are involved in protection and pathogenesis of DEN infection have not been fully elucidated due largely to the lack of an adequate animal model. Therefore, as a first step, we characterized the primary immune response in immunocompetent inbred A/J mice that were infected intravenously with a non-mouse-adapted DEN type 2 (DEN2) strain. A subset (55%) of infected mice developed paralysis by 14 days post-infection (p.i.), harbored infectious DEN in the central nervous system (CNS), and had an elevated hematocrit and a decreased white blood cell (WBC) count. Immunologic studies detected (i) increased numbers of CD69 + splenic natural killer (NK) and B cells at day 3 p.i., (ii) DEN-specific IgM and IgG responses by days 3 and 7 p.i., respectively, and (iii) splenocyte production of IFNγ at day 14 p.i. We conclude that the early activities of NK cells, B cells and IgM, and later actions of IFNγ and IgG likely play a role in the defense against DEN infection

  5. Infection and natural history of emergency department-placed central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Christopher H; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Pandya, Darshan; Pallin, Daniel J; Silvia, Jennifer; Yokoe, Deborah; Agrawal, Ashish; Hou, Peter C

    2010-11-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI, hereafter referred to in this paper as "bloodstream infection") is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. To our knowledge, there are no previously published studies designed to determine the rate of bloodstream infection among central venous catheters placed in the emergency department (ED). We design a retrospective chart review methodology to determine bloodstream infection and duration of catheterization for central venous catheters placed in the ED. Using hospital infection control, administrative, and ED billing databases, we identified patients with central venous catheters placed in the ED between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008, at one academic, urban ED with an annual census of 57,000. We performed a structured, explicit chart review to determine duration of catheterization and confirm bloodstream infection. We screened 4,251 charts and identified 656 patients with central venous catheters inserted in the ED, 3,622 catheter-days, and 7 bloodstream infections. The rate of bloodstream infection associated with central venous catheters placed in the ED was 1.93 per 1,000 catheter-days (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 3.36). The mean duration of catheterization was 5.5 days (median 4; range 1 to 29 days). Among infected central venous catheters, the mean duration of catheterization was 8.6 days (median 7; range 2 to 19 days). A total of 667 central venous catheters were placed in the internal jugular (392; 59%), subclavian (145; 22%), and femoral (130; 19%) veins. The sensitivity of using ED procedural billing code for identifying ED-placed central venous catheters among patients subsequently admitted to any ICU was 74.9% (95% confidence interval 71.4% to 78.3%). The rate of ED bloodstream infection at our institution is similar to current rates in ICUs. Central venous catheters placed in the ED remain in admitted patients for a substantial period. Copyright © 2010 American College of

  6. Natural History of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Mexican Schoolchildren: Incidence and Spontaneous Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Ximena; Vilchis, Jenny; Mera, Robertino; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Goodman, Karen J.; Mendoza, Maria-Eugenia; Navarro, Fabiola; Roque, Victoria; Moran, Segundo; Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and spontaneous clearance rate of Helicobacter pylori infection and the effect of some variables on these outcomes in schoolchildren. Methods From May 2005 to December 2010, 718 schoolchildren enrolled in 3 public boarding schools in Mexico City participated in the follow-up. At the beginning of the study and every 6 months thereafter, breath samples were taken to detect H pylori infection; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were taken to evaluate nutritional status. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected. Results The prevalence of H pylori infection was 38%. The incidence rate was 6.36%/year. Schoolchildren with anemia or iron deficiency at the beginning of the study (who received iron supplements) showed a higher infection acquisition rate than those with normal iron nutritional status, hazard ratio (HR) 12.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.01%–39.12%), P <0.001 and HR 2.05 (95% CI 1.09%–3.87%), P = 0.027, respectively. The spontaneous clearance rate of the infection was 4.74%/year. The spontaneous clearance rate was higher in children who had iron deficiency (who received iron supplements), HR 5.02 (95% CI 1.33%–18.99%), P = 0.017, compared with those with normal nutritional iron status. It was lower in schoolchildren with ≥2 siblings compared with schoolchildren with 1 or no siblings, HR 0.23 (95% CI 0.08%–0.63%), P = 0.004. Conclusions H pylori infection status is dynamic in schoolchildren. Variables related to health status and infection transmission, such as iron status and number of siblings, are important for the incidence and spontaneous clearance of H pylori infection. PMID:22227999

  7. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Perkins, Jeremy G.; Swenson, Dana L.; Deal, Emily M.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Aman, M. Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Young, Howard A.; Bavari, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1–3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injectio...

  8. Some parasitological, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations in sheep naturally infected by Trichuris Ovis

    OpenAIRE

    P. T. Iliev; A. Ivanov; Z. Kirkova; K. Hristov; K. Dinkova; J. Ananiev

    2017-01-01

    A case of Trichuris ovis infection in a lamb is presented. In June 2012 a herd of 12 infected with T. ovis lambs in Brestnik (Southern Bulgaria) were discovered. A diarrhea and loss in body weight in 2 lambs have been observed. Despite antibiotic treatment one of the animals died. Parasitological examination was done. During necropsy of the gastro-intestinal tract, adult worms in the caecum were found. Standart staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the cell population in ...

  9. Natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs of endemic areas of the Argentine Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A. Lauricella

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics and the prevalence of chagasic infection of 352 dogs living in 108 rural houses infested by triatomines were studied. The region was divided into three sections according to increasing distances to an urban area. Each animal was identified by means of its particular characteristics and built, and its owners gave information about its habits. By means of xenodiagnosis, serology and ECG studies, prevalences of infection, parasitological-serological correlation, percentage of altered electrocardiographic outlines and percentage of houses with parasitemic dogs, were determined. The rural area showed a characteristic T. cruzi infection pattern and differences in the canine population parameters with respect to the other areas were observed: a higher proportion of puppies than adult dogs, a more sedentary population, higher prevalences of infection, as measured by xenodiagnosis, in dogs, and the highest proportion of bedroom insects infected with T. cruzi. It is assumed that the sedentary characteristics of the human population in that rural area impinge in the blood offer to the triatomine population, and the high percentage of parasitemic dogs of the area, contribute to the rise of "kissing ougs" infected with T. cruzi found in bedrooms.

  10. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayou Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Feline leukemia virus (FeLV is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories, the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis. Methods The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX’s worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis microtiter plate assay. Results The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%; Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%; Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%. Conclusions and relevance The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  11. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayou; O'Connor, Thomas; Beall, Melissa; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis). The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples) consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX's worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis) microtiter plate assay. The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%); Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%); Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%). The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  12. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  13. Loss of memory CD4+ T-cells in semi-wild mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally infected with species-specific simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmnd-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Edward J D; Schmidt, Fabian; Liégeois, Florian; Kondova, Ivanela; Herbert, Anaïs; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is found in a number of African primate species and is thought to be generally non-pathogenic. However, studies of wild primates are limited to two species, with SIV infection appearing to have a considerably different outcome in each. Further examination of SIV-infected primates exposed to their natural environment is therefore warranted. We performed a large cross-sectional study of a cohort of semi-wild mandrills with naturally occurring SIV infection, including 39 SIV-negative and 33 species-specific SIVmnd-1-infected animals. This study was distinguished from previous reports by considerably greater sample size, examination of exclusively naturally infected animals in semi-wild conditions and consideration of simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV) status in addition to SIVmnd-1 infection. We found that SIVmnd-1 infection was associated with a significant and progressive loss of memory CD4(+) T-cells. Limited but significant increases in markers of immune activation in the T-cell populations, significant increases in plasma neopterin and changes to B-cell subsets were also observed in SIV-infected animals. However, no increase in plasma soluble CD14 was observed. Histological examination of peripheral lymph nodes suggested that SIVmnd-1 infection was not associated with a significant disruption of the lymph node architecture. Whilst this species has evolved numerous strategies to resist the development of AIDS, significant effects of SIV infection could be observed when examined in a natural environment. STLVmnd-1 infection also had significant effects on some markers relevant to understanding SIV infection and thus should be considered in studies of SIV infection of African primates where present.

  14. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  15. Broadly reactive antibodies specific for Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 are associated with the protection of naturally exposed children against infection

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    Dent Arlene E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 19 kDa C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-1 is a known target of naturally acquired humoral immunity and a malaria vaccine candidate. MSP-119 has four predominant haplotypes resulting in amino acid changes labelled EKNG, QKNG, QTSR and ETSR. IgG antibodies directed against all four variants have been detected, but it is not known if these variant specific antibodies are associated with haplotype-specific protection from infection. Methods Blood samples from 201 healthy Kenyan adults and children who participated in a 12-week treatment time-to-infection study were evaluated. Venous blood drawn at baseline (week 0 was examined for functional and serologic antibodies to MSP-119 and MSP-142 variants. MSP-119 haplotypes were detected by a multiplex PCR assay at baseline and weekly throughout the study. Generalized linear models controlling for age, baseline MSP-119 haplotype and parasite density were used to determine the relationship between infecting P. falciparum MSP-119 haplotype and variant-specific antibodies. Results A total of 964 infections resulting in 1,533 MSP-119 haplotypes detected were examined. The most common haplotypes were EKNG and QKNG, followed by ETSR and QTSR. Children had higher parasite densities, greater complexity of infection (>1 haplotype, and more frequent changes in haplotypes over time compared to adults. Infecting MSP-119 haplotype at baseline (week 0 had no influence on haplotypes detected over the subsequent 11 weeks among children or adults. Children but not adults with MSP-119 and some MSP-142 variant antibodies detected by serology at baseline had delayed time-to-infection. There was no significant association of variant-specific serology or functional antibodies at baseline with infecting haplotype at baseline or during 11 weeks of follow up among children or adults. Conclusions Variant transcending IgG antibodies to MSP-119 are associated with protection

  16. Efficacy of oral BCG vaccination in protecting free-ranging cattle from natural infection by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor J; Whitford, Jackie; Aldwell, Frank E; Buddle, Bryce M

    2017-09-01

    Vaccination of cattle against bovine tuberculosis could be a valuable control strategy, particularly in countries faced with intractable ongoing infection from a disease reservoir in wildlife. A field vaccination trial was undertaken in New Zealand. The trial included 1286 effectively free-ranging cattle stocked at low densities in a remote 7600ha area, with 55% of them vaccinated using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish strain 1311). Vaccine was administered orally in all but 34 cases (where it was injected). After inclusion, cattle were exposed to natural sources of M. bovis infection in cattle and wildlife, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Cattle were slaughtered at 3-5 years of age and were inspected for tuberculous lesions, with mycobacteriological culture of key tissues from almost all animals. The prevalence of M. bovis infection was 4.8% among oral BCG vaccinates, significantly lower than the 11.9% in non-vaccinates. Vaccination appeared to both reduce the incidence of detectable infection, and to slow disease progression. Based on apparent annual incidence, the protective efficacy of oral BCG vaccine was 67.4% for preventing infection, and was higher in cattle slaughtered soon after vaccination. Skin-test reactivity to tuberculin was high in vaccinates re-tested 70days after vaccination but not in non-vaccinates, although reactor animals had minimal response in gamma-interferon blood tests. In re- tests conducted more than 12 months after vaccination, skin-test reactivity among vaccinates was much lower. These results indicate that oral BCG vaccination could be an effective tool for greatly reducing detectable infection in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the central nervous system of naturally infected dogs: Parasite load, viability, co-infections and histological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Campos, Monique Paiva; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas; Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and little is known about the occurrence and pathogenesis of this parasite in the CNS. The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence, viability and load of L. infantum in the CNS, and to identify the neurological histological alterations associated with this protozoan and its co-infections in naturally infected dogs. Forty-eight Leishmania-seropositive dogs from which L. infantum was isolated after necropsy were examined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed by parasitological culture, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the rapid immunochromatographic Dual Path Platform test. Brain, spinal cord and spleen samples were submitted to parasitological culture, qPCR, and histological techniques. Additionally, anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in serum and distemper virus antigens in CSF were investigated. None of the dogs showed neurological signs. All dogs tested positive for L. infantum in the CNS. Viable forms of L. infantum were isolated from CSF, brain and spinal cord in 25% of the dogs. Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in CSF in 61% of 36 dogs. Inflammatory histological alterations were observed in the CNS of 31% of the animals; of these, 66% were seropositive for E. canis and/or T. gondii. Amastigote forms were associated with granulomatous non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in a dog without evidence of co-infections. The highest frequency of L. infantum DNA was observed in the brain (98%), followed by the spinal cord (96%), spleen (95%), and CSF (50%). The highest L. infantum load in CNS was found in the spinal cord. These results demonstrate that L. infantum can cross the blood-brain barrier, spread through CSF, and cause active infection in the entire CNS of dogs. Additionally, L. infantum can cause inflammation in the CNS that can lead to neurological signs with progression of the disease.

  18. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the central nervous system of naturally infected dogs: Parasite load, viability, co-infections and histological alterations.

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    Valéria da Costa Oliveira

    Full Text Available Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and little is known about the occurrence and pathogenesis of this parasite in the CNS. The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence, viability and load of L. infantum in the CNS, and to identify the neurological histological alterations associated with this protozoan and its co-infections in naturally infected dogs. Forty-eight Leishmania-seropositive dogs from which L. infantum was isolated after necropsy were examined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were analyzed by parasitological culture, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and the rapid immunochromatographic Dual Path Platform test. Brain, spinal cord and spleen samples were submitted to parasitological culture, qPCR, and histological techniques. Additionally, anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in serum and distemper virus antigens in CSF were investigated. None of the dogs showed neurological signs. All dogs tested positive for L. infantum in the CNS. Viable forms of L. infantum were isolated from CSF, brain and spinal cord in 25% of the dogs. Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in CSF in 61% of 36 dogs. Inflammatory histological alterations were observed in the CNS of 31% of the animals; of these, 66% were seropositive for E. canis and/or T. gondii. Amastigote forms were associated with granulomatous non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in a dog without evidence of co-infections. The highest frequency of L. infantum DNA was observed in the brain (98%, followed by the spinal cord (96%, spleen (95%, and CSF (50%. The highest L. infantum load in CNS was found in the spinal cord. These results demonstrate that L. infantum can cross the blood-brain barrier, spread through CSF, and cause active infection in the entire CNS of dogs. Additionally, L. infantum can cause inflammation in the CNS that can lead to neurological signs with progression of the disease.

  19. Some parasitological, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations in sheep naturally infected by Trichuris Ovis

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    P. T. Iliev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Trichuris ovis infection in a lamb is presented. In June 2012 a herd of 12 infected with T. ovis lambs in Brestnik (Southern Bulgaria were discovered. A diarrhea and loss in body weight in 2 lambs have been observed. Despite antibiotic treatment one of the animals died. Parasitological examination was done. During necropsy of the gastro-intestinal tract, adult worms in the caecum were found. Standart staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the cell population in the affected areas of the caecum

  20. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

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    Gamal Wareth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B. species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  1. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-04-30

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  2. A potent Brucella abortus 2308 Δery live vaccine allows for the differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbo; Yin, Shuanghong; Guo, Fei; Meng, Ren; Chen, Chuangfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiqiang; Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Li, Tiansen; Zhang, Ke

    2014-08-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. However, the current Brucella abortus vaccines (S19 and RB51) are deficient; they can cause abortion in pregnant animals. Moreover, when the vaccine S19 is used, tests cannot differentiate natural from vaccinated infection. Therefore, a safer and more potent vaccine is needed. A Brucella abortus 2308 ery promoter mutant (Δery) was constructed to overcome these drawbacks. The growth of the Δery mutant was significantly attenuated in macrophages and mice and induced high protective immunity in mice. Moreover, Δery induced an anti-Brucella-specific IgG (immunoglobulin G) response and stimulated the expression of interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the expression of EryA antigen allowed for the serological differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection in mice. These results indicate that the Δery mutant is a potential attenuated live vaccine candidate against virulent Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) infection.

  3. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

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    Adolfo Vasquez Trujillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia. Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89% and Lutzomyia walkeri (5% were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi were present in very low abundance (< 2%. Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February, directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance.

  4. First molecular detection of Leishmania major within naturally infected Phlebotomus salehi from a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K; Fakoorziba, M R; Jalali, M; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2012-03-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major notifiable public health problem in many parts of Iran. It is often caused by the zooflagellate parasite Leishmania major which is mainly transmitted by the bites of female phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae). The annual incidence of CL in Fars province, southern Iran, was about 108-144 in 2007. The leishmanial infections of wild sandflies that may act as vectors were thus investigated at an endemic focus in this province. In all 330 female Phlebotomus sandflies were screened for the detection of Leishmania-specific kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. A two stage nested PCR protocol was used to establish the identity of Leishmania major species in naturally infected sandflies. The L. major kDNA was detected in 18 (5.5%) individual sandflies which belonged to four different Phlebotomus species (Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus salehi, Phlebotomus sergenti and P. major group). For the first time, one naturally infected P. salehi specimen contained the kDNA of the protozoan parasite, L. major, with a main band of 560 base pairs identified using the nested PCR method. It seems most likely therefore that P. salehi is potentially a rare sylvatic vector of L. major parasites in parts of this province. This is the first combined morphological and molecular studies of P. salehi in Iran.

  5. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Veruska Nogueira de Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani. Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%, dog (3.30% and skunk (1.60%. We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  6. Natural infection of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in an area of ecotourism in Central-Western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Kohatsu, Kleber Augusto; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Ghizzi; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui

    2015-01-01

    Bonito municipality, known as an area of ecoturism, in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, is also a focus of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases, with cases registered in both human and canine populations. This study sought to investigate natural infection by flagellate forms of Leishmania in phlebotomines of the urban area of Bonito. Sand flies were collected fortnightly from October 2005 to July 2006 with modified automatic light traps installed in peridomiciles and animal shelters in the center and on the outskirts of the city. The females were dissected and their guts observed under an optical microscope. A total of 1977 specimens were captured, Lutzomyia longipalpis (88.4 %) and Bichromomyia flaviscutelata (3.0 %) being the most frequent species. Bi. flaviscutellata was found infected by flagellates that were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis by indirect immunofluorescence reaction, employing monoclonal antibodies and the biotin-avidin system. This is the first report of natural infection by L. amazonensis in Bi. flaviscutellata in a Brazilian urban area. As Bi. flaviscutellata is only slightly attracted by humans, the transmission of L. amazonensis in the study area may have a zoonotic character; however, the sympatric occurrence of this parasite and Lu. longipalpis should be taken into consideration by the local health authorities since this sand fly has already been found with L. amazonensis DNA in a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bonito municipality.

  7. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Trujillo, Adolfo; González Reina, Angélica E; Góngora Orjuela, Agustín; Prieto Suárez, Edgar; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Buitrago Alvarez, Luz Stella

    2013-06-01

    Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance.

  8. Immune response of chicken gut to natural colonization by gut microflora and to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens.

  9. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) from naturally infected Caudisona durissa terrifica (Serpentes, Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moço, Tatiana Cristina; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Madeira, Newton Goulart; Dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Leal, Denise Dutra Menezes; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2012-04-01

    Hepatozoon spp. are the most frequent intracellular protozoa in snakes. Considering the variety of parasites infecting specimens of Caudisona durissa terrifica and the divergent data in literature where only two species, Hepatozoon romani and Hepatozoon capsulata, are described, the aim of this study was to morphologically, morphometrically, and molecularly characterize Hepatozoon spp. from some naturally infected specimens of C. durissa terrifica, and observe changes caused by these protozoa in parasitized erythrocytes. Four snakes were examined. Two of them had two morphological distinct gamonts, while the other two had only one type of gamont. The six distinct gamonts were provisionally named gamonts A, B, C, D, E, and F. Statistical analysis, however, confirmed the existence of only four parasite populations, those which were capable of inducing significant alterations in determined red blood cells variables. Attempts to infect Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were done for each snake specimen. Some mosquitoes became infected and oocysts were recovered and measured. The detection of Hepatozoon DNA was obtained with success but the molecular characterization was unable to differentiate species of the samples, with respect to the fragment studied.

  10. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  11. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  12. Platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte interaction in dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2015-01-01

    EDTA as anticoagulant. Activated platelets and PLA formation were detected by measuring surface expression of P-selectin (CD62P) on platelets, monocytes and neutrophils. Of the Babesia-infected dogs, 29 survived and seven died. The percentage of CD62P-positive monocytes was significantly higher (P = 0.......036) in the Babesia-infected dogs (54%) than in healthy control dogs (35.3%). However, there were no significant differences between the Babesia-infected and control groups for CD62P-positive platelets (4.9% and 1.2%, respectively) and CD62P-positive neutrophils (28.3% and 17.9%, respectively). The percentage of CD62...... groups for the percentage of CD62P-positive platelets (survivors 4.8%; non-survivors 5.3%; controls 1.2%) or CD62P-positive neutrophils (survivors 31.6%; non-survivors 5.6%; controls 17.9%). In conclusion, Babesia-infected dogs, specifically dogs that survived, had a significantly increased percentage...

  13. Epidemiology, natural history, and management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, V T; Patterson, T F

    1991-03-01

    The urinary tract undergoes profound physiologic and anatomic changes during pregnancy that facilitate the development of symptomatic UTIs in women with bacteriuria. Although the adverse effects of asymptomatic bacteriuria on maternal and fetal health continue to be debated, it is clear that asymptomatic bacteriuria is the major risk factor for developing symptomatic UTI and that symptomatic infections are associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Because the majority of symptomatic UTIs develop in women with bacteriuria earlier in pregnancy, treatment of bacteriuria is undertaken to prevent symptomatic infections. All women should be screened at the first antenatal visit, which is reliably and inexpensively done with a dipstick culture. Short-course therapy is as effective as prolonged therapy and should be followed with a repeat culture to document clearing of the bacteriuria. Failure to eliminate bacteriuria with repeated therapy or recurrence with the same organism is indicative of renal parenchymal infection or a structural abnormality. All women with persistent bacteriuria or recurrent infection should have follow-up cultures and a complete urologic evaluation after delivery.

  14. Human Monoclonal Antibodies against West Nile Virus Induced by Natural Infection Neutralize at a Postattachment Step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Matthew R.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S. Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C.; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S.

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing

  15. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  16. Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis bertrami sarcocysts from naturally infected donkey (Equus asinus) from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in equids. Little is known of Sarcocystis infections in donkeys (Equus asinus). Here we describe the structure of Sarcocystis bertrami-like from the donkey by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM, TEM). Nineteen sarcocysts fro...

  17. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7% were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5% were sheep and 15 (12.2% goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%. As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC significantly decreased (P < 0.05, while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05. Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05 of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05 of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05 of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression.

  18. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Bel, L.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, FEB 28 (2017), č. článku 116. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : periodicity * microfilariae * co-infection * Dirofilaria immitis * Dirofilaria repens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  19. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species.

  20. Clinical haematology and biochemistry profiles of cattle naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2018-01-01

    To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014. Data sets for haematology and biochemistry results were prepared for adult dairy cattle (n=62 and 28, respectively) and calves aged cattle and calves cattle than for beef or dairy calves, for both haematology (pcattle and calves aged cattle infected with T. orientalis Ikeda type were consistent with extravascular haemolytic anaemia. Adult dairy cattle were more likely to be severely anaemic than calves. There were differences in haematology and biochemistry profiles between adult dairy cattle and calves, but most of these differences likely had a physiological rather than pathological basis. Overall, the haematological changes in calves aged cattle.

  1. Histopathological changes in the kidneys of vertebrate hosts infected naturally and experimentally withParatanaisia bragai (Trematoda, Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barreto Xavier

    Full Text Available Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.

  2. Clinical forms of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in naturally Leishmania infantum-infected dogs and related myelogram and hemogram changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney de Carvalho Nicolato

    Full Text Available Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum-infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+, asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive, oligosymptomatic (OD, and symptomatic (SD. Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID. The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia, that contribute to CVL prognosis.

  3. Evolution of equine infectious anaemia in naturally infected mules with different serological reactivity patterns prior and after immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autorino, Gian Luca; Eleni, Claudia; Manna, Giuseppe; Frontoso, Raffaele; Nardini, Roberto; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Rosone, Francesca; Caprioli, Andrea; Alfieri, Lavinia; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-30

    Information on equine infectious anaemia (EIA) in mules, including those with an equivocal reaction in agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT), is scarce. For this, a study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, viral loads and pathological findings of two groups of naturally infected asymptomatic mules, respectively with a negative/equivocal and positive AGIDT reactivity, which were subjected to pharmacological immune suppression (IS). A non-infected control was included in the study that remained negative during the observation period. Throughout the whole study, even repeated episodes of recrudescence of EIA were observed in 9 infected mules, independently from their AGIDT reactivity. These events were generally characterised by mild, transient alterations, typical of the EIA acute form represented by hyperthermia and thrombocytopenia, in concomitance with viral RNA (vRNA) peaks that were higher in the Post-IS period, reaching values similar to those of horses during the clinical acute phase of EIA. Total tissue viral nucleic acid loads were greatest in animals with the major vRNA activity and in particular in those with negative/equivocal AGIDT reactivity. vRNA replication levels were around 10-1000 times lower than those reported in horses, with the animals still presenting typical alterations of EIA reactivation. Macroscopic lesions were absent in all the infected animals while histological alterations were characterised by lymphomonocyte infiltrates and moderate hemosiderosis in the cytoplasm of macrophages. On the basis of the above results, even mules with an equivocal/negative AGIDT reaction may act as EIAV reservoirs. Moreover, such animals could escape detection due to the low AGIDT sensitivity and therefore contribute to the maintenance and spread of the infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CRISPR interference can prevent natural transformation and virulence acquisition during in vivo bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikard, David; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Mucida, Daniel; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-08-16

    Pathogenic bacterial strains emerge largely due to transfer of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria, a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci of bacteria and archaea encode a sequence-specific defense mechanism against bacteriophages and constitute a programmable barrier to HGT. However, the impact of CRISPRs on the emergence of virulence is unknown. We programmed the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae with CRISPR sequences that target capsule genes, an essential pneumococcal virulence factor, and show that CRISPR interference can prevent transformation of nonencapsulated, avirulent pneumococci into capsulated, virulent strains during infection in mice. Further, at low frequencies bacteria can lose CRISPR function, acquire capsule genes, and mount a successful infection. These results demonstrate that CRISPR interference can prevent the emergence of virulence in vivo and that strong selective pressure for virulence or antibiotic resistance can lead to CRISPR loss in bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection and molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl virus naturally infecting Lycopersicon esculentum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.

  6. First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.

  7. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  8. Ginseng, the natural effectual antiviral: Protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtaek Im

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of KRG as an antiviral and vaccine adjuvant is discussed.

  9. Characterization of the genome of a novel ilarvirus naturally infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-García, Yuliana M; Jaramillo-Mesa, Helena; Toro-Fernández, Luisa F; Marín-Montoya, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Pablo A

    2018-06-01

    As part of an initiative to characterize viruses infecting Cape gooseberry in the province of Antioquia (Colombia), we report the genome sequence of a new member of the genus Ilarvirus (family Bromoviridae). This virus was identified in a Cape gooseberry plot in the municipality of Marinilla in a mixed infection with potato virus Y (PVY) as part of high-throughput sequencing initiative. Results were confirmed by nested RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Cape gooseberry ilarvirus is a new member of subgroup 1 and it is most closely related to ageratum latent virus (AgLV). The name "Cape gooseberry ilarvirus 1" (CGIV-1) is proposed for this new ilarvirus.

  10. Maryland Alcohol Sales Tax and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Livingston, Melvin D; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality, including infertility and certain types of cancer. Alcohol tax increases may decrease sexually transmitted infection rates overall and differentially across population subgroups by decreasing alcohol consumption in general and prior to sex, thus decreasing sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This study investigated the effects of a Maryland increase in alcohol beverage sales tax on statewide gonorrhea and chlamydia rates overall and within age, gender, and race/ethnicity subpopulations. This study used an interrupted time series design, including multiple cross-state comparisons, to examine the effects of the 2011 alcohol tax increase in Maryland on chlamydia and gonorrhea cases reported to the U.S. National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System for January 2003 to December 2012 (N=120 repeated monthly observations, analyzed in 2015). Effects were assessed with Box-Jenkins autoregressive moving average models with structural parameters. After the alcohol-specific sales tax increase, gonorrhea rates decreased 24% (95% CI=11%, 37%), resulting in 1,600 fewer statewide gonorrhea cases annually. Cohen's d indicated a substantial effect of the tax increase on gonorrhea rates (range across control group models, -1.25 to -1.42). The study did not find evidence of an effect on chlamydia or differential effects across age, race/ethnicity, or gender subgroups. Results strengthen the evidence from prior studies of alcohol taxes influencing gonorrhea rates and extend health prevention effects from alcohol excise to sales taxes. Alcohol tax increases may be an efficient strategy for reducing sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural infection with two genotypes of Cryptosporidium in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Hofmannová, L.; Bertolino, S.; Wauters, L.; Tosi, G.; Modrý, David

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 95-99 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117; GA ČR GA524/05/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Sciurus vulgaris * 18S rRNA * oocyst morphology * infectivity * red squirrel Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  12. PREVALENCE OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED SMALL RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE POTOHAR AREA OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. CHAUDARY, M. F. U. KHAN1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal trend of the Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the Potohar areas of northern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2004 to January 2006. Faecal samples collected from 968 sheep and 961 goats of different breeds were examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride. Results revealed that the infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in sheep compared to goats. The peak infection level was recorded during rainy season (July-October. On the other hand, low infection level was noted from December upto May. In sheep, highest log faecal egg counts (LFECs were recorded in Islamabad, followed by Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal. However, in goats the LFECs trend was highest in Islamabad, followed by Jhelum, Attock and Chakwal districts. A significant (P<0.05 variability in LFECs was noted between sheep and goat breeds from site-site, while no significant difference was observed between breeds at the same site. Hairy (Jattal goats and Salt-Range (Latti sheep breeds exhibited significantly reduced LFECs level along with higher packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb levels compared to other breeds. Moreover, FAMACHA© chart scoring in relation with worm infection (FECs was more valid in sheep than goats. High prevalence of H. contortus in Potohar areas was due to favourable agro-climatic conditions that favour the development and survival of the free-living stages of H. contortus. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of haemonchosis in small ruminants.

  13. Natural infection of Plasmodium brasilianum in humans: Man and monkey share quartan malaria parasites in the Venezuelan Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lalremruata

    2015-09-01

    Interpretation: This study reports, for the first time, naturally acquired infections in humans with parasites termed as P. brasilianum. We conclude that quartan malaria parasites are easily exchanged between humans and monkeys in Latin America. We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis. Since the name P. brasilianum suggests a malaria species distinct from P. malariae, we propose that P. brasilianum should have a nomenclatorial revision in case further research confirms our findings. The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

  14. Natural killer function following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Very early reemergence but strong dependence of cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Jacobsen, N; Ellegaard, J

    1988-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell function was followed sequentially after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using three approaches: (1) chromium-release assay with purified mononuclear effector cells, (2) chromium-release assay with whole blood effectors, and 3) enumeration of lymphocytes......) infections (primary or reactivated). In contrast, the presence of graft-versus-host (GVH) disease did not associate with consistent changes in the NK parameters measured here. After the first month of increase, NK declined reaching levels near those observed in their respective bone marrow donors at day 90...

  15. Brucella DNA is not detected in in-vitro produced embryos derived from ovaries of naturally infected Brucella DNA is not detected in in-vitro produced embryos derived from ovaries of naturally infected buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Manna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for Brucella spp. buffalo embryos produced in- vitro, by using cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs recovered from ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes naturally infected with Brucella spp. Ovaries were collected from 5 female pluriparous buffaloes slaughtered in a local abattoir. EDTA-blood samples and nasal swabs collected from each animal were used for Brucella spp. DNA detection by real-time PCR. Buffalo ovaries (n = 10 were transported to the laboratory and maintained strictly separated throughout laboratory processing. Recovered COCs were matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro until day 7. Some immature COCs, all uncleaved COCs, all blocked cleaved embryos (2 to 16 cells and all transferable embryos (tight morulae and blastocysts were separately analysed by real-time PCR assay. Brucella spp. DNA was detected in both blood and nasal mucus of all subjects, whereas no trace of DNA of Brucella spp. was found on either COCs or embryos. Currently, the infected or seropositive buffaloes have to be slaughtered for sanitary reasons. Interestingly, the results of this preliminary trial suggest a possible utilization of the COCs from the infected subjects of high genetic value to obtain safe embryos.

  16. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay forTaenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines

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    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  17. NATURAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma cruzi IN ONE DOG IN CENTRAL WESTERN BRAZIL: A CASE REPORT

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    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY It is estimated that about 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, mostly in Latin America and more than 25 million are at risk of acquiring this infection in endemic areas. Dogs are an important reservoir for this pathogen and thus, considered a risk factor for human populations. This report describes one case of Chagas disease in a dog from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The diagnosis was obtained by direct examination of trypomastigote forms in blood smears. Amastigotes forms were visualized in microscopy of the bone marrow, lymph nodes, kidneys, liver and brain. The T. cruzi (ZIII infection was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, and sequencing. The animal presented multisystemic failure and died. Although acute Chagas disease in humans is not reported in Cuiabá, this is the first report of a canine case in this region. This case represents a warning, to health professionals and authorities, to the possibility of transmission of this zoonosis in Cuiabá.

  18. Evaluation of Different Antiretroviral Drug Protocols on Naturally Infected Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV Cats in the late Phase of the Asymptomatic Stage of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola B. Pisano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the antiretrovirals: Zidovudine (ZDV alone; ZDV + Recombinant Human Interferon-α (rHuIFN-α; ZDV + Lamivudine (3TC and ZDV + valproic acid (Valp on naturally feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-infected cats, in the late phase of the asymptomatic stage of infection. The follow-up was performed over one year, through clinical evaluation and the determination of viral loads and CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Neurological signs were studied by visual and auditory evoked potentials (VEP, AEP and the responses were abnormal in 80% of the FIV-infected cats. After one year, an improvement in VEP and AEP was observed in the ZDV + Valp group and a worsening in the group receiving ZDV + rHuIFN-α. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio showed a significant increase (both intra and inter-groups only in ZDV and ZDV + 3TC, between their pre-treatment and one year values, as well as among the other groups. Viral load only showed a significant decrease in ZDV and ZDV + 3TC groups, when comparing the values at one year of treatment vs. pre-treatment values and when the different groups were compared. In addition, the viral load decrease was significantly more pronounced in the ZDV + 3TC vs. ZDV group. We conclude that ZDV and ZDV + 3TC produce significant reductions in viral load and stimulate a recovery of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, compared with the other protocols. It is clear that the addition of 3TC resulted in a greater reduction in viral load than use of ZDV as a single drug. Therefore, the combination ZDV + 3TC could be more effective than the sole use of ZDV.

  19. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-07-02

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively.The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP.

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    Scot E Dowd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic extremity ulcers are associated with chronic infections. Such ulcer infections are too often followed by amputation because there is little or no understanding of the ecology of such infections or how to control or eliminate this type of chronic infection. A primary impediment to the healing of chronic wounds is biofilm phenotype infections. Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common, disabling, and costly complications of diabetes. Here we seek to derive a better understanding of the polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic extremity ulcer infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a new bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP approach we have evaluated the bacterial diversity of 40 chronic diabetic foot ulcers from different patients. The most prevalent bacterial genus associated with diabetic chronic wounds was Corynebacterium spp. Findings also show that obligate anaerobes including Bacteroides, Peptoniphilus, Fingoldia, Anaerococcus, and Peptostreptococcus spp. are ubiquitous in diabetic ulcers, comprising a significant portion of the wound biofilm communities. Other major components of the bacterial communities included commonly cultured genera such as Streptococcus, Serratia, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we highlight the patterns of population diversity observed in the samples and introduce preliminary evidence to support the concept of functional equivalent pathogroups (FEP. Here we introduce FEP as consortia of genotypically distinct bacteria that symbiotically produce a pathogenic community. According to this hypothesis, individual members of these communities when they occur alone may not cause disease but when they coaggregate or consort together into a FEP the synergistic effect provides the functional equivalence of well-known pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, giving the biofilm community the factors necessary to maintain chronic biofilm infections

  1. Natural controlled HIV infection: Preserved HIV-specific immunity despite undetectable replication competent virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterboer, Nico; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; Jansen, Christine A.; Vorst, Teun J.K. van der; Koning, Fransje; Winkel, Carel N.; Duits, Ashley J.; Miedema, Frank; Baarle, Debbie van; Rij, Ronald P. van; Brinkman, Kees; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2005-01-01

    Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/10 6 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 10 6 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 Δ32, but CCR5 expression on CD4 + T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4 + T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4 + T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFNγ after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection

  2. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

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    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  3. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community...... chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number...

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of piroplasms species from naturally infected dogs in southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Tatiana Didonet; Cerqueira,Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo; Toma,Helena Keiko; Silva,Adrianna Vieira da; Corrêa,Rafael Gomes Bartolomeu; Paludo,Giane Regina; Massard,Carlos Luiz; Almosny,Nádia Regina Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a protozoon described from dogs in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. It is phylogenetically related to Babesia spp. that infects dogs, but data on this enigmatic parasite is still limited. The aim of this work was to detect piroplasm species in dogs in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analyses. Of 103 dogs examined, seven (6.8%) were positive for Babesia spp. by PCR....

  5. Absence of A3Z3-Related Hypermutations in the env and vif Proviral Genes in FIV Naturally Infected Cats

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    Lucía Cano-Ortiz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3 proteins comprise an important family of restriction factors that produce hypermutations on proviral DNA and are able to limit virus replication. Vif, an accessory protein present in almost all lentiviruses, counteracts the antiviral A3 activity. Seven haplotypes of APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3 were described in domestic cats (hap I–VII, and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that these proteins reduce infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV. Moreover, hap V is resistant to vif-mediated degradation. However, studies on the effect of A3Z3 in FIV-infected cats have not been developed. Here, the correlation between APOBEC A3Z3 haplotypes in domestic cats and the frequency of hypermutations in the FIV vif and env genes were assessed in a retrospective cohort study with 30 blood samples collected between 2012 and 2016 from naturally FIV-infected cats in Brazil. The vif and env sequences were analyzed and displayed low or undetectable levels of hypermutations, and could not be associated with any specific A3Z3 haplotype.

  6. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

  7. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration.

  8. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of treatments with toltrazuril 7.5% and lasalocid sodium in sheep naturally infected with Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ and B- control. In experiment 2, 30 weaned sheep were divided into three groups: I - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™, II - treated with lasalocid and III - control. Treatment group A showed an efficacy of 90, 99.4 and 87.3% on days 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Treatment group I had an efficacy of 98.2, 92.6 and 94.5%, while group II had an efficacy of 72.7, 81.6 and 95.9% on days 7, 21 and 42, respectively. Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ovinoidalis was the most common. Treatment with the toltrazuril 7.5% +Trimix ™ formulation was effective against Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs in field conditions and lambs weaned in under feedlot conditions.

  10. Efficacy of a 2% climbazole shampoo for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Petit, J-Y; Perrot, S; Guechi, R; Marignac, G; Reynaud, K; Guillot, J

    2015-12-01

    Shampoo therapy is often recommended for the control of Malassezia overgrowth in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of a 2% climbazole shampoo against Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts in naturally infected dogs. Eleven research colony Beagles were used. The dogs were distributed randomly into two groups: group A (n=6) and group B (n=5). Group A dogs were washed with a 2% climbazole shampoo, while group B dogs were treated with a physiological shampoo base. The shampoos were applied once weekly for two weeks. The population size of Malassezia yeasts on skin was determined by fungal culture through modified Dixon's medium contact plates pressed on left concave pinna, axillae, groins, perianal area before and after shampoo application. Samples collected were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Samples collected after 2% climbazole shampoo application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia population sizes. One hour after the first climbazole shampoo application, Malassezia reduction was already statistically significant and 15 days after the second climbazole shampoo, Malassezia population sizes were still significantly decreased. No significant reduction of Malassezia population sizes was observed in group B dogs. The application of a 2% climbazole shampoo significantly reduced Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs. Application of 2% climbazole shampoo may be useful for the control of Malassezia overgrowth and it may be also proposed as prevention when recurrences are frequent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; González, John J; Gómez, Giovan F; Castro, Martha I; Rosero, Doris A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health problem in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia, where 64.4% of the total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with the highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007 to July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, An. nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62%) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: An. albimanus (11.6%), An. darlingi (9.8%), An. braziliensis (6.6%), An. triannulatus s.l. (3.5%), An. albitarsis s.l. and An. oswaldoi s.l. at <1%; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: An. punctimacula, An. pseudopunctipennis s.l. and An. neomaculipalpus at <1% each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were detected naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247 using ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities. PMID:20140372

  12. Natural resistance to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection is decreased rather than increased by positive genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Durden, Monica; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B). The subsequent effects of inbreeding were measured using 42 genome-wide STR markers. P generation cats produced 57 first filial (F1) kittens, only five of which (9.0%) demonstrated a natural resistance to FIPV infection. One of these five F1 survivors was then used to produce six F1/P-backcrosses kittens, only one of which proved resistant to FIP. Six of eight of the F1 and F1/P survivors succumbed to a secondary exposure 4-12 months later. Therefore, survival after both primary and secondary infection was decreased rather than increased by positive selection for resistance. The common genetic factor associated with this diminished resistance was a loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural infections of man-biting sand flies by Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in the northern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Vargas, Franklin; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kento; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Velez, Lenin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2011-05-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was studied in the Andean areas of Peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana is endemic. Sand flies were captured by human bait and Center for Disease Control (CDC) light trap catches at Nambuque and Padregual, Department of La Libertad, Peru, and morphologically identified. Among 377 female sand flies dissected, the two dominant man-biting species were Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) peruensis (211 flies) and Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) caballeroi (151 flies). Another sand fly species captured by light trap was Warileya phlebotomanica (15 flies). The natural infection of sand flies by flagellates was detected in 1.4% of Lu. (H.) peruensis and 2.6% of Lu. (H.) caballeroi, and the parasite species were identified as Le. (V.) peruviana and Trypanosoma avium, respectively, by molecular biological methods. The results indicated that the vector species responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the study areas is Lu. (H.) peruensis. In addition, the presence of Trypanosoma in man-biting sand fly species means that more careful consideration is necessary for vector research in areas of Andean Peru where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  14. Diversity of Hepatozoon species in naturally infected dogs in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Li, Yihang; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Little, Susan E

    2008-07-04

    Hepatozoon americanum is a protozoan that causes American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) in the southern United States; Hepatozoon canis, the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America, has not previously been definitively identified in dogs in the United States. To characterize the diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs from Oklahoma, blood samples collected from dogs residing in an endemic area of the state, clinical cases presented to veterinarians with symptoms of ACH, and dogs housed at a local shelter were evaluated by a nested PCR designed to amplify a variable region of the 18S rRNA gene of blood ampicomplexa, including Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon sequences recovered from a dog from an area where ACH is endemic, from clinically ill dogs, and from one shelter dog most closely resembled H. americanum. However, two other shelter dogs had evidence of infection with H. canis or a closely related organism. A subsequent review of real-time PCR results from the Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory at Auburn University revealed that the majority of samples submitted from dogs from across the United States which tested positive for Hepatozoon spp. had H. americanum. However, some submissions were also found which contained DNA sequence of H. canis. Mixed H. americanum and H. canis-like infections also were detected. Our data suggest that H. americanum, H. canis, as well as H. canis-like organisms are present and may cause disease in dogs in the southern U.S.

  15. Little evidence of seasonal variation of natural infection by Leishmania infantum in dogs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bellon, H; Solano-Gallego, L; Rodríguez-Cortés, A; Ferrer, L; Gallego, M; Alberola, J; Ramis, A

    2008-08-01

    Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of canine leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean region, is vectored by Phlebotomus spp sandflies, which are active during the warmer months of the year. In order to determine whether seasonality in transmission induces seasonal changes in the prevalence of infection by L. infantum and of parasite-specific immune response, two groups of dogs, one in February (n=37) and another in October (n=42), were studied. Clinical signs compatible with leishmaniosis, as well as presence of microscopic skin lesions in the muzzle were recorded for all dogs. Assays were also performed for detection of L. infantum parasites in muzzle skin samples (PCR, immunohistochemistry and culture), specific serum antibodies (ELISA), and specific lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma production. Although prevalence of non-specific clinical signs increased significantly after the sandfly season, this was not the case for Leishmania-specific markers: positivity by PCR (24% vs. 21%) or immunohistochemistry (3% vs. 2%) of muzzle skin samples, as well as lymphocyte proliferation (59% vs. 50%) or interferon-gamma production (21% vs. 27%) were similar in February and in October. Only prevalence of positive specific antibody titers increased noticeably in October (8% vs. 20%), although this was not statistically significant. Overall, the sandfly season did not have a marked impact on the prevalence L. infantum infection or parasite-specific immune responses analyzed in this study.

  16. STUDY ON CAMPHOR-FREE NATURAL TOPICAL MEDICINE FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI are the most common acute illnesses that are often of viral origin. Cough and chest congestion are the common symptoms of this disease. Children are prescribed with drugs that are considered to relive the symptoms of this disease. The topical medications contain vegetable camphor for more than a century that relieve chest congestion and cough caused by URTI. The use of camphor in such products remains questionable especially in children who are more sensitive to its side effects. Herbion “Chest Rub” for children is a camphor-free formulation that contains eucalyptus oil mixture, menthol,turpentine and clove oils and is used to relieve symptoms of URTI.The objective of the present investigationwas to determine the effectiveness of the chest rub inchildren suffering with congestion and cough caused by URTI. The study compared the results of the chest rub applied to a group of infected children with a placebo group. Patients were selected randomly on the basis of the criteria set for the study. The results indicated that the chest rub was quite effective in majority of the cases in relieving the symptoms of URTI as compared to the placebo group.

  17. Immunisation with a Multivalent, Subunit Vaccine Reduces Patent Infection in a Natural Bovine Model of Onchocerciasis during Intense Field Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, Benjamin L.; Jensen, Siv Aina; Laney, Sandra J.; Nfon, Charles K.; Njongmeta, Leo M.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Williams, Steven A.; Bianco, Albert E.; Trees, Alexander J.

    2009-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is controlled almost exclusively by the drug ivermectin, which prevents pathology by targeting the microfilariae. However, this reliance on a single control tool has led to interest in vaccination as a potentially complementary strategy. Here, we describe the results of a trial in West Africa to evaluate a multivalent, subunit vaccine for onchocerciasis in the naturally evolved host-parasite relationship of Onchocerca ochengi in cattle. Naïve calves, reared in fly-proof accommodation, were immunised with eight recombinant antigens of O. ochengi, administered separately with either Freund's adjuvant or alum. The selected antigens were orthologues of O. volvulus recombinant proteins that had previously been shown to confer protection against filarial larvae in rodent models and, in some cases, were recognised by serum antibodies from putatively immune humans. The vaccine was highly immunogenic, eliciting a mixed IgG isotype response. Four weeks after the final immunisation, vaccinated and adjuvant-treated control calves were exposed to natural parasite transmission by the blackfly vectors in an area of Cameroon hyperendemic for O. ochengi. After 22 months, all the control animals had patent infections (i.e., microfilaridermia), compared with only 58% of vaccinated cattle (P = 0.015). This study indicates that vaccination to prevent patent infection may be an achievable goal in onchocerciasis, reducing both the pathology and transmissibility of the infection. The cattle model has also demonstrated its utility for preclinical vaccine discovery, although much research will be required to achieve the requisite target product profile of a clinical candidate. PMID:19901988

  18. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens. PMID:21555397

  19. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  20. Emergence of CD134 cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2)-independent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is associated with disease progression in naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2014-11-28

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is mediated by sequential interactions with CD134 and CXCR4. Field strains of virus vary in their dependence on cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) of CD134 for infection. Here, we analyse the receptor usage of viral variants in the blood of 39 naturally infected cats, revealing that CRD2-dependent viral variants dominate in early infection, evolving towards CRD2-independence with disease progression. These findings are consistent with a shift in CRD2 of CD134 usage with disease progression.

  1. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR for diagnosis of natural infection with canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Min-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine distemper virus (CDV is present worldwide and produces a lethal systemic infection of wild and domestic Canidae. Pre-existing antibodies acquired from vaccination or previous CDV infection might interfere the interpretation of a serologic diagnosis method. In addition, due to the high similarity of nucleic acid sequences between wild-type CDV and the new vaccine strain, current PCR derived methods cannot be applied for the definite confirmation of CD infection. Hence, it is worthy of developing a simple and rapid nucleotide-based assay for differentiation of wild-type CDV which is a cause of disease from attenuated CDVs after vaccination. High frequency variations have been found in the region spanning from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR of the matrix (M gene to the fusion (F gene (designated M-F UTR in a few CDV strains. To establish a differential diagnosis assay, an amplification refractory mutation analysis was established based on the highly variable region on M-F UTR and F regions. Results Sequences of frequent polymorphisms were found scattered throughout the M-F UTR region; the identity of nucleic acid between local strains and vaccine strains ranged from 82.5% to 93.8%. A track of AAA residue located 35 nucleotides downstream from F gene start codon highly conserved in three vaccine strains were replaced with TGC in the local strains; that severed as target sequences for deign of discrimination primers. The method established in the present study successfully differentiated seven Taiwanese CDV field isolates, all belonging to the Asia-1 lineage, from vaccine strains. Conclusions The method described herein would be useful for several clinical applications, such as confirmation of nature CDV infection, evaluation of vaccination status and verification of the circulating viral genotypes.

  2. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) for diagnosis of natural infection with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulakasian, Songkhla; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Wang, Chi-Young; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Lin, Kuan-Hsun; Lin, Fong-Yuan; Hsu, Tien-Huan; Wong, Min-Liang; Chang, Tien-Jye; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2010-06-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is present worldwide and produces a lethal systemic infection of wild and domestic Canidae. Pre-existing antibodies acquired from vaccination or previous CDV infection might interfere the interpretation of a serologic diagnosis method. In addition, due to the high similarity of nucleic acid sequences between wild-type CDV and the new vaccine strain, current PCR derived methods cannot be applied for the definite confirmation of CD infection. Hence, it is worthy of developing a simple and rapid nucleotide-based assay for differentiation of wild-type CDV which is a cause of disease from attenuated CDVs after vaccination. High frequency variations have been found in the region spanning from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the matrix (M) gene to the fusion (F) gene (designated M-F UTR) in a few CDV strains. To establish a differential diagnosis assay, an amplification refractory mutation analysis was established based on the highly variable region on M-F UTR and F regions. Sequences of frequent polymorphisms were found scattered throughout the M-F UTR region; the identity of nucleic acid between local strains and vaccine strains ranged from 82.5% to 93.8%. A track of AAA residue located 35 nucleotides downstream from F gene start codon highly conserved in three vaccine strains were replaced with TGC in the local strains; that severed as target sequences for deign of discrimination primers. The method established in the present study successfully differentiated seven Taiwanese CDV field isolates, all belonging to the Asia-1 lineage, from vaccine strains. The method described herein would be useful for several clinical applications, such as confirmation of nature CDV infection, evaluation of vaccination status and verification of the circulating viral genotypes.

  3. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

    2010-08-04

    The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mwape, K E; Van Damme, I; Hobbs, E; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Zulu, G; Colston, A; Willingham, A L; Devleesschauwer, B; Van Hul, A; Chota, A; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

    2017-11-16

    Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard). Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half), including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56%) and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%), out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3%) had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than 10 cysticerci. Depending on the aim of the

  5. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  6. Naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis: Differential distribution of parasites in the skin of chronically infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schares, G; Langenmayer, M C; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Scharr, J C; Gentile, A; Maksimov, A; Schares, S; Conraths, F J; Gollnick, N S

    2016-01-30

    Bovine besnoitiosis is caused by Besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. In the acute stage of besnoitiosis, cattle suffer from pyrexia, swollen lymph nodes, anorexia and subcutaneous edema. In the chronic stage, tissue cysts are formed in a variety of tissues including the skin. Knowledge about the distribution of tissue cysts of different parts of the skin of infected animals is scarce. Four chronically infected cattle were euthanized and skin samples were taken from a total of 77 standardized cutaneous locations per animal. Portions of the dermis were taken, from which DNA was extracted and examined by real-time PCR. Cycle of transition (Ct) values reflecting the amount of parasite DNA in the samples were determined. For statistical analysis, samples were attributed to 11 larger skin regions ('OuterHindlegDistal', 'Rump, ForelegMiddle', 'NoseFrontEars', 'CheekEye', 'SideLowerPart', 'ForelegDistal', 'SideUpperPart', 'LegsInner', 'VentralHeadNeck', 'DorsalNeckWithersBackTail'). While all samples revealed a positive result in three female cattle, only 63.6% (49/77) of the samples of a bull showed positive results. For statistical analysis, a Ct value of 45 was assumed for samples with a negative result. The dams showed median Ct values of 16.1, 17.5 and 19.4, while in skin samples of the bull a median Ct value of 37.6 was observed. To determine the differences in DNA concentrations between different locations of the skin of the animals, a relative Ct (relCt) was determined by subtracting for each animal indv the MedianCtindv from each sample Ct. Analyses of the relCt values showed that the highest relative parasite DNA concentrations were observed in the categories 'OuterHindlegDistal', 'Rump', 'ForelegMiddle' and 'NoseFrontEars'. The relCt values in these categories differed statistically significantly from those determined for the categories 'VentralHeadNeck' and 'DorsalNeckWithersBackTail'. The

  7. Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum diversity in natural infections by deep sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Magnus; Miotto, Olivo; Campino, Susana; Auburn, Sarah; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Maslen, Gareth; O’Brien, Jack; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Doumbo, Ogobara; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter; Nzila, Alexis; Borrmann, Steffen; Kiara, Steven M.; Marsh, Kevin; Jiang, Hongying; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Fairhurst, Rick; Socheat, Duong; Nosten, Francois; Imwong, Mallika; White, Nicholas J.; Sanders, Mandy; Anastasi, Elisa; Alcock, Dan; Drury, Eleanor; Oyola, Samuel; Quail, Michael A.; Turner, Daniel J.; Rubio, Valentin Ruano; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hubbart, Christina; Jeffreys, Anna; Rowlands, Kate; Sutherland, Colin; Roper, Cally; Mangano, Valentina; Modiano, David; Tan, John C.; Ferdig, Michael T.; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher V.; Rayner, Julian C.; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria elimination strategies require surveillance of the parasite population for genetic changes that demand a public health response, such as new forms of drug resistance. 1,2 Here we describe methods for large-scale analysis of genetic variation in Plasmodium falciparum by deep sequencing of parasite DNA obtained from the blood of patients with malaria, either directly or after short term culture. Analysis of 86,158 exonic SNPs that passed genotyping quality control in 227 samples from Africa, Asia and Oceania provides genome-wide estimates of allele frequency distribution, population structure and linkage disequilibrium. By comparing the genetic diversity of individual infections with that of the local parasite population, we derive a metric of within-host diversity that is related to the level of inbreeding in the population. An open-access web application has been established for exploration of regional differences in allele frequency and of highly differentiated loci in the P. falciparum genome. PMID:22722859

  8. Oxfendazole as successful treatment of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta; Armando Emiliano Gonzalez; Cesar Gavidia; Viterbo Ayvar; Hector Hugo Garcia; Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) on Taenia hydatigena metacestodes, also called Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis), was studied in 648 raising pigs. This study was performed in Tumbes Department in Peru, an endemic area for cysticercosis. Pigs were randomized in two groups;untreated group (n=142) did not receive any treatment and treated group (n=506) received OFZ treatment at a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Six months after treatment, the pigs were necropsied. The prevalence of infection by C. tenuicollis among the pigs was 27.5%(39/142) and 2.0%(10/506) in untreated and treated groups, respectively. Untreated group was infested only with viable cysts, whereas treated group had no viable cysts. All the cysts found in treated group presented degeneration, with a thick membrane, and they contained milky fluid and fibrous tissue. A single dose of OFZ was effective against C. tenuicollis, thus providing an alternative drug for controlling this parasite in pigs.

  9. Hematology and productive performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare

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    F. A Sebastião

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease is one of the main causes of mortality in tilapia rearing and is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. Hematology is a tool that makes it possible to study organisms' physiological responses to pathogens. It may assist in making diagnoses and prognoses on diseases in fish populations. The hematological variables of nile tilapia were studied in specimens with a clinical diagnosis of columnaris disease and in specimens that were disease-free. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, organic defense blood cell percentages (leukocytes and thrombocytes and hepatosomatic and splenosomatic index were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in organic defense blood cells, in the fish infected with the bacterium, with reductions in erythrocytic variables and significant increases in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  10. Zika virus: An updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Talaga, Stanislas; Epelboin, Loïc; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the Americas. Over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among African, Asian, and Pacific Island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban ZIKV outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. This paper is a systematic review intended to list all mosquito species studied for ZIKV infection or for their vector competence. We discuss whether studies on ZIKV vectors have brought enough evidence to formally exclude other mosquitoes than Aedes species (and particularly Aedes aegypti) to be ZIKV vectors. From 1952 to August 15, 2017, ZIKV has been studied in 53 mosquito species, including 6 Anopheles, 26 Aedes, 11 Culex, 2 Lutzia, 3 Coquillettidia, 2 Mansonia, 2 Eretmapodites, and 1 Uranotaenia. Among those, ZIKV was isolated from 16 different Aedes species. The only species other than Aedes genus for which ZIKV was isolated were Anopheles coustani, Anopheles gambiae, Culex perfuscus, and Mansonia uniformis. Vector competence assays were performed on 22 different mosquito species, including 13 Aedes, 7 Culex, and 2 Anopheles species with, as a result, the discovery that A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus were competent for ZIKV, as well as some other Aedes species, and that there was a controversy surrounding Culex quinquefasciatus competence. Although Culex, Anopheles, and most of Aedes species were generally observed to be refractory to ZIKV infection, other potential vectors transmitting ZIKV should be explored.

  11. Zika virus: An updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Epelboin, Loïc; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the Americas. Over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among African, Asian, and Pacific Island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban ZIKV outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. This paper is a systematic review intended to list all mosquito species studied for ZIKV infection or for their vector competence. We discuss whether studies on ZIKV vectors have brought enough evidence to formally exclude other mosquitoes than Aedes species (and particularly Aedes aegypti) to be ZIKV vectors. From 1952 to August 15, 2017, ZIKV has been studied in 53 mosquito species, including 6 Anopheles, 26 Aedes, 11 Culex, 2 Lutzia, 3 Coquillettidia, 2 Mansonia, 2 Eretmapodites, and 1 Uranotaenia. Among those, ZIKV was isolated from 16 different Aedes species. The only species other than Aedes genus for which ZIKV was isolated were Anopheles coustani, Anopheles gambiae, Culex perfuscus, and Mansonia uniformis. Vector competence assays were performed on 22 different mosquito species, including 13 Aedes, 7 Culex, and 2 Anopheles species with, as a result, the discovery that A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus were competent for ZIKV, as well as some other Aedes species, and that there was a controversy surrounding Culex quinquefasciatus competence. Although Culex, Anopheles, and most of Aedes species were generally observed to be refractory to ZIKV infection, other potential vectors transmitting ZIKV should be explored. PMID:29145400

  12. 2B4 expression on natural killer cells increases in HIV-1 infected patients followed prospectively during highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ullum, H; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection influences natural killer (NK) cell expression of inhibitory NK receptors and activating natural cytotoxicity receptors. It is unknown whether expression of the co-stimulatory NK cell receptor 2B4 (CD244) on NK cells and CD3+ CD8+ cells are affected ...

  13. Structure Properties and Mechanisms of Action of Naturally Originated Phenolic Acids and Their Derivatives against Human Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Bing-Yi; Qiu, Li-Peng; Guan, Rong-Fa; Ye, Zi-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    A great effort has been made to develop efficacious antiviral drugs, but many viral infections are still lack of efficient antiviral therapies so far. The related exploration of natural products to fight viruses has been raised in recent years. Natural compounds with structural diversity and complexity offer a great chance to find new antiviral agents. Particularly, phenolic acids have attracted considerable attention owing to their potent antiviral abilities and unique mechanisms. The aim of this review is to report new discoveries and updates pertaining to antiviral phenolic acids. The relevant references on natural phenolic acids were searched. The antiviral phenolic acids were classified according to their structural properties and antiviral types. Meanwhile, the antiviral characteristics and structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids and their derivatives were summarized. The review finds that natural phenolic acids and their derivatives possessed potent inhibitory effects on multiple virus in humans such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. In particular, caffeic acid/gallic acid and their derivatives exhibited outstanding antiviral properties by a variety of modes of action. Naturally derived phenolic acids especially caffeic acid/gallic acid and their derivatives may be regarded as novel promising antiviral leads or candidates. Additionally, scarcely any of these compounds has been used as antiviral treatment in clinical practice. Therefore, these phenolic acids with diverse skeletons and mechanisms provide us an excellent resource for finding novel antiviral drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Two distinct variants of simian foamy virus in naturally infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx and cross-species transmission to humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Preston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each of the pathogenic human retroviruses (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-1 has a nonhuman primate counterpart, and the presence of these retroviruses in humans results from interspecies transmission. The passage of another simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV, from apes or monkeys to humans has been reported. Mandrillus sphinx, a monkey species living in central Africa, is naturally infected with SFV. We evaluated the natural history of the virus in a free-ranging colony of mandrills and investigated possible transmission of mandrill SFV to humans. Results We studied 84 semi-free-ranging captive mandrills at the Primate Centre of the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (Gabon and 15 wild mandrills caught in various areas of the country. The presence of SFV was also evaluated in 20 people who worked closely with mandrills and other nonhuman primates. SFV infection was determined by specific serological (Western blot and molecular (nested PCR of the integrase region in the polymerase gene assays. Seropositivity for SFV was found in 70/84 (83% captive and 9/15 (60% wild-caught mandrills and in 2/20 (10% humans. The 425-bp SFV integrase fragment was detected in peripheral blood DNA from 53 captive and 8 wild-caught mandrills and in two personnel. Sequence and phylogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of two distinct strains of mandrill SFV, one clade including SFVs from mandrills living in the northern part of Gabon and the second consisting of SFV from animals living in the south. One man who had been bitten 10 years earlier by a mandrill and another bitten 22 years earlier by a macaque were found to be SFV infected, both at the Primate Centre. The second man had a sequence close to SFVmac sequences. Comparative sequence analysis of the virus from the first man and from the mandrill showed nearly identical sequences, indicating genetic stability of SFV over time. Conclusion Our results show a high

  15. Two distinct variants of simian foamy virus in naturally infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and cross-species transmission to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Betsem, Edouard; Caron, Mélanie; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Renault, Noemie; Saib, Ali; Telfer, Paul; Marx, Preston; Gessain, Antoine; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2010-12-14

    Each of the pathogenic human retroviruses (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-1) has a nonhuman primate counterpart, and the presence of these retroviruses in humans results from interspecies transmission. The passage of another simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV), from apes or monkeys to humans has been reported. Mandrillus sphinx, a monkey species living in central Africa, is naturally infected with SFV. We evaluated the natural history of the virus in a free-ranging colony of mandrills and investigated possible transmission of mandrill SFV to humans. We studied 84 semi-free-ranging captive mandrills at the Primate Centre of the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (Gabon) and 15 wild mandrills caught in various areas of the country. The presence of SFV was also evaluated in 20 people who worked closely with mandrills and other nonhuman primates. SFV infection was determined by specific serological (Western blot) and molecular (nested PCR of the integrase region in the polymerase gene) assays. Seropositivity for SFV was found in 70/84 (83%) captive and 9/15 (60%) wild-caught mandrills and in 2/20 (10%) humans. The 425-bp SFV integrase fragment was detected in peripheral blood DNA from 53 captive and 8 wild-caught mandrills and in two personnel. Sequence and phylogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of two distinct strains of mandrill SFV, one clade including SFVs from mandrills living in the northern part of Gabon and the second consisting of SFV from animals living in the south. One man who had been bitten 10 years earlier by a mandrill and another bitten 22 years earlier by a macaque were found to be SFV infected, both at the Primate Centre. The second man had a sequence close to SFVmac sequences. Comparative sequence analysis of the virus from the first man and from the mandrill showed nearly identical sequences, indicating genetic stability of SFV over time. Our results show a high prevalence of SFV infection in a semi-free-ranging colony

  16. Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Naturally Infected Poultry in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Thabet Hagag

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 has been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and there is increasing concern for its potential to become highly transmissible among humans. Infection by HPAIV H5N1 has been described in experimentally challenged birds. However, the pathogenicity of the H5N1 isolated in Egypt has never been reported in naturally infected chickens and ducks. Here we report a 2013 outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry farms and backyards in Sharkia Province, Egypt. The main symptoms were ecchymosis on the shanks and feet, cyanosis of the comb and wattles, subcutaneous edema of the head and neck for chickens, and nervous signs (torticollis for ducks. Within 48-72 hrs of the onset of illness, the average mortality rates were 22.8-30% and 28.5-40% in vaccinated chickens and non-vaccinated ducks, respectively. Tissue samples of chickens and ducks were collected for analyses with cross-section immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR for specific viral RNA transcripts. While viral RNA was detected in nearly all tissues and sera collected, viral nucleoprotein was detected almost ubiquitously in all tissues, including testis. Interestingly, viral antigen was also observed in endothelial cells of most organs in chickens, and clearly detected in the trachea and brain in particular. Viral nucleoprotein was also detected in mononuclear cells of various organs, especially pulmonary tissue. We performed phylogenetic analyses and compared the genomic sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA and nonstructural proteins (NS among the isolated viruses, the HPAIV circulated in Egypt in the past and currently, and some available vaccine strains. Further analysis of deduced amino acids of both HA and NS1 revealed that our isolates carried molecular determinants of HPAIV, including the multibasic amino acids (PQGERRRK/KR*GLF in the cleavage site in HA and glutamate at position 92 (D92E in NS1. This is the first report of the pathogenicity

  17. Anticoccidial efficacy of naringenin and a grapefruit peel extract in growing lambs naturally-infected with Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B

    2016-12-15

    The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached

  18. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410 had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436. The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral, identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous

  19. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  20. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Zuzana; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to address the problem of rapid detection of aflatoxin in grain, particularly oilseeds, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from 2 different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to natural infestation was also assessed. A small corn plot in Baton Rouge, La., U.S.A., was used during the 2008-growing season. Two groups of 400 plants were inoculated with 2 different inocula and 1 group of 400 plants was designated as controls. Any contamination detected in the controls was attributed to natural infestation. A subset of each group was imaged with a visible near infra red (VNIR) hyperspectral system under ultra violet (UV) excitation and subsequently analyzed for aflatoxin using affinity column fluorometry. Group differences were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that when all the spectral data across all groups were averaged, any potential differences between groups (treated and untreated) were obscured. However, spectral analysis based on contaminated "hot" pixel classification showed a distinct spectral shift/separation between contaminated and clean ears with fluorescence peaks at 501 and 478 nm, respectively. All inoculated and naturally infected control ears had fluorescence peaks at 501 nm that differed from uninfected corn ears. Results from this study may be useful in evaluating rapid, noninvasive instrumentation and/or methodology for aflatoxin detection in grain. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Natural course of chronic HCV and HBV infection and role of alcohol in the general population: the Dionysos Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Miglioli, Lucia; Masutti, Flora; Ferri, Silvia; Castiglione, Anna; Lenzi, Marco; Crocè, Lory Saveria; Granito, Alessandro; Tiribelli, Claudio; Bellentani, Stefano

    2008-09-01

    Population-based studies of the natural course of chronic viral liver disease that consider comorbidity factors are lacking. Using data from the Dionysos Study, we quantified the burden of chronic viral liver disease and the role of alcohol intake to morbidity and mortality in a representative sample of subjects from the general population of two communities of Northern Italy. We followed up 139 subjects with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and 61 with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for a median (IQR) time of 8.4 (1.0) and 8.3 (0.9) yr, respectively. Ethanol intake was evaluated using a food-frequency questionnaire, fatty liver (FL) was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocarcinoma (HCC) were diagnosed by liver biopsy. Exact multivariable Poisson regression was performed to identify predictors of death. The incidence and remission rates of FL were 9.0 and 29.7 in the HCV cohort and 4.0 and 30.4 per 1,000 person-years (PY) in the HBV cohort. Progression to LC and HCC was more common in the HCV than in the HBV cohort (4.5 vs 2.0 and 2.7 vs 2.0 per 1,000 PY, respectively). Ethanol intake was an independent predictor of LC in the HCV cohort [rate ratio (RR) = 4.15 (95% CI 1.02-41.2) for every increase of 30 g/day of ethanol intake at baseline] and of death rate in both cohorts [RR = 8.53 (95% CI 1.40-24.61) and 3.56 (1.34 to 26.50) for every increase of 30 g/day of ethanol intake at baseline]. The morbidity and mortality rate of HBV and HCV infection in the general population is lower than that reported in secondary-care populations, blood donors, or clinical series. Ethanol intake is an independent predictor of LC in subjects with chronic HCV infection and an independent predictor of death in subjects with either HCV or HBV infection.

  2. Development of Strongylus vulgaris-specific serum antibodies in naturally infected foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Vidyashankar, A N; Gravatte, H S; Bellaw, J; Lyons, E T; Andersen, U V

    2014-03-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is regarded as the most pathogenic helminth parasite infecting horses. Migrating larvae cause pronounced endarteritis and thrombosis in the cranial mesenteric artery and adjacent branches, and thromboembolism can lead to ischemia and infarction of large intestinal segments. A recently developed serum ELISA allows detection of S. vulgaris-specific antibodies during the six-month-long prepatent period. A population of horses has been maintained at the University of Kentucky without anthelmintic intervention since 1979, and S. vulgaris has been documented to be highly prevalent. In 2012, 12 foals were born in this population, and were studied during a 12-month period (March-March). Weekly serum samples were collected to monitor S. vulgaris specific antibodies with the ELISA. Nine colts underwent necropsy at different time points between 90 and 300 days of age. At necropsy, Strongylus spp. and Parascaris equorum were identified to species and stage and enumerated. Initial statistical findings indicate a significant interaction between foal age and ELISA results (pvulgaris-directed maternal antibodies transferred in the colostrum, but then remained ELISA negative during their first three months of life. Foals born in February and March became ELISA positive at about 12 weeks of age, while those born in April and May went positive at about 15 and 21 weeks, respectively. Foal date of birth was significantly associated with ELISA results (pvulgaris burdens (pvulgaris, S. edentatus, and P. equorum burdens (pvulgaris larvae leaving the bloodstream and migrating back to the intestine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Gitte; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2014-09-15

    Spirocerca lupi causes formation of nodules that may transform into sarcoma in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach of infected canids. In February 2013, post mortem examination of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in Denmark revealed the presence of several nodules containing adult worms of Spirocerca sp. in the stomach and the omentum. The nodules largely consisted of fibrous tissue with infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages with hemosiderin deposition. Parasitological examination by three copromicroscopic methods, sedimentation, flotation with saturated sugar-salt solution, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon. This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recent introduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping partial sequences of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation (7-9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms from other isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences of the current worms compared to other isolates of S. lupi may suggest the presence of a cryptic species within Spirocerca. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery of Renibacterium salmoninarum from naturally infected salmonine stocks in Michigan using a modified culture protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD, is a fastidious and slow-growing bacterium that is extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Herein, we describe a modified primary culture protocol that encompasses a modified bacteriological culture medium and a tissue processing procedure. In order to facilitate the release of R. salmoninarum from granulomatous tissues, kidneys of infected fish were homogenized in a high speed stomacher. The kidney disease medium (KDM2, routinely used for primary culture of R. salmoninarum was modified by the addition of antibiotics and metabolites. When a relatively large inoculum of diluted kidney homogenate was streak-plate inoculated onto the modified KDM2, colonial growth of R. salmoninarum was achieved within 5–7 days, compared to the standard of two weeks or more. The modified procedure was then used to determine the prevalence of R. salmoninarum among representative captive and feral salmonid stocks in Michigan. Prevalence and clinical manifestations varied among species, strains of fish, and locations; however, R. salmoninarum isolates were biochemically homogenous. The improved primary culture procedure described in this study enabled selective and quick isolation of R. salmoninarum. Also, the isolates retrieved in this study constitute a unique biological resource for future studies of R. salmoninarum in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  6. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of Soft Ticks and Their Natural Infection with Borrelia in a Focus of Relapsing Fever in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Aghighi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases such as relapsing fever and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF are of public health impor¬tance in Iran. There are 471 reported cases of relapsing fever in 2003, according to the Ministry of Health of Iran.The num¬ber of cases has been increased in recent years. Its distribution is more or less prevalent in different parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to find out the fauna and natural infection of soft ticks with Borrelia in Qazvin Province, during their sea¬sonal activity. The province covers 15821 km² between 48-45 to 50-50 east of Greenwich Meridian of longitude and 35-37 to 36-45 north latitude of the equator. For this purpose a field study was carried out in the region. A total of 54 villages from 19 districts were selected ran¬domly and ticks were collected from their habitats according to the standard method. A total of 3197 Argasidae ticks were collected from human dwellings, poultry and animal shelters. They belonged to Argas and Or¬nithodoros genera which 36.8% were Argas persicus, 4% A. reflexus, 6.4% O. canestrini, 45.5% O. lahorensis and 7.3% O. tholozani. It should be noted that 12 ticks of O. erraticus were collected from 12 rodents borrows. We found that 8.82 % of O. tholozani ticks were infected with Borrelia persica and half of the O. erraticus were infected with Borrelia microti. All the people who are in¬volved with veterinary activities should be aware of disease transmission by the ticks. In the endemic area of the disease tick control is recommended.

  8. Natural blood feeding and temperature shift modulate the global transcriptional profile of Rickettsia rickettsii infecting its tick vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda B M Galletti

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector's blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development.

  9. Guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José I; Molina, Nicolas; Baranowski, Eric; Domingo, Esteban; Clark, Stuart; Burman, Alison; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-08-01

    We report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. Adaptive amino acid replacements (I(248)-->T in 2C, Q(44)-->R in 3A, and L(147)-->P in VP1), selected upon serial passages of a type C FMDV isolated from swine (biological clone C-S8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swine and suckling mice. However, the adaptive replacement L(147)-->P, next to the integrin-binding RGD motif at the GH loop in VP1, abolished growth of the virus in different established cell lines and modified its antigenicity. In contrast, primary bovine thyroid cell cultures could be productively infected by viruses with replacement L(147)-->P, and this infection was inhibited by antibodies to alphavbeta6 and by an FMDV-derived RGD-containing peptide, suggesting that integrin alphavbeta6 may be used as a receptor for these mutants in the animal (porcine, guinea pig, and suckling mice) host. Substitution T(248)-->N in 2C was not detectable in C-S8c1 but was present in a low proportion of the guinea pig-adapted virus. This substitution became rapidly dominant in the viral population after the reintroduction of the guinea pig-adapted virus into pigs. These observations illustrate how the appearance of minority variant viruses in an unnatural host can result in the dominance of these viruses on reinfection of the original host species.

  10. Efficacy of nitroscanate against naturally acquired infection with Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Trichuris vulpis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T M; Mercer, S H; Wade, C G; Lynn, R C

    1991-04-01

    Eighteen dogs with naturally acquired helminth infections were used to evaluate the efficacy of nitroscanate against Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Trichuris vulpis. Approximately 15 minutes before treatment, the dogs were given 100 to 200 g of canned dog food. Ten dogs were treated with nitroscanate (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO), and 8 dogs were given placebo tablets PO. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 10 days after treatment and helminths were recovered from the small intestine and cecum. On the basis of the number of worms recovered from treated dogs vs the number recovered from control dogs, we determined the efficacy of nitroscanate to be 99.6% against A caninum, 99.8% against D caninum, and 0% against T vulpis.

  11. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  12. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Jørgensen, J.C.; Andersen, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    steam treated in a download period, aiming at greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% relative humidity (RH) during a 24-h period, with or without the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde. In addition, two control layer houses were disinfected chemically. Salmonella samples taken from predetermined sites...... before and after treatment were tested qualitatively for Salmonella and coliforms. Samples with indicator bacteria (feed inoculated with Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis and faeces with naturally occurring E. coli and enterococci) were placed during steam-treatment at 12 sites in each house...... (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme...

  13. Evidence of vertical transmission and tissue tropism of Streptococcosis from naturally infected red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Jayaprasad Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcosis is a highly problematic disease in the aquaculture of freshwater fishes, especially for tilapia. The possibility of vertical transmission of streptococcosis and the pattern of tissue tropism of this pathogen in various organs was examined in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Healthy broodstock without any clinical signs of Streptococcus spp. were selected from a farm earlier reported to have the disease and a total of 10 pairs were forced spawned to provide samples of gametes and progeny for pathogen testing. A colorimetric LAMP assay was used to confirm whether the bacterial pathogens Streptococcus. agalactiae and Streptococcus. iniae was present in samples of milt, unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs, and offspring at various stages of development, as well as internal organs of broodstock (reproductive organs, gill, liver, spleen, kidney and brain as well as samples of water from culture systems. The majority of samples of milt (9/10 and unfertilized eggs (7/10 collected from the broodstock were infected with S. iniae at the time of spawning and was transmitted to all of their offspring. Nevertheless, when the same samples of gametes were analyzed for S. agalactiae, they were all found to be negative but the pathogen was found to be present in some 10-day-old larval offspring (4/10. However, when the pathogenic presence was analyzed from the reproductive organs of the parents, both S. agalactiae (11/20 and S. iniae (18/20 bacterium were common. Although, all broodstock were asymptomatic, almost all broodstock harboured the bacteria in many organs. Confirmation of vertical transmission of streptococcosis in tilapia means that intergenerational break cannot be used as a reliable and simple means of reducing or eliminating the prevalence of these difficult pathogens in aquaculture stock. Keywords: Tilapia, Vertical transmission, Specific pathogen free, Streptococcus, Tissue tropism

  14. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, J.; Brom, W.E. van den; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den

    1992-01-01

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  15. First record in America of Aedes albopictus naturally infected with dengue virus during the 1995 outbreak at Reynosa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Bernal, S; Briseño, B; Mutebi, J P; Argot, E; Rodríguez, G; Martínez-Campos, C; Paz, R; de la Fuente-San Román, P; Tapia-Conyer, R; Flisser, A

    1997-10-01

    Mosquito collections were conducted during a dengue outbreak in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico, July-December 1995. A total of 6694 adult mosquitoes (four genera and nine species) were captured, of which 2986 (78.3% females and 21.7% males) were Aedes albopictus and 2339 (39.7% females and 60.3% males) were Ae.aegypti. These two species comprised 84.2% of the total collection. Specimens were grouped into pools, nearly 50% of them processed for detection of virus by cythopathic effect in C6-36 and VERO cell cultures and by haemagglutination test. Five pools gave positive haemagglutination reactions and were examined by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies to flavivirus and to dengue virus. One pool of ten Ae.albopictus males was positive for dengue virus: serotypes 2 and 3 were identified by serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies and confirmed by RT-PCR. This is the first report of Ae.albopictus naturally infected with dengue virus in America. Also, it is the very first time Ae.albopictus males have been found infected with dengue virus in the wild.

  16. Histopathology of red-sore disease (aeromonas hydrophila) in naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass micropterus salmoides(lacepede)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H W [Illinois State Univ., Normal; Esch, G W; Hazen, T C

    1979-01-01

    The histopathology of red-sore disease, caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, is described for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Externally, lesions range from those affecting a few scales (pin-point), to those associated with extensive chronic ulcerations; there is focal hemorrhage, oedema and dermal necrosis which exposes underlying muscles producing infiltration of mononuclear and granulocytic inflammatory cells. Internally, the liver and kidneys are foci for toxic products produced by A. hydrophila with, in the most severe cases, complete destruction of the structural integrity of both organs. Pathological changes were not serious in either the spleen or heart, even in cases with massive damage in the liver and kidney. Internal and external lesions were similar in both natural and experimentally induced infections. The pathobiology of red-sore disease in bass was postulated to be linked to elevated water temperature stimulating increased metabolism, decreased body condition and stress, leading to the increased production of corticosteroids and the concommitant rise in susceptibility to infection.

  17. Veritable antiviral capacity of natural killer cells in chronic HBV infection: an argument for an earlier anti-virus treatment

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    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on innate immunity, especially natural killer (NK cell function, in different chronic hepatitis B (CHB stages. Therefore, we examined whether the clinical staging strategy accurately reflects veritable NK cell immunity. Methods A total of 237 eligible CHB patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and the CHB phases (immune active-IA, immune tolerant phase-IT, inactive CHB-IC, and grey zone-GZ were classified according to the latest American Association for the Study of Liver Disease guidelines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients and healthy controls were tested for NK cell frequency, phenotype and function using flow cytometry. Results A significant decrease in activating receptor NKp44 and NKp46 expression and significant increase of exhaustion molecule Tim-3 expression were observed in NK cells from CHB patients. Reduced cytokine secretion and preserved or elevated cytotoxic function were also observed. Patients in the IT group exhibited comparable cytokine secretion and cytolytic capacity as age-matched IA patients. NK cell anti-viral functions were preserved in GZ patients. Some of the NK cell function in patients who were excluded from treatment by the current treatment guidelines was less compromised than patients who qualified for treatment. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of veritable NK cell immunity during different natural history phases in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV Infection. Chronic HBV infection hindered NK cell function in CHB patients. However, the presumed IT and GZ statuses of CHB patients based on the clinical parameters may not accurately reflect the inner immune status of these patients and should be reconsidered. Some patients excluded from treatment by the current treatment guidelines may be able to be selected as candidates for treatment.

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Eimeria spp. DURING EARLY NATURAL INFECTION IN GOAT KIDS IN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO

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    Ramón Cepeda-Palacios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the natural infection by Eimeria spp. in goat kids, and to describe some pathophysiological responses to eimerosis in kids under intensive rearing conditions in B.C.S, Mexico. Nineteen adult crossbred does naturally infected with mixed Eimeria spp. and 20 Anglo Nubian x Creole crossbred kids were used. Oocyst per gram of feces (OPG and identification of Eimeria species were determined in does (during the pre-kidding and post-kidding periods and kids. Clinical signs, hematocrit, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood serum were evaluated. OPG (mean±SD was significantly higher (P<0.05 in pre-kidding (9,478±7,599 than in post-kidding (5,313±2,909 period. Oocyst elimination in feces began at age 59±9 days in kids. Eimerian species identified were E. arloingi, E. jolchijevi, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. hirci, E. christenseni and E. alijevi. Kids were humanely sacrificed to evaluate pathological lesions. Intestinal lesions and lesion severity showed differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon, being more severe in duodenum. In conclusion, OPG increased during the late pregnancy in does which favored a doe-kid transmission mechanism. Our results support the notion of Eimeria reproduction rhythms during the late pregnancy period in goats, and this reproduction contribute to vertical transmission of Eimeria to the newborn. However, coccidian outbreaks are developed and clinically observed only when stressing factors such as when weaning occur. Coccidia had devastating effects on the intestine of kids, which might cause long-term permanent malabsortion consequences. Â

  19. Viral type characterization and clinical aspects of canine parvovirus in naturally infected dogs in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Kyssia Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the first isolation of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in late 70’s new virus types as CPV-2a and CPV-2b have been emerged and becoming prevalent in natural canine population and more recently, a third subtype was identified , CPV-2c. The main purpose of this study was to detect and characterize canine parvovirus currently present in Central-West region of São Paulo state, in Brazil. Fecal samples were collected of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs, clinically suspected of having CPV infection brought to the Infectious Diseases Service, Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ-UNESP. All samples (n=30 were screening for canine parvovirus through hemagglutination test and those resulting as positive (n=20 were submitted to PCR and the products were subsequently sequenced for subtype characterization. Results were tested for association with age, hematological values, viral hemagglutination titers in the feces, vaccination status and survival. Leukopenia was found in all animals, death occurred in 30% of unvaccinated dogs and in 42% of vaccinated ones. In a total of 20 positive sequenced samples, 18 were classified as CPV-2b, one as CPV-2c, and one as CPV-2a, being CPV2a and CPV2c detected in unvaccinated puppies. Compared to the reference samples amino acid change at position 426 in those circling virus was identified. The study results demonstrate the predominance of CPV-2b and the presence of CPV-2a and CPV-2c in naturally infected, vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs in in São Paulo region.

  20. Molecular Detection, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Identification of Transcription Motifs in Feline Leukemia Virus from Naturally Infected Cats in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruku Bande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nested PCR assay was used to determine the viral RNA and proviral DNA status of naturally infected cats. Selected samples that were FeLV-positive by PCR were subjected to sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and motifs search. Of the 39 samples that were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 87.2% (34/39 were confirmed positive with nested PCR. FeLV proviral DNA was detected in 38 (97.3% of p27-antigen negative samples. Malaysian FeLV isolates are found to be highly similar with a homology of 91% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Malaysian FeLV isolates divided into two clusters, with a majority (86.2% sharing similarity with FeLV-K01803 and fewer isolates (13.8% with FeLV-GM1 strain. Different enhancer motifs including NF-GMa, Krox-20/WT1I-del2, BAF1, AP-2, TBP, TFIIF-beta, TRF, and TFIID are found to occur either in single, duplicate, triplicate, or sets of 5 in different positions within the U3-LTR-gag region. The present result confirms the occurrence of FeLV viral RNA and provirus DNA in naturally infected cats. Malaysian FeLV isolates are highly similar, and a majority of them are closely related to a UK isolate. This study provides the first molecular based information on FeLV in Malaysia. Additionally, different enhancer motifs likely associated with FeLV related pathogenesis have been identified.

  1. Natural infection of Plasmodium brasilianum in humans: Man and monkey share quartan malaria parasites in the Venezuelan Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalremruata, Albert; Magris, Magda; Vivas-Martínez, Sarai; Koehler, Maike; Esen, Meral; Kempaiah, Prakasha; Jeyaraj, Sankarganesh; Perkins, Douglas Jay; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Metzger, Wolfram G

    2015-09-01

    The quartan malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae is the widest spread and best adapted human malaria parasite. The simian Plasmodium brasilianum causes quartan fever in New World monkeys and resembles P. malariae morphologically. Since the genetics of the two parasites are nearly identical, differing only in a range of mutations expected within a species, it has long been speculated that the two are the same. However, no naturally acquired infection with parasites termed as P. brasilianum has been found in humans until now. We investigated malaria cases from remote Yanomami indigenous communities of the Venezuelan Amazon and analyzed the genes coding for the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and the small subunit of ribosomes (18S) by species-specific PCR and capillary based-DNA sequencing. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 12 patients harboring malaria parasites which were 100% identical with P. brasilianum isolated from the monkey, Alouatta seniculus. Translated amino acid sequences of the CS protein gene showed identical immunodominant repeat units between quartan malaria parasites isolated from both humans and monkeys. This study reports, for the first time, naturally acquired infections in humans with parasites termed as P. brasilianum. We conclude that quartan malaria parasites are easily exchanged between humans and monkeys in Latin America. We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis. Since the name P. brasilianum suggests a malaria species distinct from P. malariae, we propose that P. brasilianum should have a nomenclatorial revision in case further research confirms our findings. The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

  2. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Naturally occurring hepatitis C virus protease inhibitors resistance-associated mutations among chronic hepatitis C genotype 1b patients with or without HIV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Bao, Yi; Zhang, Renwen; Zhang, Xiaxia; Xia, Wei; Wu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of natural mutations in hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected protease inhibitor (PI)-naive patients. Population sequence of the non-structural (NS)3 protease gene was evaluated in 90 HCV mono-infected and 96 HIV/HCV co-infected PI treatment-naive patients. The natural prevalence of PI resistance mutations in both groups was compared. Complete HCV genotype 1b NS3 sequence information was obtained for 152 (81.72%) samples. Seven sequences (8.33%) of the 84 HCV mono-infected patients and 21 sequences (30.88%) of the 68 HIV/HCV co-infected patients showed amino acid substitutions associated with HCV PI resistance. There was a significant difference in the natural prevalence of PI resistance mutations between these two groups (P = 0.000). The mutations T54S, R117H and N174F were observed in 1.19%, 5.95% and 1.19% of HCV mono-infected patients. The mutations F43S, T54S, Q80K/R, R155K, A156G/V, D168A/E/G and V170A were found in 1.47%, 4.41%, 1.47%/1.47%, 2.94%, 23.53%/1.47%, 1.47%/1.47%/1.47% and 1.47% of HIV/HCV co-infected patients, respectively. In addition, the combination mutations in the NS3 region were detected only in HIV/HCV genotype 1b co-infected patients. Naturally occurring HCV PI resistance mutations existed in HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected genotype 1b PI-naive patients. HIV co-infection was associated with a greater frequency of PI resistance mutations. The impact of HIV infection on baseline HCV PI resistance mutations and treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients should be further analyzed. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  5. Prevalence, genetic identity and vertical transmission of Babesia microti in three naturally infected species of vole, Microtus spp. (Cricetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tołkacz, Katarzyna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Dwużnik, Dorota; Grzybek, Maciej; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2017-02-06

    Vertical transmission is one of the transmission routes for Babesia microti, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease, babesiosis. Congenital Babesia invasions have been recorded in laboratory mice, dogs and humans. The aim of our study was to determine if vertical transmission of B. microti occurs in naturally-infected reservoir hosts of the genus Microtus. We sampled 124 common voles, Microtus arvalis; 76 root voles, M. oeconomus and 17 field voles, M. agrestis. In total, 113 embryos were isolated from 20 pregnant females. Another 11 pregnant females were kept in the animal house at the field station in Urwitałt until they had given birth and weaned their pups (n = 62). Blood smears and/or PCR targeting the 550 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment were used for the detection of B. microti. Selected PCR products, including isolates from females/dams and their embryos/pups, were sequenced. Positive PCR reactions were obtained for 41% (89/217) of the wild-caught voles. The highest prevalence of B. microti was recorded in M. arvalis (56/124; 45.2%), then in M. oeconomus (30/76; 39.5%) and the lowest in M. agrestis (3/17; 17.7%). Babesia microti DNA was detected in 61.4% (27/44) of pregnant females. Vertical transmission was confirmed in 81% (61/75) of the embryos recovered from Babesia-positive wild-caught pregnant females. The DNA of B. microti was detected in the hearts, lungs and livers of embryos from 98% of M. arvalis, 46% of M. oeconomus and 0% of M. agrestis embryos from Babesia-positive females. Of the pups born in captivity, 90% were born to Babesia-positive dams. Babesia microti DNA was detected in 70% (35/50) of M. arvalis and 83% (5/6) of M. oeconomus pups. Congenitally acquired infections had no impact on the survival of pups over a 3-week period post partum. Among 97 B. microti sequences, two genotypes were found. The IRU1 genotype (Jena-like) was dominant in wild-caught voles (49/53; 92%), pregnant females (9/11; 82%) and dams (3/5; 60%). The IRU2

  6. Coxiella burnetii Circulation in a Naturally Infected Flock of Sheep: Individual Follow-Up of Antibodies in Serum and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, A; Rousset, E; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Leblond, A; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2017-07-01

    The control of Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by the Coxiella burnetii bacterium, remains a scientific challenge. Domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoir, shedding C. burnetii essentially through parturition products during abortion or birth. Sheep are particularly frequently associated with human outbreaks, but there are insufficient field data to fully understand disease dynamics and to instigate efficient control measures. A longitudinal follow-up study of a naturally infected sheep flock was performed (i) to investigate relationships between seropositivity and bacterial shedding in the vaginal mucus, (ii) to describe the kinetics of antibodies, including responses to vaccination, (iii) to monitor maternal antibodies in ewe lambs, and (iv) to compare serological results for milk and serum samples. For 8 months, we collected blood samples every 3 weeks from 11 aborting and 26 nonaborting dairy ewes, 20 nonaborting suckler ewes, and 9 ewe lambs. Individual milk samples were also obtained from lactating females. All serum and milk samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas vaginal swabs were tested by quantitative PCR. We found that some dairy females did not seroconvert despite shedding C. burnetii in their vaginal mucus. Overall, antibody levels in adult females were found to remain stable over time, with exceptions during the mating and lambing periods. Maternal antibodies decreased during the first month after birth. Interestingly, antibody levels in milk were correlated with those in serum. This study provides valuable field data that will help improve Q fever surveillance and within-flock management measures. IMPORTANCE Field data are necessary to improve the surveillance, diagnosis, and sanitary management of Q fever in livestock. Here, we provide extensive serological data obtained from serum and milk samples from infected and vaccinated ewes belonging to a naturally infected flock of sheep. We show that

  7. Natural selection underlies apparent stress-induced mutagenesis in a bacteriophage infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Ido; Edgar, Rotem; Levy, Asaf; Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem; Munitz, Ariel; Qimron, Udi

    2016-04-18

    The emergence of mutations following growth-limiting conditions underlies bacterial drug resistance, viral escape from the immune system and fundamental evolution-driven events. Intriguingly, whether mutations are induced by growth limitation conditions or are randomly generated during growth and then selected by growth limitation conditions remains an open question(1). Here, we show that bacteriophage T7 undergoes apparent stress-induced mutagenesis when selected for improved recognition of its host's receptor. In our unique experimental set-up, the growth limitation condition is physically and temporally separated from mutagenesis: growth limitation occurs while phage DNA is outside the host, and spontaneous mutations occur during phage DNA replication inside the host. We show that the selected beneficial mutations are not pre-existing and that the initial slow phage growth is enabled by the phage particle's low-efficiency DNA injection into the host. Thus, the phage particle allows phage populations to initially extend their host range without mutagenesis by virtue of residual recognition of the host receptor. Mutations appear during non-selective intracellular replication, and the frequency of mutant phages increases by natural selection acting on free phages, which are not capable of mutagenesis.

  8. Failure of Miltefosine Treatment in Two Dogs with Natural Leishmania infantum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Proverbio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two dogs, with naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis, were treated orally with miltefosine (2 mg/kg q 24 hr and allopurinol (10 mg/kg q 12 hr for 28 days. Both dogs showed good initial response to therapy, with reduction in clinical signs and improvement of clinicopathological changes. However, in both dogs, clinical and clinicopathological abnormalities recurred 150 days after initial treatment and a second course of miltefosine and allopurinol was administered. One dog failed to respond to the 2nd cycle of miltefosine treatment and the other dog responded initially but suffered an early relapse. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg q 24 hr for a minimum of 4 weeks was then started in both dogs. Both dogs showed rapid clinical and clinicopathological improvement and to date they have not received further treatment for 420 and 270 days, respectively. In view of the low number of antileishmanial drugs available and the fact that some of these are used in human as well as veterinary medicine, it is of paramount importance that drug resistance is monitored and documented.

  9. Preventive efficacy of NexGard Spectra® against Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet Frédéric; Meyer Leon; Fourie Josephus; Larsen Diane

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a monthly oral endectocide product, NexGard Spectra? (Merial), a combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, was evaluated in a flea (Ctenocephalides felis) challenge model for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum tapeworm infection in dogs. The efficacy of treatment with NexGard Spectra? was assessed in 10 dogs following weekly flea infestation with metacestode naturally infected fleas and compared with that in 10 untreated control dogs. The 100 fleas deposited weekly on ...

  10. A Comparison of Multiple Methods for Estimating Parasitemia of Hemogregarine Hemoparasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and Its Application for Studying Infection in Natural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P.; Harris, D. James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in

  11. A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina and its application for studying infection in natural populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P Maia

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella, based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina. From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite

  12. A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina) and its application for studying infection in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Harris, D James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in

  13. Mitigation of Prion Infectivity and Conversion Capacity by a Simulated Natural Process—Repeated Cycles of Drying and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Eckland, Thomas; Telling, Glenn; Bartz, Jason; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Prions enter the environment from infected hosts, bind to a wide range of soil and soil minerals, and remain highly infectious. Environmental sources of prions almost certainly contribute to the transmission of chronic wasting disease in cervids and scrapie in sheep and goats. While much is known about the introduction of prions into the environment and their interaction with soil, relatively little is known about prion degradation and inactivation by natural environmental processes. In this study, we examined the effect of repeated cycles of drying and wetting on prion fitness and determined that 10 cycles of repeated drying and wetting could reduce PrPSc abundance, PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period of disease. Importantly, prions bound to soil were more susceptible to inactivation by repeated cycles of drying and wetting compared to unbound prions, a result which may be due to conformational changes in soil-bound PrPSc or consolidation of the bonding between PrPSc and soil. This novel finding demonstrates that naturally-occurring environmental process can degrade prions. PMID:25665187

  14. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group. Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases...... cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes...

  15. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as “seeders” were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35...... and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment...

  16. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10 and parasite density in spleen and liver of L. (L.) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE F Michelin, A; Perri, S H V; De Lima, V M F

    2011-07-01

    Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite can cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Cytokines are key elements of the host immune response against Leishmania spp. To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 are associated with pattern infection in dogs, these cytokines were quantified in the spleen and liver of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi, with or without clinical manifestations, and their levels were correlated with the parasite load verified in these organs. A total of 40 adult dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi were assessed, together with 12 uninfected control dogs. Samples from spleen and liver were used to determine the cytokine levels by capture ELISA and for quantifying parasite load by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using the minimum Chi square method and group means were compared using the Tukey test. TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 levels in infected dogs were higher than in control groups; the liver was the main cytokine-producing organ during infection. The level of splenic TNF-α showed correlation with parasite load and may represent an important marker for infection process evolution, with the participation of IL-10. These results may contribute to a clearer understanding of the immune response in dogs infected with L. (L.) chagasi, which may lead to the development of prophylactic or preventive measures for these animals.

  18. Dengue Virus-Infected Dendritic Cells, but Not Monocytes, Activate Natural Killer Cells through a Contact-Dependent Mechanism Involving Adhesion Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Ye, Weijian; Chen, Qingfeng; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Preiser, Peter; Ooi, Eng Eong; Chen, Jianzhu

    2017-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a protective role against dengue virus (DENV) infection, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Using an optimized humanized mouse model, we show that human NK cells, through the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), are critical in the early defense against DENV infection. Depletion of NK cells or neutralization of IFN-γ leads to increased viremia and more severe thrombocytopenia and liver damage in humanized mice. In vitro studies using autologous human NK cells show that DENV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), but not monocytes, activate NK cells in a contact-dependent manner, resulting in upregulation of CD69 and CD25 and secretion of IFN-γ. Blocking adhesion molecules (LFA-1, DNAM-1, CD2, and 2β4) on NK cells abolishes NK cell activation, IFN-γ secretion, and the control of DENV replication. NK cells activated by infected MDDCs also inhibit DENV infection in monocytes. These findings show the essential role of human NK cells in protection against acute DENV infection in vivo , identify adhesion molecules and dendritic cells required for NK cell activation, and delineate the sequence of events for NK cell activation and protection against DENV infection. IMPORTANCE Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease with a range of symptoms, from mild fever to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. The diverse disease manifestation is thought to result from a complex interplay between viral and host factors. Using mice engrafted with a human immune system, we show that human NK cells inhibit virus infection through secretion of the cytokine gamma interferon and reduce disease pathogenesis, including depletion of platelets and liver damage. During a natural infection, DENV initially infects dendritic cells in the skin. We find that NK cells interact with infected dendritic cells through physical contact mediated by adhesion molecules and become activated before they can control

  19. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. The effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections during the rainy season in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Sandoval-Castro, C; May-Martinez, M; Cob-Galera, L A

    2004-10-05

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the wet season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-four 2-month old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 22-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of 8 kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74%, respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n = 10) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n = 8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation (for an average of 7h/day) together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. The T-S group had the highest CLWG, PCV and Hb compared to the other three groups (P 0.05), while the I-NS group had the poorest CLWG, PCV and Hb (P Criollo kids against natural GIN infections and was economically feasible. Improved resistance was also suggested by the PEC but was not confirmed in the FEC.

  1. Oral-resident natural Th17 cells and γδ T cells control opportunistic Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Peterson, Alanna C; Brane, Lucas; Huppler, Anna R; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Whibley, Natasha; Garg, Abhishek V; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R; Gibson, Gregory A; Mamo, Anna J; Osborne, Lisa C; Bishu, Shrinivas; Ghilardi, Nico; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Watkins, Simon C; Artis, David; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-09-22

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. OPC is frequent in HIV/AIDS, implicating adaptive immunity. Mice are naive to Candida, yet IL-17 is induced within 24 h of infection, and susceptibility is strongly dependent on IL-17R signaling. We sought to identify the source of IL-17 during the early innate response to candidiasis. We show that innate responses to Candida require an intact TCR, as SCID, IL-7Rα(-/-), and Rag1(-/-) mice were susceptible to OPC, and blockade of TCR signaling by cyclosporine induced susceptibility. Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, we found that IL-17 is produced within 1-2 d by tongue-resident populations of γδ T cells and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD44(hi)TCRβ(+)CCR6(+) natural Th17 (nTh17) cells, but not by TCR-deficient innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) or NK cells. These cells function redundantly, as TCR-β(-/-) and TCR-δ(-/-) mice were both resistant to OPC. Whereas γδ T cells were previously shown to produce IL-17 during dermal candidiasis and are known to mediate host defense at mucosal surfaces, nTh17 cells are poorly understood. The oral nTh17 population expanded rapidly after OPC, exhibited high TCR-β clonal diversity, and was absent in Rag1(-/-), IL-7Rα(-/-), and germ-free mice. These findings indicate that nTh17 and γδ T cells, but not ILCs, are key mucosal sentinels that control oral pathogens. © 2014 Conti et al.

  2. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Noh, Susan M; White, Stephen N; Snekvik, Kevin R; Truscott, Thomas; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses in serum or OPP provirus levels in peripheral blood associate with the degree of histologically measured tissue lesions in naturally OPPV-infected sheep. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung, mammary gland, carpal synovial membrane, and brain tissues from 11 OPPV-infected ewes (mean age of 8.6 years) and 5 OPPV-uninfected ewes (mean age of 6 years) were evaluated for lesion severity. Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) provirus levels and anti-OPPV antibody titers in peripheral blood and serum samples, respectively, were measured upon euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia. Both mean peripheral OPP provirus levels and mean serum anti-surface envelope glycoprotein (anti-SU) antibody titers at the time of euthanasia were significantly higher in ewes with moderate to severe histological lesions than in ewes with no to mild histological lesions. However, although mean peripheral blood OPP provirus levels at euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia significantly correlated with the highest histological lesion score for any affected tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.03 and 0.02), mean serum anti-SU antibody titers, anti-capsid antibody titers, and anti-transmembrane 90 antibody titers at euthanasia did not show a significant correlation with the highest histological lesion score for any tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.32, 0.97, and 0.18, respectively). These data are the first to show that OPP provirus levels predict and correlate with the extent of OPPV-related histological lesions in various OPPV-affected tissues. These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response.

  3. Efficacy and economic analysis of two treatment regimens using toltrazuril in lambs naturally infected with Eimeria spp. on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rodrigues, Fernando; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; de Menezes, Fernanda Rezer; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and the economic viability of two anticoccidial treatment regimens tested in lambs naturally exposed to Eimeria spp. re-infections in a grazing system during a 140-day period. Twenty-four suckling lambs were distributed into three groups based on the individual count of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and body weight. Animals were treated with toltrazuril 5% (20 mg/kg) at 14- (GI) or 21-day (GII) intervals, and GIII was kept as untreated control. A cost-benefit analysis of each treatment regimen was calculated. Additionally, economic analysis was performed on four hypothetical scenarios, in which lambs could be having 10, 25, 50, or 85% decrease in their expected body weight gain due to clinical. Efficacy of toltrazuril against Eimeria spp. was 96.9-99.9% (GI) and 74.2-99.9% (GII). E. ovinoidalis was most frequently identified, but no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in lambs. There were no differences in weight gain among the groups. The cost of treatment per lamb was $13.09 (GI) and $7.83 (GII). The estimation model showed that the cost-benefit ratio favored treatment with toltrazuril when lambs fail to gain weight. In the studied flock, the break-even point for toltrazuril administered at 14-day intervals was reached with 85% decrease in mean weight gain. In conclusion, toltrazuril can be used at 14-day intervals to control Eimeria spp. (re)-infection in lambs raised on pasture. This treatment regimen was not economically feasible for subclinical coccidiosis; however, it may be feasible when used to prevent weight loss caused by clinical coccidiosis.

  4. The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Oliveira Leal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV. In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections.

  5. Physiological and immunological characterization of Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus naturally infected with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Jiménez, Cristina; Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Simões, Nuno; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Sánchez Arteaga, Ariadna; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Álvarez, Raúl; Rosas Vazquez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2012-08-27

    The present study compares 13 physiological and immunological variables between a group of healthy Panulirus argus lobsters and a group of lobsters naturally infected with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Viral infection was determined through histopathology and PCR. Ten of the 13 variables differed significantly between the 2 groups. Using these variables, a principal component analysis yielded 2 separate clusters: one corresponding to the healthy group and the other corresponding to the infected group. In particular, infected lobsters exhibited significantly lower levels of osmotic pressure, total hemocyte counts, plasmatic proteins, and total phenoloxidase (PO) activity in plasma, as well as significantly higher levels of cholesterol and acylglycerides. These features are consistent with metabolic wasting, hyperlipidemia, and presumed immune suppression. Infection with PaV1 appears to increase the susceptibility of lobsters to some other opportunistic pathogens, as 61.1% of infected lobsters presented infestations of ciliate epibionts (Epystilis and Zoothamniun) in the gill chamber compared with 11.5% lobsters in the healthy group. Infected lobsters also showed significantly higher levels of total PO activity in degranulated hemocytes and trypsin inhibitor activity, potentially indicating activation of immune response by the PO system during the systemic infection with PaV1.

  6. The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rodolfo Oliveira; Gil, Solange

    2016-10-27

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections.

  7. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran.Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008. Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR.Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province.Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  8. Natural history of chronic HBV infection in West Africa: a longitudinal population-based study from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Njai, Harr Freeya; Bottomley, Christian; Ndow, Gibril; Goldin, Robert D; Jatta, Abdoulie; Jeng-Barry, Adam; Wegmuller, Rita; Moore, Sophie E; Baldeh, Ignatius; Taal, Makie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Whittle, Hilton; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Mendy, Maimuna

    2016-12-01

    The natural history of chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Data are required to inform WHO guidelines that are currently based on studies in Europe and Asia. Between 1974 and 2008, serosurveys were repeated in two Gambian villages, and an open cohort of treatment-naive chronic HBV carriers was recruited. Participants were followed to estimate the rates of hepatitis B e (HBeAg) and surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 2012-2013, a comprehensive liver assessment was conducted to estimate the prevalence of severe liver disease. 405 chronic carriers (95% genotype E), recruited at a median age of 10.8 years, were followed for a median length of 28.4 years. Annually, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) cleared HBeAg and 1.0% (0.8% to 1.2%) cleared HBsAg. The incidence of HCC was 55.5/100 000 carrier-years (95% CI 24.9 to 123.5). In the 2012-2013 survey (n=301), 5.5% (95% CI 3.4% to 9.0%) had significant liver fibrosis. HBV genotype A (versus E), chronic aflatoxin B1 exposure and an HBsAg-positive mother, a proxy for mother-to-infant transmission, were risk factors for liver fibrosis. A small proportion (16.0%) of chronic carriers were infected via mother-to-infant transmission; however, this population represented a large proportion (63.0%) of the cases requiring antiviral therapy. The incidence of HCC among chronic HBV carriers in West Africa was higher than that in Europe but lower than rates in East Asia. High risk of severe liver disease among the few who are infected by their mothers underlines the importance of interrupting perinatal transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  10. Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from naturally infected lofts of domestic pigeons by IS901 RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parvandar Asadollahi

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion: It is suggested that more DNA fingerprinting tests for non-tuberculous Mycobacteria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, be conducted to find the source of their infections.

  11. Specific Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Test to Highlight Colonization of Xylem Vessels by Xylella fastidiosa in Naturally Infected Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Luvisi, Andrea; Meyer, Joana B.; Sabella, Erika; De Bellis, Luigi; Cruz, Albert C.; Ampatzidis, Yiannis; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The colonization behavior of the Xylella fastidiosa strain CoDiRO, the causal agent of olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS), within the xylem of Olea europaea L. is still quite controversial. As previous literature suggests, even if xylem vessel occlusions in naturally infected olive plants were observed, cell aggregation in the formation of occlusions had a minimal role. This observation left some open questions about the whole behavior of the CoDiRO strain and its actual role in OQDS pathogenesis. In order to evaluate the extent of bacterial infection in olive trees and the role of bacterial aggregates in vessel occlusions, we tested a specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe (KO 210) for X. fastidiosa and quantified the level of infection and vessel occlusion in both petioles and branches of naturally infected and non-infected olive trees. All symptomatic petioles showed colonization by X. fastidiosa, especially in the larger innermost vessels. In several cases, the vessels appeared completely occluded by a biofilm containing bacterial cells and extracellular matrix and the frequent colonization of adjacent vessels suggested a horizontal movement of the bacteria. Infected symptomatic trees had 21.6 ± 10.7% of petiole vessels colonized by the pathogen, indicating an irregular distribution in olive tree xylem. Thus, our observations point out the primary role of the pathogen in olive vessel occlusions. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the KO 210 FISH probe is suitable for the specific detection of X. fastidiosa. PMID:29681910

  12. Three types of preS1 start codon deletion variants in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Won Hyeok; Kim, Hong; Lee, So-Young; Choi, Yu-Min; Kwon, So Young; Moon, Hee Won; Hur, Mina; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-12-12

    Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus variants carrying a deletion in the preS1 start codon region may evolve during long-lasting virus-host interactions in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to determine the immune phase-specific prevalent patterns of preS1 start codon deletion variants and related factors during the natural course of CHB. A total of 399 CHB patients were enrolled. Genotypic analysis of three different preS1 start codon deletion variants (classified by deletion size: 15-base pair [bp], 18-bp, and 21-bp deletion variants) was performed. PreS1 start codon deletion variants were detected in 155 of 399 patients (38.8%). The predominant variant was a 15-bp deletion in the immune-tolerance phase (18/50, 36%) and an 18-bp deletion in the immune-clearance phase (69/183, 37.7%). A 21-bp deletion was the predominant variant in the low replicative phase (3/25, 12.0%) and reactivated hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-negative phase (22/141, 15.6%). The 15-bp and 18-bp deletion variants were more frequently found in HBeAg-positive patients (P start codon deletion variants changes according to the immune phases of CHB infection, and each variant type is associated with different clinical parameters. PreS1 start codon deletion variants might interact with the host immune response differently according to their variant types. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  14. Cytokine profile and natural killer cell activity in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice treated orally with Petiveria alliacea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, M L; Quadros, M R; Santos, L M

    2000-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of Petiveria alliacea extract on the production of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines and on NK cells activity in normal and Listeria monocytogenes infected mice. Our results demonstrated that in normal/non-infected mice P. alliacea administration led to increased levels of Interleukin-2 (IL-2). The infection alone enhanced INF-gamma levels and NK cell activity at 48 and 72 hours of infection. The treatment with five consecutive doses of 1000 mg/kg/day of P. alliacea extract, given previously to infection, led to further increases in IL-2 levels, in relation to normal/non-infected/P. alliacea treated controls, and in INF-gamma levels at 72 h of infection, compared to infected mice. On the other hand, the production of IL-4 and IL-10 were not altered either by the infection or by the treatment with P. alliacea extract. NK cells activity increased at 48 h and 72 h following the inoculation of the bacteria. When mice were treated with P. alliacea previously to infection, NK activity was higher than that observed at 48 h, 72 h and 120 h of infection in the infected animal. Based on these findings we suggest that P. alliacea up-regulates anti-bacterial immune response by enhancing both Th1 function and the activity of NK cells.

  15. A constitutively expressed antifungal peptide protects Tenebrio molitor during a natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrou, Sevasti; Paris, Véronique; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2018-01-01

    -evolution they share. In this study, we investigated role of a constitutively expressed thaumatin-like peptide with antifungal activity expressed by the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, named Tenecin 3, during a natural infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We monitored the effect...

  16. Efficacy of two anthelmintic treatments, spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs with natural Toxocara spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Cardenas, Rafael; Romero Núñez, Camilo; Miranda Contreras, Laura

    2017-11-30

    Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular analysis reveals the diversity of Hepatozoon species naturally infecting domestic dogs in a northern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Laise de Azevedo; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Rossi, Adriana Dos Reis Ponce; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to optimize molecular methods for detecting DNA of Hepatozoon spp. as well as identify the phylogenetic relationships of Hepatozoon strains naturally infecting domestic dogs in Belém, Pará, northern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 138 dogs, and screened for Hepatozoon spp. using a new nested PCR assay. Positive samples were subjected to genetic characterization based on amplification and sequencing of approximately 670bp of the Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA. Of the positive dogs, four shared the haplotype Belém 01, one dog presented the haplotype Belém 02 and two dogs shared the haplotype Belém 03. A Bayesian inference indicates that haplotypes Belém 01 and Belém 02 are phylogenetically related to H. canis, while Belém 03 is related to H. americanum. Overall, based on the first molecular evidence of H. americanum in Brazilian domestic dogs, the proposed protocol may improve the epidemiological investigation of canine hepatozoonosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Field testing of a fenbendazole treatment combined with hygienic and management measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2006-12-20

    The need of a combination of animal treatment and environmental measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves between the age of 1 and 6 months was emphasized and evaluated. Ten commercial farms with a total of 94 calves suffering from chronic diarrhea, ill thriving and impaired growth, were included in two subsequent studies. The first study indicated that treatment of all animals with fenbendazole at 15 mg/kg during 3 consecutive days combined with environmental measures on the final day of treatment, which were either removal of bedding, thorough cleaning and ammonia 10% disinfection or relocation of the treated animals to a Giardia free environment, resulted in a total reduction in cyst excretion for at least 2 weeks. In the second study, the immunofluorescence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia; Meridian Diagnostics Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) was used quantitatively and confirmed that the combination of treatment and environmental measures resulted in a total reduction of cyst excretion during 2 weeks and in a significant (Por=98.0%) reduction of the cyst excretion until at least 4 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, there was a noticeable improvement of the clinical symptoms in all animals towards day 28 after treatment and 4 months after treatment health in all calves was normal.

  19. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "La Cabaña", in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011.The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n=654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n=7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n=3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n=2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n=1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168-3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in "La Cabaña". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection is related to reduction in natural killer T-lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício M.S. Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes amoebiasis. Recent studies demonstrated that natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT are critical for preventing the development of amoebic liver abscess. In spite of that, there are only a handful of studies in the area. Herein, we explored the role of NKT cells in E. histolytica infection using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD1-/- mice. Animals were inoculated with E. histolytica and sacrificed 48 hours later to collect caecum samples that were used for quantitative analyses of lesions, trophozoites, NK1.1+ T lymphocytes and expression of the mucus protein MUC-2 by immunohistochemistry technique. Quantitative analyses confirmed that the frequency of NK1.1+ T cells was significantly lower in samples from C57BL/6 CD1-/- mice as compared to their wild type (WT counterparts. The extension of necrotic mucosa was larger and the number of trophozoites higher in Entamoeba (Eh-infected CD1-/- mice when compared with Eh-infected WT mice. In mice from both groups, noninfected (CTRL and Eh-infected CD1-/-, there was a reduction in the thickness of the caecal mucosa and in the MUC-2-stained area in comparison with CTRL- and Eh-WT mice. Our results showed that NKT lymphocytes contribute to resistance against Entamoeba histolytica infection and to the control of inflammation in the colitis induced by infection. The presence of a normal epithelial layer containing appropriate levels of mucus had also a protective role against infection.

  1. Identification of natural antimicrobial agents to treat dengue infection: In vitro analysis of latarcin peptide activity against dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2014-05-31

    Although there have been considerable advances in the study of dengue virus, no vaccines or anti-dengue drugs are currently available for humans. Therefore, new approaches are necessary for the development of potent anti-dengue drugs. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with potent antiviral activities are potential hits-to-leads for antiviral drug discovery. We performed this study to identify and characterise the inhibitory potential of the latarcin peptide (Ltc 1, SMWSGMWRRKLKKLRNALKKKLKGE) against dengue virus replication in infected cells. The Ltc 1 peptide showed a significantly inhibitory effect against the dengue protease NS2B-NS3pro at 37°C, a physiological human temperature, (IC50, 12.68 ± 3.2 μM), and greater inhibitory effect was observed at 40°C, a temperature similar to a high fever (IC50, 6.58 ± 4.1 μM). A greater reduction in viral load (p.f.u./ml) was observed at simultaneous (0.7 ± 0.3 vs. 7.2 ± 0.5 control) and post-treatment (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6 control) compared to the pre-treatment (4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 6.9 ± 0.5 control). Treatment with the Ltc 1 peptide reduced the viral RNA in a dose-dependent manner with EC50 values of 8.3 ± 1.2, 7.6 ± 2.7 and 6.8 ± 2.5 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The Ltc 1 peptide exhibited significant inhibitory effects against dengue NS2B-NS3pro and virus replication in the infected cells. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to develop the Ltc 1 peptide as a new anti-dengue therapeutic.

  2. T-cell tropism of simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and cytokine profiles in relation to proviral load and immunological changes during chronic infection of naturally infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquière, Sandrine; Mouinga-Ondeme, Augustin; Makuwa, Maria; Beggio, Paola; Radaelli, Antonia; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Mortreux, Franck; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2009-08-01

    Although a wide variety of non-human primates are susceptible to simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1), little is known about the virological or molecular determinants of natural STLV-1 infection. We determined STLV-1 virus tropism in vivo and its relation to the immune response by evaluating cytokine production and T-cell subsets in naturally infected and uninfected mandrills. With real-time PCR methods, we found that STLV-1 in mandrills infects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; however, proviral loads were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in CD4(+) than in CD8(+) cells (mean STLV-1 copies number per 100 cells (+/- SD) was 7.8 +/- 8 in CD4(+) T cells and 3.9 +/- 4.5 in CD8(+) T cells). After culture, STLV-1 provirus was detected in enriched CD4(+) but not in enriched CD8(+) T cells. After 6 months of culture, STLV-1-transformed cell lines expressing CD3(+), CD4(+) and HLADR(+) were established, and STLV-1 proteins and tax/rex mRNA were detected. In STLV-1 infected monkeys, there was a correlation between high proviral load and elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The two monkeys with the highest STLV-1 proviral load had activated CD4(+)HLADR(+) and CD8(+)HLADR(+) T-cell subsets and a high percentage of CD25(+) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Our study provides the first cellular, immunological and virological characterization of natural STLV-1 infection in mandrills and shows that they are an appropriate animal model for further physiopathological studies of the natural history of human T-cell leukaemia viruses.

  3. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) for diagnosis of natural infection with canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Min-Liang; Hsu Tien-Huan; Lin Fong-Yuan; Lin Kuan-Hsun; Chiou Shyan-Song; Wang Chi-Young; Lee Min-Shiuh; Chulakasian Songkhla; Chang Tien-Jye; Hsu Wei-Li

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) is present worldwide and produces a lethal systemic infection of wild and domestic Canidae. Pre-existing antibodies acquired from vaccination or previous CDV infection might interfere the interpretation of a serologic diagnosis method. In addition, due to the high similarity of nucleic acid sequences between wild-type CDV and the new vaccine strain, current PCR derived methods cannot be applied for the definite confirmation of CD infection. Hen...

  4. Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP119 antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awobode Henrietta O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119, inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP119 had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP119 would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods The cellular responses to wild-type MSP119 and a panel of modified MSP119 antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-naïve and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP119. A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27→Tyr, Leu31→Arg, Tyr34→Ser and Glu43→Leu had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360 and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that specific MSP119 variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  5. The natural infection of birds and ticks feeding on birds with Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthová, Lenka; Slobodník, Vladimír; Slobodník, Roman; Olekšák, Milan; Sekeyová, Zuzana; Svitálková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Špitalská, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known as primary vectors of many pathogens causing diseases in humans and animals. Ixodes ricinus is a common ectoparasite in Europe and birds are often hosts of subadult stages of the tick. From 2012 to 2013, 347 birds belonging to 43 species were caught and examined for ticks in three sites of Slovakia. Ticks and blood samples from birds were analysed individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii by PCR-based methods. Only I. ricinus was found to infest birds. In total 594 specimens of bird-attached ticks were collected (451 larvae, 142 nymphs, 1 female). Altogether 37.2% (16/43) of bird species were infested by ticks and some birds carried more than one tick. The great tit, Parus major (83.8%, 31/37) was the most infested species. In total, 6.6 and 2.7% of bird-attached ticks were infected with Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica predominated (5.9%), whereas R. monacensis (0.5%) was only sporadically detected. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 0.9%, Rickettsia spp. in 8.9% and R. helvetica in 4.2% of bird blood samples. The great tit was the bird species most infested with I. ricinus, carried R. helvetica and C. burnetti positive tick larvae and nymphs and was found to be rickettsaemic in its blood. Further studies are necessary to define the role of birds in the circulation of rickettsiae and C. burnetii in natural foci.

  6. Natural history of Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity of infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P W; Dasanayake, A P; Li, Y; Pan, Y; Hsu, J; Hardin, J M

    2000-07-01

    The heterogeneous group of oral bacteria within the sanguinis (sanguis) streptococci comprise members of the indigenous biota of the human oral cavity. While the association of Streptococcus sanguinis with bacterial endocarditis is well described in the literature, S. sanguinis is thought to play a benign, if not a beneficial, role in the oral cavity. Little is known, however, about the natural history of S. sanguinis and its specific relationship with other oral bacteria. As part of a longitudinal study concerning the transmission and acquisition of oral bacteria within mother-infant pairs, we examined the initial acquisition of S. sanguinis and described its colonization relative to tooth emergence and its proportions in plaque and saliva as a function of other biological events, including subsequent colonization with mutans streptococci. A second cohort of infants was recruited to define the taxonomic affiliation of S. sanguinis. We found that the colonization of the S. sanguinis occurs during a discrete "window of infectivity" at a median age of 9 months in the infants. Its colonization is tooth dependent and correlated to the time of tooth emergence; its proportions in saliva increase as new teeth emerge. In addition, early colonization of S. sanguinis and its elevated levels in the oral cavity were correlated to a significant delay in the colonization of mutans streptococci. Underpinning this apparent antagonism between S. sanguinis and mutans streptococci is the observation that after mutans streptococci colonize the infant, the levels of S. sanguinis decrease. Children who do not harbor detectable levels of mutans streptococci have significantly higher levels of S. sanguinis in their saliva than do children colonized with mutans streptococci. Collectively, these findings suggest that the colonization of S. sanguinis may influence the subsequent colonization of mutans streptococci, and this in turn may suggest several ecological approaches toward controlling

  7. Deciphering Transcriptome and Complex Alternative Splicing Transcripts in Mammary Gland Tissues from Cows Naturally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Yang, Chun Hong; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Yan; Li, Rong Ling; Wang, Chang Fa; Zhong, Ji Feng; Huang, Jin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the complexity of the mammalian proteome and plays an important role in diseases, including infectious diseases. The differential AS patterns of these transcript sequences between the healthy (HS3A) and mastitic (HS8A) cows naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus were compared to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis resistance and susceptibility. In this study, using the Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing method, 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with higher than twofold changes were found in the HS3A and HS8A mammary gland tissues. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction pathway is the most significantly enriched pathway. Approximately 16k annotated unigenes were respectively identified in two libraries, based on the bovine Bos taurus UMD3.1 sequence assembly and search. A total of 52.62% and 51.24% annotated unigenes were alternatively spliced in term of exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5′ splicing and alternative 3ʹ splicing. Additionally, 1,317 AS unigenes were HS3A-specific, whereas 1,093 AS unigenes were HS8A-specific. Some immune-related genes, such as ITGB6, MYD88, ADA, ACKR1, and TNFRSF1B, and their potential relationships with mastitis were highlighted. From Chromosome 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, and 20, 3.66% (HS3A) and 5.4% (HS8A) novel transcripts, which harbor known quantitative trait locus associated with clinical mastitis, were identified. Many DEGs in the healthy and mastitic mammary glands are involved in immune, defense, and inflammation responses. These DEGs, which exhibit diverse and specific splicing patterns and events, can endow dairy cattle with the potential complex genetic resistance against mastitis. PMID:27459697

  8. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båverud, V; Nyström, C; Johansson, K-E

    2006-09-10

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract of a stallion. Swab samples for culture of T. equigenitalis were taken from urethral fossa, urethra and penile sheath of a 3-year-old stallion of the Ardennes breed when it was routinely tested for CEM. A small Gram-negative rod was isolated, but the colony appearance, the slow growth rate and the results in the API ZYM test differed slightly from those of T. equigenitalis. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was therefore performed and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequence of the strain Bd 3751/05 represents T. asinigenitalis and that the strain is identical with the Californian asinine strain UCD-1T (ATCC 700933T). The T. asinigenitalis strain had a low MIC of gentamicin (MIC16 microg/ml). Taylorella asinigenitalis has thus for the first time been isolated from the genital tract of a stallion with a natural infection. To determine the pathogenicity of T. asinigenitalis it will be important to conduct further experimental studies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation of T. asinigenitalis from T. equigenitalis as well as for identification of these species.

  9. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Heaton, M P

    2015-01-01

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154). The experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility of breeding ewes to infection after natural exposure to OPPV from birth to 39 mo of age. Sires and dams were heterozygous for TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3, producing ewe lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." These lambs were raised by mature, infected dams to ensure natural, maternal exposure to OPPV. Ewe lambs (n = 108) were kept for breeding and joined an infected flock of ewes to guarantee natural, nonmaternal exposure to OPPV. Ewes were bred to lamb at 1, 2, and 3 yr of age. Serum samples were collected at breeding, 1 mo before lambing and shortly after weaning each year to monitor infection status to 39 mo of age. During the experiment, 9 of the 108 ewes died while uninfected and data collected on these ewes were not analyzed. Infection status of the remaining 99 ewes at 39 mo of age was analyzed using logistic regression procedures. Effects of ewe type of birth, ewe type of rearing, and breed type of dam were not detected (P > 0.10), and the estimated sire variance component was nil. Ewe diplotype affected infection status (P ewes with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.10, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and confidence intervals for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were distinct from "1 1." Haplotype 3 was completely dominant to haplotype 1 at 39 mo of age. The probability of infection for ewes with either diplotype "1 3" or "3 3" averaged 8.5 times that of ewes with diplotype "1 1." Diplotype "1 3" and "3 3" ewes were highly susceptible to nonmaternal transmission of OPPV, in contrast to

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cerebellums of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Y B; Sozmen, M; Yarim, M; Guvenc, T; Karayigit, M O; Gulbahar, M Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in the cerebellums of dogs infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) using immunohistochemistry to detect autophagy. The cerebellums of 20 dogs infected with CDV were used. Specimens showing demyelination of white matter were considered to have an acute infection, whereas specimens showing signs of severe perivascular cuffing and demyelination of white matter were classified as having chronic CDV. Cerebellar sections were immunostained with CDV and LC3 antibodies. The cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, granular layer cells, motor neurons in large cerebellar ganglia and some neurons in white matter were positive for the LC3 antibody in both the control and CDV-infected dogs. In the infected cerebellums, however, white matter was immunostained more intensely, particularly the neurons and gemistocytic astrocytes in the demyelinated areas, compared to controls. Autophagy also was demonstrated in CDV-positive cells using double immunofluorescence staining. Our findings indicate that increased autophagy in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected with CDV may play a role in transferring the virus from cell to cell.

  11. The polymerase chain reaction can reveal the occurrence of naturally mixed infections with Leishmania parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M E; Smyth, A J; Ali, M H

    1994-01-01

    On isolation and characterization of Leishmania parasites from Sudanese patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), four cases of mixed infections were found. Three of those cases were from the Eastern Sudan focus of VL. In one case the patient was found to be concomitantly infected with Leishmania...

  12. WC1+ γδ T cells from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis respond differentially to stimulation with PPD-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrak, S M; Waters, W R; Stabel, J R; Hostetter, J M

    2017-08-01

    A role for γδ T cells in protection against mycobacterial infections including Johne's disease (JD) has been suggested. In neonatal calves where the risk to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is high, the majority of circulating CD3 + lymphocytes are γδ TCR + . Bovine γδ T cells are divided into two major subsets based on the surface expression of workshop cluster 1 (WC1). The WC1 + subset, the predominant subset in periphery, is further divided into WC1.1 + and WC1.2 + subpopulations. The ability of γδ T cells to produce IFN-γ prior to CD4 + αβ T cell activation could be crucial to the outcome of MAP infection. In the current study, cattle were naturally infected with MAP and were classified as eith