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Sample records for leucaena leucocephala expressing

  1. Leucaena leucocephala IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

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    M. Barros-Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a common situation in extensive ruminant production systems in tropical countries to have low production indicators due to nutrient deficiencies in the diet. An economic alternative to increase animal production is the incorporation of legumes (fodder and fruits in the diet. This review, presents an analysis of the positive and negative effects of Leucaena leucocephala consumption by ruminants, with particular emphasis on the secondary compound mimosine. Leucaena due to its high nutrient content, rumen by-pass protein supply and its possible effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas (attributed to tannins has become one of the legumes most commonly used in ruminant feeding practices. However, in countries where leucaena has been introduced, its use is still limited to levels below 30% inclusion in the diet, due to the secondary compound mimosine and its isomers (3,4 and 2,3 DHP, which can induce toxicity, even when animals are inoculated with rumen fluid containing the bacteria Synergistes jonesii reported as responsible for degrading these compounds in the rumen. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, ruminants consuming leucaena can tolerate more than 50% inclusion in the diet, without having a negative impact on production, attributed intake to mimosine and its isomers. We conclude that in animals not adapted, the intake would be limited to low inclusion levels (less than 30% inclusion in the diet, mainly because of mimosine and its derivatives. The decrease in intake or diet digestibility seem to better explain the reduction in methane production, however, in vivo studies are required to clearly establish the mechanism of action. It has been reported the presence of different bacteria to S. jonessi that would have the ability to degrade mimosine and its derivatives, however, the activity of these bacteria and its effectiveness must be confirmed in vivo.

  2. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor from Leucaena leucocephala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gabriel

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... and Chung-Yi Chen ... both synthetic (Lee et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2009) and ... Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous plant which is ... et al., 2000). ..... Li et al. 14185. Nakatani Y, Ourisson G, Beck JP (1981). Chemistry and ...

  3. Expression analysis of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) gene in developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sameer; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Arha, Manish; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Rawal, Shuban K; Kavi Kishor, P B; Khan, Bashir M

    2011-02-01

    Removal of lignin is a major hurdle for obtaining good quality pulp. Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) is extensively used in paper industry in India; therefore, as a first step to generate transgenic plants with low lignin content, cDNA and genomic clones of CCR gene were isolated and characterized. The cDNA encoding CCR (EC 1.2.1.44) was designated as Ll-CCR; the sequence analysis revealed an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 1005 bp. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ll-CCR sequence is highly homologous to CCRs from other dicot plants. The 2992 bp genomic clone of Leucaena CCR consists of 5 exons and 4 introns. The haploid genome of L. leucocephala contains two copies as revealed by DNA blot hybridization. Ll-CCR gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, which showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa. Protein blot analysis revealed that Ll-CCR protein is expressed at higher levels in root and in stem, but undetectable in leaf tissues. Expression of CCR gene in Leucaena increased up to 15 d in case of roots and stem as revealed by QRT-PCR studies in 0-15 d old seedlings. ELISA based studies of extractable CCR protein corroborated with QRT-PCR data. CCR protein was immuno-cytolocalized around xylem tissue. Lignin estimation and expression studies of 5, 10 and 15 d old stem and root suggest that CCR expression correlates with quantity of lignin produced, which makes it a good target for antisense down regulation for producing designer species for paper industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The flavonoid constituents of Leucaena Leucocephala growning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Leucaena leucocephala were identified as Caffeic acid, Isorhamnetin, Chrysoeriol, Isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside, Kaempferol-3-O-rubinoside, Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and Luteolin-7-glucoside. Chemical structures of the isolated compounds were identified by TLC, PC and spectral techniques (UV, 1H -NMR and MS).

  5. Soil Solution Phosphorus Status and Mycorrhizal Dependency in Leucaena leucocephala.

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    Habte, M; Manjunath, A

    1987-04-01

    A phosphorus sorption isotherm was used to establish concentrations of P in a soil solution ranging from 0.002 to 0.807 mug/ml. The influence of P concentration on the symbiotic interaction between the tropical tree legume Leucaena leucocephala and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum was evaluated in pot experiments. The level of mycorrhizal infection in Leucaena roots increased as the concentration of P was raised from 0.002 to 0.153 mug/ml. Higher levels of P depressed mycorrhizal infection, but the level of infection never declined below 50%. Periodic monitoring of P contents of Leucaena subleaflets indicated that significant mycorrhizal activity was detected as early as 17 days after planting, with the activity peaking 12 to 16 days thereafter. The highest level of mycorrhizal activity was associated with a soil solution P level of 0.021 mug/ml. Even though the mycorrhizal inoculation effect diminished as the concentration of P in the soil solution was increased, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased P uptake and dry-matter yield of Leucaena at all levels of soil solution P examined. The concentration of P required by nonmycorrhizal L. leucocephala for maximum yield was 27 to 38 times higher than that required by mycorrhizal L. leucocephala. The results illustrate the very high dependence of L. leucocephala on VAM fungi and the significance of optimizing soil solution phosphorus for enhancing the benefits of the VAM symbiosis.

  6. Effect of cutting height and frequency on Leucaena leucocephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast-growing tree that can provide both high quality forage and firewood. The objective of this trial was to determine the optimum height and frequency of cutting for both wood and forage production. Cutting heights at 0.3m, 0.6m and 1.0 m were superimposed on 3-month and 6-month cutting ...

  7. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

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    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  8. Research Note: Predicting Leucaena leucocephala biomass from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of leaf and stem material removed by browsers can be precisely (r2 >0.90) and accurately (within 11% of the mean) predicted from DPB, thus providing a simple means of estimating browse offtake from leucaena trees. Keywords: Browse, firewood, regression, tree height, twig diameter. African Journal of Range ...

  9. Management and quantification of nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo, E.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pruning and age on N 2 fixation were studied using Leucaena leucocephala isoline K28, with Cassia siamea as the non-N 2 -fixing reference species, at a site of degraded soil fertility typical of much of the farming land in Ghana. The 15 N-dilution method was used to estimate N2 fixation. Cassia siamea consistently produced higher total biomass and total N yields than did L. leucocephala. The mean value for the fraction of N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) was higher for pruned L. leucocephala (36%) than for unpruned trees (18%). There was some underestimation of N 2 fixation as a result of using C. siamea as the reference, and because root N-contents were not determined. Strong, significant linear correlations were observed between foliar and whole-tree (weighted average) percent 15 N atom excess in unpruned L. leucocephala and C. siamea, suggesting that foliar 15 N enrichment can be used to accurately estimate %Ndfa. The results demonstrated that the 15 N-enrichment methodology can provide meaningful estimates of %Ndfa and total N 2 fixed for mixed tree plantations under field conditions, when adequate spacing is provided. (author)

  10. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala; Niveis sericos de tiroxina (T4-RIA) e triiodotinonina (T3-RIA) em ovinos alimentados cm Leucaena Leucocephala LAM

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    Pessoa, J M; Rodriguez, N M [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Cardoso, W M [Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Escola de Medicina Veterinaria; Velez, C E.S.

    1988-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab.

  11. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, J.M.; Rodriguez, N.M.; Cardoso, W.M.; Velez, C.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

  12. Preliminary note on strength properties of Leucaena leucocephala from lalkua, Tarai Bhabar Forest Division, uP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, N.K.

    1982-03-01

    Based on physical and mechanical tests conducted on small clear specimens, the strength properties of Leucaena leucocephala in green condition are reported and compared with Fraxinus micrantha, Morus alba and Tectona grandis. In general, Leucaena leucocephala has given slightly lower strength properties except in some cases as compared to above species. (Refs. 6).

  13. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  14. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasora ou ruderal? Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasive or ruderal?

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    José Nicola Martorano Neves da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies exóticas em plantios de recuperação de áreas degradadas tem sido condenada com base no argumento de que tais espécies podem se comportar como invasoras e contaminar os ecossistemas naturais ao redor das áreas onde forem plantadas. Leucaena leucocephala (leucena é espécie leguminosa exótica que tem sido frequentemente cultivada no Brasil para recuperação florestal, uma vez que apresenta simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. O potencial de invasão e persistência da leucena foi analisado a partir de um plantio misto, efetuado em 1983 em terreno com afloramento rochoso, parte do mosaico de uma paisagem dominada por matriz agrícola, com alguns fragmentos remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e plantios arbóreos diversos. Em uma área de 200 ha, cada uma das 11 unidades do mosaico foi amostrada por meio de seis parcelas de 16 x 3 m (48 m², em que foram identificados e medidos (DAP todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas (altura mínima de 50 cm, para verificar se a área ocupada pela espécie está se expandindo. Na área em que foi utilizada leucena no plantio, analisou-se a estrutura da comunidade, com base na distribuição dos indivíduos em classes de tamanho, para verificar se a proporção da espécie exótica tende a aumentar com o tempo, configurando a persistência no ecossistema. Uma vez que nenhum indivíduo de L. leucocephala foi registrado entre os 4.599 amostrados além dos limites da área onde a espécie foi plantada, a conclusão é de que a espécie não está se comportando como invasora de ecossistemas naturais nessa condição ambiental, enquadrando-se melhor como ruderal. A análise da comunidade em regeneração sob as árvores plantadas evidenciou que a proporção da espécie exótica, que é intolerante à sombra, tende a diminuir com o tempo, ainda que lentamente, perdendo espaço para espécies nativas tolerantes

  15. Changes in dinitrogen fixation in maturing stands of Casuarina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala

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    John A. Parrotta; Dwight D. Baker; Maurice Fried

    1996-01-01

    Biological dinitrogen fixation in Casuarina equisetifolia J .R. & G. Forst. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was evaluated using the 15N-enrichment technique under field conditions in single-species and mixed-species plantings (with a nonfixing reference species, Eucalyptus X ...

  16. Estimation of nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala using 15N-enrichment methodologies

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    John A. Parrotta; Dwight D. Baker; Maurice Fried

    1994-01-01

    An estimation of biological nitrogen fixation by Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit in monoculture and mixed-species plantations (with Casuarina equisetifolia L. ex J.R. & G. Forst., and Eucalyptus robusta Sm.) was undertaken over a two-year period in Puerto Rico using the 15N-enrichment...

  17. Analisis Karbohidrat, Protein, dan Lemak pada Pembuatan Kecap Lamtoro Gung (Leucaena leucocephala terfermentasi Aspergillus oryzae

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    TJAHJADI PURWOKO

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena leucocephala was one of Mimosaceae family which had high protein content nearly the same value as in Soya beans protein content. L. leucocephala could be used as the substitution of Soya beans in production of soy sauce. Soy sauce was one of fermentation liquid products which had flavor and aroma as meat, and had high nutrition value. The aims of the research were (i to analyze nutrition value in seeds, koji and moromi including carbohydrate, proteins and lipids and (ii to know the potency of L. leucocephala as raw material in production of soy sauce by fermentationmethod with Aspergillus oryzae as inoculums. Fermentation was one of soy sauce production processes that involved two steps: (i the solid stage fermentation and (ii the brine fermentation. L. leucocephala was fermented with A. oryzae for 3-5 days to produce koji. Koji was soaked in salt solution 20% (1:5 b/v then it was fermented for 30 days to produce moromi. Nutritional values in L. leucocephala seeds, koji, and moromi was analyzed, i.e. carbohydrate (sugar reduction and starch, protein, and lipids. Moromi filtrate was added by spices to Leucaena sauce. Finally, preferable Leucaena sauce was tested including flavor, aroma, and color. Preferable data was analyzed by non-parametric statistic; it was Friedman Test and followed Wilcoxon Ranking Method. The result showed that value of reducing sugar in L. leucocephala seeds, koji and moromi were 78.38 mg/g; 119.08 mg/g; and 164.29 mg/g. Starch value of seeds, koji and moromi were 274.36 mg/g; 260.92 mg/g and 179.50 mg/g. The value of dissolved protein in seeds, koji and moromi were 107.44 mg/g; 86.1 mg/g; and 208.56 mg/g. The value of lipids on seeds, koji and moromi was 158.87 mg/g; 51.35 mg/g; and 80.86 mg/g. The data of preferable test on Leucaena sauce’s taste was the same as ABC sauce but the aroma of Leucaena sauce had the lowest score than the others. More over, the four kinds of sauce were not different significantly

  18. Utilización de la leucaena leucocephala como suplemento en cabras en crecimiento

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    Clavero, Tyrone; Razz, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Con el objeto de evaluar el crecimiento de cabras mestizas (Nubian x Criollo) suplementadas con Leucaena leucocephala, se realizó un ensayo en el Occidente de Venezuela en una zona caracterizada como Bosque muy Seco Tropical. Se evaluaron tres raciones: T1 (pastoreo en gramínea-Cenchrus cillaris), T2 (pastoreo en gramínea + 2 h/día en Leucaena), T3 (pastoreo en gramínea + alimento concentrado comercial, 300 g/animal/día). El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente al azar. El peso de...

  19. Nitrogen fixation and effects of pruning on Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, M.S. de

    1998-01-01

    This 7-year study examined genetic variability in N 2 fixation by Gliricidia sepium and the N 2 -fixing capacity in G. sepium and Leucaena leucocephala as influenced by frequency of pruning, age, and shade from coconut. The 15 N-dilution method was used with the non-nodulating tree legume Senna siamea as the non-fixing reference. There were significant differences in total dry matter, N yield and N 2 -fixation capacity among four G. sepium provenances. Gliricidia had higher values than Leucaena for dry matter, N yield, and amount of N fixed; %Ndfa was comparable in both species (47-55%). A substantial amount (18%) of fixed N 2 was present in the roots of both species. In a long-term study aimed at comparing the effect of pruning practices and age of trees, G. sepium grown under coconut outperformed L. leucocephala in terms of dry matter, N yield and amounts of N 2 fixation. Coconut saplings supplied with G. sepium and L. leucocephala prunings as green manure grew better than those supplied with S. siamea; the fraction of coconut-sapling N obtained from Gliricidia and Leucaena was 40 and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that G. sepium, which demonstrated a high potential for biomass production and N 2 fixation, is appropriate for interplanting with coconut palms. Also, S. Siamea was found to be a suitable reference species. (author)

  20. Kandungan Xantofil Daun Lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala Hasil Detoksikasi Mimosin Secara Fisik dan Kimia

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    E. B. Laconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena (Leucena leucocephala is a feed source which has high protein and carotenoid, but its utilization as feed was limited by the presence of mimosine (β-N-(3-Hydroxy-4 pyridone-α amino propenoic acid as a toxin. Experiment was carried out using completely randomized design with 4 detoxification treatments and 5 replications. Detoxification treatments of leucaena leaf consisted of (1 non treated leucaena leaf, (2 steamed heating at 70 oC for 15 minutes, (3 dry heating at 70 oC for 12 h, (4 soaking with fresh water for 12 h, (5 spray with NaOH 5%, incubated for 12 h. Variables measured were mimosine and xanthophylls contents. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and duncan multiple range test was further done to test the significant differences between means. The results showed that soaking leucaena leaf with fresh water for 12 h gave the highest reduction for both mimosine and xanthophylls contents and steamed heating at 70oC for 15 minutes had the highest xanthophylls content post detoxification. It was concluded that steamed heating at 70oC for 15 minutes was the best detoxification methods for mimosine in leucaena leaf.

  1. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

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    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  2. Nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala and effects of pruning s on cereal yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekunda, M.

    1998-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala was interplanted with reference tree species, Cassia siamea and Cassia spectabilis, and estimates of percent N derived from N 2 fixation (%Ndfa) were made, by the isotope-dilution method, at 4, 6, 14, 20 and 30 months after transplanting. The %Ndfa values were low and variable throughout the growth period, except after thinning at 14 months when there was a five-fold increase. The two non-fixing reference species outperformed the N 2 -fixing Leucaena in above-ground vegetative production, and provided different fixed-N estimates. Prunings from the L. leucocephala and C. Siamea trees were applied separately to soil as green manure. Maize was planted to test the effects of the Leucaena green manure on soil fertility, and millet was the test crop for the Cassia. Whether surface-applied or incorporated, the prunings significantly improved yields, which were generally similar among rates and methods of application. The proportions of cereal N obtained from prunings ranged from 8 to 33%, with no cereal-yield correlation. The data indicate that multipurpose tree prunings are of potential use to farmers as organic sources of nutrients, even at relatively low application rates, without need for incorporation into the soil. (author)

  3. IN VITRO FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY OF MIXTURES OF Cynodon nlemfuensis, Leucaena leucocephala AND TWO ENERGY SOURCES (MAIZE OR SUGAR CANE MOLASSES

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    Juan Martin Estrada-Liévano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fermentation efficiency of Cynodon nlemfuensis forage (star grass and Leucaena leucocephala foliage (leucaena and two energy sources (i.e. maize and sugar cane molasses mixture was evaluated. Mixture samples (1 g DM were incubated for 24 h. All the mixtures were added with 500 mg of polyetilenglycol (PEG. Adding molasses to star grass increased dry matter true digestibility and carbohydrate fermentation (P

  4. Características nutritivas del ensilaje de Leucaena leucocephala con diferentes aditivos

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt de Flores, M.; Clavero, Tyrone; Razz, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Para estudiar la influencia de la melaza y ácido fórmico sobre las características nutritivas del ensilaje de Leucaena leucocephala, se realizó un estudio en una zona caracterizada como Bosque muy seco tropical, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Tres niveles de melaza (0, 2.5 y 5%) y ácido fórmico (0, 0.25 y 0.5%) fueron evaluados, utilizándose un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 3x3. Se evaluaron los contenidos de materia seca total (MST), proteína cruda (PC)...

  5. Valor nutritivo e utilização do feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham para coelhos em crescimento Nutritional feeding value and use of Leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham for growing rabbits

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    Denise Fontana Figueiredo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cv.Cunningham para coelhos em crescimento. No ensaio de digestibilidade foram utilizados 28 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com 40 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos e 14 repetições. Foram utilizadas duas dietas, uma referência e uma teste na qual o feno de leucena substituiu 25% da matéria seca da dieta-referência. Os teores de matéria seca digestível, matéria orgânica digestível, proteína digestível, fibra em detergente neutro digestível e energia digestível do feno de leucena foram, respectivamente, de 26,87%; 25,30%; 5,32%; 14,66% e 1.286Kcal/kg. No experimento de desempenho foram utilizados 80 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, de 35 a 70 dias de idade. Os animais foram distribuídos num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (cinco níveis de inclusão de feno de leucena: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%, em substituição ao feno de alfafa, oito repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os níveis crescentes de substituição do feno de alfafa pelo feno de leucena, não afetaram o desempenho dos coelhos durante o período experimental. Os dados mostram que o feno de leucena substituiu eficientemente o feno de alfafa em dietas para coelhos em crescimento.Two trial were carried out to determine the performance of rabbits fed on diets which included Leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunninghan. Twenty-eight 40-day old White New Zealand rabbits were employed for the digestibility trial, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and 14 replications. Reference and test diets were used in which Leucaena hay replaced 25% of the dry matter in the reference diet. Digestible dry matter, digestible organic matter, digestible protein, digestible F.D.N. and digestible energy contents of

  6. Poblaciones microbianas ruminales en novillas alimentadas con Leucaena leucocephala en el Bosque Seco Tropical colombiano.

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    Erika Angarita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La fermentación y metanogénesis ruminal son procesos metabolicos vitales para los bovinos y son llevados a cabo por poblaciones microbianas, las cuales se afectan por factores como la presencia de metabolitos secundarios, la composición nutricional y la degradabilidad de la dieta. El objetivo de este trabajo fue monitorear las poblaciones de bacterias totales, metanógenos totales y Butirivibrio fibrisolvens en el rumen de novillas raza Lucerna, alimentadas con dietas típicas de un sistema silvopastoril intensivo y un sistema tradicional. Para ello, se colectó contenido ruminal (CR por vía oral a ocho novillas que consumían 100% Cynodon plectostachyus (control y 76% C. plectostachyus + 24% Leucaena leucocephala siguiendo un diseño de sobre-cambio. A partir del CR se extrajo y cuantificó ADN mediante PCR cuantitativa. Las poblaciones [Log10 (ng/g CR] fueron 5.6 y 5.8 para bacterias totales (P= 0.5343, 3.6 y 3.5 para B. fibrisolvens (P= 0.4742, y 5.0 y 5.3 para metanógenos totales (P= 0.2661, para la dieta control y la dieta con leucaena respectivamente. Las poblaciones monitoreadas cuantitativamente no difirieron de manera significativa con la inclusión de L. leucocephala. Esto indica la importancia de investigar la estructura, función e interacciones de las poblaciones más allá del análisis cuantitativo para determinar cómo la dieta afecta las poblaciones microbianas ruminales y su función.

  7. Characterization analysis for leaves of Leucaena leucocephala by using phytochemical screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Z.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Petai Belalang) is a medium plant which belong in group of tropical breed that can survived in hot, dried and warm environment. In Malaysia, the plant is available abundantly. As there are still no commercial used, and no serious intention in finding the benefits of L. Leucocephala, this work come out with the idea to analyze the antioxidants contains in leaves of the plant by undergoes different extraction and chemical testing method. The phytochemical screening assay involved in this study are antioxidant activity by using free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, total phenolic content by using Folin-Ciocalteu method, total flavonoid content by using colorimetric assay with ascorbic acid and quercetin were used as reference standards while for phosphorus analysis, a molybdenum blue method or also known as ascorbic acid method was used. For antioxidant activity by using free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 8247.0 mg/L, for total phenolic content higher concentration was recorded by extraction using deionized water (dried sample) which is 4276.0 mg/L, for total flavonoid content by using colorimetric assay higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 4439.0 mg/L, and for for phosphorus analysis higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 71.057 mg/L.

  8. Fertigation by capillary action in seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit = Fertirrigação por capilaridade em mudas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paiva Dantas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, native to Central America, produces large quantities of viable seeds, which allows its propagation on a large scale; it is also fast-growing and can reach 7 m in height. The use of fertigation favours the absorption of nutrients, and the greater growth of the leucena seedlings, due to the application of less concentrated nutrient solutions of a consequently lower electrical conductivity. However, this practice requires a lot of manpower, and it is necessary to find alternative technologies that would allow a reduction in the costs of fertigation. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the viability of fertigation by capillary action, using different concentrations of a standard nutrient solution in the production of seedlings of leucena. A completely randomised experimental design was used, with treatments comprising four concentrations of nutrient solution (0, 50, 100 and 150% applied by capillary fertigation. Two nondestructive evaluations of growth were carried out at 25 and 40 days after sowing (DAS, and one destructive evaluation at 55 DAS. The variables to be evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and biomass accumulation, besides the quality indices of the seedlings. Analysis of the data leads to the conclusion that seedlings of leucena can be produced at concentrations of between 70 and 100% of the nutrient solution through fertigation by capillary action. = A leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, originária da América Central, produz grandes quantidades de sementes viáveis, o que permite sua propagação em larga escala, e possui crescimento rápido, podendo chegar a 7 metros de altura. O uso da fertirrigação favorece a absorção de nutrientes e o maior crescimento das mudas de leucena, devido à aplicação de solução nutritiva menos concentrada e, consequentemente, com menor condutividade elétrica. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a viabilidade

  9. Efecto de la altura de poda en Leucaena leucocephala y su influencia en el rebrote y rendimiento de Panicum maximum

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    H. M. Bacab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las prácticas importantes de manejo en los sistemas de Leucaena leucocephala asociada con pastos tropicales, como Panicum maximum, es la poda; en la actualidad se continúan los estudios para determinar los efectos de esta práctica en el componente arbóreo y herbáceo. Por todo ello, en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres alturas de poda en Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham y su influencia en la pastura asociada (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El estudio se realizó en la época poco lluviosa del año (marzo a mayo de 2010, se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Al inicio del experimento se asignaron los tratamientos (alturas de poda de 20, 40 y 60 cm sobre el nivel del suelo para Leucaena leucocephala. En el caso de Panicum maximum, se realizó una poda a 5 cm sobre el nivel del suelo en todas las parcelas experimentales. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la poda de la leguminosa a 40 y 60 cm permitió obtener brotes de mayor talla, sin afectar a la gramínea asociada. De igual manera, al incrementar la altura de poda, la leguminosa presentó mayor rendimiento y proporción de forraje comestible; sin embargo, se afectó negativamente a la pastura asociada. Ante ello, considerándose el aspecto animal, se recomienda no reducir la altura de poda de Leucaena leucocephala a menos de 40 cm, ya que se reduce significativamente el rendimiento y la proporción de forraje comestible de esta leguminosa, el cual es de mayor calidad para la alimentación animal.

  10. APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF RHODE ISLAND RED HEN DIETS CONTAINING Leucaena leucocephala AND Moringa oleifera LEAF MEALS

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    Khaled Abouelezz Fouad Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of two trials aimed to evaluate the dietary digestibility by Rhode Island Red (RIR hens' fed on different levels of Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM. In each experiment, thirty six Rhode Island Red hens at 36 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups each of nine birds which were allocated in individual cages. The four groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments containing 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15 % of LLM (Exp 1 or MOLM (Exp 2. All groups received smashed diets containing similar metabolizable energy and crude protein (16% CP and 2900 kcal ME/kg diet, as fed basis. The hens were fed the experimental diets for six weeks and during the last four days, feed intake was individually recorded every day and excreta was totally collected twice daily and weighed individually. Considerable amounts of CP were found in LLM (23.61% DM and MOLM (19.76% DM. The dietary treatments had no significant effect on the intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, gross energy (GE, crude protein (CP or neutral detergent fiber (NDF in both experiments, while the acid detergent fibers (ADF consumption increased linearly (P

  11. Effect of combined inoculations of Rhizobium-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Leucaena leucocephala CV: Perú

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    Lázaro Jesús Ojeda Quintana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was conducted at the Experimental Station of Soil and Fertilizer “Escambray” land of farmers and associated rural extension. The experimental design was randomized blocks, and treatments: Rizhobium loti V-4033 (Research Institute of Pastures and Forages, mycorrhizal fungi trainers, Rhizobium +mycorrhiza fungi trainers, nitrogen and total control. Inoculation with my corrhiza forming fungi was performed at 10 g/bag Certificate MicoFert Strain the Institute of Ecology and Systematics-3: Glomus spurcum, Topes de Collantes, 85 % colonization of rootlets, while the Rhizobium was inoculated in a dose of 50 g/kg of seed. Variant was nitrogen at 25 kg/ha of urea. The plots occupied 18m2 , with an area of 9 m2 evaluable. When the plants reached 7.5 months and an average height of 143.4 cm proceeded to make the Court of establishment and then four foliage cuts were made every 90 days. Each cut dry biomass yield, and phosphorus content was determined crude protein. The combined inoculation of Rhizobium and mycorrhiza fungi Makers increased the yield of dry biomass, and phosphorus content of crude protein. We conclude proposing the adoption of an alternative methodology using mycorrhiza formers Fungi and Rhizobium in Leucaena leucocephala as a way to increase the yield of dry biomass, decreasing mineral fertilization and contribute to environmental protection

  12. Combustion Characteristics of Torrefied Wood Samples of Pinus Carrebea and Leucaena Leucocephala Grown in Nigeria

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    Francis Akinyele FARUWA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction of selected wood samples of Pinus Carrebea and Leucaena Leucocephala were carried out at temperatures ranging from 200 to 300°C to improve the energy parameters of biomass and to determine the effect of torrefication temperature on the physical and combustion properties of wood selected from Pinus carrebea and Leuceanea leucocephala grown in Nigeria. In this process the biomass hemicellulose is degraded, maintaining its cellulose and lignin content. The samples were dried and heated to 225, 250, 275, and 300°C. Then the torrefied mass was subjected to basic property testing on proximate analysis and heating value was calculated in order to understand the differences between raw material and its torrefied products. Specifically, the wood blocks changed from light brown to black, stemming from the partial carbonization at the wood surface. When the temperature is 225°C, the color of the wood is between dark brown and once the torrefaction temperatures are 250 and 275°C, the colors of the wood become dark and darker respectively. The results of the proximate analysis also showed that increasing of torrefied temperature; volatile fraction was reduced while fixed carbon was increased with increase in temperature from 21.34 to 52.74 and 18.58 to 56.83 for Leucaena leucocephala and Pinus carreabeanus respectively at 225 to 300°C. The volatile content is decreased from 78.58% to 62.76% with increase in temperature. Ash content of were within 1.57-3.41% of torrefied wood. It could be observed that the High calorific value (HCV for pine ranged between 19.80 and 28.06MJ/Kg for the top, 19.93and 24.96MJ/kg for middle with 19.72and 25.96MJ/Kg for base. The values recorded for raw sample and at 275°C been the lowest and highest respectively. The High calorific value (HCV were found to be on the increase and nose dive at 300°C for the tree parts used in this research. The result revealed that for Leuceana the value increased from raw up to

  13. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TORREFIED WOOD SAMPLES OF PINUS CARREBEA AND LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA GROWN IN NIGERIA

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    Joseph Adeola FUWAPE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction of selected wood samples of Pinus Carrebea and Leucaena Leucocephala were carried out at temperatures ranging from 200 to 300°C to improve the energy parameters of biomass and to determine the effect of torrefication temperature on the physical and combustion properties of wood selected from Pinus carrebea and Leuceanea leucocephala grown in Nigeria. In this process the biomass hemicellulose is degraded, maintaining its cellulose and lignin content. The samples were dried and heated to 225, 250, 275, and 300°C. Then the torrefied mass was subjected to basic property testing on proximate analysis and heating value was calculated in order to understand the differences between raw material and its torrefied products. Specifically, the wood blocks changed from light brown to black, stemming from the partial carbonization at the wood surface. When the temperature is 225°C, the color of the wood is between dark brown and once the torrefaction temperatures are 250 and 275°C, the colors of the wood become dark and darker respectively. The results of the proximate analysis also showed that increasing of torrefied temperature; volatile fraction was reduced while fixed carbon was increased with increase in temperature from 21.34 to 52.74 and 18.58 to 56.83 for Leucaena leucocephala and Pinus carreabeanus respectively at 225 to 300°C. The volatile content is decreased from 78.58% to 62.76% with increase in temperature. Ash content of were within 1.57-3.41% of torrefied wood. It could be observed that the High calorific value (HCV for pine ranged between 19.80 and 28.06MJ/Kg for the top, 19.93and 24.96MJ/kg for middle with 19.72and 25.96MJ/Kg for base. The values recorded for raw sample and at 275°C been the lowest and highest respectively. The High calorific value (HCV were found to be on the increase and nose dive at 300°C for the tree parts used in this research. The result revealed that for Leuceana the value increased from raw up to

  14. La productividad de cabras ramoneando Leucaena leucocephala en las áreas semi áridas del noroeste de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Tyrone; Razz, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Un experimento de campo fue realizado en las áreas semiáridas del noroeste de Venezuela para evaluar tres tipos de dietas en cabras (pastoreo de gramíneas (pasto buffel); pastoreo de gramíneas + 0.3 kg/día de alimento comercial); pastoreo de gramíneas + ramoneo restrictivo de dos horas diarias en Leucaena leucocephala) sobre la producción y composición de la leche y la tasa de crecimiento. Los datos muestran diferencias significativas (P

  15. Chemical elements in Leucaena leucocephala leaves of riparian zones of the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Lira, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala can be found in several riparian ecosystems, acting as one of the main invasive and harmful species for the forest restoration of the permanent preservation areas. It has also been studied for the phytoremediation of some chemical elements, due to their potential accumulation of chemical substances. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of chemical elements in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala trees by Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Samples of leaves were collected in eight samples from riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, during the dry and rainy season. After collection, washing with water and drying in a forced circulation oven, the samples were comminuted and encapsulated in polyethylene capsules and subjected to a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN / CNEN. Thermal neutron flux monitoring was performed by Ni-Cr alloy fragments with known concentrations of the chemical monitors elements. After measurements of radioactivity induced by HPGe detectors, the concentrations of the chemical elements were calculated by the k0 method using the Quantu computer program. Certified reference materials were also analyzed for quality assurance of the analytical procedure. The results indicated high concentrations of La and lanthanoids (Ce, Eu, Sm, Tb and Yb) in leaves of L. leucocephala in both periods analyzed. It was possible to observe a decrease in the concentrations of the chemical elements in the rainy season, probably associated to the washing of the geological material deposited on the leaves of the trees by the rains, except for K, Mo, Rb, Sb and Zn, whose values remained or increased in the leaves collected during the rainy season. Considering the constant leaf production, L. leucocephala can greatly affect the cycling of chemical elements due to its accumulation capacity demonstrated by this

  16. Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jerusa, E-mail: jerusaschneider@hotmail.com [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000 (Brazil); Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo [Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000 (Brazil); Rangel, Wesley Melo [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000 (Brazil); Alves, Eduardo [Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000 (Brazil); Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000 (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Inoculation of L. leucocephala improved plant growth in high-As soils. ► Plants inoculated with Glomus clarum were less sensitive to As. ► Ultrastructural changes in leaves of L. leucocephala. ► Modified structures in intracellular spaces in plants inoculated with G. clarum. ► Cell disruption and stacking of root cell walls at high As concentrations. -- Abstract: Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm{sup −3}). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm{sup −3} of As.

  17. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  18. Forage production and growing goats’ response under silvopastoral systems based on Guazuma ulmifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Crescentia cujete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rodríguez Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass monoculture, besides being unnatural to goat’s natural eating habits, exhibits low forage production during the dry season, with negative impacts on animal productivity. This research aimed to determine the productive advantages of silvopastoral system arrangements in goat production. A completely randomized design with repeated measurements through time was used. Six treatments were evaluated: kikuyina grass monoculture (Bothriochloa pertusa and guinea grass monoculture (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania as control groups; guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia based silvopastoral arrangement; calabash (Crescentia cujete based silvopastoral arrangement; lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala based silvopastoral arrangement; and a mixed based silvopastoralarrangement (guacimo, calabash and leucaena. The information was processed with analysis of variance. The results showed increased forage production in silvopastoral arrangements vs. Bothriochloa pertusa monoculture. The greater increase in height (p <0.05 at 9-14 months of age, was obtained with the leucaena silvopastoral arrangement. All silvopastoral arrangements showed forage yield advantages compared to B. pertusa. The higher dry matter production of guinea grass is highlighted. Overall weight gain of the growing goats was low; nevertheless, a differential response between treatments was observed. Silvopastoral arrangements had the highest (p <0.05 weight gain (22.5 to 33.6 g/animal per day relative to the guinea grass monoculture (13.2 g/animal per day. The growing goats had higher percentages of estrus and pregnancy in the mixed system (66.7% and those based on guacimo (66.7% and on lead tree (55.6%.

  19. Milk yield and blood urea nitrogen in crossbred cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system in the Mexican tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Bottini-Luzardo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess milk yields, estimate the intake of crude protein (CP and determine the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in early post-partum crossbred cows grazing irrigated Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena in a silvopastoral system relative to those in an irrigated grass monoculture.  Twenty-four multiparous cows were randomly allotted at calving on the basis of previous milk yields to 2 grazing treatments: grass monoculture system (MS of Cynodon nlemfuensis (n=12; and an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS composed of leucaena and C. nlemfuensis (n=12.  Cows were supplemented with sorghum grain (ISS or a conventional concentrate (MS during milking to ensure availability of metabolizable energy (ME and CP required for milk production.  Mean estimated intake of leucaena was 5.1±1.3 kg DM/d and estimated CP intakes were 1,479±3.3 and 1,258±3.3 g/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05, while estimated intakes of ME were 161±1.3 and 131±1.4 MJ/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P<0.05.  Milk yields were 13.5 and 14.5 kg/cow/d for cows on ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05.  Concentrations of BUN were 19.1 mg/dL for cows in ISS and 15.3 mg/dL for cows in MS (P<0.05.  We conclude that intake of leucaena and sorghum grain in an irrigated silvopastoral system was sufficient to substitute for expensive concentrate in the diets of lactating cows grazing irrigated grass monoculture.  However, the higher levels of BUN found in ISS suggest a lower efficiency of N utilization in this treatment.  Restricting consumption of leucaena might be a means of improving efficiency of its use and this warrants investigation. Keywords: Cattle, crude protein, Cynodon nlemfuensis, leucaena, tropical pasturesDOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4159-167

  20. Abiotic stress induces change in Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) protein abundance and lignin deposition in developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sameer; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Arafat, Yasir Ali; Gupta, Sushim K; Khan, Bashir M

    2015-04-01

    Aboitic stress such as drought and salinity are class of major threats, which plants undergo through their lifetime. Lignin deposition is one of the responses to such abiotic stresses. The gene encoding Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis, which has been shown to be over-expressed under stress conditions. In the present study, developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Vernacular name: Subabul, White popinac) were treated with 1 % mannitol and 200 mM NaCl to mimic drought and salinity stress conditions, respectively. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) based expression pattern of CCR protein was monitored coupled with Phlorogucinol/HCl activity staining of lignin in transverse sections of developing L. leucocephala seedlings under stress. Our result suggests a differential lignification pattern in developing root and stem under stress conditions. Increase in lignification was observed in mannitol treated stems and corresponding CCR protein accumulation was also higher than control and salt stress treated samples. On the contrary CCR protein was lower in NaCl treated stems and corresponding lignin deposition was also low. Developing root tissue showed a high level of CCR content and lignin deposition than stem samples under all conditions tested. Overall result suggested that lignin accumulation was not affected much in case of developing root however developing stems were significantly affected under drought and salinity stress condition.

  1. Considerations about Leucaena leucocephala cv. X: A new forage choice for a livestock ecosystem with acid and infertile soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, A; Wencomo, Hilda; Navarro, Marlen; Iglesias, J.M; Soca, Mildrey; Cepero, L; Canchila, E.R

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó a partir de una búsqueda de información por diversas páginas Web, revistas de impacto, otras de carácter nacional e internacional, así como las más diversas fuentes de información, relacionada con la capacidad de adaptación del género Leucaena a los diferentes tipos de suelo, con énfasis en la acidez y el grado de encharcamiento. La revisión proporcionó las limitantes de adaptación del género y de la especie L. leucocephala a dichas condiciones. El descubrimient...

  2. Efecto del agua caliente en la germinación de las semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú Effect of hot water on the germination of seeds from Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de clasificación simple se estudió el efecto del tratamiento pregerminativo con agua a 80ºC por dos minutos, en la germinación de las semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú almacenadas al frío y al ambiente, durante siete años. Se demostró la presencia de dormancia moderada, con un porcentaje de germinación de 67,3% en la semilla recién cosechada, que fue inferior a la potencialidad germinativa mostrada a través de su alta viabilidad (98,2%. En condiciones controladas y al ambiente la germinación presentó diferencias altamente significativas para los meses de almacenamiento (PIn a simple classification design the effect of the pregerminative treatment with water at 80ºC for two minutes, on the germination of seeds from Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru stored under cold-storage room and ambient conditions, for seven years, was studied. The presence of moderate dormancy was proven, with a germination percentage of 67,3% in the newly harvested seed, which was lower than the germination potential shown through their high viability (98,2%. Under controlled and ambient conditions germination showed highly significant differences for the storage months (P<0,001 and the highest values without applying pregerminative treatment were achieved at 12, 42 and 48 months (77,6; 71,8 and 75,7% and at 18 months (81,8%, respectively. The application of water at 80ºC for two minutes produced significant increases (P<0,001 in germination with regards to the untreated seed and under controlled conditions it was higher at 12, 24 and 48 months (98,6; 99,6 and 98,5% and under ambient conditions at 6, 12 and 18 months (96,2; 97,7 and 97,7%. It is concluded that the newly harvested seeds from L. leucocephala cv. Peru show around 30% dormancy and can increase their germination by applying water to them at 80ºC for two minutes.

  3. Effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera and Leucaena leucocephala and growth performance of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ricalde, R; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E; Novelo-Ucan, W; Martinez-Romero, P; Segura-Correa, J

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera (MO) or Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and growth of rabbits. In experiment one, 45 rabbits (male and female) weighing 1.18 ± 0.15 kg were used. They were randomly distributed to three feed restriction treatments (20, 30, and 40%) with 15 rabbits each (9 females and 6 males) and they were offered M. oleifera (MO) ad libitum. In experiment two, 45 growing male rabbits weighing 0.63 ± 0.113 kg were used. They were randomly assigned to 0, 20, and 30% feed restriction diets, and they have free access to L. leucocephala (LL). Intake of MO increased (P  0.05), and economic efficiency was similar among treatments. Consumption of LL increased (P  0.05). Economic efficiency improved twice in feed-restricted rabbits (2.0 and 2.3 for 20 and 30%, respectively) in contrast to that of the control 0% group (1.1). The results suggest that rabbits restricted up to 30% and supplemented with either MO or LL did not affect growth performance and reduced feed cost.

  4. Ithome lassula Hodges (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae, una nueva especie para Cuba asociada a Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

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    O Alonso

    Full Text Available El nuevo informe para Cuba de Ithome lassula Hodges (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae, especie asociada a la planta forrajera Leucaena leucocephala, se confirmó con la identificación de los adultos, mediante la utilización de una clave basada en la maculación de las escamas en la zona de la cabeza del insecto. Los adultos emergieron en el laboratorio, de las larvas colectadas en las inflorescencias; estas procedían de los diferentes sistemas ganaderos que se muestrearon en las provincias Matanzas y Mayabeque, los cuales estaban compuestos indistintamente por las cuatro variedades comerciales de la leguminosa y por gramíneas pratenses. Por otra parte, la detección de las lesiones que causaron las larvas de este cosmopterígido en las inflorescencias, y su repercusión en la producción de semillas de leucaena, constituyó el elemento más importante que se debía considerar para valorar su potencialidad como plaga y al estimar las posibles pérdidas en los sistemas ganaderos evaluados.

  5. Descomposición del follaje de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham asociada con Morus alba var. tigríada

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    F Ruz Súarez

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se diseñó en una parcela experimental donde se utiliza, desde hace diez años, el follaje de Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena como abono verde en el cultivo de Morus alba (morera, con el objetivo de determinar la velocidad de descomposición del follaje de la leguminosa y la relación de este proceso con algunos de los factores bióticos y abióticos presentes en el sistema. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición del follaje se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. El follaje depositado en estas bolsas fue evaluado en seis momentos durante la etapa de estudio, que abarcó dos años. En cada fecha de recolección, a la hojarasca remanente de cada bolsa se le determinó la población de macrofauna mediante la separación manual, según la metodología del Programa de Investigación Internacional "Biología y Fertilidad del Suelo Tropical" (TSBF. La composición taxonómica de la macrofauna asociada al proceso de descomposición del follaje de leucaena estuvo constituida por cuatro Phylum, seis clases y siete órdenes. El 97% de los organismos eran detritívoros y el 3% depredadores. El tipo de bolsa no influyó en la descomposición del follaje y los factores climáticos desempeñaron un rol decisivo en este proceso.

  6. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of seed extract from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

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    Pichaya Chowtivannakul

    2016-09-01

    These results indicated that seed extract from L. leucocephala has antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity is likely due to the phenolic content. An application of this extract should be considered as it can affect renal function by reducing the levels of albumin, ALP and total protein.

  7. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  8. The first assessment of the stress inducible defense of Leucaena leucocephala with acaricidal potential effect against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Lêdia Feitosa Wanderley

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L. leucocephala. We then evaluated the acaricidal activity on R. (B. microplus from protein extract collected from L. leucocephala after mechanical wounding. L. leucocephala leaves were artificially wounded, and after 6, 12, 24 and 48h, the leaves were collected for protein extraction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the proteins were performed. The protein content and peroxidase and protease activities increased 12h after wounding, and the acaricidal activity of this protein extract was evaluated using engorged R. (B. microplus females. The protein extract obtained after wounding reduced egg production (8.5% compared to those without wounding. Furthermore, the extract reduced egg hatching by 47.7% and showed an overall efficacy of 56.3% at 0.1 mgP/mL of the protein. We demonstrated that L. leucocephala defensive proteins could be effective against R. (B. microplus.

  9. Evaluation of the complexes of galactomannan of Leucaena leucocephala and Co2+, Mn2+ , Ni2+ and Zn2+

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    Mercê Ana Lucia R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding constants for the complexed species formed in aqueous solution between galactomannan of Leucaena leucocephala and the metal ions Co2+, Mn2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were determined by potentiometric titrations. The calculated values showed Ni2+ as the best Lewis acid towards the Lewis base -OH groups of the sugar monomers, with Zn2+ being the poorest. For all systems, a higher percentage of the complexed species was present near pH=7.0, although complexed species existed over a wide range of acidic and basic pH values. The isolated solid complexes were studied by TG-DSC thermal analysis and by EPR spectroscopy. The thermal profiles obtained showed higher thermal resistance to final degradation than the biopolymer alone for the complexed species ML having the smallest log K values. The EPR spectra confirmed the complexation of the metal ions via the Lewis base deprotonated hydroxyl groups (-O and showed that the distances between metal ions in the complexed biopolymer structure depend on the nature of the metal ion. The ability of galactomannans to complex a variety of metal ions in their web like structure and the resistance to high temperatures and a wide range of pH values of these complexes open new perspectives in possible industrial uses whenever these properties are required, such as in bioremediation of waste waters and in the application of slow-release fertilizers.

  10. Biochemical characterization of recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) from Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-07-01

    Recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) protein from Leucaena leucocephala was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and purified to apparent homogeneity. Optimum pH for forward and reverse reaction was found to be 6.5 and 7.8 respectively. The enzyme was most stable around pH 6.5 at 25°C for 90 min. The enzyme showed Kcat/Km for feruloyl, caffeoyl, sinapoyl, coumaroyl CoA, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde as 4.6, 2.4, 2.3, 1.7, 1.9 and 1.2 (×10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), respectively, indicating affinity of enzyme for feruloyl CoA over other substrates and preference of reduction reaction over oxidation. Activation energy, Ea for various substrates was found to be in the range of 20-50 kJ/mol. Involvement of probable carboxylate ion, histidine, lysine or tyrosine at the active site of enzyme was predicted by pH activity profile. SAXS studies of protein showed radius 3.04 nm and volume 49.25 nm(3) with oblate ellipsoid shape. Finally, metal ion inhibition studies revealed that Ll-CCRH1 is a metal independent enzyme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Efecto del almacenamiento al ambiente en semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham sometidas a hidratación parcial Effect of storage under ambient conditions on seeds from Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham subject to partial hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del almacenamiento al ambiente en la germinación de las semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham sometidas a hidratación parcial. Los tratamientos fueron: control, sin escarificación (T0; escarificación térmica (ET con H2O a 80°C, durante dos minutos (T1; ET más hidratación parcial, en bandeja con agua corriente por 28 horas (T2; ET más hidratación parcial, en saco de yute humedecido con agua corriente por 28 horas (T3; ET más hidratación parcial, en bandeja con agua corriente y TMTD al 0,1% (plaguicida por 28 horas (T4; ET más hidratación parcial, en saco de yute humedecido con agua corriente y TMTD al 0,1% (plaguicida por 28 horas (T5. Las semillas hidratadas se deshidrataron durante 72 horas al aire y a la sombra, antes de almacenarlas. Se midió la germinación y la viabilidad a 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 18, 30 y 42 meses. Se utilizó un diseño totalmente aleatorizado y cuatro réplicas por tratamiento. Hubo diferencias significativas (PThe objective of the work was to study the effect of storage under ambient conditions on the germination of seeds from Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham subject to partial hydration. The treatments were: control, no scarification (T0; thermal scarification (TS with H2O at 80ºC, for two minutes (T1; TS plus partial hydration, on tray with tap water for 28 hours (T2; TS plus partial hydration, in jute sac moist with tap water for 28 hours (T3; TS plus partial hydration in tray with tap water and TMTD at 0,1% (pesticide for 28 hours (T4; TS plus partial hydration, in jute sac moist with tap water and TMTD at 0,1% (pesticide for 28 hours (T5. The hydrated seeds were dehydrated during 72 hours exposed to air and under shade, before being stored. Germination and viability were measured after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 18, 30 and 42 months. A completely randomized design and four replications per treatment were used. There were significant differences (P<0

  12. Caracterización de diez cultivares forrajeros de Leucaena leucocephala basada en la composición química y la degradabilidad ruminal

    OpenAIRE

    García M., Danny; Wencomo G., Hilda; González C., Miriam; Medina, María; Cova O., Luis

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Estudiar las variaciones en la composición química y la degradabilidad ruminal de diez cultivares de Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit. mediante el análisis de componentes principales (ACP). Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron muestras durante tres años para evaluar la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal en ovinos. Los datos fueron analizados con el paquete estadístico SPSS y mediante el diagrama tridimensional se obtuvieron las agrup...

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DIEZ CULTIVARES FORRAJEROS DE Leucaena leucocephala BASADA EN LA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA Y LA DEGRADABILIDAD RUMINAL

    OpenAIRE

    García M, Danny; Hilda, Wencomo G; Gonzáles C, Miriam; Medina R, María; Cova O, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Estudiar las variaciones en la composición química y la degradabilidad ruminal de diez cultivares de Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit. mediante el análisis de componentes principales (ACP). Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron muestras durante tres años para evaluar la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal en ovinos. Los datos fueron analizados con el paquete estadístico SPSS y mediante el diagrama tridimensional se obtuvieron las agrup...

  14. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  15. INFLUÊNCIA DE TRATAMENTOS PRÉ-GERMINATIVOS, TEMPERATURA E LUMINOSIDADE NA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE LEUCENA (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit., cv. CUNNINGHAM

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    Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, Cunningham variety, and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the nine methods to superation of dormancy: immersion in water under ambient temperature during 24, 48 and 72 hours, immersion in hot water under temperatures of 60, 80 and 100oC, immersion in sulfuric acid per 5 and 10 minutes, beyond of the witness. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under ten combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 20, 25, 30 and 35oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 20, 25, 30 and 35oC; alternated temperature of 20-30 and 25-35, both with fotoperiod of eight hours. Conclusion the specie Leucaena leucocephala presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the sulfuric acid as efficient method to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of leucena are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  16. Características Dendrométricas, Físicas e Químicas da Myracrodruon urundeuva e da Leucaena leucocephala

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    Lázaro Lavoisier Honorato da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o objetivo de avaliar características dendrométricas, físicas e químicas da Myracrodruon urundeuva e Leucaena leucocephala foi realizada supressão de cinco exemplares de cada espécie. Os parâmetros dendrométricos avaliados foram: DAP, altura, volume. Avaliou-se a densidade básica e foram feitas análises químicas da madeira. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com valores analisados pelo teste F ao nível de 5%. As espécies M. urundeuva e L. leucocephala apresentaram, respectivamente, média de DAP 10,00 cm; 14,08 cm; altura total 8,20 m; 12,93 m; altura comercial 4,90 m; 10,07 m; volume com casca (C/C 0,032 m3; 0,104 m3; volume sem casca (S/C 0,025 m3; 0,095 m3. M. urundeuva apresentou maior densidade básica. O teor de cinzas encontrado para M. urundeuva foi superior. Já os teores de extrativos totais e holocelulose da M. urundeuva e da L. leucocephala foram semelhantes. A L. leucocephala obteve maior teor de lignina total e poder calorífico superior. Portanto, as duas espécies apresentaram boas características físicas, químicas e energéticas.

  17. Acumulación de hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum y en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala Litter accumulation in a Panicum maximum grassland and in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala

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    Saray Sánchez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas, Cuba, con el objetivo de determinar la acumulación de la hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni y en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham. En los pastizales de P. maximum de ambos sistemas se determinó la acumulación de la hojarasca según la técnica propuesta por Bruce y Ebershon (1982, mientras que la hojarasca de L. leucocephala acumulada en el sistema silvopastoril se determinó según Santa Regina et al. (1997. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que en ambos pastizales la guinea acumuló una menor cantidad de hojarasca durante el período junio-diciembre, etapa en la que se produce su mayor desarrollo vegetativo. En la leucaena la mayor producción de hojarasca ocurrió en el período de diciembre a enero, asociada con la caída natural de sus hojas que se produce por efecto de las temperaturas más bajas y la escasa humedad en el suelo. En el sistema silvopastoril la hojarasca de leucaena representó el mayor porcentaje de peso dentro de la producción total, con un contenido más alto de nitrógeno y de calcio que el de la hojarasca del estrato herbáceo. En la guinea la lluvia fue el factor climático que mayor correlación negativa presentó con la producción de hojarasca en ambos sistemas, y en la leucaena la mayor correlación negativa se encontró con la temperatura mínima.A study was carried out at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas, Cuba, with the objective of determining the litter accumulation in a pastureland of Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni and in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham. In the P. maximum pasturelands of both systems the litter accumulation was determined by means of the technique proposed by Bruce and Ebershon (1982, while

  18. Chemical elements in Leucaena leucocephala leaves of riparian zones of the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil; Elementos químicos em folhas de Leucaena leucocephala de zonas ripárias do município de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Lira, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Camilli, Leandro, E-mail: ejfranca@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: liramarcelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala can be found in several riparian ecosystems, acting as one of the main invasive and harmful species for the forest restoration of the permanent preservation areas. It has also been studied for the phytoremediation of some chemical elements, due to their potential accumulation of chemical substances. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of chemical elements in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala trees by Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Samples of leaves were collected in eight samples from riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, during the dry and rainy season. After collection, washing with water and drying in a forced circulation oven, the samples were comminuted and encapsulated in polyethylene capsules and subjected to a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN / CNEN. Thermal neutron flux monitoring was performed by Ni-Cr alloy fragments with known concentrations of the chemical monitors elements. After measurements of radioactivity induced by HPGe detectors, the concentrations of the chemical elements were calculated by the k0 method using the Quantu computer program. Certified reference materials were also analyzed for quality assurance of the analytical procedure. The results indicated high concentrations of La and lanthanoids (Ce, Eu, Sm, Tb and Yb) in leaves of L. leucocephala in both periods analyzed. It was possible to observe a decrease in the concentrations of the chemical elements in the rainy season, probably associated to the washing of the geological material deposited on the leaves of the trees by the rains, except for K, Mo, Rb, Sb and Zn, whose values remained or increased in the leaves collected during the rainy season. Considering the constant leaf production, L. leucocephala can greatly affect the cycling of chemical elements due to its accumulation capacity

  19. [Nutritional evaluation of the seeds of "ipil-ipil" (Leucaena leucocephala), "casco de vaca" (Bauhinia monandra) and scented carob (Albizia lebbeck)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Peñate, M; Bencomo Hernández, A; Sampere Díaz, E; Farrás Fernández, I; Hernández Triana, M; Porrata Maury, C; Ponce de León Boloy, I

    1988-12-01

    Chemical composition, antinutritional factors and biological protein quality of raw and autoclaved (120 degrees C for 10 min) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), casco de vaca (Bauhinia monandra) ard algarrobo de olor (Albizia lebbeck) seeds were determined. The trypsin inhibitor activity was 29, 120, and 150 TIU/mg of sample respectively. Autoclaving eliminated 59, 33 and 100% of the activity. Bauhinia monandra seed depicted a high hemagglutinating activity which was eliminated by autoclaving. Net protein utilization of raw and autoclaved seeds was 31 and 30, 21 and 55 and 29 and 49%, respectively. All seeds were free from cyanide and alkaloids. It is concluded that the relative low protein quality of the seeds would limit their use for human consumption.

  20. Growth and N-uptake in sorghum plants manured with different amounts of Leucaena Leucocephala shoots as affected by time of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.

    2007-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted throughout two successive years to determine the impact of adding four rates of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha) in the form of Leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de Wit green manure as affected by different time (T0, T15 and T30) of application (just before sowing, 15 and 30 days before sowing, respectively) on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena leaves, used as a green manure, significantly increased dry matter production and N yield of sorghum. The effect was more pronounced in panicles than shoots. In the first year, N recoveries in sorghum of the total N contained in leucaena green manure ranged between 17-24% in T0, 14-24% in T15 and 15-19% in T30. The highest N recovery value was obtained in lowest rate of n treatment (N60). Moreover, soil incorporated with leucaena green manure one month before planting enhanced both soil and mineral N fertilizer in sorghum plants. In the second year, total N uptake in sorghum (eg., panicles and the entire plant) increased with increasing amounts of N added as a leucaena green manure. N recoveries in sorghum ranged between 26-47% in T0, about 24% in T15 and 23-325 in T30 of the total N contained in leucaena green manure (LGM). As shown in the first year, the highest value of N recovery was obtained in lowest rate of N treatment. The beneficial effects of leucaena green manure on dry matter and N yield in sorghum was attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plant, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly when the incorporation was made before a sufficient time from sowing. The beneficial effect of green manuring with leucaena leaves at T15 and T30 was mainly resulted from enhancement of N uptake from this added material, as well as from soil and fertilizer N. Whereas, it was only attributed to N uptake from green manure in the T0 treatment. Incorporation

  1. Growth and N-uptake in sorghum plants manured with different amounts of Leucaena Leucocephala shoots as affected by time of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.

    2006-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted throughout two successive years to determine the impact of adding four rates of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha) in the form of Leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de Wit green manure as affected by different time (T0, T15 and T30) of application (just before sowing, 15 and 30 days before sowing, respectively) on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena leaves, used as a green manure, significantly increased dry matter production and N yield of sorghum. The effect was more pronounced in panicles than shoots. In the first year, N recoveries in sorghum of the total N contained in leucaena green manure ranged between 17-24% in T0, 14-24% in T15 and 15-19% in T30. The highest N recovery value was obtained in lowest rate of n treatment (N 60 ). Moreover, soil incorporated with leucaena green manure one month before planting enhanced both soil and mineral N fertilizer in sorghum plants. In the second year, total N uptake in sorghum (eg., panicles and the entire plant) increased with increasing amounts of N added as a leucaena green manure. N recoveries in sorghum ranged between 26-47% in T0, about 24% in T15 and 23-325 in T30 of the total N contained in leucaena green manure (LGM). As shown in the first year, the highest value of N recovery was obtained in lowest rate of N treatment. The beneficial effects of leucaena green manure on dry matter and N yield in sorghum was attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plant, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly when the incorporation was made before a sufficient time from sowing. The beneficial effect of green manuring with leucaena leaves at T15 and T30 was mainly resulted from enhancement of N uptake from this added material, as well as from soil and fertilizer N; whereas, it was only attributed to N uptake from green manure in the T0 treatment. Incorporation

  2. Supplementation of native grass hay with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay, wilted leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala forage, wilted tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis forage or a wheat middling for young Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Varvikko

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A 100-day experiment of a randomized block design was conducted with forty Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred growing steers to compare the value of wheat middling, an agro-industrial by-product (diet W, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay (diet C, and wilted forages of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, diet L and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis, diet T as cattle feed. These feeds were fed daily at a level of 1.5 kg (on an air dry basis to supplement the basal diet (diet H of native hay. A mineral supplement containing 50 g bone meal and 10 g common salt was also given daily. The steers were group-fed, but during the last two weeks at the end of the experiment the animals were housed individually in feeding pens to estimate the feed intake and apparent digestibilities of the diets. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, thereafter every two weeks, and finally at the end of the experiment. The animals consumed all the offered supplements, except for tagasaste forage, of which one third remained unconsumed. The mean daily total dry matter intake during the individual feeding period ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kg between the diets (P

  3. Disponibilidad de biomasa y hábitos alimenticios de ovinos en un sistema silvopastoril con Leucaena leucocephala, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Y Cynodon nlemfuensis

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    Bernardino Candelaria-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del pastoreo a los 50, 60 y 70 días en época de lluvias y seca con nortes que son los frentes fríos, que corresponden de octubre a enero junto con la disponibilidad, calidad de biomasa y hábitos alimenticios de ovinos en un sistema silvopastoril de pasto estrella (Cynodon nlemfuensis, tulipán (Hibiscus rosasinensis y leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala. Para cada tratamiento se utilizaron 2 parcelas de 8x24 m y 6 ovejas adultas raza pelibuey. La disponibilidad de biomasa en leucaena y tulipán se evaluó mediante cosecha total de 20 a 40 plantas por tratamiento. El pasto estrella se midió antes y después del pastoreo. Las 3 especies se separaron en componentes morfológicos, y se determinó proteína cruda y fibra detergente neutra en las hojas. Los hábitos de los ovinos se determinaron mediante observación directa. La disponibilidad de biomasa total, consumo por grupo y utilización del pasto estrella fueron mayores a los 70 días y en la época de lluvias. La proporción de hoja de las 3 especies fue mayor a los 50 días; por efecto de la época, fue más abundante en lluvias, nortes y seca para estrella, leucaena y tulipán, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de PC no varió (p>0,05 por efecto de frecuencia ni época de pastoreo. El mayor tiempo de consumo estuvo destinado a pasto estrella, tulipán y leucaena. Los diseños favorecieron los sistemas silvopastoriles multiasociados pues potenciaron los efectos positivos de sus relaciones. Las frecuencias de pastoreo se ajustaron a la época del año, bajo un modelo de manejo mixto de pastoreo y podas, para mejor utilización de la biomasa.

  4. Caracterización de la comunidad vegetal en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala cv.: Cunningham Characterization of the plant community in an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala cv.: Cunningham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas se realizó un estudio durante cinco años, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento de la comunidad vegetal en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales. Se determinó la composición botánica del pastizal, la densidad de arbóreas, la disponibilidad de materia seca y los contenidos de MS, PB, Ca y P de las especies presentes en el sistema. La composición botánica del pastizal se caracterizó por un porcentaje de pastos mejorados superior al 50%, con predominio de Cynodon nlemfuensis cv. Jamaicano y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni; mientras que la leucaena mantuvo la densidad de plantas, como una adaptación a las condiciones del sistema. La disponibilidad de materia seca total fue superior a las 3 t/ha/rotación durante la etapa experimental. Se concluye que en la asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham se presentó una alta disponibilidad de materia seca y persistencia del pastizal durante los cinco años del estudio, con valores de PB en las gramíneas mejoradas de 9,6-9,8% y en la leucaena de 25%, sin la aplicación de riego ni fertilizantes químicos, lo cual permitió atenuar las diferencias entre los períodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso.In a dairy of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, a work was carried out for five years, with the objective of characterizing the performance of the plant community in an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala cv Cunningham under commercial conditions. The botanical composition of the pastureland, tree density, dry matter availability and DM, CP, Ca and P contents of the species present in the system were determined. The botanical composition of the pastureland was characterized by a percentage of improved pastures higher than 50%, with predominance of Cynodon nlemfuensis cv. Jamaicano and Panicum maximum cv. Likoni; while leucaena

  5. Potential of different AM fungi (native from As-contaminated and uncontaminated soils) for supporting Leucaena leucocephala growth in As-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jerusa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Rangel, Wesley de Melo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

    2017-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation is considered a potential biotechnological tool for an eco-friendly remediation of hazardous contaminants. However, the mechanisms explaining how AM fungi attenuate the phytotoxicity of metal(oid)s, in particular arsenic (As), are still not fully understood. The influence of As on plant growth and the antioxidant system was studied in Leucaena leucocephala plants inoculated with different isolates of AM fungi and exposed to increasing concentrations of As (0, 35, and 75 mg dm -3 ) in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions using isolates of AM fungi selected from uncontaminated soils (Acaulospora morrowiae, Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora albida; and a mixed inoculum derived from combining these isolates, named AMF Mix) as well as a mix of three isolates from an As-contaminated soil (A. morrowiae, R. clarus, and Paraglomus occultum). After 21 weeks, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined in the shoots in addition to measuring plant height and mineral contents. In general, AM fungi have shown multiple beneficial effects on L. leucocephala growth. Although the activity of most of the stress-related enzymes increased in plants associated with AM fungi, the percentage increase caused by adding As to the soil was even greater for non-mycorrhizal plants when compared to AM-fungi inoculated ones, which highlights the phytoprotective effect provided by the AM symbiosis. The highest P/As ratio observed in AM-fungi plants, compared to non-mycorrhizal ones, can be considered a good indicator that the AM fungi alter the pattern of As(V) uptake from As-contaminated soil. Our results underline the role of AM fungi in increasing the tolerance of L. leucocephala to As stress and emphasize the potential of the symbiosis L. leucocephala-R. clarus for As-phytostabilization at moderately As

  6. Effects of sulfur and phosphorus application on the growth, biomass yield and fuel properties of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. as bioenergy crop on sandy infertile soil

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    Songyos Chotchutima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Sulfur (S and Phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth, biomass production and wood quality of leucaena for use as a bioenergy crop at the Buriram Livestock Research and Testing Station, Pakham, Buriram province, Thailand during 2011–2013. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with two rates of S fertilizer (0 and 187.5 kg/ha as a main plot and five rates of P (0, 93.75, 187.5, 375 and 750 kg/ha as a sub-plot, with four replications. The results showed that the plant height, stem diameter, total woody stem and biomass yield of leucaena were significantly increased by the application of S, while the leaf yield was not influenced by S addition. The total woody stem and biomass yield were also proportionately greatest with the maximum rate of P (750 kg/ha application. The addition of S did not result in any significant differences in fuel properties, while the maximum rate of P application also showed the best fuel properties among the several rates of P, especially with low Mg and ash contents compared with the control (0 kg/ha.

  7. Evaluación del establecimiento de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en una finca ganadera del municipio de Perico, Matanzas, Cuba

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    Katia Bover

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el establecimiento de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en una finca de la cooperativa de créditos y servicios (CCS Ramón Rodríguez Milián, del municipio de Perico. Se trabajó en un área de 6 ha, dividida en cinco cuartones, y se realizó una preparación en franjas de 2 m de ancho. Se determinó la supervivencia después del trasplante, la altura, el número de ramas y la composición florística del pastizal; así como el efecto de las labores de limpieza y el daño causado por los animales en la altura. Se aplicó un análisis de varianza y los datos se procesaron con el paquete estadístico SPSS® versión 10.0 para Windows XP. La supervivencia de las plantas fue de 98 %; la labor de limpieza tuvo un efecto positivo en el crecimiento, mientras que la defoliación de la planta por los animales afectó el establecimiento. La población de pastos naturales (jiribilla y pitilla se mantuvo alrededor de 66 % y la de las principales leguminosas volubles (teramnus, glycine y siratro disminuyó de 12 % en el tercer mes después de realizado el trasplante, a 6 % en el decimoquinto mes. El sistema se consideró establecido cuando las plantas sobrepasaron los 2 m de altura. Se concluye que la labor de limpieza influyó positivamente en el comportamiento de la altura y el establecimiento de L. leucocephala, mientras que las defoliaciones causadas por los animales lo retrasaron.

  8. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influencia de su composición química Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influence of their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca y su relación con la composición química de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala en un sistema silvopastoril, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey". La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. En cada especie se presentó un patrón diferente de descomposición de la hojarasca; la tasa promedio de descomposición de la hojarasca en leucaena fue mayor que en la guinea. En ambas especies se encontró una rápida pérdida de peso durante los primeros 30 días y después el proceso fue más lento. Este comportamiento puede estar relacionado con la composición química de los pastos, pues el porcentaje de biomasa perdida de la hojarasca de L. leucocephala presentó una mayor correlación con las concentraciones del contenido celular, la relación lignina/nitrógeno, la celulosa y el Nt. Se observó una dependencia significativa y negativa de la hojarasca de P. maximum con las concentraciones de la FND y la hemicelulosa; mientras que se relacionó de forma positiva con las de N-FND y la relación lignina/nitrógenoWith the objective of determining the litter decomposition and its relationship to the chemical composition of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics, the method of litter bags was used. In each species a different litter decomposition pattern appeared; the average litter decomposition rate was higher in leucaena than in Guinea grass. Rapid weight loss was found in both species during the first 30 days and afterwards the process was slower

  9. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  10. Effects of condensed tannin fractions of different molecular weights from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid on in vitro methane production and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Mookiah; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-10-01

    Molecular weights (MWs) and their chemical structures are the primary factors determining the influence of condensed tannins (CTs) on animal nutrition and methane (CH4 ) production in ruminants. In this study the MWs of five CT fractions from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang (LLR) were determined and the CT fractions were investigated for their effects on CH4 production and rumen fermentation. The number-average molecular weight (Mn ) of fraction F1 (1265.8 Da), which was eluted first, was the highest, followed by those of fractions F2 (1028.6 Da), F3 (652.2 Da), F4 (562.2 Da) and F5 (469.6 Da). The total gas (mL g(-1) dry matter (DM)) and CH4 production decreased significantly (P fractions, but there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the CT fractions and control on DM degradation. However, the in vitro N disappearance decreased significantly (P fraction F1 (highest MW) compared with the control and other fractions (F2-F5). The inclusion of CT fraction F1 also significantly decreased (P fraction F1 but not by the control and other fractions (F2-F5). The CT fractions of different MWs from LLR could affect rumen fermentation and CH4 production, and the impact was more pronounced for the CT fraction with a higher MW. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro; Silva, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k 0 . Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species

  12. Curvas de índice de sítio para leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit] no agreste de Pernambuco

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    Emanuell Florencio Passos Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to set and compare site index curves for leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit] variety Hawaii (cv K8 in Agreste of Pernambuco. The data set came from Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, Experimental Station of Caruaru, in which 544 trees cultivated with and without organic compound were measured 19 times during the period of 1990 – 2003. The models of Schumacher, Chapman-Richards, Silva-Bailey, Mitscherlich, Weibull and Clutter-Jones were tested and compared. To select the best equations, the Index of Fit (IF, standard error of estimate (S yx %, identity model test and the graphic of residuals distribution were used and results show that the model of Clutter-Jones provided a better IF for both treatments. The graphic of residual distribution did not show tendency among the models. The model identity test showed no differences among the models tested. As Schumacher is model has been used frequently in forestry and presented the smallest number of parameters, it deserves special focus in studies of site index.

  13. Comportamiento ecofisiológico de Brachiaria decumbens en monocultivo y en asociación con Leucaena leucocephala Ecophysiological performance of Brachiaria decumbens in monocrop and in association with Leucaena leucocephala

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    A Rodríguez-Petit

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de estudiar las relaciones ecofisiológicas que determinan el crecimiento de B. decumbens en monocultivo (MO y asociada a L. leucocephala (AS, se realizaron evaluaciones de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA, asimilación (A, conductancia estomática (Gs, transpiración (E, humedad relativa (HR, po­tencial hídrico de la hoja (Øh, diferencial de presión vapor (DPV e índice de área foliar (IAF en ambas condiciones (AS y MO, en una zona de bosque húmedo tropical; estas evaluaciones se hicieron a los 5, 10 y 22 días después del pastoreo en ambas condiciones. Los valores más positivos de Øh se encontraron en AS, al igual que los valores más bajos de RFA, con diferencias significativas (PIn order to study the ecophysiological relations that affect the growth of B. decumbens in monocrop (MO and associated with L. leucocephala (AS, evaluations of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, assimilation (A stomatic conductance (Gs, transpiration (E, relative humidity (RH, water potential (Øh, differential of steam pressure (DSP and leaf area index (LAI were made in a tropical humid forest zone. The evaluations were made 5, 10 and 22 days after grazing under both conditions (MO and AS. The most positive values of Øh (P<0,05 were found in AS, as well as the lowest values of PAR (P<0,05 in all the evaluated dates. RH and DSP did not show differences (P 0,05. The gas exchange parameters (E, Gs and A showed significantly higher values in MO (P<0,05 in all dates. LAI was higher in MO after 10 and 22 days of evaluation. Due to the limitation of the photosynthetic capacity exerted by the light decrease on the grass, that PAR is concluded to be the most important factor that determine growth and development of B. decumbens in AS.

  14. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  15. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influencia de los factores climáticos Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influence of climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con algunos factores del clima, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags; se registró diariamente el comportamiento de la temperatura media, la humedad relativa, la precipitación y los días con lluvias, en la estación metereológica situada a 1 km del área experimental. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. Se consideró, como variables independientes, los factores climáticos estudiados, y como variable dependiente el porcentaje de biomasa perdida. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que el comportamiento de la descomposición de la hojarasca, tanto en la guinea como en la leucaena, estuvo relacionado con los factores climáticos que prevalecieron durante el período experimental y, por tanto, es posible explicar este proceso en ambos pastizales a partir de la acción conjunta de la temperatura, la humedad relativa y la precipitación.With the objective of determining the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relationship to some climate factors, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as the loss of biomass through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics the method of litter bags was used; the performance of mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and days with rain, was daily recorded at the meteorological station located 1 km away from the experimental area. . The

  16. Comportamiento productivo de vacas lecheras Mambí de Cuba en una asociación de gramíneas y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham Productive performance of Cuban Mambí dairy cows in an association of grasses and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el comportamiento de los indicadores productivos de vacas Mambí (¾ Holstein x ¼ Cebú de Cuba en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, en una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas. El pesaje de leche se realizó durante dos años al 100% de los animales en ordeño, con una frecuencia mensual. Se determinó la producción de leche por vaca en ordeño y la producción por vaca total, así como la influencia del bimestre de producción, la época del año, el número de la lactancia y el año, en el comportamiento productivo. Se alcanzó coincidencia entre la curva real y potencial de producción de leche, con una eficiencia superior al 85%; los mayores valores se obtuvieron en el período lluvioso. Al analizar la producción de leche por bimestre los mejores resultados se alcanzaron en julio-agosto. Además se lograron valores de producción por lactancia de 2 030-2 159 kg y por hectárea de 2 744-3 025 kg. A su vez, cuando se analizó el efecto de la época del año en el peso de los terneros al nacer no se encontraron diferencias significativas; los valores fueron superiores a 37,5 kg para ambos períodos. Se concluye que con la asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y leucaena se obtuvieron producciones totales, por lactancia y por hectárea aceptables, lo cual conllevó un adecuado nivel de rentabilidad en la vaquería, con ganancias superiores a los 1 000 pesos por hectárea.The performance of the productive indicators of Mambí cows (3/4 Holstein x ¼ Zebu from Cuba was evaluated in an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, at a dairy unit of the Genetic Livestock Production Enterprise of Matanzas. The milk weighing was performed for two years in 100% of the milking animals, with a monthly frequency. Milk production per milking cow and total production per cow were determined, as well as the influence of production two-month period, season

  17. Evaluation of herbicides for use in transplanting leucaena leucocephala and prosopis alba on semi-arid lands without irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Smith, D.; Smith, M.; Bingham, R.L.; Reyes, I.

    1984-01-01

    Five herbicides were applied to plots at 2 rates in April 1982, and 3-month old seedlings planted 2 days later. Basal diameter was measured after 110 days and converted to dry weight using published equations. Percent weed cover was recorded 45, 75, and 105 days after planting. All herbicides increased survival over untreated controls. The greatest biomass production of both species was obtained with oryzalin treatment at 2.8 kg/ha active ingredient, which increased production 4-5X compared with control plots. Oryzalin was second to napropamide (2.24 kg/ha active ingredient) in grass control and equal to oxyfluorfen (1.12 kg/ha active ingredient) in forb control, oxyfluorfen at this rate also gave the second best biomass production. Oryzalin increased survival from 71 to 87% for Leucaena and from 81-94% for Prosopis, and is considered to be the best herbicide tested, followed by oxyfluorfen and metolachlor. Alachlor was considered to be too short-lived and napropamide too expensive.

  18. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil; Caracterização de elementos químicos de frutos de Leucaena leucocephala em áreas ribeirinhas da Bacia do Rio Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com [Centro de Ciência Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: vsrodrigues89@gmail.com, E-mail: i-cavalcante@uol.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Bruno F., E-mail: brunodasilva1996@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k{sup 0}. Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 13} cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species.

  19. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DIEZ CULTIVARES FORRAJEROS DE Leucaena leucocephala BASADA EN LA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA Y LA DEGRADABILIDAD RUMINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny García M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar las variaciones en la composición química y la degradabilidad ruminal de diez cultivares de Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit. mediante el análisis de componentes principales (ACP. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron muestras durante tres años para evaluar la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal en ovinos. Los datos fueron analizados con el paquete estadístico SPSS y mediante el diagrama tridimensional se obtuvieron las agrupaciones de las accesiones en dependencia de sus características nutritivas. Resultados. Con los primeros tres componentes del ACP se explicó el 85.83 % de la variabilidad. La concentración de proteínas, fracción fibrosa, minerales, polifenoles, fitatos y la degradación ruminal presentaron las mayores fluctuaciones. Las agrupaciones formadas permitieron identificar seis grupos con características químicas diferentes (G1: elevada cantidad de proteínas, baja proporción de fibra y de metabolitos secundarios y elevada degradación -cv. CNIA-250 y cv. K-28-; G-2: elevado contenido de materia seca, proteínas y fenoles, poca fracción de fibra y taninos y baja degradabilidad ruminal -cv. Ipil-Ipil-; G-3: composición nutricional promedio -cv. México-; G-4: bajo contenido de materia seca, fenoles, mimosina y elevada degradación ruminal -cv. Cunningham, cv. 7 y cv. América-; G-5: elevado contenido de materia seca, fenoles y valor nutritivo medio -cv. K-8 y cv. K-67-; G-6: elevado porcentaje de materia seca y taninos, y baja degradabilidad -cv. Perú-. Conclusiones. La biomasa comestible de los cultivares Cunningham, América, 7, México, CNIA-250 y K-28 constituyen las mejores opciones para la alimentación de rumiantes.

  20. Respuesta de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú a la aplicación de diferentes dosis de MicoFert agrícola

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    L Ojeda

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación en la Empresa Pecuaria El Tablón (Cumanayagua, provincia Cienfuegos, Cuba, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto que ejerce la aplicación de diferentes dosis de MicoFert agrícola sobre la producción de materia seca (MS y el contenido de fósforo foliar en Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú. El diseño fue de bloques al azar, con seis tratamientos y tres réplicas. Los tratamientos estuvieron constituidos por cuatro dosis de MicoFert (250, 500, 750 y 1 000 g/m-1, una variante a razón de 25 kg de N ha-1, y el control. El experimento tuvo una duración de dos años; se realizaron cuatro cortes por año, con una frecuencia de 90 días, a una altura de 25 cm sobre el suelo. La aplicación de MicoFert agrícola incrementó el rendimiento de MS entre 13 y 40 %, de forma proporcional a las dosis aplicadas, respecto al control. El rendimiento más alto de MS (18,44 t ha-1 se obtuvo con la aplicación de nitrógeno, y difirió significativamente del resto de los tratamientos. Fue evidente el efecto que ejerció la inoculación con el biofertilizante en el contenido de fósforo foliar, el cual mostró diferencias significativas entre las variantes con MicoFert y el control. La colonización de raicillas por los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA fue proporcional al incremento de las dosis de biofertilizante, con valores de 34, 38, 44 y 49 %, respectivamente. La fertilización con nitrógeno y el control presentaron 28 y 26 % de colonización micorrízica, lo que indicó la presencia de HMA nativos.

  1. Composión trófica de la comunidad insectil en dos agroecosistemas ganaderos con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit y Panicum maximum Jacq. Trophic composition of the insect community in two livestock production agroecosystems with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit and Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir los principales grupos funcionales en la comunidad de insectos presentes en dos áreas compuestas por la asociación de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni (un sistema silvopastoril y un campo de semilla, respectivamente, ambas localizadas en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", se muestrearon cada 15 días, durante tres años, las hojas, las inflorescencias y las legumbres de la leguminosa y el follaje de la gramínea, para colectarlos. La clasificación de los grupos se realizó a partir de: la identificación de cada especie insectil, la información que ofrece la literatura acerca de su hábito principal de alimentación y las observaciones realizadas en el campo. Con estos elementos se definieron los fitófagos y los benéficos, y como subgrupos de estos últimos: los depredadores, los parasitoides, los polinizadores, los descomponedores de la materia orgánica, los coprófagos y los micófagos. En total se identificaron 113 especies de insectos, 63 con hábitos fitófagos y los 50 restantes benéficos. En el estrato arbóreo se encontraron 88 especies, 49 fitófagas (56% y 39 benéficas (44%; y 103 en el herbáceo, 59 insectos fitófagos (57% y 44 benéficos (43%; 78 especies coincidieron en los dos estratos. Se destaca que en ambos predominaron los depredadores y los parasitoides de los órdenes Hymenoptera, Coleoptera y Diptera, tales como: Cycloneda sanguinea limbifer Casey, Coccinella maculata (De Geer, Chilocorus cacti Linnaeus, Conura sp., Pimpla marginella (Brullé y Rogas sp. Se concluye que la estructura y función de la comunidad de insectos mostró un número relativamente mayor de insectos fitófagos con respecto a los benéficos; sin embargo, fue importante el predominio de los enemigos naturales, responsables de la actividad reguladora de las poblaciones de fitófagos, a las que mantienen por debajo del umbral de daño económico en el cultivo de la

  2. Caracterización cultural y morfológica e identificación de 12 aislamientos fungosos de semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú Cultural and morphological characterization and identification of 12 fungal isolations in seeds of Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C Lezcano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar los agentes fungosos asociados a las semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú almacenadas al ambiente, a partir de la caracterización cultural y morfológica de 12 aislamientos puros; estos se obtuvieron de la siembra de las estructuras fúngicas (vegetativas y/o reproductivas, en placas Petri (9 cm de diámetro que contenían Agar Papa Dextrosa (APD y Agar Malta (AM. Las placas se incubaron durante 10 días a 25ºC, con alternancia de 8 h luz/16 h oscuridad o a oscuridad constante, según los requerimientos de cada organismo. Se identificaron siete agentes fungosos asociados a las semillas, los cuales se clasificaron teniendo en cuenta los caracteres culturales y morfológicos, y se corroboraron con las claves taxonómicas. Ello permitió agrupar: Penicillium expansum Link, Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenb. ex Fr., Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz., Chaetomium indicum Corda, Alternaria alternata (Fr Keissl., Pestalotia sp. y Trichoderma sp. Dichos caracteres constituyen una herramienta importante para la identificación de los hongos hasta el nivel de especie, por lo que se recomienda realizar nuevos estudios con los aislamientos #9 y #11 con vista a completar la identificación hasta la especie en el caso de los géneros Trichoderma y Pestalotia; así como identificar las especies fungosas del resto de los aislamientos.The objective of this study was to identify the fungal agents associated to seeds of Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru stored under ambient conditions, from the cultural and morphological characterization of 12 pure isolations; they were obtained from planting the fungal structures (vegetative and/or reproductive, in Petri dishes (9 cm diameter which contained Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA and Malt Agar (MA. The dishes were incubated for 10 days at 25ºC, alternating 8 h light/16 h darkness or at constant darkness, according to the requirements of each organism. Seven fungal

  3. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influencia de la densidad y diversidad de la macrofauna asociada Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influence of density and diversity of the associated macrofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con la densidad y la diversidad de la macrofauna asociada, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Esta se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. Se escogieron al azar cuatro bolsas a los 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 y 210 días de situadas en el pastizal. En cada fecha de recolección, a la hojarasca remanente de cada bolsa se le determinó la población de macrofauna (organismos con diámetro mayor que 2 mm mediante la separación manual, y se calculó el valor promedio de la densidad (individuos/m², así como la abundancia proporcional (% para cada taxón. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. De acuerdo con los resultados se concluye que las condiciones de humedad y temperatura que genera el árbol en este sistema, así como la calidad de su hojarasca, posibilitan la presencia de una diversa y estable fauna asociada a las bolsas, la cual influyó en el proceso de descomposición.The trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey» in order to determine the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relation to the density and diversity of the associated macrofauna. It was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For the study of the decomposition dynamics the litter bag method was used. Four bags were randomly chosen 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 days after being placed in the pastureland. In each collection date, to the remnant litter of each bag, the macrofauna (organisms with diameter higher than 2 mm population was

  4. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  5. Consideraciones acerca de la Leucaena leucocephala cv. X: una nueva opción forrajera para un ecosistema ganadero con suelos ácidos e infértiles Considerations about Leucaena leucocephala cv. X: A new forage choice for a livestock ecosystem with acid and infertile soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó a partir de una búsqueda de información por diversas páginas Web, revistas de impacto, otras de carácter nacional e internacional, así como las más diversas fuentes de información, relacionada con la capacidad de adaptación del género Leucaena a los diferentes tipos de suelo, con énfasis en la acidez y el grado de encharcamiento. La revisión proporcionó las limitantes de adaptación del género y de la especie L. leucocephala a dichas condiciones. El descubrimiento de las posibilidades de germoplasma adaptables a esos tipos de suelos, abrió un preámbulo para encontrar plantas arbóreas para los ecosistemas con acidez y humedad, de los que Cuba y el Trópico poseen más del 33% en las áreas cultivadas. Se brinda información internacional, así como resultados de investigación acerca de variedades de esta especie, la fase de establecimiento, la fenología de la planta, la adaptación a diferentes tipos de suelo, la respuesta a la poda y el comportamiento con animales, fundamentalmente en la producción de leche, como respuesta al consumo y suministro de L. leucocephala cv. X. Los resultados permiten afirmar que el cv. X, junto a otras gramíneas y leguminosas importantes para este tipo de ecosistema ganadero, puede contribuir significativamente a transformar el panorama económico, productivo y ambiental del entorno de las zonas que presenten similares condiciones. Se concluye que esta leguminosa arbórea puede ser un buen árbol forrajero para suelos ácidos (pH entre 4,6 y 5,1, húmedos e infértiles, lo que le confiere una plasticidad ecológica superior a la considerada hasta el momento. Se recomienda que este cultivar continúe extendiéndose a otras zonas con condiciones similares a las estudiadas. Además, debe continuarse su evaluación para proponerla como variedad comercial.The study was carried out from a search for information through different Web pages, impact journals, other national

  6. Siembra directa con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. Para producción de forraje en el jardín botánico “Carlos Liscano”, Mérida, Venezuela

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    J. Petit-Aldana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La siembra directa es un método económico para establecer programas de producción de forraje con leguminosas arbustivas, La Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. es una leguminosa de tipo arbustivo, utilizada en agricultura, ganadería y en la recuperación de tierras, tiene gran adaptabilidad, alto valor forrajero y se cataloga entre las principales especies de uso múltiple en agroforestería. El objetivo fue establecer un ensayo de siembra directa utilizando los métodos de siembra al voleo, surcos y hoyos con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit en un área del Jardín Botánico “Carlos Liscano” de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, a fin de probar su efectividad para planes futuros de establecimiento de bancos forrajeros. Se estableció el ensayo en un diseño completamente al azar en un experimento factorial (2 x 3, con 4 bloques (repeticiones. Los factores experimentales fueron: Factor A: 1 terreno arado 2 terreno no arado y Factor B: 1 siembra al voleo, 2 siembra en hoyos y 3 siembra en surcos. Se encontró que el método más exitoso de siembra es el surco, tanto en terreno arado como no arado. Se determinó que la emergencia está entre el día cuatro y dieciocho después de la siembra. Tres meses después la mayor abundancia de plantas se presentó en los bloques arados con sistema de siembra al voleo, aunque los mejores promedios de altura se encontraron en los bloques con arado y la siembra en surcos.

  7. Etude comparée des performances pondérales des chèvres naines de Guinée supplémentées au Leucaena leucocephala, au Gliricidia sepium ou au tourteau de coton dans l'Ouest Cameroun

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    Tedonkeng Pamo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Growth Performance of West African Dwarf Goat Supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium or Cotton Seed Cake in West Cameroon. A comparative growth performance study of West African Dwarf Goat supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium or cotton seed cake was carried out on-farm around Dschang and at the University Experimental Farm on the Western Highland region of Cameroon. Goats aged between 12 and 16 months were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each, with one group kept as a control. The goats in the supplemented groups received 390 g of L. leucocephala, 513 g of G. sepium and 88.8 g of cotton seed cake respectively, corresponding to a supplementation 6 g of nitrogen per animal per day. Animals were weighed every 21 days during an 84 days period to evaluate their response to supplementation. The weights of animals supplemented with cotton seed cake were not significantly (P> 0.05 different from those of animals supplemented with L. leucocephala. Similarly the weights of animals supplemented with G. sepium were not different from those of the controls. The adjusted average daily weight gains per goat were 18.9 g ; 17.3 g ; 4.3 g ; and 4.0 g respectively for animals supplemented with cotton seed cake, L. Leucocephala, G. sepium and of the control group.

  8. Leucaena leucocephala pod seed protein as an alternate to animal protein in fish feed and evaluation of its role to fight against infection caused by Vibrio harveyi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Kumar, Shiva Raj; Prakash, Om

    2018-05-01

    The laboratory acclimatized Clarias gariepinus (80 ± 10 g) were divided into six groups and five subgroups each containing 10 fish. A fish feed was reconstituted by adding 33% powder of Leucaena leucocephala seed in place of fish trash. Group B, C and E were fed on reconstituted feed and group A, D and F were fed on artificial feed containing animal protein for 7 days prior to start of experiments. Then Group B was challenged with BSA while other groups were challenged with Vibrio harveyi (Group C, D) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Group E, F). Group A was used as negative control (not challenged with antigen). The fish were challenged on weekly intervals till 28th day. Blood was collected from one subgroup of each group on day 7, 14, 21 & 28 and finally sacrificed on day 35. Change in body weight, liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT) and serum ALP levels were monitored. The phagocytic index, percentage phagocytosis and nitric oxide levels were measured in macrophages isolated from spleen and head kidney. The levels of total fish immunoglobulin were also measured following indirect ELISA. The results showed improved immune response in fish fed on 33% L. leucocephala pod seed reconstituted feed; however their specific growth rate was low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on the variations in the chemical composition of leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fermentation quality and nutritive value of leucaena ensiled either as whole forage or separate stem and leaf fractions were investigated. About 10-month-old leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit.) grown in Okinawa Island, Japan, was used.Samples were chopped to about 4 cm lengths and stuffed into ...

  10. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

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    Judith Petit-Aldana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tratamiento: cuatro, ocho, y 16 semanas por cada época. A finales del experimento se observó que el proceso de descomposición fue más rápido en la temporada de lluvias. La pérdida de peso y la liberación de N y MO fueron más aceleradas en M. oleifera en monocultivo y en la asociación L. leucocephala con M. oleifera. Los patrones de descomposición de todas las especies siguieron el modelo exponencial simple, con más del 80 % de la masa inicial incorporada al final del periodo de estudio. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia y M. oleifera en monocultivo y asociadas, demostraron su capacidad para producir considerables cantidades de materia orgánica y liberar importantes cantidades de N en cortos periodos.

  11. Cinética de fermentación in vitro de Leucaena leucocephala y Megathyrsus maximus y sus mezclas, con o sin suplementación energética

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    Xiomara Gaviria

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la cinética de fermentación in vitro de mezclas de Leucaena leucocephala y Megathyrsus maximus, se realizó un experimento in vitro de producción de gas en el que se incluyeron cinco tratamientos: 100 % de L. leucocephala (L100, 100 % de M. maximus (G100, 100 % de suplemento a base de harina de arroz y melaza (S100, y dos proporciones: L23-G77 y L26-G70-S4. Los forrajes se recolectaron durante ocho meses en un sistema silvopastoril intensivo (SSPi, perteneciente al Centro Agropecuario Cotové de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. La producción máxima de gas varió en un rango de 156 (L100 a 247 mL g-1 sustrato (L26-G70-S4. El menor volumen de gas al punto de inflexión (57,5 mL se observó en L100, el cual fue diferente al de las mezclas y el suplemento (p < 0,05. La desaparición de la MS a las 96 h varió entre 53,8 % y 66,9 %, y fue mayor en L100 que en el resto de los tratamientos (p < 0,05. El menor valor de la producción de gas (1,31 mL por cada gramo de MS, fermentada a las 96 h, se observó en L100 (p < 0,05. Los resultados sugieren que la inclusión de leucaena aumentó la concentración de proteína de la dieta y redujo el contenido de FDN, lo que resulta positivo desde el punto de vista de la productividad animal. Se concluye que la utilización de forrajes de mayor calidad nutricional, como el de leucaena, modifica el perfil de fermentación de la dieta; por lo que la respuesta de las mezclas forraje-gramínea es diferente a la esperada, ya que depende de la respuesta individual de cada forraje.

  12. Caracterización cultural y morfológica e identificación de diez aislamientos de Fusarium procedentes de semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú almacenadas Cultural and morphological characterization and identification of ten Fusarium isolates from stored Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C Lezcano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar cultural y morfológicamente diez aislamientos de Fusarium, obtenidos de semillas de L. leucocephala cv. Perú almacenadas, con vistas a su clasificación taxonómica. Sus cultivos puros se conservaron en tubos Eppendorf con medio Agar Papa y Dextrosa (APD, en cámara fría a 10°C. La siembra de cada aislamiento se realizó en tres placas Petri, esterilizadas, de 9 cm de diámetro; estas contenían, separadamente, los medios APD y Agar Papa Sacarosa (APS, que constituyeron las réplicas; se colocó en su centro un disco micelial de 7 mm de diámetro, procedente de cultivos con 10-15 días de edad, sembrados también en dichos medios. Posteriormente, las placas se sellaron con papel parafinado y se incubaron durante diez días a 25°C, con alternancia de 8 h de luz/16 h de oscuridad, o a oscuridad constante. Las variables culturales medidas fueron: el color de la colonia en el anverso y el reverso, la textura y el crecimiento lineal y aéreo; y como morfológicas se evaluaron: el tamaño, la forma y el color de las estructuras vegetativas y reproductivas que aparecieron en los cultivos. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado y los datos se procesaron estadísticamente a través de un análisis descriptivo. Para la identificación de los hongos se utilizaron diferentes claves taxonómicas. Los aislamientos 10, 18 y 29 se correspondieron con las características descritas en la literatura científica para la especie Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht; el 17, el 28 y el 30, con Fusarium sambucinum Fuckel; el 27, con Fusarium semitectum Berk & Rav.; el 25 y el 26, con Fusarium incarnatum (Rob Sacc, y el 31, con Fusarium chlamydosporum Wollenw & Reinking, lo que permitió la identificación de cinco especies de Fusarium asociadas a las simientes almacenadas.The objective of this work was to characterize cultural and morphologically ten Fusarium isolates, obtained from stored Leucaena leucocephala cv

  13. Farinha de folha de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de wit como fonte de proteína para juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum CUVIER, 1818 Leucaena leaf flour (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. of wit as a protein source for juveniles of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

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    Geraldo Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum é um peixe onívoro, natural da bacia amazônica, que possui elevado valor comercial. Características de rusticidade e desempenho produtivo destacam esta espécie para criação em cativeiro. Contudo, em criações comerciais de peixes, os custos com alimentação podem corresponder de 60 a 80% dos custos totais de produção, sendo a proteína o nutriente mais caro da dieta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui alimentados com rações contendo farinha de folha de leucena como fonte protéica. 240 juvenis foram distribuídos em 12 aquários experimentais (350 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%, 8%, 16%, 24% de inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena na ração e três repetições. Foram determinados o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de eficiência protéica e custo de produção do quilograma de peso vivo ganho. Para as variáveis estudadas, não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05 entre os tratamentos, indicando que é possível incluir até 24% de farinha de folha de leucena em rações para juvenis de tambaqui, sem comprometimento das variáveis estudadas, embora a substituição não tenha representado redução no custo de produção do quilograma de peixe.The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is an omnivorous fish native to the Amazon basin, which has high commercial value. Characteristics of rusticity and desirable growth in farming highlight this species for breeding in captivity. However, in commercial fish breeding, feed costs may represent 60-80% of total costs of production, being the protein the most expensive nutrient in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of juvenile tambaqui fed with diets containing leucaena leaf flour as protein source. A total of 240 juveniles were distributed in 12 experimental aquaria (350 L in

  14. Effet de Leucaena leucocephala, des fientes de volaille ou du fumier de bovins sur la productivité du maïs cultivé sur "terre de barre" au sud Bénin

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    Mallouhi, N.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Leucaena leucocephala, Poultry Manure or Cattle Manure on Maize Productivity on Feralitic Soil "terre de barre" in South Benin. Our work has consisted on the study of post-effect of Leucaen's prunings and poultry manure buried last year and also on the study of the direct effect of cattle manure and its interaction with Leucaen's pruning on maize productivity on feralitic soil "terre de barre". - The mixture of Leucaen's prunings and poultry manure had positive post-effect giving a yield of fresh ears and grains significantly higher (9 % to the reference and other treatments in the plots over the alley. - The supply of 5 t/ha of cattle manure appears insufficient. On the other hand the mixture of Leucaen's prunings and cattle manure gave the best results related to the soil's properties such as organic matter's content or total exchange capacity of the soil and also concerning the yields. In this case we notice that ail the results are significantly higher to the other treatments. These results emphasize the importance of a supply of organic matter's to the soil thereby fertilizing it in humus and mineral elements.

  15. Modelos de crescimento resultantes da combinação e variações dos modelos de Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey aplicados em Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

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    Cícero Carlos Ramos de Brito

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver novos modelos de crescimento para recursos florestais aplicados à leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit], tendo como base as hipóteses biológicas propostas por Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey. O experimento de leucena foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, Caruaru, PE. Foram utilizadas 544 árvores de leucena de um experimento com vinte remedições realizadas ao longo de 12 anos. Compararam-se novos modelos de crescimento resultantes da combinação e variações dos modelos de Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey, bem como outros comumente usados em recursos florestais. Para a seleção das equações, utilizaram-se o Índice de Ajuste (IA, o erro-padrão da estimativa e a distribuição gráfica dos resíduos. Os resultados indicaram que todos os modelos testados se ajustaram de maneira satisfatória aos dados, podendo ser utilizados para se estimar o crescimento em altura da leucena.

  16. Characterization of Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil by direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source and gas chromatography; Caracterización del aceite de Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) por análisis directo en tiempo real (DART) y cromatografía de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.; Alandis, N.M.; Sharmin, E.; Ahmad, N.; Alrayes, B.F.; Ali, D.

    2017-07-01

    For the first time, we report the characterization of triacylglycerols and fatty acids in Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil [LUCO], an unexplored nontraditional non-medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. LUCO was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). We analyzed the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of pure LUCO and their FAMEs by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the FAMEs. Our investigations for the analysis of LUCO samples represent noble features of glycerides. A new type of ion source, coupled with high-resolution TOF-MS was applied for the comprehensive analysis of triacylglycerols. The composition of fatty acid based LUCO oil was studied using Gas Chromatography (GC-FID). The major fatty acid components of LUCO oil are linoleic acid (52.08%) oleic acid (21.26%), palmitic acid (7.91%) and stearic acid (6.01%). A metal analysis in LUCO was done by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural elucidation and thermal stability of LUCO were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and TGA-DSC, respectively. We also measured the cytotoxicity of LUCO [Spanish] Se presenta por primera vez la caracterización de triacilgliceroles y ácidos grasos del aceite de Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) [LUCO], una planta no medicinal, no tradicional y no explorada, perteneciente a la familia Fabaceae. Se analizaron triacilgliceroles (TAGs) de LUCO y sus FAMEs por espectrometría de masas de tiempo de vuelo (TOF-MS) seguido de análisis multivariante para discriminación entre los FAME. Nuestras investigaciones para el análisis de muestras de LUCO presentaron características propias de los glicéridos. Un nuevo tipo de fuente de iones, junto con alta resolución TOF-MS se aplicó para el análisis exhaustivo de triacilgliceroles. La composición de aceite de LUCO basado en ácidos grasos se estudió usando Cromatografía de Gas (GC-FID). Los principales

  17. Fixação do N2 em leucena (Leucaena leucocephala em solo da região semi-árida brasileira submetido à salinização

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    F. G. Carvalho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de avaliar a tolerância de rhizobium loti em Leucaena leucocephala cv K8, submetida a níveis crescentes de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, usando-se um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo textura franco-arenosa, coletado em Serra Talhada (PE. O experimento obedeceu ao arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições. Foram usados 5 níveis de salinidade do solo (C.E. = 1,5; 6,6; 10,1; 12,8 e 14,4 dS m-1 e 2 tratamentos inoculados (NFB 494 e SEMIA 6069, fertilização nitrogenada com 200 mg kg-1 de N (NH4NO3, e o controle sem inoculação e sem adubação nitrogenada. O incremento dos níveis crescentes de salinidade reduziu a nodulação (número e massa de nódulos, o rendimento de matéria seca e a acumulação de N na parte aérea. O tratamento com fertilização nitrogenada inibiu totalmente a nodulação em leucena, em todos os níveis de salinidade; contudo, promoveu melhores rendimentos na acumulação de N e na produção de matéria seca. Observou-se resposta significativa das plantas inoculadas com a estirpe SEMIA 6069, em todas as características avaliadas, superando os resultados obtidos com o isolado NFB 494.

  18. Costos y beneficios de un sistema silvopastoril intensivo (sspi, con base en Leucaena leucocephala (Estudio de caso en el municipio de Tepalcatepec, Michoacán, México

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    J. M. González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los costos en que se incurren y los beneficios económicos que se generan en un SSPi con base en Leucaena leucocephala, en terrenos de riego por gravedad, con el fin de evaluar la rentabilidad económica de las inversiones y hacer una comparación entre el SSPi y el sistema que tradicionalmente operaba o línea base (40% monocultivo de pasto Tanzania Panicum maximum, 30% de sorgo forrajero Sorghum vulgar bajo el sistema de corte y 30% de agostadero con pastos nativos. Complementando la alimentación del ganado suizo de doble propósito en el SSPi con pulido de arroz a razón de 1.50 kg diarios por vaca durante la ordeña; y en la línea base se utilizó 3.50 kg de alimento comercial diario por vaca ordeñada. Resultando, para el SSPi, una TIR del 13.30% y el VAN al 10%, un saldo positivo de $2’202,170 (pesos mexicanos y en la situación inicial o línea base se obtuvo una TIR del 0.70% y el VAN al 10% resultó negativo, con $-4’717,022 (pesos mexicanos. El SSPi incrementó de manera importante la productividad y la rentabilidad del rancho haciéndolo lucrativo, ya que con el sistema tradicional no era rentable económicamente.

  19. Status of industrial pollution and their effect on seed germination and growth performance of albizia lebbek (benth.) and leucaena leucocephala (LAM) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiuli, M.D.; Alam, S.; Mohiuddin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    contamination than in soil contaminated with effluents of tanneries (57%, 11.91 cm, 2.97 cm, 7.5 gm and 25, respectively) textiles (53%, 13.99 cm, 3.2 cm, 6.5 gm and 28, respectively) and fisheries (60%, 13.35 cm, 3.66 cm, 5 gm and 31, respectively). The soils contaminated by the effluents of textiles and fisheries has positive influence on the seed germination and growth performance of leaucaena leucocephala. In this case, seed germination, height growth, collar diameter. Total biomass and nodule numbers were 97%. 24.33 cm, 2.8 mm, 8.8 gm and 67 respectively in soils contaminated with effluents of textiles and fisheries (96%, 23.42 cm, 23.42 cm, 2.6 mm, 9.13 gm and 62 respectively) as compared to that of control soils (95%, 19.3 cm, 2.0 mm, 8.23 gm and 54, respectively) and contaminated soils of tanneries effluents (95%, 19.7 cm, 1.7 mm, 6.8 gm and 39, respectively). These indicate that the response of different tree species to similar pollution prone area could be different. (author)

  20. Growth of seedlings of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (l. millsp, wand riverhemp (Sesbania virgata (cav. pers., and lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala (lam. de wit in an arsenic-contaminated soil

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    Luiz Eduardo Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation strategies utilize plants to decontaminate or immobilize soil pollutants. Among soil pollutants, metalloid As is considered a primary concern as a toxic element to organisms. Arsenic concentrations in the soil result from anthropogenic activities such as: the use of pesticides (herbicides and fungicides; some fertilizers; Au, Pb, Cu and Ni mining; Fe and steel production; coal combustion; and as a bi-product during natural gas extraction. This study evaluated the potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, wand riverhemp (Sesbania virgata, and lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala as phytoremediators of soils polluted by As. Soil samples were placed in plastic pots, incubated with different As doses (0; 50; 100 and 200 mg dm-3 and then sown with seeds of the three species. Thirty (pigeon pea and 90 days after sowing, the plants were evaluated for height, collar diameter and dry matter of young, intermediate and basal leaves, stems and roots. Arsenic concentration was determined in different aged leaves, stems and roots to establish the translocation index (TI between the plant root system and aerial plant components and the bioconcentration factors (BF. The evaluated species showed distinct characteristics regarding As tolerance, since the lead tree and wand riverhemp were significantly more tolerant than pigeon pea. The high As levels found in wand riverhemp roots suggest the existence of an efficient accumulation and compartmentalization mechanism in order to reduce As translocation to shoot tissues. Pigeon pea is a sensitive species and could serve as a potential bioindicator plant, whereas the other two species have potential for phytoremediation programs in As polluted areas. However, further studies are needed with longer exposure times in actual field conditions to reach definite conclusions on relative phytoremediation potentials.A fitorremediação é uma estratégia que utiliza plantas para descontaminar ou imobilizar poluentes

  1. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  2. EFFECT OF Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of prunings of Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.), and Senna siamea (Lam.) on the activity of earthworms and soil and worm cast properties. Earthworm activity was measured by quantifying ...

  3. Soil Solution Phosphorus Status and Mycorrhizal Dependency in Leucaena leucocephala†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Mitiku; Manjunath, Aswathanarayan

    1987-01-01

    A phosphorus sorption isotherm was used to establish concentrations of P in a soil solution ranging from 0.002 to 0.807 μg/ml. The influence of P concentration on the symbiotic interaction between the tropical tree legume Leucaena leucocephala and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum was evaluated in pot experiments. The level of mycorrhizal infection in Leucaena roots increased as the concentration of P was raised from 0.002 to 0.153 μg/ml. Higher levels of P depressed mycorrhizal infection, but the level of infection never declined below 50%. Periodic monitoring of P contents of Leucaena subleaflets indicated that significant mycorrhizal activity was detected as early as 17 days after planting, with the activity peaking 12 to 16 days thereafter. The highest level of mycorrhizal activity was associated with a soil solution P level of 0.021 μg/ml. Even though the mycorrhizal inoculation effect diminished as the concentration of P in the soil solution was increased, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased P uptake and dry-matter yield of Leucaena at all levels of soil solution P examined. The concentration of P required by nonmycorrhizal L. leucocephala for maximum yield was 27 to 38 times higher than that required by mycorrhizal L. leucocephala. The results illustrate the very high dependence of L. leucocephala on VAM fungi and the significance of optimizing soil solution phosphorus for enhancing the benefits of the VAM symbiosis. PMID:16347323

  4. Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena leucocephala forage. I.V. Nsahlai, B.K. Byebwa, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 111-112). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, Morinda lucida and Senna si

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-09-30

    Sep 30, 2017 ... Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku .... corresponded to the beginning of the dry season, while ... Statistical analysis: For each foliage data of nutrient .... Arbouche Y, Arbouche HS, Arbouche F, Arbouche R,.

  6. Performance of rabbits fed Leucaena leucocephala and concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four fryers which were fed the same % of concentrates and Aspilia africana served as the control. Growth rate decreased at the beginning of the study followed by satisfactory growth thereafter. The control animals had a higher growth rate compared to the other two groups (P< 0.05). Alopecia and decreased appetite were ...

  7. Avaliação de genótipos de Leucaena spp. nas condições edafoclimáticas de São Carlos, SP: I. caracterização fenotípica e avaliação agronômica Evaluation of Leucaena spp. genotypes in the edaphic and climatic conditions of São Carlos, SP: I. phenotypical characterization and agronomical evaluation

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    A.C.P. de A. Primavesi

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar genótipos promissores de Leucaena spp., foi instalado experimento em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, na área da EMBRAPA-CPPSE em São Carlos, situada a 22°01'S e 47°53'W, com altitude de 856 m e média de precipitação anual de 1502 mm. Foram testados os seguintes genótipos: Leucaena leucocephala cv. Texas 1074 (T1, L.leucocephala 29 A9 (T2, L.leucocephala 11 x L.diversifolia 25 (T3, L.leucocephala 11 x L.leucocephala 26 (T4, L.leucocephala 24-19/2-39 X L.diversifolia 26 (T5 e L.leucocephala cv. Cunningham (testemunha. Através das avaliações efetuadas durante o período de estabelecimento (15 meses, verificou-se que: a as plantas de L.leucocephala 24-19/2-39 x L.diversifolia 26 se mostraram mais ramificadas e com maior produção de sementes; b as plantas de L.leucocephala 11 x L.diversifolia 26 apresentaram a maior produção de matéria seca consumível; c os materiais apresentaram brotação após o corte, semelhante ou inferior à testemunha.To test promising genotypes of Leucaena spp., selected in a breeding program, an experiment was conducted in a distrofic Red-Yellow Latossol, at the experimental station of EMBRAPA/CPPSE, São Carlos,SP, located at 22°01' and 47°53'W, altitude of 856 m and with a mean annual precipitation of 1502 mm. The following genotypes were tested: L.leucocephala cv. Texas 1074 (T1, L.leucocephala 29 A9 (T2, L.leucocephala 11 x L.diversifolia 25 (T3, L.leucocephala 11 x L.diversifolia 26 (T4, L.leucocephala 24-19/2-39 x L.diversifolia 26 (T5 and L.leucocephala cv. Cunningham (control. Evaluations were performed during the establishment period (fifteen months and it was concluded that: a the plants of L.leucocephala 24-19/2-39 x L.diversifolia 26, with early flowering, were the most branched and presented the greatest seed yield; b the plants of L.leucocephala 11 x L.diversifolia 26, showed the greatest edible dry matter yield; c the genotypes presented similar or worse growth, than

  8. Leucaena toxicity: a new perspective on the most widely used forage tree legume

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    Michael J. Halliday

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena is a high quality ruminant feed, vitally important for livestock production in the tropics, despite the presence of mimosine in the leaves. This toxic non-protein amino acid has the potential to limit productivity and adversely affect the health of animals. In the 1980s, the ruminal bacterium Synergistes jonesii was discovered and subsequently distributed in Australia as an oral inoculum to overcome these toxic effects. However, in recent times, a number of factors, including: surveys of the status of toxicity worldwide; improved understanding of the chemistry and mode of action of the toxins; new techniques for molecular sequencing; and concerns about the efficacy of the in vitro inoculum; have cast doubt on some past understanding of leucaena toxicity and provide new insights into the geographical spread of S. jonesii. There is also confusion and ignorance regarding the occurrence and significance of toxicity in many countries worldwide. Ongoing research into the taxonomy and ecology of the Synergistetes phylum, improved methods of inoculation, and improved management solutions, along with aware-ness-raising extension activities, are vital for the future success of leucaena feeding systems.

  9. Determinación de compuestos hidrocarbonados en la pared celular de P. maximum y L. leucocephala en silvopastoreo Determination of hydrocarbonated compounds in the cell wall from P. maximum and L. leucocephala under silvopastoral system conditions

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    Tania Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la concentración de n-alcanos y alcoholes de cadena larga en la pared celular de Panicum maximum cv. Likoni y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, se realizó un estudio en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y leucaena de 10 años de establecida, la cual ocupa un área de 1,6 ha. Se seleccionaron dichas especies por ser las más representativas en la composición florística. Las muestras se colectaron de enero a diciembre del 2005 y se secaron. La concentración de n-alcanos de cadena impar fue de 167,97 y 222,96 mg/kg de MS y 134,11 y 137,27 mg/kg de MS para guinea y leucaena, en el período poco lluvioso y en el lluvioso, respectivamente. A su vez la concentración de alcoholes de cadena par para la leucaena presentó un valor mayor(2 754,60 y 3 830,18 mg/kg de MS para el período poco lluvioso y lluvioso, respectivamente, que en la guinea (2 571,73-3 679,65 mg/kg de MS para cada período, respectivamente. Se concluye que la concentración de n-alcanos de cadena larga impar fue baja para P. maximum y L. leucocephala en ambos períodos del año; sin embargo, presentaron concentraciones elevadas de alcoholes de cadena larga par, que pudieran ser utilizados como marcadores naturales en las dos especies.With the objective of determining the concentration of n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols in the cell wall of Panicum maximum cv. Likoni and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, a study was conducted in an association of improved grasses and leucaena ten years after being established, which occupies an area of 1,6 ha. Such species were selected for being the most representative ones in the floristic composition. The samples were collected from January to December, 2005 and were dried. The concentration of odd-chain n-alkanes was 167,97 and 222,96 mg/kg DM and 134,11 and 137,27 mg/kg DM for Guinea grass and leucaena in the dry and rainy season, respectively. In turn, the concentration of even-chain alcohols for

  10. Efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en posturas de Leucaena, Cedro y Samán

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    Leonides Castellanos González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evaluó el efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en la producción de postura de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit., Cedrela odorata L. y Albizia saman (Jacq. Merr. Se desarrollaron tres experimentos en condiciones de vivero, uno para cada especie. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorio con cuatro parcelas por tratamiento. En cada experimento los tratamientos fueron: Trichoderma harzianum a razón de 20 g.L-1, 40 g.L-1 y un testigo. Se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación y las variables morfométricas diámetro y altura del tallo, así como biomasa seca en raíz y parte aérea de la planta. Los tratamientos con Trichoderma no incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación en cedro, samán y leucaena. T. harzianum incrementó la altura, el número de hojas y la biomasa seca del área foliar en las plántulas de cedro, mientras que en leucaena y samán solo provocó incrementos del diámetro basal de las plántulas.

  11. Dormancia y tratamientos pregerminativos en las semillas de Leucaena spp. cosechadas en suelo ácido Dormancy and pregerminative treatments in Leucaena spp. seeds harvested on acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento con semillas de accesiones de Leucaena spp. cosechadas en suelo ácido y almacenadas bajo condiciones ambientales, para determinar el período e intensidad de la dormancia y su ruptura. Para ello se empleó un diseño de clasificación simple y cuatro réplicas, con los siguientes tratamientos: 1 semilla sin tratar (control; 2 corte de cubierta; y 3 agua a 80°C durante 2 minutos. En cada una de las accesiones hubo diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos aplicados y los mayores valores de germinación se encontraron con el corte de cubierta. Todas las accesiones mostraron estado dormático (entre 10 y 98%, el cual se apreció en la germinación del control y en la viabilidad con el corte de cubierta. Los mayores valores de dormancia en las semillas cosechadas en el 2006 se detectaron en L. macrophylla CIAT 17233, L. macrophylla CIAT 17231, L. diversifolia CIAT 17270 y L. leucocephala IH-1140, cuya dureza fue de 98,0; 97,0; 80,0 y 74,7%, respectivamente; en las cosechadas en el 2003 y 2004, los porcentajes de dureza fueron de 89,0; 69,0 y 60,0% para L. lanceolata CIAT 17252, L. macrophylla CIAT 17238 y L. leucocephala cv. K-67, respectivamente. Se concluye que las semillas de las accesiones presentaron dormancia poscosecha, que varió entre 10 y 98%. Además la escarificación térmica provocó su ruptura, por lo que se recomienda aplicar este procedimiento antes de la siembra a las semillas de Leucaena spp. que se cosechen en suelo ácido de Cascajal.A trial was conducted with seeds of Leucaena spp accessions harvested on acid soil and stored under ambient conditions, in order to determine the period and intensity of dormancy and its breaking. For that purpose a simple classification design and four replications were used, with the following treatments: 1 untreated seed (control; 2 coat cut; and 3 water at 80ºC for 2 minutes. In each one of the accessions there were significant differences among the

  12. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  14. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  15. Capacidad de recuperación de 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. después de la poda Recovery capacity of 23 Leucaena spp. accessions after pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda B Wencomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. durante dos años, con el objetivo de conocer la variabilidad existente en la población en cuanto a la capacidad de recuperación después de la poda. Cuando las plantas sobrepasaban los 2 m, se realizó la poda de uniformidad a un 1 m de altura sobre el nivel del suelo. Las mediciones fueron: el grosor del tallo, el número de rebrotes y su longitud con una frecuencia semanal, a partir de lo cual se calculó la velocidad de crecimiento de cada accesión; además se determinó el rendimiento. El análisis de componentes principales, el de conglomerados y el de regresión lineal simple se realizaron a través del programa estadístico SPSS versión 11.5 para Microsoft Windows®. Se observó variabilidad en los indicadores evaluados (86,11% acumulado en la componente y todos contribuyeron a su explicación. A su vez, el análisis de conglomerados permitió la formación de tres grupos. Se concluye que todas las accesiones presentaron capacidad de recuperación después de la poda, con diferencias entre ellas. Las accesiones Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, cv. Perú, CIAT-9119, CIAT-9438, CIAT-751, CIAT-7988, CIAT-7384, CIAT-7929, CIAT-17480, cv. Ipil-Ipil y cv. CNIA-250; L. lanceolata CIAT-17255 y CIAT-17501 y L. diversifolia CIAT-17270 fueron las de mayor capacidad de recuperación. Por ello se recomienda, en futuras investigaciones relacionadas con la caracterización, evaluación y selección de estas especies, realizar estudios que incluyan su persistencia en el tiempo bajo condiciones de poda, así como su empleo en el fomento de nuevos sistemas silvopastoriles.Twenty three Leucaena spp. accessions were evaluated for two years, in order to know the variability existing in the population regarding the recovery capacity after pruning. When the plants were higher than 2 m, the uniformity pruning was made at 1 m above the soil level. The measurements were: stem diameter, number of regrowths and

  16. Study on Leucaena leocochepala seed during fermentation : sensory characteristic and changes on anti nutritional compounds and mimosine level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursiwi, A.; Ishartani, D.; Sari, AM; Nisyah, K.

    2018-01-01

    Lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala) seed is one of the leguminosae which have high level of protein but it contains toxic compound such as mimosine and some anti nutritional compounds such as phitic acid and tannin. The objectives of the research was to investigate the sensory characteristic and the changes onanti nutritional compounds and mimosine level in Leucaena leucochepala seed during fermentation. Lamtoro tempeh processing was carried out by boiling the seed, crushing to separate the hull, soaking, boiling, and fermentation. The best concentration inoculum in lamtoro tempeh processing was determined by hedonic test. Fermentation was carried out in 36 hours and every 6 hours mimosine, tannin, and phitic acid content was analyzed. From hedonic test, inoculum concentration of 1% was used in lamtoro tempeh processing. During 36 hours fermentation, phytic acid content and mimosine content was decreased significantly, from 0.0558 % to 0.0453 % and from 0.00393 % to 0.00173 % respectively. Whereas tannin content was increased signifacantly, from 0.0822 % to 0.00173 %.

  17. Evaluating the performance of Leucaena accessions for agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Leucaena accessions on acid soils in eastern coast Tanzania for agroforestry was evaluated for three years. Plant tree parameters assessed were fodder yield and plant stem height, stem girth, the number of total branches and poles production. Also, Leucaena psyllid, a common pest threatening the ...

  18. Ácidos grasos, fermentación ruminal y producción de metano, de forrajes de silvopasturas intensivas con Leucaena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de los forrajes sobre los ácidos grasos de cadena larga, fermentación ruminal y producción de metano de un sistema silvopastoril intensivo de Leucaena leucocephala. La investigación se desarrolló en el laboratorio NUTRILAB–GRICA, perteneciente a la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, de la Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín–Colombia, en julio del 2013. Se utilizó la técnica de producción de gas in vitro, utilizando como sustrato de fermentación las gramíneas (C. plectostachyus y/o M. maximus cv. Tanzania y leucaena (L. leucocephala, solas o en sus combinaciones, con una relación forraje:concentrado 70:30 y gramínea: leucaena 56:14, para un total de siete tratamientos. No se encontró efecto de los forrajes (p>0,05, sobre el contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC, C18:2 c9t11 o ruménico en la digesta. La inclusión de 14% de leucaena aumentó el contenido de ácido linoleico (C18:2 c9, 12 y linolénico (C18:3 c9, 12, 15 en el alimento y de transvaccénico (ATV, C18:1 t11, esteárico (C18:0, linoleico y linolénico en la digesta (p<0,05, y no afectó la cinética de fermentación, digestibilidad de la materia seca (MS, pH, total y proporción de ácidos grasos volátiles, ni redujo la producción de metano. Las gramíneas, C. plectostachyus y M. maximus, se comportaron similar en las variables evaluadas (p>0,05. Los sistemas silvopastoriles pueden ser una opción para aumentar los ácidos grasos benéficos en la leche.

  19. Nutritional Characteristics of Important Dwarf Shrubs and Value of Leucaena leueocephala seeds as Protein Supplement for Goats in Marsabit District, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, S.G; Karue, C.N

    1999-01-01

    A study on the nutritional characteristics of Indigofera spinosa and Duosperma eremophilum dwarf shrubs was carried out in Southwest Marsabit district of Kenya to establish the digestibility intake by goats and their chemical composition for management purposes. The value of Leucaena leucocephala seeds as protein supplement for goats was also tested where three levels, 0 (control), 50 and 100 g/goat/day were used. Intake and digestibility of the shrubs were assessed by difference and conventional methods respectively. Proximate analysis and Van Soest fibre analysis were done for chemical composition. Goats on l. spinosa had 330+ or -34. 5 g/day Dry Matter Intake (DMI) while those on D. eremophilum had 175+or-89.0 g/day. Dry Matter of l. spinosa was 40.3+or-2.9 % digestible while that of D. eremophilum was 45.0+or-6.6 % digestible. Indigofera spinosa contained 8.8 % Crude Protein (CP), 55.4 % Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and 4.1 KCal/gDM energy compared to 7.6 % CP, 29.3 % Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDP) and 3.1 KCal/gDM energy for D. eremophililum. In reference to the controls, DMI increased by 124g and 55g for D. eremophilum and I. spinosa respectively for every 50g increase in L. lecocephala seeds for l. spinosa. From the results it was concluded that in terms of intake, digestibility and CP, both shrubs are medium quality. Leucaena leucocephala seeds are rich in CP (26.0%) and increased both DMI and DMD for the shrubs. It is thus suitable for use as protein supplement in small ruminant feeding especially during the dry season when it will increase intake and digestibility of the shrubs

  20. Leucaena 2: the tree that defies the woodcutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benge, M D

    1981-07-01

    This article emphasises Leucaena's ability to obtain nutrients from soil strata that are not accessible to most other plants by means of its deep-growing root system. Surrounding the roots of Leucaena are masses of mychorrhizae that can metabolise unavailable phosphorous and other minerals which are then slowly released to the plant. In addition, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria fix nitrogen from the air. The plant then transfers minerals and nitrogen to its leaves. In one system of upland farming, Leucaena is intercropped with root crops and is cut and applied to the intercropped annual crops as an organic mulch, providing fertilizer that the marginal farmer could not otherwise afford.

  1. Efecto de la suplementación con residuos de destilería del maíz en el comportamiento de novillas en una asociación de gramínea y leucaena Effect of supplementation with corn distillery residues on the performance of heifers in an association of grass and leucaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con residuos de destilería del maíz en el comportamiento de novillas, en una asociación de gramínea y leucaena. El estudio se realizó en un área de la Estación Experimental "Indio Hatuey", en el municipio de Perico, provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. La especie de pasto predominante fue Panicum maximum cv. Likoni y como leguminosa Leucaena leucocephala. Se estudiaron 18 novillas, distribuidas en un diseño completamente aleatorizado en tres grupos de seis animales; el grupo control no recibió suplementación (A y los otros dos grupos se suplementaron con residuos de destilería del maíz en un 10% (B y 20% (C de los requerimientos de proteína con relación al peso vivo. Se determinó la composición química, la disponibilidad de materia seca, la ganancia de peso vivo, la infestaci��n parasitaria y el hematocrito. Al analizar las ganancias diarias por tratamiento se encontraron diferencias significativas (PThe objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with corn distillery residues on the performance of heifers in an association of grass and leucaena. The study was conducted in an area of the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey" , Perico municipality, Matanzas province, Cuba. The prevailing pasture species was Panicum maximum cv. Likoni and as legume, Leucaena leucocephala. Eighteen heifers, distributed in a completely randomized design in three groups of six animals, were used; the control group did not receive supplementation (A, and the other two groups were supplemented with corn distillery residues in 10% (B and 20% (C of the protein requirements with regards to live weight. The chemical composition, dry matter availability, live weight gain, parasite infestation and hematocrit were determined. When analyzing the daily gain per treatments, significant differences (P<0,05 were found and the highest values were obtained in treatment C

  2. Forage production and growing goats’ response under silvopastoral systems based on Guazuma ulmifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Crescentia cujete

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Rodríguez Fernández; Belisario Roncallo Fandiño

    2013-01-01

    Grass monoculture, besides being unnatural to goat’s natural eating habits, exhibits low forage production during the dry season, with negative impacts on animal productivity. This research aimed to determine the productive advantages of silvopastoral system arrangements in goat production. A completely randomized design with repeated measurements through time was used. Six treatments were evaluated: kikuyina grass monoculture (Bothriochloa per...

  3. evaluating the performance of leucaena accessions for agroforestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The performance of Leucaena accessions on acid soils in eastern coast Tanzania for ... Plant tree parameters assessed were fodder yield and plant stem ... adapted and potential in improving soil fertility and are recommended for agroforestry.

  4. Variación interespecífica de la calidad nutricional de diecisiete accesiones de Leucaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar, mediante el análisis de componentes principales (ACP, la variabilidad de la composición nutricional del follaje de diecisiete accesiones del género Leucaena (8 L. leucocephala, 5 L. lanceolata, 2 L. diversifolia, 1 L. glauca y 1 L. esculenta establecidas en Matanzas, Cuba, en condiciones tropicales y suelo Ferralítico Rojo Lixiviado. Se determinó el perfil bromatológico, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. Mediante el ACP se formaron tres componentes y se extrajo un porcentaje de varianza intermedio (64.83. Los indicadores que explicaron mejor las variaciones entre las accesiones fueron la fracción proteica (PC y PV, la lignina, los compuestos polifenólicos (FT, TPP, TC, los fitatos y la degradabilidad ruminal (DMS, DPC, DFDN. Sin embargo, los niveles de MS, fracción fibrosa (FDN, FDA, FC, celulosa, mimosina y minerales presentaron variaciones menos importantes. Se identificaron tres grupos variabilicon características nutricionales diferenciadas. Aunque todas las accesiones presentaron buena composición proximal, las accesiones de L. diversifolia y L. esculenta presentaron mayor concentración de metabolitos secundarios y menor degradabilidad ruminal. En todos los casos la degradación de la MS, PC y FDN se vio afectada por los contenidos de polifenoles y fitatos. Las accesiones de L. leucocephala (LPIII-187, IH- 164, IH-449, IH-1069, IH-1140, Ecotec, IRI- 3164, IRI-3219, L. lanceolata (CIAT-17223, CIAT-17501, CIAT-17252, CIAT-17255, CIAT-17256 y L. glauca presentaron los mejores resultados

  5. COMPONENTES NUTRICIONALES Y ANTIOXIDANTES DE DOS ESPECIES DE GUAJE (Leucaena spp.: UN RECURSO ANCESTRAL SUBUTILIZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallely Román-Cortés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El guaje ( Leucaena spp. es una planta de vaina y semillas comestibles, un recurso ancestral subutilizado por los pueblos mesoamericanos. El valor nutricional y nutracéutico del guaje se desconoce pese a su consumo vigente en las poblaciones rurales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el contenido de minerales, compo - nentes nutricionales y antioxidantes para contribuir a la revalorización alimentaria del guaje rojo ( L. esculenta Benth. y verde ( L. leucocephala Lam.. Los contenidos de antocianinas, flavonoides, fenoles totales, taninos y actividad antioxidante se cuantificaron, así como la composición proximal y mineral. Las semillas de guaje rojo superaron a las de guaje verde en los contenidos de N, Mg, Mn, P y Zn; en contraste, las semillas de guaje verde presentaron niveles mayores de Na y de Fe. El contenido de fibra cruda fue 10.55 y 10.07 % en guaje rojo y verde, respectivamente, mientras que el de proteína fue 33.12 % en guaje rojo y 31.7 % en el verde. El alto contenido de compuestos fenólicos fue mayor en las semillas frescas de guaje rojo (1,088.70 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico [EAG]·100 g -1 p. f. que en las verdes (969.09 mg EAG·100 g -1 p. f., pero las últimas presen - taron mayor cantidad de taninos. La elevada actividad secuestradora de radicales libres (97.22 a 98.11 % obtenida por el método ABTS ( á cido 2,2’-azino-bis(3-etilben-zotiazolin-6-sulfónico, puede estar asociada al contenido de compuestos fenólicos. En conclusión, las semillas de guaje podrían considerarse un alimento funcional, principalmente las de guaje rojo debido a su calidad nutricional y mayor actividad antioxidante.

  6. Evaluación de dos especies de Leucaena, asociadas a Brachiaria brizantha y Clitoria ternatea en un sistema silvopastoril de Nayarit, México: I. Comportamiento agronómico Evaluation of two Leucaena species, associated to Brachiaria brizantha and Clitoria ternatea in a silvopastoral system from Nayarit, Mexico: I. Agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Bugarín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de dos especies de Leucaena, asociadas a Brachiaria brizantha y Clitoria ternatea en un sistema silvopastoril en la llanura costera norte del estado de Nayarit, en México, se desarrolló la presente investigación. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento (proporción de leguminosa:gramínea: 1 L. leucocephala-B. brizantha (30:70; 2 L. glauca-B. brizantha (30:70; 3 L. leucocephala-B. brizantha- C. ternatea (28:52:20; 4 L. glauca-B. brizantha-C. ternatea (28:52:20; 5 B. brizantha (100. Con una frecuencia mensual se midió el crecimiento de las especies arbóreas, además de la supervivencia y el comportamiento de la relación leguminosa:gramínea en el sistema. L. glauca mostró una mayor altura (66 cm y diámetro (0,98 cm cuando se combinó con brachiaria y clitoria, y L. leucocephala un mayor número de ramas (8,7 y altura (4,5 cm. En la sobrevivencia se observaron valores de 70 a 80% después de un año de implementado el sistema. De acuerdo con los resultados se concluye que la mezcla de las leguminosas arbóreas con C. ternatea y B. brizantha es una importante opción en las condiciones ecológicas del trópico seco mexicano.This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the agronomic performance of two Leucaena species, associated to Brachiaria brizantha and Clitoria ternatea in a silvopastoral system in the northern coastal prairie of the Nayarit state, Mexico. A randomized block design was used with four repetitions per treatment (legume:grass proportion: 1 L. leucocephala-B. brizantha (30:70; 2 L. glauca-B. brizantha (30:70; 3 L. leucocephala-B. brizantha- C. ternatea (28:52:20; 4 L. glauca-B. brizantha-C. ternatea (28:52:20; 5 B. brizantha (100. Tree growth was measured on a monthly basis, in addition to survival and the performance of the legume:grass relationship in the system. L. glauca showed more height (66 cm and diameter

  7. Evaluación de dos especies de Leucaena, asociadas a Brachiaria brizantha y Clitoria ternatea en un sistema silvopastoril de Nayarit, México: II. Producción y composición bromatológica de la biomasa Evaluation of two Leucaena species, associated to Brachiaria brizantha and Clitoria ternatea in a silvopastoral system from Nayarit, Mexico: II. Biomass production and bromatological composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Bugarín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la producción y la calidad nutricional de la biomasa en un sistema silvopastoril de la llanura costera norte del estado de Nayarit, México, se desarrolló la presente investigación. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 Leucaena leucocephala-B. brizantha (30:70; 2 Leucaena glauca-B. brizantha (30:70; 3 L. leucocephala-B. brizantha-C. ternatea (28:52:20; 4 L. glauca-B. brizantha-C. ternatea (28:52:20; 5 B. brizantha (100. Se estimó la producción de biomasa y se determinó: materia seca, cenizas, materia orgánica, proteína bruta, hemicelulosa y las fracciones de fibra ácido y neutro detergente. Los valores más bajos en cuanto a la producción de biomasa, a los seis meses de establecido el sistema, fueron para el testigo (0,78 t/ha, con diferencias significativas. A su vez, la combinación de las tres especies aportó los mejores resultados (1,64 y 1,69 t/ha para los tratamientos 3 y 4, respectivamente y a los nueve meses triplicaron la producción de biomasa. Hubo diferencias significativas en la composición bromatológica en todas las combinaciones evaluadas. No obstante, todas las especies mostraron características nutricionales adecuadas y constituyen una alternativa para los sistemas silvopastoriles tropicales en esta región.This study was conducted with the objective of characterizing the biomass production and nutritional quality in a silvopastoral system of the northern coastal plain of the Nayarit state, Mexico. The treatments were: 1 Leucaena leucocephala-B. brizantha (30:70; 2 Leucaena glauca-B. brizantha (30:70; 3 L. leucocephala-B. brizantha- C. ternatea (28:52:20; 4 L. glauca-B. brizantha-C. ternatea (28:52:20; 5 B. brizantha (100. The biomass production was estimated and the following indicators were determined: dry matter, ashes, organic matter, crude protein, hemicellulose and the fractions of acid and neutral detergent fiber. The lowest values regarding biomass production, six months after

  8. Characterization of Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil by direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Alandis, N.M.; Sharmin, E.; Ahmad, N.; Alrayes, B.F.; Ali, D.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, we report the characterization of triacylglycerols and fatty acids in Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil [LUCO], an unexplored nontraditional non-medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. LUCO was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). We analyzed the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of pure LUCO and their FAMEs by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the FAMEs. Our investigations for the analysis of LUCO samples represent noble features of glycerides. A new type of ion source, coupled with high-resolution TOF-MS was applied for the comprehensive analysis of triacylglycerols. The composition of fatty acid based LUCO oil was studied using Gas Chromatography (GC-FID). The major fatty acid components of LUCO oil are linoleic acid (52.08%) oleic acid (21.26%), palmitic acid (7.91%) and stearic acid (6.01%). A metal analysis in LUCO was done by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural elucidation and thermal stability of LUCO were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and TGA-DSC, respectively. We also measured the cytotoxicity of LUCO [es

  9. GROWTH AND NODULATION OF LEUCAENA AND PROSOPIS SEEDLINGS IN SOIL PLUS TANNERY SLUDGE

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    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the growth and nodulation of Leucaena and Prosopis seedlings in soil plus tannery sludge. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, using bags containing soil plus tannery sludge. Seedlings of Leucaena and Prosopis inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp were used. Results were evaluated 90 days after plant emergency. The application of tannery sludge, in the rate of 11.250 kg per hectare significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, and above ground dry mass ofLeucaena. Regarding Prosopis, there were no significant increases in these variables with tannery sludge application, except for aerial dry mass. No significant differences were seen between the treatments with sludge and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. as to nodule number and dry mass. Tannery sludge evaluated in this work did not affect nodulation, besides favoring Leucaena and Prosopis seedling growth.

  10. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  11. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  12. Comportamiento fenológico de 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp Phenological performance of 23 Leucaena spp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda B Wencomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. de una colección de 180, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento de sus patrones fenológicos en la etapa de establecimiento; las plantas se sembraron a una distancia de 6 x 3 m entre surcos y entre plantas. Se contó el número de pinnas por hoja y de pínulas por pinna; además se midió la longitud y el ancho de las pínulas, la cantidad de legumbres por cabezuela, la longitud y el ancho de las legumbres. Se tuvo en cuenta la forma de las pinnas, el tipo y la posición de las glándulas y el color de las flores. La aparición de flores y frutos fue diferente entre las especies de este género, y se presentó sólo de forma anual en algunas de ellas. Las accesiones de cada especie tuvieron un comportamiento similar, tanto en lluvia como en seca, excepto L. diversifolia CIAT-17503, L. macrophylla CIAT-17233 y L. esculenta CIAT-17229 (las cuales se mantuvieron en fase vegetativa. Asimismo se pudo apreciar que las flores individuales de las especies y accesiones de Leucaena generalmente son pequeñas. Se concluye que existen diferencias entre las especies y accesiones evaluadas en esta fase; al igual que en el comportamiento de sus patrones de floración y fructificación.Twenty three Leucaena spp. accessions of a collection of 180 were evaluated, in order to characterize the performance of their phenological patterns in the establishment stage; the plants were sown at a distance of 6 x 3 m between rows and between plants. The number of pinnae per leaf and of pinnule per pinna was counted; in addition, the length and width of the pinnule were measured, and the quantity of legumes per capitulum, the length and width of the pods were determined. The form of the pinnae, the type and position of the glands and the color of he flowers were taken into consideration. The emergence of flowers and fruits was different among the species of this genus, and it occurred only annually in some of them. The

  13. Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldemeskel, M.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Kaitho, R.J.; Tamminga, S.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7 kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6 kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and

  14. 1H and 13C NMR assignments for two new cordiaquinones from roots of Cordia leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Jaécio Carlos; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Oliveira, Odaci Fernandes; Maciel, Maria Aparecida M; Torres, Maria da Conceição de Menezes; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2009-02-01

    From the roots of Cordia leucocephala (Boraginaceae), two new meroterpenoid naphthoquinones, 6-[10-(12,12-dimethyl-13alpha-hydroxy-16-methenyl-cyclohexyl)ethyl]-1,4-naphthalenedione (cordiaquinone L) and 5-methyl-6-[10-(12,12-dimethyl-13beta-hydroxy-16-methenyl-cyclohexyl)methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (cordiaquinone M) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated after detailed 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) data analyses and comparison with literature data for analogous compounds. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendratno, C.; Abidin, Z.; Suharyono; Bahauddin, R.; Yates, N.G.; Winogroho, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

  16. Content of heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive material in Leucaena leucocaphala (Lam.) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Sareeza Azidin

    2012-01-01

    This research was done to determine the content of heavy metals in Leucaena leucocaphala (Lam.) de Wit (Petai Belalang) at 5 different areas. Those areas were in the middle of city, former mining area, industrial area, domestic waste disposal area, and on expressway roadside. Heavy metal poisoning can happen if the concentration is too high and will cause severe damage to human health. For instance, it may cause gene mutation, cancer and damage to the human body systems. This plant was selected for the study of heavy metals and radionuclide content in the soil. The reason of selecting this plant is because this plant can live in extreme conditions, and perhaps able to absorb those elements better than other legumes. The aim of this study was to determine the content of toxic heavy metals in leaves, stems and roots of Leucaena leucocaphala including the soil where it is grown. The second objective was determine NORM in the soil where the plant grew and the last objective was to determine the transfer factor of heavy metals by the plant. The content analysis of toxic heavy metals for example Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Gamma ray spectrometry on the other hand, was used to determine K-40, Ra-226, U-238 and Th-232 in the soil where the plant was sampled. The activity concentration of Ra-226, K-40, U-238 and Th-232 determined were 7.47 ± 3.03 Bq/ kg - 256.92 ± 164.36 Bq/ kg, 95.55 ± 72.62 Bq/ kg - 435.60 ± 88.32 Bq/ kg, 21.83 ± 8.83 Bq/ kg - 165.28 ± 109.61 Bq/ kg dan 43.41 ± 7.06 Bq/ kg - 91.19 ± 11.13 Bq/ kg respectively. In general, the former mining area recorded the highest heavy metal concentration for Cu (28.20 ± 32.54 mg/ kg), Zn (114.67 ± 75,61 mg/ kg), Cd (0.31 ± 0.11 mg/ kg) and Pb (48.08 ± 33.60 mg/ kg). Whereas the highest concentration of As recorded was on the roadside (261.92 ± 132.64) and Hg (0.44 ± 0.36 mg/kg) in the middle of the city. (author)

  17. Mutual reproductive dependence of distylic Cordia leucocephala (Cordiaceae) and oligolectic Ceblurgus longipalpis (Halictidae, Rophitinae) in the Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2010-07-01

    The close relationship between distylic Cordia leucocephala and the bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, both endemic to the Caatinga, north-east Brazil, was investigated, emphasizing reproductive dependence, morphological adaptations of the partners, and pollen flow. In the municipality of Pedra, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, the breeding system and reproductive success of C. leucocephala, its interaction with flower visitors and inter- and intramorph pollen flow were determined. The bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, the unique flower visitor and effective pollinator of self-incompatible Cordia leucocephala, presents morphological features adapted to exploit hidden pollen and nectar in the long and narrow corolla tubes. Pollen of low-level anthers is collected with hairs on prolonged mouthparts and pollen of high-level anthers with clypeus, mandibles, and labrum, showing pollen removal from both levels with the same effectiveness. In both morphs, this results in similar legitimate, i.e. intermorph cross-pollen flow. Illegitimate pollen flow to stigmas of pin flowers, however, was much higher than to stigmas of thrum flowers. Moreover, more illegitimate pollen was transported to stigmas of pin and less to those of thrum flowers when compared with legitimate pollen flow. The study reveals a one-to-one reproductive inter-dependence between both partners. Data indicate that this relationship between bee species and plant species is one of the rare cases of monolecty among bees. Monotypic Ceblurgus longipalpis, the only rophitine species of Brazil, evolved prolonged mouthparts rare among short-tongued bees that enable them to access pollen from flowers with short-level anthers hidden for bees of other species, and nectar at the base of the flower tube.

  18. Selection and production of bacteria which detoxify mimosine: Leucaena leaves may be used as ruminant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnel, H. [Institute of Tropical Animal Health, Georg-August-University Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: hboehne@gwdg.de; Aung, A [Institute of Tropical Animal Health, Georg-August-University Goettingen (Germany); University of Veterinary Sciences, Yezin (Myanmar)

    2009-07-01

    Mimosaceae are shrubs or trees, which grow abundantly in tropical regions. Their leaves contain high value protein which cannot be used as feed due to the toxic substance mimosine and its metabolites in the digestive tract These alkaloids cause diseases in ruminants, mainly loss of hair/wool, and may lead to death in higher concentration. This is the reason why the nutritive value cannot be exploited reasonably in animal production. Experience has shown that there are some geographical regions where animals do not suffer by mimosine. It was found that they harbour ruminal bacteria, which degrade mimosine to non-toxic metabolites. In cooperation with other microbes in the digestive tract, the full dietetic value of Leucaena may be exploited. To date several bacteria were isolated and may be used as feed additive, e.g., S. jonesii. However, their production and storage is expensive and complicated. A practical method is to orally inoculate animals and use their rumen fluid directly as feed additive. This rumen culture or cultured anaerobic bacteria in the laboratory may suffer during transport and storage; hence, they need a cold chain until the target animal. Our institute has an outstanding experience to produce bacterial veterinary vaccines, probiotics, and biological fertilizers in tropical countries. Continuous culture in a bioreactor is the base for the success. It was the idea to use this technology for selection and production of mimosine degrading bacteria. The presentation will give a short theoretical background of - bacterial fermenter production - continuous culture - isolation of specific bacteria under selective environmental conditions - mass production in a bioreactor to be used in tropical areas - purification and concentration of the bacterial crop by rinsing and hollow fibre cross flow ultra filtration - stabilisation of the product in alginate beads - microbiota in the digestive tract. The practical work started with ruminal content of German

  19. Evaluation of growth performance of broiler chicks fed with raw and processed leucaena eucociphala seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Odutuga, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fourty-eight broiler chicks (day-old) were used in a 4 weeks feeding experiment to assess the growth response and the performance of broiler chicks fed raw Leucaena leucociphala seed meal (RLSM), roasted L. leucociphala seed meal (RoLSM) and steamed L. leucociphala seed meal (SLSM). The L. leucociphala seed, which serve as a source of protein were subjected to two treatments (roasting and steaming). Soybean based diet served as the control. There were four (4) experimental groups, each made up of four birds in three replicates allocated to the experimental diets. The results showed that the average final live weight, average weekly weight gain and average feed intake of birds fed with RoLSM performed better than birds fed with RLSM and SLSM. It was observed that the percentage organ to body weight of birds fed with the processed LSM were significantly (P < 0.05), higher as compared to the RLSM. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of aspartate transferase in the organs (heart, kidney and liver) of broilers fed with RoLSM was observed as compared to those fed with RLSM. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05), reduction in the activity of alanine transferase of organs of broilers chicks fed with processed L. leucociphala compared to the control. It is therefore, concluded that the processing techniques applied were able to improve the nutritional quality of L. leucociphala seed meal but relatively lower to the soybean based meal. (author)

  20. Expansión del rango de la Paloma Coroniblanca Columba leucocephala al territorio continental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno José Gregorio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre las 32 especies de la familia Columbidae anotadas para Colombia, Hilty & Brown (1986 incluyeron a la Paloma Coroniblanca Columba leucocephala L. como restringida al archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia. Esta especie, de amplia distribución en las Antillas, ha sido registrada en algunas islas continentales o localidades costeras en el sur de la Florida, Costa Rica y Panamá (Bond 1950, 1961, Wetmore 1968, Stiles & Skutch 1989. En Colombia C leucocephala fue encontrada en las islas de San Bernardo, a menos de 30 km del litoral Caribe del Departamento de Sucre (9° 40'Norte, 75° 45'Oeste en 1980 y 1981 por Moreno & López (1982, hallazgo que no fue reseñado en la literatura ornitológica de amplia circulación. En esta nota formalizamos la ampliación del rango geográfico de esta especie al territorio continental colombiano, agregando registros adicionales recientes.

  1. QUANTIFICAÇÃO POR CLAE DE NAFTOQUINONAS DO EXTRATO DAS RAÍZES DE Cordia leucocephala Moric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Três naftoquinona, (11S, 13S, 16R-cordiaquinona J ((+-cordiaquinona J, 6-[10-(12,12-dimetil-13α-hidroxi-16-metil-ciclohexil]-1,4-naftalenodiona (cordiaquinona L e 5-metil-6-[10-(12,12-dimetil-13β-hidroxi-16ciclohexil-metil-1,4-naftalenodiona (cordiaquinona M foram isoladas do extrato etanólico das raízes de Cordia leucocephala Moric. Estas naftoquinonas, exceto a cordiaquinona M foram quantificadas por CLAE no extrato bruto das raízes de C. leucocephala. Os padrões da (+-cordiaquinona J e cordiaquinona M foram identificados no cromatograma pelos respecttivos tempo de retenção e espectro-UV. A quantificação das duas naftoquinonas apresentou teores de 310 μg de (+-cordiaquinona J e 180 μg de cordiaquinona M, em 100 mg de raízes dessa espécie vegetal.

  2. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seedlings of different NFT species and genotypes (b) of different NFT species and genotypes. (L.I. = grown in pots. (L.I. = Leucaena leucocephala; Leucaena leucocephala; Vertical bars =LSD,5%). Vertical bars = LSD, 5%). was no response to inoculation with TAL 169. significant differences between the two treatments.

  4. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  5. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  6. Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, ESPECIE FORESTAL CON POTENCIAL PARA SER INTRODUCIDA EN SISTEMAS SILVOPASTORILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Román-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y diversidad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05. Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 % y proteína cruda (29.05 %, mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57 y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco.

  7. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  8. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  9. Diversidad zoológica asociada a un silvopastoreo leucaena-guinea con diferentes edades de establecimiento Zoological diversity associated to a silvopastural system leucaena-guinea grass with different establishment times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatnel Alonso Lazo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad zoológica asociada a un silvopastoreo con leucaena-guinea, por medio de la caracterización de la composición y estructura de las aves, insectos y la macrofauna del suelo, en cuatro edades de establecimiento (3, 4, 5 y 6 años de explotación. Con las especies registradas en cada uno de estos grupos zoológicos, se calcularon los índices ecológicos: número de individuos, riqueza, diversidad y abundancia de especies, en diferentes edades del sistema. En todos los grupos, se apreció el aumento significativo en la riqueza de especies y en el índice de diversidad biológica de Shannon, en la medida que se desarrolló el sistema. Se observó incremento en la abundancia de insectos biorreguladores y, en relación con las aves, el horario de muestreo no mostró interacción con los distintos años de siembra. La macrofauna se incrementó, observándose dominancia de anélidos al 6º y 7º año de explotación, caracterizado por Polyferetrina elongata y Oligochaeta elegans. El desarrollo del silvopastoreo leucaena-guinea logra sistemas productivos pecuarios que aumentan la producción de biomasa y de otros componentes biológicos y contribuir para crear un sistema sostenible y compatible con el ambiente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the associated zoological diversity of a silvopastural system leucaena-guinea grass, by characterizing the composition and structures of the birds, insects and the macrofauna of the soil, in four establishment times of the silvopastural systems (3, 4, 5 and 6 years of exploitation. For the species recorded in each zoological group, the following ecological indices were determined: number of individuals, richness, diversity and abundance of species, in each establishment times of the system. A significant increase, in all the zoological groups, was observed for the richness of species and for the index of biological diversity of Shannon, as the system

  10. Comportamiento de la disponibilidad de biomasa y la composición química en 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. Performance of biomass availability and chemical composition of 23 Leucaena spp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda B Wencomo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp. en un área que tenía seis años de sembrada. El objetivo fue determinar, en las plantas establecidas, la biomasa total, la biomasa comestible, la biomasa leñosa, el grosor del tallo y el número de ramas de cada accesión, y su composición bromatológica en condiciones de pastoreo simulado. La investigación se realizó en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" durante dos años, en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo lixiviado, húmico nodular ferruginoso hidratado. Se utilizaron parcelas sencillas de 3 m x 6 m. En la biomasa comestible y sus componentes (hojas y tallos tiernos existieron diferencias significativas (PA study was conducted with 23 Leucaena spp. accessions in an area which had been planted six years before. The objective was to determine, in the established plants, total biomass, edible biomass, ligneous biomass, stem diameter and number of branches in each accession, and its bromatological composition under simulated grazing conditions. The research was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" during two years, on a hydrated ferruginous nodular humic lixiviated Ferralitic Red soil. Simple 3 m x 6 m plots were used. In the edible biomass and its components (leaves and fresh stems, there were significant differences (P<0,05 between the seasons of the two years. It could be observed that production was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, although there were no differences among the mean biomass production of the accessions; in the case of total biomass no significant differences were found between seasons. To continue the studies is recommended, to determine, in the long term, the effect of the evaluated indicators on the availability and persistence of the tree.

  11. Performance of Dairy Goats Fed Rhodes Grass Hay and Supplemented with Leucaena or Gliricidia-Based Concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondiek, J.O.; Tuitoek, J.K.; Abdulrazak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of dairy goats supplemented with fodder based diets. Six lactating does of Saanen, Toggenburg and Saanen X Toggenburg breed types weighing 46 + or - 7.1 at late stage of lactation were allocated to three dietary treatments in a double 3*3 Latin square design to examine the value of leucaena and gliricidia forages as nitrogen sources in supplementing Rhodes grass hay. Three supplements: Leucaena-based (L), gliricidia-based (G) or commercial concentrate (C) were used. Voluntary feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and live weight changes were measured. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher in group G than C (1385 vs 1331 g day -1 ). Hay DMI was higher in G (835 g d -1 than L or C (789, 782 g day -1 , respectively). Diets had no effect on milk yield, crude protein or butterfat content. Total solid was higher in L than C while that of G was intermediate (15.7, 14.7, 13.7%). Weight changes were least affected although resulted in positive gain (11 g day -1 ) while the others lost (-13,-19 g day -, for L and C respectively). In the digestibility trial 6 female goats weighing 22.3 kg (sd 1.1), were allocated to the three treatments in a completely randomised block design where each goat received a different supplement in each of two periods. Thee were no differences in nutrient digestibility except for DM, which was in C compared to the other treatments (615, 622, 720 g-kg for L, G and C, respectively). It si concluded that fodder based supplement compared well with the commercial concentrate in supporting milk yield and body weight gain of dairy goats. Therefore, locally available tree fodders can be incorporated in supplement diets and utilized without any detrimental effects to substitute the expensive concentrates to improve the performance of dairy goats

  12. Growth and Nitrogen Uptake in Sorghum Plants Manured with Leucaena Leucocaphala Leaves as Affected by Nitrogen Rate and Time of Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Shammaa, M.

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of four rates of nitrogen (N) in the form of leucaena leaves and the time of application on the performance of sorghum plants using the 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena green manure (LGM) increased dry matter and N yield of sorghum. Nitrogen recoveries of LGM ranged between 23 and 47%. An additional beneficial effect of LGM was attributed to the enhancement of soil N uptake. The best timing of LGM incorporation for obtaining more N derived from LGM, less soil N uptake, and greater dry matter and N in sorghum leaves seemed to be at planting. However, the appropriate timing and rate of LGM to obtain greater dry matter and N yield in panicles, as well as in the whole plant of sorghum, appeared to be at 30 days before planting, particularly a rate of 120 kg N ha - 1. (author)

  13. Performance of biomass availability and chemical composition of 23 Leucaena spp. accessions; Comportamiento de la disponibilidad de biomasa y la composición química en 23 accesiones de Leucaena spp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wencomo, Hilda B., E-mail: hilda.wencomo@indio.atenas.inf.cu [Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes ' Indio Hatuey' , Central España Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Ortiz, R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, Mayabeque (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    A study was conducted with 23 Leucaena spp. accessions in an area which had been planted six years before. The objective was to determine, in the established plants, total biomass, edible biomass, ligneous biomass, stem diameter and number of branches in each accession, and its bromatological composition under simulated grazing conditions. The research was conducted at the EEPF 'Indio Hatuey' during two years, on a hydrated ferruginous nodular humic lixiviated Ferralitic Red soil. Simple 3 m x 6 m plots were used. In the edible biomass and its components (leaves and fresh stems), there were significant differences (P<0,05) between the seasons of the two years. It could be observed that production was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, although there were no differences among the mean biomass production of the accessions; in the case of total biomass no significant differences were found between seasons. To continue the studies is recommended, to determine, in the long term, the effect of the evaluated indicators on the availability and persistence of the tree. (author)

  14. Contrasting bee pollination in two co-occurring distylic species of Cordia (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga: generalist in C. globosa vs. specialist in C. leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isabel C; Lopes, Ariadna V; Sazima, Marlies

    2010-12-01

    In this study we compare the reproductive biology of Cordia globosa and C. leucocephala (Cordiaceae, Boraginales; formerly referred to Boraginaceae) to understand the functioning of the floral morphs and the relations with their effective pollinators. The species are synchronopatric, distylic, and self-incompatible. Though they share melittophilous traits, the main visitor and pollinator of C. globosa was the generalist and exotic bee Apis mellifera, while the only one of C. leucocephala was the oligoletic bee Ceblurgus longipalpis. These two latter species are restricted to the Caatinga of NE Brazil, contrasting with the wide distribution of Cordia globosa. While the fruit-set for C. globosa was high, independently if the pollen donor/stigma receptor was a pin (long-styled) or thrum (short-styled) individual, in C. leucocephala the fruit-set was low and occurred only when a thrum individual was the pollen donor. This raises the possibility of this species moving towards dioecy. The high natural fruit-set of C. globosa confirms the generalist bee as its effective pollinator. The low fruit-set after manual crosses in C. leucocephala may be due to low pollen viability. Additionally, the low natural fruit-set (two times lower than after crosses) may be related with the foraging behavior of the specialist pollinator.

  15. Evaluación de las propiedades de materiales compuestos fabricados a partir de fibras semiquímicas de Leucaena collinsii y polipropileno

    OpenAIRE

    Granda Garcia, Luis Angel

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis estudia el efecto que produce reforzar una fibra semiquímica de Leucaena collinsii en las propiedades mecánicas, térmicas y de sorción de agua de materiales compuestos de polipropileno. Se obtienen probetas de materiales compuestos con distinto contenido de refuerzo y se estabilizan en una cámara climática durante 48 horas antes de ser ensayadas a tracción, flexión e impacto, y se analiza la morfologia de la fractura mediante SEM. Posteriormente se estudian sus propiedad...

  16. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  17. Protein Binding Capacity of Different Forages Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusiati, L. M.; Kurniawati, A.; Hanim, C.; Anas, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Eight forages of tannin sources(Leucaena leucocephala, Arachis hypogaea, Mimosa pudica, Morus alba L, Swietenia mahagoni, Manihot esculenta, Gliricidia sepium, and Bauhinia purpurea)were evaluated their tannin content and protein binding capacity. The protein binding capacity of tannin were determined using precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Swietenia mahagonihas higest total tannin level and condensed tannin (CT) compared with other forages (P<0.01). The Leucaena leucocephala has highest hydrolysable tannin (HT) level (P<0.01). The total and condensed tannin content of Swietenia mahagoni were 11.928±0.04 mg/100 mg and 9.241±0.02mg/100mg dry matter (DM) of leaves. The hydrolysable tannin content of Leucaena leucocephala was 5.338±0.03 mg/100 mg DM of leaves. Binding capacity was highest in Swietenia mahagoni and Leucaena leucocephala compared to the other forages (P<0.01). The optimum binding of BSA to tannin in Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoniwere1.181±0.44 and 1.217±0.60mg/mg dry matter of leaves. The present study reports that Swietenia mahagoni has highest of tannin content and Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoni capacity of protein binding.

  18. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  19. Contrasting bee pollination in two co-occurring distylic species of Cordia (Cordiaceae, Boraginales in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga: generalist in C. globosa vs. specialist in C. leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the reproductive biology of Cordia globosa and C. leucocephala (Cordiaceae, Boraginales; formerly referred to Boraginaceae to understand the functioning of the floral morphs and the relations with their effective pollinators. The species are synchronopatric, distylic, and self-incompatible. Though they share melittophilous traits, the main visitor and pollinator of C. globosa was the generalist and exotic bee Apis mellifera, while the only one of C. leucocephala was the oligoletic bee Ceblurgus longipalpis. These two latter species are restricted to the Caatinga of NE Brazil, contrasting with the wide distribution of Cordia globosa. While the fruit-set for C. globosa was high, independently if the pollen donor/stigma receptor was a pin (long-styled or thrum (short-styled individual, in C. leucocephala the fruit-set was low and occurred only when a thrum individual was the pollen donor. This raises the possibility of this species moving towards dioecy. The high natural fruit-set of C. globosa confirms the generalist bee as its effective pollinator. The low fruit-set after manual crosses in C. leucocephala may be due to low pollen viability. Additionally, the low natural fruit-set (two times lower than after crosses may be related with the foraging behavior of the specialist pollinator.Neste estudo comparamos a biologia reprodutiva de Cordia globosa e C. leucocephala para entender a função dos orfos florais e as relações com seus polinizadores efetivos. As espécies são sincronopátricas, distílicas e auto-incompatíveis. Embora elas compartilhem atributos melitófilos, o principal visitante e polinizador de C. globosa foi Apis mellifera, abelha generalista e exótica, enquanto o de C. leucocephala foi a abelha oligolética Ceblurgus longipalpis. Essas duas últimas espécies são restritas à Caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil, contrastando com a ampla distribuição de C. globosa. Enquanto a formação de frutos de C

  20. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Filho Peres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the cutting ant preference of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, to native and exotic forest tree species, in laboratory conditions. The most preferred species were: gmelina ( Gmelina arborea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, caesalpinia (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizzia (Albizia lebbeck and enterolobium (Enterolobium contortisiliquum and the less preferred ones were: eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitiba (Cariniana strellensis and guazuma (Guazuma tomentosa .

  1. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted with permanent ...

  2. Enantioselective synthesis of possible diastereomers of heptadeca-1-ene-4,6-diyne-3,8,9,10-tetrol; putative structure of a conjugated diyne natural product isolated from Hydrocotyle leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kavirayani R; Swain, Bandita

    2011-04-01

    Enantioselective synthesis of possible diastereomers of heptadeca-1-ene-4,6-diyne-3,8,9,10-tetrol, a structure proposed for the natural product isolated from Hydrocotyle leucocephala is accomplished. The reported spectral data of the natural product did not match those of any of the isomers that were synthesized and established that the structure proposed for the natural product is not correct and requires revision.

  3. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  4. Avaliação de genótipos de Leucaena spp. nas condições edafoclimáticas de São Carlos,SP: II. determinações bromatológicas no período de estabelecimento Evaluation of Leucaena spp. genotypes in the edaphic and climatic conditions of São Carlos, SP: II. bromatological determinations at the establishment period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.P. de A. Primavesi

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, em área da EMBRAPA - CPPSE em São Carlos, situada a 22°01'S e 47°53'W, com altitude de 856 m e média de precipitação anual de 1502 mm, procedeu-se a determinação da composição bromatológicade folhas, hastes com diâmetro menor que 6 mm e vagens, de genótipos de leucena. Os genótipos avaliados, foram: L.leucocephala cv. Texas 1074 (TI, L.leucocephala 29 A9 (T2, L.leucocephala 11 x L.dlversifolia 25 (T3, L.leucocephala 11 x L.diversifolia 26 (T4, L.leucocephala 24-19/2-39 x L.diverstfolia 26 (T5 e L.leucocephala c v. Cunningham (testemunha. Verificou-se que: os genótipos avahados não apresentaram diferenças nas determinações bromatológicas, realizadas nas folhas e talos finos; o genótipo T3 registrou o maior teor de proteína bruta (28,06%, de fósforo (0,29% e a maior relação PB/FDN e o menor teor de FDN para vagens; os genótipos apresentaram os seguintes teores médios, em porcentagem, para a composição bromatológicadas folhas, vagens e talos finos, respectivamente: Proteína bruta (18,57; 21,68; 6,41; Fibra detergente neutro (29,09; 41,58; 71,01; Fósforo (0,12; 0,22; 0,06; Cálcio (1,39; 0,36; 0,49; Magnesio (0,51; 0,28; 0,24; Tanino (1,32; 1,15; 0,28 e Digestibilidade "in vitro" (58,39; 61,22; 33,61; os teores de proteína e fósforo apresentaram a seguinte ordem decrescente nas partes das plantas: vagens > folhas > talos finos; os teores de cálcio: folhas > talos finos > vagens e de magnésio: folhas > vagens > talos finos.In a trial conducted on a distrofic Red-Yellow Latossol, at EMBRAPA-CPPSE, São Carlos, located at 22°01'S and 47'53'W, altitude of 856 m and with a mean annual rainfall of 1502 mm, the bromatological composition of leaves, stems smaller than 6 mm diameter and pods of leucena genotypes was determined. The genotypes evaluated were: L.leucocephala cv. Texas 1074 (T1, L.leucocephala 29 A9 (T2, L.leucocephala 11 x L.dlversifolia 25

  5. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  6. Microbial Biomass Changes during Decomposition of Plant Residues in a Lixisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachaka, SK.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A lixisol was amended with four different alley cropping species: Senna siamea, Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla. Soil samples were incubated for 140 days at 25 °C and the soil microbial biomass was determined by the ninhydrin extraction method along the incubation period. The soil microbial biomass values ranged between 80 and 600 mg.kg-1 and followed, in all cases, the decreasing order: Leucaena> Senna> Flemingia> Dactyladenia.

  7. A preliminary study of cross-amplified microsatellite loci using molted feathers from a near-threatened Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala) population of north India as a DNA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2017-11-21

    In continuation of an earlier study in which we reported the cross-amplification of Wood stork microsatellites on the DNA obtained from molted feathers of Painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala), here we investigated the nature of cross-amplified microsatellites and the effect of non-invasive samples on cross-amplification success. In a limited manner, we also addressed the genetic diversity and differentiation in a north Indian population of the Painted Stork examined over three nesting seasons. Among the nine cross-amplified loci, only 5 were polymorphic. Three and 6 loci exhibited low ( 80), respectively. For 36 of 145 samples most of the loci failed to amplify. For genetic diversity, only 3 loci could be used since others exhibited low amplification and linkage disequilibrium. Probability of identity (0.034) was not low enough to develop a confidence that the similar genotypes originate from the same individual. Forty-two unique genotypes were identified. In 3 loci, a low to moderate level of genetic diversity (mean He = 0.435) was reported. Non-significant Fst (0.003, P = 0.230), G'stH (0.005, P = 0.247) and Dest (0.003, P = 0.250) values indicate a lack of structuring in temporally distributed populations of Delhi Zoo. The limitations and uniqueness of this study are discussed.

  8. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  9. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  10. 60 changes in soil properties under alley cropping system of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala ... of improved farming system is efficient recycling of organic materials. This exploits ... in form of violent shower of short duration. Rainfall is seasonal and defines ...

  11. Effect Of Feeding Hordeum jabatum Hay Supplemented With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no differences (P>0.05) in the dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicellulose intake among treatments. There were however, significant (P<0.05) differences in the digestibility of nutrients among treatments. It was concluded that dried leaves of Leucaena leucocephala ...

  12. Evaluation of the Nutritional Potentials of Selected Multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potentials of selected multipurpose fodder trees for use in livestock diets. Fresh leaves from five fodder tree species notably Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephala, Tectona grandis, Persea americana and Dactyledila barteri obtained from the forestry unit of Imo ...

  13. Light fraction of soil organic matter under different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on the soil from three different management systems namely; Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala plantations in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in each of the three management site at five auger ...

  14. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  15. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out on an alley-cropping farm in Ajibode village, near Ibadan where cassava alley-cropped with three hedgerow trees (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Senna (Syn Cassia) siamea), and sole planted cassava (all in three replicates) were arranged with arbuscular mycorrhizal ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 44 of 44 ... Soil Organic matter, NPK and yam yields, Abstract ... Vol 3, No 2 (2007), Countrywide distribution of fauna associated with the cassava ... of Leucaena leucocephala tree management on maize/cowpea performances in a ferric ...

  17. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  18. Microbial activity in soil cultivated with different summer legumes in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted for ten years in a sandy soil in the north part of the Paraná State, Brazil. The soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space between the coffee plants, in the following treatments: Control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The legume crops influenced the microbial activity, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space. The cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased the microbial biomass C, N and P. Although L. leucocephala and Arachis hypogaea provided higher microbial biomass, the qCO2 decreased by up to 50% under the coffee canopy and by about 25% in the inter row space. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P due to green manure residue addition.

  19. Water use, root activity and deep drainage within a perennial legume-grass pasture: A case study in southern inland Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nahuel A. Pachas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water use and depth of water extraction of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana pasture, irrigated with desalinated coal seam water (a by-product of the coal seam gas industry, were monitored to provide background information on root activity, spatial and temporal water use and deep drainage over a 757-day period from August 2011 to August 2013. Methodology comprised measurement of soil water from surface to 4 m depth using 8 EnviroSCAN probes connected to dataloggers positioned within leucaena twin rows and within the Rhodes grass inter-row. Just over 581,000 individual moisture measurements were collated and are reported here. Water extraction (and by inference root activity of leucaena and Rhodes grass showed marked seasonal fluctuation with deepest and highest water extraction occurring during the first growing season; water extraction was greatly diminished during the following drier and cooler seasons due to the negative influences of lower soil moisture contents, lower temperatures and increased defoliation on pasture growth. The highest values of deep drainage below 4 m depth occurred when high rainfall events corresponded with high soil water storage in the entire profile (0–4 m depth. Given that water usage by both leucaena and Rhodes grass was greatest in the upper layers of soil (<1.5 m, future research should focus on how the level of competitive interaction might be managed by choice of row spacing and frequency of irrigation. Further studies are needed, including: (a physical sampling to determine the depth of active roots; (b how defoliation affects rooting behaviours and water use of leucaena; and (c modelling of the water and salt balances of leucaena and grass inter-row systems using data from this study, with various levels of irrigation, to investigate the risks of deep drainage over an extended climate sequence.Keywords: Active rooting depth, agroforestry, Chloris gayana, Leucaena leucocephala

  20. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  1. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth.e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Pers.. Eight months after the plantation, the legumes were pruned at 1.5-m height, and the shoot phytomass was weighed. Stems with diameter higher than 1.5 cm were not considered in the weighed phytomass. The dry matter obtained in the pruning was expressed as kg ha -1 year -1. Samples from the pruning were used to determine the dry phytomass and N, P and K contents. New pruning was carried out eighty days after the first cut. In the first crop year, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. produced the highest dry phytomass and accumulated the highest amounts of N, P and K; while in the second year, in the experiment with P fertilization, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Stend. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. produced the highest dry phytomass, and Leucaena accumulated the highest amount of K in shoot phytomass. Phytomass productivity was higher when some legumes received phosphorus application.

  2. Persistence of Rhizobium Inoculants originating from Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    8.0 x 104 and 9.0 x 104 rhizobia/g of soil were recovered respectively in spite of the 10-year fallow period. Biomass ... isotope subplots (6 m2) containing the 4 central trees, .... water and rain water enhanced motility of rhizobial cells from L.

  3. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  4. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  5. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  6. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  7. Greening of wastelands. Proceedings of the national workshop on utilisation of wastelands for bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, N G; Abhiyankar, P D [eds.

    1986-01-01

    After eight introductory and concluding papers, there are 48 short papers by various authors on topics including legal and social aspects, the afforestation of saline and alkaline soils, tree species selection, subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) production and economics, biomass production for fuel, cultivation of fruit trees, use of fertilizers and irrigation, and projects in Madhya Pradesh, the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

  8. 2075-IJBCS -Article-Maurice Ognalaga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Leucaena leucocephalae et de C. odorata. Ils ont attribué cette réaction à la richesse chimique de ces deux engrais verts utilisés. De nombreux autres travaux comme ceux de. Choudhary et Suresh (2013) affirment que les amendements organiques libèrent lentement les nutriments dans le sol. En somme, il s'agirait d'une ...

  9. Animals and trees: food for thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, K.

    1979-01-01

    In many areas of Africa, combining tree-growing with animal rearing is advantageous, as the trees provide shade, animal fodder and timber for fuel and building, while grazing animals reduce the fire hazard from ground vegetation and improve soil fertility through droppings. Acacia albida, Prosopis cineraria, P. chilensis, leucaena leucocephala and Ailanthus excelsa are discussed as promising fodder trees, and an appendix is included with notes on 21 other trees for fodder or the production of medicines.

  10. 2090 IJBCS -Article--Defang Henri Fualefac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Leucaena. A la fin de l'essai, les animaux recevant 20% de L. leucocephala ont été les plus lourds (2237,50 g), suivis respectivement de ceux nourris avec 10 .... Concentrât minéraux azote et vitaminiques (10%). Tableau 2 : Coût de production d'un kilogramme de chaque ration et de production du kilogramme vif de lapin.

  11. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban.

  12. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  13. Gastrointestinal nematode infection does not affect selection of tropical foliage by goats in a cafeteria trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Cordero, J; González-Pech, P G; Jaimez-Rodriguez, P R; Ortíz-Ocampo, G I; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Torres-Acosta, J F J

    2017-01-01

    It is important to determine whether gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) affect foliage choice of goats leading to confirm the expression of a self-medication behavior. This study investigated the effect of GIN infection on tropical foliage selection by goats. During experimental stage 1 (10 days), goats had a natural mixed GIN infection, and at stage 2 (10 days), goats were treated with effective anthelmintics to maintain them free of GIN infection. During stage 1 the twelve adult goats (32 ± 2.3 kg live weight [LW]) were assigned to three groups (n = 4) according to their initial GIN infection status: HI group, with fecal egg count (FEC) between 1450 and 2150 eggs per g/feces (EPG); MI group, medium FEC (592-1167 EPG); and the NI group, free from GIN infection. Fresh foliage of four tropical plants were offered to goats ad libitum for 1 h daily: Gymnopodium floribundum (high condensed tannin [CT] content, 37-40 %), Mimosa bahamensis (medium CT content, 16-17 %), Leucaena leucocephala (low CT content, 3-5 %), and Viguiera dentata (negligible CT content, 0.6-0.9 %). Jacobs' selection indexes (JSIs) were estimated for the experimental foliage based on dry matter (DM), CT, or crude protein (CP) intake. During both study stages, individual fecal egg counts were estimated. The JSI patterns of different plant species, based on DM, CT, or CP, were similar irrespective of infection level during stage 1 (HI, MI, and NI) or no GIN infection (stage 2). Thus, irrespective of GIN infection, goats actively selected M. bahamensis (high CT, low CP content) and V. dentata (negligible CT, high CP content) but avoided G. floribundum (high CT, low CP content) and L. leucocephala (medium CT and high CP content). Thus, natural GIN infection did not influence goats' foliage selection.

  14. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  15. Effect of coppicing height on the regeneration and productivity of certain firewood shrubs in alkaline soils of north Indian plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, P.N.; Tewari, S.K.; Singh, Dheer; Katiyar, R.S. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India)

    1995-12-31

    Four shrubs, viz. Hibiscus tiliaceus, Leucaena leucocephala, Vitex negundo and Sesbania sesban, were evaluated for their performance as firewood crops in coppiced stands of varying cutting heights (15, 30 and 45 cm) in repeated annual harvests (4) on alkaline soils of the North Indian plains. The dry wood yield of Leucaena and Sesbania ranged between 22.9-42.6 and 9.9-18.0 tonnes ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, respectively. Leucaena showed progressive increases in yield from coppiced stumps up to the 4th harvest while Sesbania showed a reduction after the third harvest mainly due to the high degeneration (60%) of coppiced stumps. Degeneration was low (< 10%) in Leucaena and Vitex. The coppicing heights generally did not show any significant effect on the growth and productivity. The number of coppice shoots per stump increased with stump height and production of coppice shoots was maximum in Vitex and minimum in Leucaena. The average diameter of coppice shoots tended to decrease with increasing coppicing height of the stumps. (author)

  16. Dust collection capacity of plants growing in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Plant can act as living filter of dust pollution in coal mining areas, where the amount of suspended particulate matter and dust fall rate is very high. Therefore, plant species growing in coal mining areas are classified as evergreen or deciduous with simple and compound leaf basis. The dust arresting capacity of each leaf is measured and expressed in g/m 2 . The study indicated that evergreen plants with simple, pilose surface, like - Alstonia, Ficus cunea, F. benghalensis and Mangifera indica are good dust catcher than evergreen compound leaves of Cassia siamea, Acacia arabica and Leucaena leucocephala. Deciduous with simple leaves, such as Zizyphus mauritiana, F. religiosa, Psidium guyava are also good dust collectors. Suitable plant species also help in quick reclamation of mined out areas; one practical difficulty for establishment of trees as green belts or reclamation purpose, has been incidence of cattle grazing. This study suggested a systematic way of selecting plant species on the basis of their efficiency in dust control and resistance to cattle grazing. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  18. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  19. Molecular sex identification of painted storks (Mycteria leucocephala ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Unit of Forensic and Management, Department of Wildlife and National Parks of Peninsular Malaysia, Km10,. Jalan Cheras, 56100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 3Faculty of Science ..... M. A. and Campos F. 2002 Using FTA cards to store avian blood for genetic studies. Their application in sex determination. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2 ...

  20. Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. EFFECT OF INVERSION ON TREATMENT OF FENCE SUBJECTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813338This work aimed to evaluate the effect of inversion of Prosopis juliflora and Leucaena leucocephala fenceposts, in distribution, penetration and retention of copper chrome borate (CCB solution applied by sapdisplacement method. The Prosopis juliflora was collected in Brazilian Agricultural Research Company(EMBRAPA and the Leucaena leucocephala at the Federal University of Campina Grande in Patos,Paraíba state, Brazil. Trees with DAP from 5.0 to 10.0 cm were employed. Disks of 2.0 cm of thicknesswere retired on the top and on the base of pieces. The external disks were then discarded and the internones were employed to determine the wood characteristics, being the round pieces with 2.0 m. A solutionof 2% of active ingredients of CCB was used to treated woods. A total of 10 pieces of each species weretreated, and five of them remained in the solution for 8 days and the five ones had their tops inverted afterthe sixth day of treatment. The pieces were seasoned; disks of 2.0 cm of thickness were taken in 5 positions along of pieces and the analyses for determination of copper and boron penetration took place. The valuesof wood characteristics indicated that the pieces were homogeneous. The absorption of the solution was of19.9 liters (Prosopis juliflora and of 17.0 liters (Leucaena leucocephala. The nominal retentions of CCBwere 7.72 and 5.34 kg active ingredients (a.i./m3, respectively. In general, the inversion of the pieces inthe preservative solution is recommended, by providing a better distribution, penetration and retention ofCCB on treated pieces.

  2. EFEITO DA INVERSÃO NO TRATAMENTO DE MOIRÕES SUBMETIDOS AO MÉTODO DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO DA SEIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of inversion of Prosopis juliflora and Leucaena leucocephala fence posts, in distribution, penetration and retention of copper chrome borate (CCB solution applied by sap displacement method. The Prosopis juliflora was collected in Brazilian Agricultural Research Company (EMBRAPA and the Leucaena leucocephala at the Federal University of Campina Grande in Patos, Paraíba state, Brazil. Trees with DAP from 5.0 to 10.0 cm were employed. Disks of 2.0 cm of thickness were retired on the top and on the base of pieces. The external disks were then discarded and the intern ones were employed to determine the wood characteristics, being the round pieces with 2.0 m. A solution of 2% of active ingredients of CCB was used to treated woods. A total of 10 pieces of each species were treated, and five of them remained in the solution for 8 days and the five ones had their tops inverted after the sixth day of treatment. The pieces were seasoned; disks of 2.0 cm of thickness were taken in 5 positions along of pieces and the analyses for determination of copper and boron penetration took place. The values of wood characteristics indicated that the pieces were homogeneous. The absorption of the solution was of 19.9 liters ( Prosopis juliflora and of 17.0 liters ( Leucaena leucocephala . The nominal retentions of CCB were 7.72 and 5.34 kg active ingredients (a.i./m 3 , respectively. In general, the inversion of the pieces in the preservative solution is recommended, by providing a better distribution, penetration and retention of CCB on treated pieces.

  3. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  4. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon[(AFRA - African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E; Tendonkeng, F; Kadjio, J T.T.; Kwami, H N; Taboum, R K; Kana, J R; Tegodjeu, A [University of Dschang, FASA, Department of Animal Sciences, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2002-06-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E.; Tendonkeng, F.; Kadjio, J.T.T.; Kwami, H.N.; Taboum, R.K.; Kana, J.R.; Tegodjeu, A.

    2002-01-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  6. Efectos de rizosfera, microorganismos y fertilización en la biorremediación y fitorremediación de suelos con petróleos crudo nuevo e intemperizado

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Chávez, E; Rivera-Cruz, MC; Izquierdo-Reyes, F; Palma-López, DJ

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el potencial de un consorcio microbiano constituido por bacterias (Pseudomonas sp y Serratia marcescens y hongos (Aspergillus sp y Trichoderma sp) y de fertilizante inorgánico incorporados al suelo en la biorremediación, y el potencial del pasto egipto (Brachiaria mutica) y de la leguminosa guaje (Leucaena leucocephala) en la fitorremediación de un suelo contaminado con petróleos nuevo (PN) recién incorporado al suelo y el intemperizado (PI) procedente de derrames crónicos de petról...

  7. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  8. Proximate chemical composition of giant ipil-ipil wood from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolano, E U; Gonzales, E V; Semana, J A

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the chemical composition of seven samples of giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) yielded holocellulose, 69.8 to 73.9%; pentosans, 8.9 to 20.1%; lignin, 21.8 to 26%; alcohol-benzene solubles, 1.4 to 3.0%; caustic soda solubles, 13.0 to 16.4%; and ash, 0.7 to 0.9%. Based on chemical composition, this should be a suitable species for pulp and paper. (Refs. 11).

  9. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  10. PREFERÊNCIA DE SAÚVA LIMÃO, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE A DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa .

  11. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  12. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  13. NATURAL RESISTANCE OF SEVEN WOODS TO XYLOPHOGOUS FUNGI AND TERMITES UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at evaluating the natural resistance of seven woods to xylophogous fungi and subterranean termites under laboratory assay. The studied woods were Leucaena leucocephala, Cordia trichotoma, Mimosa tenuiflora, Croton sonderianus, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Azadirachta indica and Tectona grandis. Test samples measuring 2.54 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm (fungi and 2.54 x 2.00 x 0.64 cm (termites, with larger dimensions in fiber direction were obtained in four positions in pith-to-bark direction. The samples were submitted by 98 days to action of Postia placenta and Polyporus fumosus fungi or 28 days to the termite Nasutitermes corniger action. To fungi, the Mimosa tenuiflora and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia woods were the more resistant and those of Azadirachta indica and Croton sonderianus the less resistant. The fungus Postia placenta attacked more severely the tested woods. To termites, the Mimosa tenuiflora, Cordia trichotoma, and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia were the most resistant and the Leucaena leucocephala the less resistant. The coming wood of external section of log were the more attacked. To fungi, there was an inverse relationship between the density and the loss of mass. Already for the termites, there was not relationship between the resistance and the density of the wood.

  14. Proporsi penggunaan berbagai jenis daun tanaman untuk pakan ternak kambing pada lokasi dan ketinggian berbeda di wilayah Malang Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Susanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the proportion of several types of tree foliages leaves as animal feed in different locations and altitudes in Malang Raya. The case study was conducted in five districts of Malang Raya where were assumed as the centre of goat farms. The results showed that there were 30 types of forage used as goat feeds, both leaves of tree foliages and shrubs, or grasses, crop residues and others. Most forages (73% were leaves of tree foliages and shrubs, both legumes, and non-legumes. Tree foliage leaves were more used as goat feeds in the study area with higher altitude, whereas in the area with lower altitude, farmers also utilized grasses and crop residues. The leaves of tree foliages were Paraserianthes falcataria, Gliricidia sepium, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Leucaena leucocephala and Calliandra calothyrsus. Paraserianthes falcataria was most widely used in Klampok-Singosari (88.3%. The proportion of Calliandra calothyrsus ranged from 32 to 98%, while Gliricidia sepium was 58-98%, both were most widely used in Argoyuwono-Ampelgading. Artocarpus heterophyllus was most widely used in Wajak (90.3%, whereas Leucaena leucocephala leaf was used by all respondents (100% in Sumberdem-Wonosari. It is necessary to evaluate the quality of these tree foliage leaves to provide a better animal feed through supplementation technology. Keyword: altitudes, foliages, leave, location

  15. KEANEKARAGAMAN VEGETASI DAN PROFIL HABITAT DI TAMAN KEHATI UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Priyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taman Kehati Unnes merupakan salah satu kawasan yang dirancang sebagai kawasan konservasi tanaman lokal Jawa Tengah.Penelitian tahun sebelumnya telah dilakukan analisis keanekaragaman jenis fauna di Taman Kehati Unnes. Penelitian sebelumnya (2013 menunjukan di Taman Kehati Unnes tercatat sebanyak 24 jenisburung, 63 jenis kupu-kupu, dan 26 jenis herpetofauna (amfibi dan reptil berhasil diidentifikasi. Keanekaragaman fauna juga ditentukan oleh kondisi habitatnya, oleh karena itu tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan analisis profil habitat. Pengambilan data vegetasi dilakukan menggunakan metode garis berpetak berukuran 20 x 20 m untuk tingkat pohon, 10 x 10 m untuk tingkat tiang, 5 x 5 m untuk pancang, 2 x 2 untuk semai, dan 1 x 1 untuk. Profil vegetasi dibuat dari struktur vertikal penutupan tajukdengan membuat petak ukuran pemanfaatan 40 x20 m. Pengukuran dilakukan terhadap kedudukan vegetasi, penutupan tajuk, arah tajuk, tinggi tajuk, tinggi bekas cabang vegetasi, dan diameter batang. Hasil penelitian dari 52 petak sampel vegetasi di Taman Kehati Unnes menunjukkan sebanyak 32 jenis tumbuhan herba atau perdu, 13 jenis Pancang, 12 jenis tiang dan 7 jenis pohon dapat diidentifikasi. Jenis rumput yang paling mendominasi adalah Imperata cylindrica (Alang-alang dengan nilai INP 37.85 tanaman tersebut adalah jenis gulma yang biasa terdapat ditempat terbuka dan terganggu.Jenis tanaman yang paling mendominasi dari kelas pohon, pancangdan tiang adalahLeucaena leucocephala(Mlandingan. Hasil analisis menunjukan Taman Kehati Unnes memiliki tumbuhan yang sangat seragam, hal ini dapat dilihat dari dominasi Mlandingan (Leucaena leucocephala.

  16. KEANEKARAGAMAN VEGETASI DAN PROFIL HABITAT DI TAMAN KEHATI UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Taman Kehati Unnes merupakan salah satu kawasan yang dirancang sebagai kawasan konservasi tanaman lokal Jawa Tengah.Penelitian tahun sebelumnya telah dilakukan analisis keanekaragaman jenis fauna di Taman Kehati Unnes. Penelitian sebelumnya (2013 menunjukan di Taman Kehati Unnes tercatat sebanyak 24 jenisburung, 63 jenis kupu-kupu, dan 26 jenis herpetofauna (amfibi dan reptil berhasil diidentifikasi. Keanekaragaman fauna juga ditentukan oleh kondisi habitatnya, oleh karena itu tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan analisis profil habitat. Pengambilan data vegetasi dilakukan menggunakan metode garis berpetak berukuran 20 x 20 m untuk tingkat pohon, 10 x 10 m untuk tingkat tiang, 5 x 5 m untuk pancang, 2 x 2 untuk semai, dan 1 x 1 untuk.Profil vegetasi dibuat dari struktur vertikal penutupan tajukdengan membuat petak ukuran pemanfaatan 40 x 20 m. Pengukuran dilakukan terhadap kedudukan vegetasi, penutupan tajuk, arah tajuk, tinggi tajuk, tinggi bekas cabang vegetasi, dan diameter batang. Hasil penelitian dari 52 petak sampel vegetasi di Taman Kehati Unnes menunjukkan sebanyak 32 jenis tumbuhan herba atau perdu, 13 jenis Pancang, 12 jenis tiang dan 7 jenis pohon dapat diidentifikasi. Jenis rumput yang paling mendominasi adalah Imperata cylindrica (Alang-alang dengan nilai INP 37.85 tanaman tersebut adalah jenis gulma yang biasa terdapat ditempat terbuka dan terganggu.Jenis tanaman yang paling mendominasi dari kelas pohon, pancangdan tiang adalahLeucaena leucocephala(Mlandingan. Hasil analisis menunjukan Taman Kehati Unnes memiliki tumbuhan yang sangat seragam, hal ini dapat dilihat dari dominasi Mlandingan (Leucaena leucocephala

  17. Tombamento de mudas de espécies florestais causado por Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc Damping-off of forest species caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a gama de hospedeiros de Sclerotium rolfsii por inoculação controlada das seguintes espécies florestais nativas e exóticas: Anadenanthera peregrina (angico-vermelho, Chorisia speciosa (paineira-rosa, Clitoria fairchildiana (sombreiro, Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba, Delonix regia (flamboyant-vermelho, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (orelha-de-negro, Leucaena leucocephala (leucena, Mabea fistulifera (canudo-de-pito, Platymiscium pubescens (tamboril-da-mata, Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Spathodea campanulata (espatódea e Tabebuia avellanedae (ipê-roxo, bem como comprovar o tombamento de mudas em pré e pós-emergência. Todas as espécies foram suscetíveis ao tombamento de mudas causado por S. rolfsii, em pré e em pós-emergência.The host range of Sclerotium rolfsii was evaluated by controlled inoculation of the following native and exotic forest species: Anadenanthera peregrina (angico vermelho, Chorisia speciosa (paineira rosa, Clitoria fairchildiana (sombreiro, Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba, Delonix regia (flamboyant vermelho, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (orelha de negro, Leucaena leucocephala (leucena, Mabea fistulifera (canudo-de-pito, Platymiscium pubescens (tamboril da mata, Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Spathodea campanulata (espatódea e Tabebuia avellanedae (ipê roxo. The fungus caused damping-off in pre and post emergence in all tested species.

  18. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  19. After Effects expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Geduld, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Put the power of Expressions to work in your animations with controls and efficiencies impossible to achieve with traditional keyframing techniques. No programming skills are required. Foundation concepts and skills orient the new designer and serve as a handy reference to the experienced one. Basics of creating expressions, variables, commands, and expression helpers precede the leap into javascript and math essentials for more advanced expressions that include randomness, physical simularions and 3D. Full color illustrations display the scripts and the resulti

  20. Effect of six tropical tanniferous plant extracts on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus Efeito de seis extratos de plantas taniníferas tropicais sobre o desembainhamento larvar de Haemochus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanniferous plants represent a promising alternative for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. This experiment evaluated the effects of extracts from the leaf and stem of Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa tenuiflora on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus in vitro and verified the role of tannins in this process. Third-stage larvae of H. contortus were incubated with extracts for 3 hours and were exposed to sodium hypochlorite solution. The extracts were tested at 300 µg.mL-1 and accompanied by controls: phosphate buffer solution (PBS and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP. The larval exsheathment was evaluated for 60 minutes, and the results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p 0.05, except for L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora leaf extracts. However, pre-incubation with PVPP of these two extracts significantly changed larval exsheathment when compared to the non-treated extracts (p Plantas taniníferas representam uma promissora alternativa de controle dos nematóides gastrintestinais de pequenos ruminantes. Esse experimento avaliou in vitro os efeitos dos extratos das folhas e caules de Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala e Mimosa tenuiflora sobre o desembainhamento larvar de Haemonchus contortus e verificou o papel dos taninos nesse processo. Larvas de terceiro estádio de H. contortus foram incubadas com 300 µg.mL-1 de extrato por 3 horas e expostas a uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio. O ensaio foi acompanhado por controles: solução salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS e polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP. O desembainhamento larvar foi avaliado durante 60 minutos e os resultados submetidos ao teste Kruskal-Wallis (p 0,05, exceto nos extratos das folhas de L. leucocephala e M. tenuiflora. Entretanto, a pré-incubação desses dois extratos com PVPP alterou significativamente o desembainhamento quando comparado com extratos não-tratados (p < 0,05. Esses resultados sugerem

  1. Nutritional quality and fractionation of carbohydrates and protein in the forage components of an intensive silvopastoral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Xiomara; Rivera, J.E.; Barahona, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of the forage components of a SPSi based on Leucaena leucocephala associated to improved pastures, as well as its biomass production. The forage production was determined at several moments of the year and the nutritional quality was evaluated through the Cornell model. The soluble protein proportion (fraction A) was similar between the grasses and L. leucocephala, and represented as minimum 34 % of the total protein. The proportion of protein B2 (intermediate degradation) of the legume was higher than that of the grasses (53,7 vs. 30,2 %, respectively). Protein B3 of the diet (slow degradation) was around 22 % of the total protein, and more than 71 % of it can be considered degradable in rumen. L. leucocephala showed a higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates (16,7 %) and lower quantity of fraction B2 (14,94 %) than the grasses. Concerning the biomass availability, a production of 19,26 t DM/ha year-1 was reached. It is concluded that in SPSis a high quantity of quality forage is produced throughout the year, and that this offer is sufficient to cover the requirements of ruminants. (author)

  2. A comparative study on the effect of gamma-irradiation on growth and biomass yield in certain fuel-wood species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.; Nandy, A.K.; Mallick, R.; Chatterjee, A.

    1990-01-01

    A trial was conducted to study a comparative effect of gamma-radiation on the growth behaviour vis-a-vis biomass yield of Acacia nilotica Delite, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) De Wit and Prosopis chilensis D.C (sub-family Mimosoidae). Dry seeds were exposed to 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 KR doses of gammaradiation. Irradiat ed seeds were sown in the field along with the control. In case of L. leucocephala the growth of the plants as well as total biomass production increased steadily with increasing doses of irradiation upto 8 KR. In A. nilotica the response was similar to that of L leucocephala, but in this case maximum growth and biomass yield was obtained after 4 KR. On the other hand, P. chilensis did not exhibit a positive response to gammaradiation. Karyotype of the three species was also done. All these observations indicate the greater possibility of the utilization of gammaradiation in increasing biomass production. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with erosion in an oxisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, M; Fox, R L; Aziz, T; El-Swaify, S A

    1988-04-01

    The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution.

  4. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  5. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    showed over expression to be confined to primarily the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and only in neurons. The level and expression pattern of endogenous Neuroglobin was unaffected by insertion of the over expressing Ngb transgene. Neuroglobin over expression resulted in a significant reduction...... previous reports, Neuroglobin over expression is not global but confined to a few well-defined brain regions, and only in neurons. This study confirms previous reports showing a correlation between reduced infarct volume and elevated Neuroglobin levels, but underlines the need to study the likely...

  6. ASOCIACIÓN DE ESPECIES LEÑOSAS EN BANCOS DE FORRAJE: INFLUENCIA SOBRE EL APORTE DE HOJARASCA, DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Casanova Lugo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el aporte de hojarasca, descomposición y liberación de N del follaje de tres especies leñosas, Leucaena leucocephala, Guazuma ulmifolia y Moringa oleifera, en bancos de forraje puros y la asociación de L. leucocephala + G. ulmifolia y L. leucocephala + M. oleifera, como bancos de forraje mixto. Se utilizaron 20 parcelas (200 m2 en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La producción de hojarasca se estimó mediante el uso de trampas, instaladas en la hilera central de cada parcela. Para la descomposición se utilizaron hojas frescas de L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia, M. oleifera, y de las mezclas de éstas. Se utilizaron 120 litter bags de 30 × 30 cm cada una, distribuidas aleatoriamente dentro de las parcelas (6 bolsas por parcela. Se retiraron 2 bolsas de cada parcela a las 4, 8 y 16 semanas. El material remanente se pesó, secó, fue molido y se determinó el contenido de N. Para determinar la constante de descomposición (k, se utilizó el modelo Y=a•e^(-k•t. El aporte de hojarasca acumulado fue diferente entre los tratamientos (P < 0.05. El banco de forraje de L. leucocephala + G. ulmifolia tuvo la mayor producción, mientras el de M. oleifera la menor. L. leucocephala, asociada con G. ulmifolia tuvo un menor aporte de hojarasca (385 kg MS ha-1, que cuando se asoció con M. oleifera o se encontraba sola (623.3 y 653.2 kg MS ha-1, respectivamente. M. oleifera asociada a L. leucocephala, incrementó su producción de hojarasca comparado con el monocultivo (124.1 vs. 58.0 kg MS ha-1. A las 4 semanas, la hojarasca de los bancos de M. oleifera, L. leucocephala y G. ulmifolia registraron una descomposición del 88, 76 y 73%, respectivamente; mientras que L. leucocephala + G. ulmifolia y L. leucocephala + M. oleifera mostraron una descomposición de 76 y 83%, respectivamente. Los bancos de forraje de M. oleifera, L. leucocephala y G. ulmifolia

  7. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  8. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  9. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  10. Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents an activity which uses hypothetical situations to explore the proper boundaries of freedom of expression and the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting its limits. Appropriate for grades 4-12, the lesson includes such topics as the "clear and present danger" clause, student expression, obscenity, and defamation. (GEA)

  11. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  12. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  13. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  14. Localizing Expression of Ambiguity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bear, John; Hobbs, Sr, Jerry R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe an implemented program for localizing the expression of many types of syntactic ambiguity, in the logical forms of sentences, in a manner convenient for subsequent inferential processing...

  15. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  16. Express.js blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Augarten, Ben; Lin, Eric; Shaikh, Aidha; Soriani, Fabiano Pereira; Tisserand, Geoffrey; Zhang, Chiqing; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    This book is for beginners to Node.js and also for those who are technically advanced. By the end of this book, every competent developer will have achieved expertise in building web applications with Express.js.

  17. Influencia de la suplementación con concentrado en la producción de leche de vacas Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1O. López

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con concentrado en la producción y la calidad de la leche de vacas mestizas Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo. Se utilizaron ocho animales que pastorearon en una asociación de guinea (Panicum maximum y leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, en un diseño Switch Back, con dos tratamientos: SS (sin suplementación y CS (0,5 kg de concentrado por kilogramo de leche producido a partir del octavo. Se midió la disponibilidad del pasto y de la leucaena, y se estimó la composición química de los alimentos. En los animales se monitoreó la condición corporal (CC, se midió la producción de leche y se determinaron las concentraciones de grasa, proteína, lactosa, sólidos totales (ST y sólidos no grasos (SNG. La disponibilidad de pasto fue 6,4 t de MS/ha/rotación, lo que, unido al ramoneo de la leucaena, permitió ofertas superiores a 100 kg de MS/animal/día. La PB de la guinea fue de 11,4 % y en la leucaena, de 25,2 %. La producción de leche del tratamiento CS fue similar a la del control (9,7 y 9,8 kg/animal/día, respectivamente, al igual que la composición de la leche (grasa, proteína, lactosa, ST y SNG y la CC de las vacas (2,70 para ambos tratamientos. Los datos sugieren que la suplementación con concentrado en vacas lecheras Holstein x Cebú, manejadas en una asociación de guinea y leucaena con elevada oferta de forraje, no incrementa la producción de leche ni mejora su calidad nutricional

  18. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (pheterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (pArtocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba

  19. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  20. The expressions of emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnivetz, Berta

    Abstract On the broadness of the vast field called “Expressions of Emotions” this study focuses on the whole bodily emotional expression. The main question posed is: Whether there are movement patterns specific to each emotion?. I carried out a thorough review of the theories of emotion...... and of expressions of emotions and movement notation that provided the sources for a careful research plan for the empirical process of this study. On this basis I chose to record onto video the four previously choreographed movements that I considered to correspond each of the following emotions: joy, fear, sadness......, anger. The selection of these four emotions demanded previously to clear up the problems the above named survey ensued. When researchers want to describe a certain movement in the field of psychology and non-verbal communication, it may result in disagreements and misunderstandings which sometimes lead...

  1. Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual refl ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.

  2. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  3. In Silico Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Julio; Hehl, Reinhard; Bülow, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Information on the specificity of cis-sequences enables the design of functional synthetic plant promoters that are responsive to specific stresses. Potential cis-sequences may be experimentally tested, however, correlation of genomic sequence with gene expression data enables an in silico expression analysis approach to bioinformatically assess the stress specificity of candidate cis-sequences prior to experimental verification. The present chapter demonstrates an example for the in silico validation of a potential cis-regulatory sequence responsive to cold stress. The described online tool can be applied for the bioinformatic assessment of cis-sequences responsive to most abiotic and biotic stresses of plants. Furthermore, a method is presented based on a reverted in silico expression analysis approach that predicts highly specific potentially functional cis-regulatory elements for a given stress.

  4. Designing Emotionally Expressive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiourti, Christiana; Weiss, Astrid; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Socially assistive agents, be it virtual avatars or robots, need to engage in social interactions with humans and express their internal emotional states, goals, and desires. In this work, we conducted a comparative study to investigate how humans perceive emotional cues expressed by humanoid...... robots through five communication modalities (face, head, body, voice, locomotion) and examined whether the degree of a robot's human-like embodiment affects this perception. In an online survey, we asked people to identify emotions communicated by Pepper -a highly human-like robot and Hobbit – a robot...... for robots....

  5. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and

  6. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  7. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  8. Sensual expressions on faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roek, M.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the possibility that an emotional facial expression exists specifically for signalling sexual interest. We selected photographs of twenty-eight fashion models (male and female) with large portfolios (range 81 - 1593), choosing only face photographs in which the model was looking into the

  9. Experience and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Jay Michael; Weisman, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Two artist-educators analyzed their creative process informed by John Dewey's concepts regarding the act of expression. The essay interweaves a description of their performance piece with a discussion of conceptual processes, including intermediality and collaboration as crucial in art making, learning, and pedagogical efficacy. Both the creation…

  10. Facial expressions recognition with an emotion expressive robotic head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroftei, I.; Adascalitei, F.; Lefeber, D.; Vanderborght, B.; Doroftei, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the preliminary steps in facial expressions recognition with a new version of an expressive social robotic head. So, in a first phase, our main goal was to reach a minimum level of emotional expressiveness in order to obtain nonverbal communication between the robot and human by building six basic facial expressions. To evaluate the facial expressions, the robot was used in some preliminary user studies, among children and adults.

  11. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre plantas tóxicas das mesoregiões Central e Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Antonio Geraldo Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para determinar as plantas tóxicas incriminadas como de interesse zootécnico em 35 municípios das mesorregiões Central e Oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Foram entrevistados 180 produtores, 20 médicos veterinários, 12 técnicos agrícolas e 5 agrônomos. Os dados obtidos nas entrevistas foram compilados e analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info versão 6.04. As plantas tóxicas relatadas pelos entrevistados como causadoras de diversos surtos foram Ipomoea asarifolia, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Indigofera suffruticosa, Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii, Amorimia septentrionalis, Tephrosia cinerea, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Marsdenia megalantha, Anacardium occidentale, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, Crotalaria retusa, Froelichia humboldtiana, Ipomoea carnea, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa tenuiflora, Nerium oleander, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense e Urochloa (Brachiaria decumbens.

  12. Use of exotic species in afforestation and facilitation for the establishment of biological invasion

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to inventory the species used in landscaping the Campus of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Paraíba, Areia, PB, Brazil and to rank them according to their origin and their invasive potential. Through walks throughout the study area (active search, we cataloged all the species used in local afforestation and classified them as native or exotic. Exotic plants were also classified as to their invasive potential. Altogether, we identified 76 species belonging to 67 genera and 25 families. Of these, only 26 species were native. The results of this study are worrisome because of the large number of exotic species used for planting at the study site (50 species, including known aggressive species: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

  13. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  14. Influence of ambient sulphur dioxide on chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahare, C.B.; Varshney, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    For the evaluation of the injury due to SO 2 from Indraprashtha (IP) Thermal Power Plant, eight species of trees were selected. Experiment was divided in two sections. Section one include transplanted tree saplings of Bauhinia variegata, Delonix regia, Flcus benghalensis, Putranjiwa roxburghii, Morus indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tabernaemontana coronaria. Here one set of plants was transplanted to polluted site of IP and other set was maintained at non polluted site of Jawaharlal Nehru University (Ecological Nursery). Second section of the study have naturally growing trees of the same species in the vicinity of the transplanted plants. Findings of the present study show that tree species were not safe at polluted site. Maximum chlorophyll reduction occurred in Bauhinia variegata, that is 32.05% (transplanted saplings). In naturally growing trees up to 35.70% reduction was seen in B. variegata. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Selection of species tolerant to the herbicide sulfentrazone with potential for phytoremediation of contaminated soilsSeleção de espécies tolerantes ao herbicida sulfentrazone com potencial para a fitorremediação de solos contaminados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Madalão

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to select species with potential for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with the herbicide sulfentrazone. Eight species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi, Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Cajanus cajan, Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium cinereum, and Raphanus sativus. The experiment was set-up inside a greenhouse, using pots with a capacity of 6dm3 filled with soil samples collected at a depth of 0-20cm. The experimental design was arranged into randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (8 × 5 with four replications, which consisted of the combination between the species and five doses of sulfentrazone (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600g ha-1. The herbicide phytotoxicity, plant heights, and dry masses of shoots and roots were evaluated. The species Cajanus cajan and Leucaena leucocephala had a higher tolerance to sulfentrazone up to a dose of 400g ha-1, showing minor symptoms of phytotoxicity and smaller decreases in plant heights and in dry matter accumulation, both in the shoots and roots, when compared to the control treatment, indicating, thus, the potential to be used for further studies on phytoremediation of sulfentrazone in soil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies com potencial para a fitorremediação de solos contaminados com o herbicida sulfentrazone. Foram avaliadas oito espécies: Arachis pintoi, Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Cajanus cajan, Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium cinereum e Raphanus sativus. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, com a utilização de vasos com capacidade para 6 dm3 preenchidos com porções de solo coletadas na profundidade de 0-20 cm. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 8 × 5, com quatro repetições, composto pela combinação entre as espécies e cinco doses do sulfentrazone (0, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do

  16. Revegetating Bagacay Mining Site: A review of potential tropical species for phytoremediation of non-essential heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rhey Ymas Dayang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-mining activities in Samar left serious environmental issues. Albeit it is used to provide prosperity to its constituents, mining in the area brought with it negative impacts. Bagacay Mine, an abandoned mining area in the province was left with enourmous amount of heavy metals. This include As (6-693 ppm, Cu (9-5,279, Pb (22-354 ppm, Hg (1-5 ppm, Zn (<1-7,138 ppm and Fe (5,900-373,500 ppm. The area was then reforested with Swietenia macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Bambusa blumeana and Thysanolaena maxima but only 1 percent survived. This paper touches the nature and effects of the non-essential heavy metals and metalloids present in the area as well as the mechanism of phytoextraction. Additionally, tropical metallophytes which can be used for phytoremediation activities in the future were introduced and reviewed.

  17. Alley Farming in Thailand

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    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-07-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala.

  19. EKSPLORASI DAN PRODUKTIFITAS PADANG PENGGEMBALAAN DI KECAMATAN PAMONA TIMUR KABUPATEN POSO SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.M.H. Karti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture in District of East Pamona, Poso Regency has potential as forage for livestock.. This study was conducted in two villages (Didiri and Kelei to explore of plant species as feed and productivity calculation such as botanical composition and carrying capacities. Type of grasses that grow are Sporobolus sp, Paspalum sp, Paspalum cartilagineum, Axonopus compresus, Euleusine indica. Type of legumes that grow are Stylosanthes guianensis, Desmodium sp, Centrocema pubescens, Callyandra callothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala. Types of weeds have started to grow in several locations within the region, such as Melastoma, Mimosa pudica, Imperata cylindrica, Cromolena odorata, Cyperacea, and Lamtana camara. Botanical composition (% in Kelei for grass, legumes, weeds (84.76: 6.75: 8:49 and Didiri for grass, legumes, weeds (95.34: 0:51: 4.15. Carrying Capacities in Kelei and Didiri was 0.96 ± 0:23 and 1:12 ± 0:29 ST / ha.

  20. del estado de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Uribe-Valle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2006 en Yucatán se establecieron aproximadamente, 167,000 hectáreas con agricultura migratoria, en asociaciones de maíz con frijol, calabaza y hortalizas, en tierras con diferentes periodos de barbecho que son aprovechados por tres años. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento químico del suelo al evaluar tres coberturas y dos periodos de barbecho, así como también la fase de cultivo. Los tipos de cobertura vegetal: Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit. subespecie leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens y vegetación secundaria, con dos y cuatro años de barbecho, establecidos en un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinaron los contenidos nutrimentales en tres tiempos: 1998 después de dos años de establecidos los barbechos de cuatro años, 2001 al cumplirse los barbechos de dos y cuatro años e iniciar la fase de cultivo y 2004 a tres años de uso continuo del terreno. Al final de los periodos de barbecho Leucaena mejoró en mayor medida el contenido de K, Ca y Mg, mientras que Mucuna el NO3 y la vegetación secundaria la materia orgánica. El barbecho de dos años registró valores superiores en el contenido de materia orgánica, NO3 y K, al compararlo con el de cuatro años, que superó al de dos años en el contenido de Mg.

  1. Caracterización de especies arbóreas y arbustivas forrajeras en clima semiárido del sur de Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Cordoví

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento de especies forrajeras arbóreas y arbustivas en clima semiárido se desarrolló un experimento, con corte y en secano, con Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Moringa oleifera, Senna siamea y Morus alba. El diseño fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, y se utilizaron parcelas de 12 m². En verano, L. leucocephala, L. pallida, S. siamea y M. alba produjeron más de 12 t de MS por hectárea como promedio; mientras que en invierno se obtuvieron entre 9,38 y 11,62 t/ha, excepto en M. oleifera (5,49 t/ha. Los intervalos de corte variaron entre 62 y 65 días en verano; mientras que en invierno aumentaron hasta 102 y 117 días en G. sepium y M. oleifera, respectivamente, y oscilaron entre 81 y 92 días para el resto de las especies. El porcentaje de hojas fue superior en invierno y en ello sobresalió S. siamea (62 y 69 % en verano e invierno, respectivamente. Durante el invierno se obtuvo una alta producción de MS, en lo cual se destacaron G. sepium, M. alba y S. siamea (47-50 %. Se confirmó el buen comportamiento de estas especies arbóreas y arbustivas en condiciones semiáridas, con rendimientos de MS superiores a 12 t/ha y una producción estable durante el año. Se recomienda incluirlas en investigaciones con animales en sistemas silvopastoriles y bancos de proteína; así como utilizar otros marcos de siembra en función de mejorar su potencial productivo

  2. ERG protein expression over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Brasso, Klaus; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We evaluated the consistency in ERG protein expression from diagnostic specimens through rebiopsies to radical prostatectomies in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer to investigate the validity of ERG status in biopsies. METHODS: ERG expression was assessed by immunohistochem......AIMS: We evaluated the consistency in ERG protein expression from diagnostic specimens through rebiopsies to radical prostatectomies in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer to investigate the validity of ERG status in biopsies. METHODS: ERG expression was assessed...

  3. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  4. Expressing emotions in blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Carmina Rodriguez-Hidalgo; Tan, Ed S.; Verlegh, Peeter

    2017-01-01

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing...... of emotion (SSE, Rimé, 2009). This study content-analyzed Live Journal blogposts for the occurrence of TPC in three phases of online SSE: initiation, feedback and repost. We compared these to TPC on a second type of emotional expression, emotional venting. Based on Social Information processing theory (SIP......, Walther, 1992), and on the Emotional Mimicry in Context (EMC, Hess & Fischer, 2013) framework, we study predictive relationships in TPC usage in our phased model of online SSE. Results showed that TPC prevailed in SSE blogposts and strongly dominated in emotional venting posts. TPC was more common...

  5. Natural Art, False Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Nossa García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the documentary My Kid Could Paint That, directed by Bar-Lev, which deals with Marla Olmstead, the child prodigy of painting, several interviews with persons in the art world are conducted, among them an artist who uses a magnifying glass and the thinnest brushes to do his work. This man, although happy for the success of the child’s abstract paintings, saw in the whole spectacle a mockery of art, and stood firmly by her work. The girl’s father, also an artist, was accused of plagiarism. Cameras entered the child’s studio in order to prove that Marla was the real artist. Why should such relevance be given to authorship? What is the cause of the dispute between the expressive and the rational?

  6. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate br...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants.......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  7. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  8. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  9. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. I. Variables morfoestructurales Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. I. Morphostructural variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un ensayo en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoestructural de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca en condiciones de vivero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Las variables estudiadas fueron: altura de la planta; diámetro del tallo y de las ramas; número de hojas, ramas, raíces y nódulos totales; y longitud de la rama y de la raíz. Al final de la evaluación (18 semanas no se observaron diferencias significativas entre L. leucocephala y E. fusca en la altura de la planta (45,2 y 51,0 cm, el diámetro del tallo (0,65 y 0,78 cm, el número de hojas (43 y 45 y de ramas (17 y 18 y la longitud de la raíz (32,1 y 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck sólo se destacó en el número de raíces (61 y de nódulos totales promedio (6. Los resultados permiten concluir que con la utilización de un sustrato alcalino en vivero, L. leucocephala y E. fusca exhibieron un comportamiento morfoestructural aéreo similar y superior que el de A. lebbeck; mientras que la albizia mostró mejores resultados en la morfoestructura radical.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the morphostructural performance of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca under nursery conditions. A completely randomized design was used for repeated measurements in time and ten replications per species. The studied variables were: plant height; stem and branch diameter; number of leaves, branches, roots and total nodules; and branch and root length. At the end of the evaluation (18 weeks no significant differences were observed between L. leucocephala and E. fusca in plant height (45,2 and 51,0 cm, stem diameter (0,65 and 0,78 cm, number of leaves (43 and 45 and branches (17 and 18 and root length (32,1 and 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck only stood out for

  10. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  11. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  12. Nutritive value and qualitative assessment of secondary compounds in seeds of eight tropical browse, shrub and pulse legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayemi, O J; Demeyer, D; Fievez, V

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of four tropical multipurpose trees (Albizia saman, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia rhizonse, Leucaena leucocephala), two shrubs (Tephrosia candida, Tephrosia bracteolata) and two pulse legume (Lablab purpureus, Canavalia ensiformis) were chemically analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and ether extract (EE). Qualitative evaluation of secondary metabolites (saponins, phenols, steroids, and alkaloids) was elucidated. The DM, ash, CP, NDF and EE ranged between 88.9-93.6 %, 3.0-5.4 %, 24.8-38.2 %, 22.1-46.9 % and 2.0-17.0 % respectively. All seed species contained at least one group of secondary plant metabolites and steroids were common to all except C. ensiformis that was not implicated for any. A. lebbeck and A. rhizonse showed low saponin content. Indications for water soluble tannins were reported for L. leucocephala while the two species of Tephrosia contained flavonoids or condensed tannins. The study suggested the potentials of the legumes seed species as a feed source for ruminants.

  13. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  14. Facial Expressivity at 4 Months: A Context by Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The specificity predicted by differential emotions theory (DET) for early facial expressions in response to 5 different eliciting situations was studied in a sample of 4-month-old infants (n = 150). Infants were videotaped during tickle, sour taste, jack-in-the-box, arm restraint, and masked-stranger situations and their expressions were coded second by second. Infants showed a variety of facial expressions in each situation; however, more infants exhibited positive (joy and surprise) than negative expressions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) across all situations except sour taste. Consistent with DET-predicted specificity, joy expressions were the most common in response to tickling, and were less common in response to other situations. Surprise expressions were the most common in response to the jack-in-the-box, as predicted, but also were the most common in response to the arm restraint and masked-stranger situations, indicating a lack of specificity. No evidence of predicted specificity was found for anger, disgust, fear, and sadness expressions. Evidence of individual differences in expressivity within situations, as well as stability in the pattern across situations, underscores the need to examine both child and contextual factors in studying emotional development. The results provide little support for the DET postulate of situational specificity and suggest that a synthesis of differential emotions and dynamic systems theories of emotional expression should be considered.

  15. What emotion does the "facial expression of disgust" express?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochedly, Joseph T; Widen, Sherri C; Russell, James A

    2012-12-01

    The emotion attributed to the prototypical "facial expression of disgust" (a nose scrunch) depended on what facial expressions preceded it. In two studies, the majority of 120 children (5-14 years) and 135 adults (16-58 years) judged the nose scrunch as expressing disgust when the preceding set included an anger scowl, but as angry when the anger scowl was omitted. An even greater proportion of observers judged the nose scrunch as angry when the preceding set also included a facial expression of someone about to be sick. The emotion attributed to the nose scrunch therefore varies with experimental context. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Biomass and carbon stock potential of Gliricidia Sepium as an alternative energy at Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, F. H.; Hariyadi; Hartono, A.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of biomass from plants is one efforts for the fulfillment an availability of alternative energy in indonesia. Gliricidia sepium is a tolerant species that can grow in dry land. However its utilization as renewable energy source is non-optimized. This study aims to analyze the potential carbon stocks and biomass from Gliricidia sepium as a raw material for alternative energy in East Nusa Tenggara. This study was conducted in November 2015 and located in Humusu Sainiup, Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The method used in collecting data was applied in three different land-use, namely monoculture Gliricidia sepium, polyculture between Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and polyculture between Gliricidia sepium and Zea mays. We used the allometric equation from Ketterings namely B = 0.11ρD2+0,62 and C = 0.5 x B. The results showed that the different land-use will give different value of carbon stocks which is in this study the biggest value of carbon stocks was found in monoculture of Gliricidia sp (35.35 tC ha-1) compared with Gliricidia sp + Leucaena sp (18.83 tC ha-1), and Gliricidia sp + Zea mays (13.79 tC ha-1). The value of biomass and carbon stocks was influenced by wood density, trees density, and diameter at breast height (dbh).

  17. Herbaceous energy crops in humid lower South USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The humid lower South has the long warm growing season and high rainfall conditions needed for producing high-yielding perennial herbaceous grasses and shrubs. Many potential biomass plants were evaluated during a ten-year period. Perennial tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp.) and the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala were the highest in biomass production. These perennial crops often have top growth killed by winter freezes and regenerate from underground parts. The tall grasses have high yields because of linear crop growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2} d{sup {minus}1} for long periods (140 to 196 d) each season. Tall grasses must be planted vegetatively, which is more costly than seed propagation, however, once established, they may persist for many seasons. Oven dry biomass yields have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in colder subtropical to mild temperate locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in the lower portion of the Florida peninsular. Highest biomass yields have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils in south Florida. The energy content of 1 Mg of oven dry tall grass and leucaena is equivalent to that of about 112 and 123 gallons of number 2 diesel fuel, respectively.

  18. Case studies related to the management of soil acidity and infertility in the West-African Moist Savannah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Sanginga, N.; Diels, J.; Merckx, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although the soil pH and base status of the soils in the West African Moist Savannah Zone (MSZ) are usually favourable, their buffer capacity is usually low, indicating that while soil acidity may not be a problem initially, inappropriate management of these soils may induce soil-acidity-related problems in the medium to long term. The current paper addresses 3 topics that are closely related to the management of soil pH (acidity) in the West African MSZ. A first experiment addressed the release of P from low reactivity phosphate rock (PR) by mixing it with various N fertilizers. Mixing ammonium-sulphate, urea, and calcium-ammonium nitrate with PR substantially enhanced the soil Olsen-P content, but not for soils with an initial pH above 5.5, while potassium nitrate did not change the Olsen-P content. Changes in soil pH could be predicted based on the production of nitrate from ammonium (nitrification) and the soil buffer capacity. A second experiment examined the changes in topsoil pH as affected by long term management based on the application of organic inputs derived from hedgerow trees (Leucaena leucocephala and Senna siamea), fertilizer, or both. Maize crop yields declined steadily over the 16 years studied, but the least so in the Senna + fertilizer treatment where in 2002 still 2.2 t ha -1 of maize were obtained. The fertilizer only treatment led to a yield of 0.4 t ha -1 in 2002, while the absolute control without any inputs yielded a mere 40 kg ha -1 in the same year. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was usually higher in the Senna treatment compared to the control or the Leucaena treatment. Interactions between fertilizer and organic matter additions were negative for the Leucaena treatments in the first three years, and positive for the Senna treatment in the last 6 years. Trees had a positive effect on the maintenance of exchangeable cations in the topsoil. Exchangeable Ca, Mg and K - and hence ECEC - were only slightly reduced after 16 years of

  19. Calidad nutricional y fraccionamiento de carbohidratos y proteína en los componentes forrajeros de un sistema silvopastoril intensivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Gaviria

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar nutricionalmente los componentes forrajeros de un SSPi basado en Leucaena leucocephala asociada a pasturas mejoradas, así como su producción de biomasa. La producción de forraje se determinó en varios momentos del año y la calidad nutricional se evaluó mediante el esquema Cornell. La proporción de proteína soluble (fracción A fue similar entre las gramíneas yL. leucocephala, y representó como mínimo el 34 % de la proteína total. La proporción de proteína B2 (degradación intermedia de la leguminosa fue más alta que la de las gramíneas (53,7 vs. 30,2 %, respectivamente. La proteína B3 (degradación lenta de la dieta fue de alrededor de 22 % de la proteína total, y más del 71 % de esta se puede considerar como degradable en el rumen. L. leucocephala presentó una concentración más alta de carbohidratos solubles (16,7 % y menor cantidad de la fracción B2 (14,94 % que las gramíneas. En lo referente a disponibilidad de biomasa, se alcanzó una producción de 19,26 t de MS ha año-1. Se concluye que en los SSPi se produce una alta cantidad de forraje de calidad durante el año, y que esta oferta es suficiente para cubrir los requerimientos de los rumiantes.

  20. Generational Differences of Emotional Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学勇

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of subjective psychological activity, emotion can only be known and perceived by a certain expressive form. Varies as the different main bodies, difference of emotional expression can be reflected not only among individuals but between generations. The old conceals their emotions inside, the young express their emotions boldly, and the middle-aged are rational and deep in their expressions. Facing and understanding such differences is the premise and foundation of the con-struction of a harmonious relationship between different generations.

  1. Precise Analysis of String Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision......., including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language...

  2. Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Zehoo, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes provides an example-based approach to learning Application Express - the ground-breaking, rapid application development platform included with every Oracle Database license. The recipes format is ideal for the quick-study who just wants a good example or two to kick start their thinking and get pointed in the right direction. The recipes cover the gamut of Application Express development. Author and Application Express expert Edmund Zehoo shows how to create data entry screens, visualize data in the form of reports and charts, implement validation and back-

  3. Expression modeling for expression-invariant face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. Ter; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Morphable face models have proven to be an effective tool for 3D face modeling and face recognition, but the extension to 3D face scans with expressions is still a challenge. The two main difficulties are (1) how to build a new morphable face model that deals with expressions, and (2) how to fit

  4. Human papillomavirus gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.T.; Hirochika, H.; Nasseri, M.; Stoler, M.H.; Wolinsky, S.M.; Chin, M.T.; Hirochika, R.; Arvan, D.S.; Broker, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of tissue differentiation on expression of each of the papillomavirus mRNA species identified by electron microscopy, the authors prepared exon-specific RNA probes that could distinguish the alternatively spliced mRNA species. Radioactively labeled single-stranded RNA probes were generated from a dual promoter vector system and individually hybridized to adjacent serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of condylomata. Autoradiography showed that each of the message species had a characteristic tissue distribution and relative abundance. The authors have characterized a portion of the regulatory network of the HPVs by showing that the E2 ORF encodes a trans-acting enhancer-stimulating protein, as it does in BPV-1 (Spalholz et al. 1985). The HPV-11 enhancer was mapped to a 150-bp tract near the 3' end of the URR. Portions of this region are duplicated in some aggressive strains of HPV-6 (Boshart and zur Hausen 1986; Rando et al. 1986). To test the possible biological relevance of these duplications, they cloned tandem arrays of the enhancer and demonstrated, using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay, that they led to dramatically increased transcription proportional to copy number. Using the CAT assays, the authors found that the E2 proteins of several papillomavirus types can cross-stimulate the enhancers of most other types. This suggests that prior infection of a tissue with one papillomavirus type may provide a helper effect for superinfection and might account fo the HPV-6/HPV-16 coinfections in condylomata that they have observed

  5. ENERGETIC VALUE OF FORAGES FROM SEMI-ARID REGION AND DIGESTIBILITY OF RATIONS FOR NAKED NECK PULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX MARTINS VARELA DE ARRUDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding programs for naked neck chickens in semi-intensive production system from brazilian equatorial semi-arid environment, must consider regional food availability and respective nutritional values. Thus, to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizable energy of alternative forages, it was used 240 naked neck pullets (Isa Label lineage receiving water and ration ad libitum, pair-housed in cages for total collection of excreta on conventional warehouse. It was used a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement (5x2: one control ration (corn and soy meal and other four experimental rations with silk flower hay (Calotropis procera, cassava leafs hay (Manihot esculenta, kills pasture hay (Senna obtusifolia or leucaena leafs hay (Leucaena leucocephala, and all rations were balanced for two growing phases, between 8 and 10 weeks (young pullets and between 14 and 16 weeks of age (old pullets. The values of apparent digestibility of nutrients for all experimental rations were lower than control ration (P <0.05 and it was observed general means of 72.18% for dry matter, 78.12% for crude protein, 66.90% for ether extract, 28.08% for neutral detergent fiber, 18.51% for the acid detergent fiber, 71.64% for gross energy and availability of 15.61% for mineral matter. The general mean of apparent and corrected metabolizable energy of alternative forages was 1217 kcal/ kg and 1108 kcal/kg, respectively, and the higher value was determined for leucaena hay and the lower value for silk flower hay (P <0.05.

  6. Assessing the sustainable development and intensification potential of beef cattle production in Sumbawa, Indonesia, using a system dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlanuddin; Henderson, Benjamin; Dizyee, Kanar; Hermansyah; Ash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of beef cattle production in dryland areas of East Indonesia has the potential to substantially raise the incomes of smallholder farmers that dominate the sector. In this study we assess the potential for intensifying beef production on Sumbawa Island, by introducing a household feedlot production system (2-20 animals) based on the Leucaena leucocephala (leucanea) tree legume as an improved source of feed. We used a system dynamics approach to model the entire value chain, accounting for herd dynamics, demand dynamics and seasonality. Our findings complement the growing body of biophysical evidence about the potential success of this intervention, by simulating improvements in the annual profitability for beef farmers in the project area of up to 415% by 2023. Increases in farm profit were shown to depend near equally on the higher productivity of the leucaena feeding system and an associated price premium, demonstrating the importance of supporting improved agricultural production with better marketing practices. The intervention was also shown to generate positive or neutral benefits for the main post-farm value chain actors. Importantly, it also reduced the GHG emission intensity of outputs from the beef herd by 16% by 2020. We explored number of scale-out pathways, including a relatively moderate pace of autonomous adoption for our main analysis, resulting in the accumulation of 3,444 hectares of leucaena 20-years after the initial project phase, which could sustain the fattening of 37,124 male cattle per year. More ambitious rates of scale-out were found to be possible without exceeding the animal and land resources of the island.

  7. Differential Gene Expression and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seroude

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that an intricate program of gene expression controls progression through the different stages in development. The equally complex biological phenomenon known as aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. This review focuses on the genetic component of aging, with a special emphasis on differential gene expression. At least two genetic pathways regulating organism longevity act by modifying gene expression. Many genes are also subjected to age-dependent transcriptional regulation. Some age-related gene expression changes are prevented by caloric restriction, the most robust intervention that slows down the aging process. Manipulating the expression of some age-regulated genes can extend an organism's life span. Remarkably, the activity of many transcription regulatory elements is linked to physiological age as opposed to chronological age, indicating that orderly and tightly controlled regulatory pathways are active during aging.

  8. Measuring facial expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.

  9. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    (ectoderm) specification with co-opted functions in notochord formation in chordates and left/right determination in ambulacrarians and vertebrates. The caudal ortholog, TtrCdx, is first expressed in the ectoderm of the gastrulating embryo in the posterior region of the blastopore. Its expression stays......The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa...... completion of larval development, which is marked by a three-lobed body with larval setae. Expression starts at gastrulation in two areas lateral to the blastopore and subsequently extends over the animal pole of the gastrula. With elongation of the gastrula, expression at the animal pole narrows to a small...

  10. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seresinhe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP, dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL (Trt 1, C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS (Trt 2, Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3, A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4, Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5, C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6, Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7, A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8. The condensed tannin (CT content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium. Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p0.05 NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8 mixture which may be attributed with it’s highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05 was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6 followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8 and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus

  11. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  12. Nestin expression in neuroepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Davide; Manazza, Andrea; Tamagno, Ilaria

    2006-05-29

    Nestin is a marker of early stages of neurocytogenesis. It has been studied in 50 neuroepithelial tumors, mostly gliomas of different malignancy grades, by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy and compared with GFAP and Vimentin. As an early marker of differentiation, Nestin is almost not expressed in diffuse astrocytomas, variably expressed in anaplastic astrocytomas and strongly and irregularly expressed in glioblastomas. Negative in oligodendrogliomas, it stains ependymomas and shows a gradient of expression in pilocytic astrocytomas. In glioblastomas, Nestin distribution does not completely correspond to that of GFAP and Vimentin with which its expression varies in tumor cells in a complementary way, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. Tumor cells can thus either derive from or differentiate toward the neurocytogenetic stages. Hypothetically, they could be put in relation with radial glia where during embriogenesis the three antigens are successively expressed. Completely negative cells of invasive or recurrent glioblastomas may represent malignant selected clones after accumulation of mutations or early stem cells not expressing antigens.

  13. The expressive stance: intentionality, expression, and machine art

    OpenAIRE

    Linson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new interpretive stance for interpreting artistic works and performances that is relevant to artificial intelligence research but also has broader implications. Termed the expressive stance, this stance makes intelligible a critical distinction between present-day machine art and human art, but allows for the possibility that future machine art could find a place alongside our own. The expressive stance is elaborated as a response to Daniel Dennett's notion of the intent...

  14. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  15. Expression in E. coli systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely......Owing to cost advantage, speed of production, and often high product yield (up to 50% of total cell protein), expression in Escherichia coli is generally the first choice when attempting to express a recombinant protein. Expression systems exist to produce recombinant protein intracellularly...

  16. Enzymatic activity and mineralization of carbon and nitrogen in soil cultivated with coffee and green manures Atividade enzimática e mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob solo cultivado com adubos verdes na cultura do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are great concerns about degradation of agricultural soils. It has been suggested that cultivating different plant species intercropped with coffee plants can increase microbial diversity and enhance soil sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate enzyme activity (urease, arylsulfatase and phosphatase and alterations in C and N mineralization rates as related to different legume cover crops planted between rows of coffee plants. Soil samples were collected in a field experiment conducted for 10 years in a sandy soil in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. Samples were collected from the 0-10 cm layer, both from under the tree canopy and in-between rows in the following treatments: control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The soil was sampled in four stages of legume cover crops: pre-planting (September, after planting (November, flowering stage (February and after plant residue incorporation (April, from 1997 to 1999. The green manure species influenced soil enzyme activity (urease, arylsulfatase and phosphatase and C and N mineralization rates, both under the tree canopy and in-between rows. Cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased acid phosphatase and arilsulfatase activity and C and N mineralization both under the tree canopy and in-between rows. Intercropped L. leucocephala increased urease activity under the tree canopy while C. breviflora increased urease activity in-between rows.Existe grande preocupação sobre a degradação dos solos agrícolas. Tem sido sugerido que o cultivo de plantas intercalares no cafeeiro aumenta a diversidade microbiana e a sustentabilidade do solo. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a alteração na atividade de enzimas do solo (urease, arilsulfatase e fosfatase e na mineralização do C e N devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes leguminosas de verão na cultura do

  17. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  18. A Tattoo Is Expression, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In "Stephenson v. Davenport Community School District," the U.S. Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that schools cannot adopt unduly vague policies to regulate student expression, in this case, a cross-shaped tattoo. (LMI)

  19. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  20. Emerald Express '95: Analysis Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newett, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Emerald Express was to bring together senior representatives from military, relief, political, and diplomatic communities to address issues that arise during Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operations (HA/POs...

  1. Race, Reparations, and Free Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Describes how a controversial newspaper ad opposing slavery reparations and the subsequent trashing of the student daily have set off a debate at Brown University about the competing values of sensitivity and free expression. (EV)

  2. Expression of Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    1997-01-01

    .... The G117H enzyme has the potential to be useful for decontamination of skin and eye. To determine how many amino acids could be deleted from butyrylcholinesterase without loss of activity, deletion mutants were expressed...

  3. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  4. Craniopharyngioma: Survivin expression and ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, JIANG; YOU, CHAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of survivin protein expression levels in craniopharyngioma. Tumor samples and clinical data were obtained from 50 patients with craniopharyngioma who were admitted to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University (Chengdu, China). The morphology of the craniopharyngioma samples was observed using optical and electron microscopes, and survivin expression was investigated in the samples by immunohistochemical analysis. The immunohistochemical results revealed survivin expression in all of the craniopharyngioma samples, but not in the healthy brain tissue samples. It was identified that survivin was expressed at a higher level in cases of the adamantinomatous type compared with those of the squamous-papillary type, in male patients compared with female patients, in children compared with adults and in recurrent cases compared with non-recurrent cases. Furthermore, no significant difference was detected in survivin expression levels among the tumors of different subtypes and different disease stages. The results of the present study indicate that survivin is significant in the development of craniopharyngioma, and that survivin protein expression levels are a meaningful indicator for assessing craniopharyngioma recurrence. PMID:25435936

  5. The motivation to express prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  6. Pericentrin expression in Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Concetta; Romano, Carmelo; Salluzzo, Roberto; Caraci, Filippo; Cantarella, Rita Anna; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Drago, Filippo; Romano, Corrado; Bosco, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and is a chromosomal abnormality of chromosome 21 trisomy. The pericentrin gene (PCNT) has sequenced in 21q22.3 inside of the minimal critical region for Down's syndrome. Alterations of PCNT gene are associated with dwarfism, cardiomyopathy and other pathologies. In this study, we have evaluated the possible differential expression of PCNT mRNA, by qRT-PCR, in peripheral blood leukocytes of DS subjects compared with the normal population. In the present case-control study, PCNT gene expression was increased by 72.72% in 16 out 22 DS samples compared with normal subjects. Our data suggest that changes in the expression levels of PCNT in DS subjects may be involved into the molecular mechanism of Down's syndrome.

  7. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  8. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  9. Construction of PVX virus-expression vector to express enterotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato X potyvirus (PVX)-based vector has been comprehensively applied in transient expression system. In order to produce the heterologous proteins more quickly and stably, the ClaI and NotI enzyme sites were introduced into the Enterotoxin fusion gene LTB-ST by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the LTB-ST ...

  10. Advanced express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keig, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A practical book, guiding the reader through the development of a single page application using a feature-driven approach.If you are an experienced JavaScript developer who wants to build highly scalable, real-world applications using Express, this book is ideal for you. This book is an advanced title and assumes that the reader has some experience with node, Javascript MVC web development frameworks, and has heard of Express before, or is familiar with it. You should also have a basic understanding of Redis and MongoDB. This book is not a tutorial on Node, but aims to explore some of the more

  11. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  12. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies....... For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce...

  13. Microsoft Expression Web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hefferman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Expression Web is Microsoft's newest tool for creating and maintaining dynamic Web sites. This FrontPage replacement offers all the simple ""what-you-see-is-what-you-get"" tools for creating a Web site along with some pumped up new features for working with Cascading Style Sheets and other design options. Microsoft Expression Web For Dummies arrives in time for early adopters to get a feel for how to build an attractive Web site. Author Linda Hefferman teams up with longtime FrontPage For Dummies author Asha Dornfest to show the easy way for first-time Web designers, FrontPage ve

  14. The change of expression configuration affects identity-dependent expression aftereffect but not identity-independent expression aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eSong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile versus a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using across-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The result shows that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems.

  15. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  16. Communicating emotions in expressive avatars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkegaard, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Avatars have become a fundamental part of collaborative virtual environments. They are the visual embodiment of the user and are designed to address key issues in the interaction process between the user and the CVE. Giving avatars expressive abilities has been considered essential in computer-human

  17. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  18. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  19. The SSETI-express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, N.

    In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year...

  20. The SSETI-Express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, Neil

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year...

  1. Digestion, growth performance and caecal fermentation in growing rabbits fed diets containing foliage of browse trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Abu Hafsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L

  2. The motivation to express prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  4. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  5. Recombination-ready Sindbis replicon expression vectors for transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sindbis viruses have been widely used as tools to study gene function in cells. Despite the utility of these systems, the construction and production of alphavirus replicons is time consuming and inefficient due to potential additional restriction sites within the insert region and lack of directionality for insert ligation. In this report, we present a system useful for producing recombinant Sindbis replicons that uses lambda phage recombination technology to rapidly and specifically construct replicon expression plasmids that contain insert regions in the desired orientation. Results Recombination of the gene of interest with the replicon plasmid resulted in nearly 100% recombinants, each of which contained a correctly orientated insert. Replicons were easily produced in cell culture and packaged into pseudo-infectious viral particles. Insect and mammalian cells infected with pseudo-infectious viral particles expressed various transgenes at high levels. Finally, inserts from persistently replicating replicon RNA were easily isolated and recombined back into entry plasmids for sequencing and subsequent analysis. Conclusion Replication-ready replicon expression plasmids make the use of alphavirus replicons fast and easy as compared to traditional replicon production methods. This system represents a significant step forward in the utility and ease of use of alphavirus replicons in the study of gene function.

  6. Dynamic Facial Expression of Emotion Made Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expressions. The mecha...

  7. Emotional Expression in Reality TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    Reality TV has been disputed and discussed along many lines for the last 20 years; the media themselves always with a twist of concern about reality programs crossing moral borderlines while research has put more interest in questions of genre and representation of more or less useful and maybe...... empowering social identities. In the latest generation of reality TV which Misha Kava has described as the “celebrity generation”, it seems that reality creates new standards for mixing facts and fiction and even different “realities” as participants become media stars while more traditional celebrities...... are being treated as ordinary people. My article will discuss different presentations of selves and especially the emotional verbal and nonverbal expressions in reality TV communication. Aspects of the intimate self and its emotional expressions seem to be strategically managed in reality TV and even...

  8. On the Expressiveness of Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expressiveness of communication primitives has been explored in a common framework based on the pi-calculus by considering four features: synchronism (asynchronous vs synchronous, arity (monadic vs polyadic data, communication medium (shared dataspaces vs channel-based, and pattern-matching (binding to a name vs testing name equality vs intensionality. Here another dimension coordination is considered that accounts for the number of processes required for an interaction to occur. Coordination generalises binary languages such as pi-calculus to joining languages that combine inputs such as the Join Calculus and general rendezvous calculus. By means of possibility/impossibility of encodings, this paper shows coordination is unrelated to the other features. That is, joining languages are more expressive than binary languages, and no combination of the other features can encode a joining language into a binary language. Further, joining is not able to encode any of the other features unless they could be encoded otherwise.

  9. Architecture between construction and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lanini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I think that the problem is basically the same as always: to redefine the relationship between Construction and Expression. On one hand, construction is considered an endeavor, on the other hand, a tendency to contest architecture only with expression. The relationship between architecture and control of urban phenomena is a relationship that has been gradually lost in the past three decades and has been replaced by the relationship between finance and planning. A useful object is very different from a building: for its time and costs of construction. Buildings are expected to last many years and are paid with everybody’s taxes, a design object’s lifespan is perhaps fifty years, then it’s ready to be modernized or for the landfill ... I believe that the main tool that a designer must have, beyond necessary technical skills, is the capacity of his/her own critical thought.

  10. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  11. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  12. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol here. Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  13. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  14. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  15. Children's Representations of Facial Expression and Identity: Identity-Contingent Expression Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation used adaptation aftereffects to examine developmental changes in the perception of facial expressions. Previous studies have shown that adults' perceptions of ambiguous facial expressions are biased following adaptation to intense expressions. These expression aftereffects are strong when the adapting and probe expressions share…

  16. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  17. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  18. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  19. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  20. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  1. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  2. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  3. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  4. Helping children express grief through symbolic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R M

    1984-12-01

    Communication barriers erected by grieving children delay problem resolution. Use of the expressive arts--music, art, and body movement--in symbolic communication helps them to express overwhelming feelings and cope with trauma and stress.

  5. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  6. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  7. Hepcidin expression in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential nutrient for mammals. Accelerated loss of nutrients through hyperproliferation and desquamation from the skin in psoriasis is known. Hepcidin is an important and recently discovered regulator of iron homeostasis. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepcidin expression in psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: We examined peripheral blood cell counts, serum Fe, ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and hepcidin levels using respectively automated hematology analyzer, Iron assay on the AEROSET system, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay with automated analyzer, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The independent comparison of Fe, ferritin, IL-6 and hepcidin levels in psoriasis patients and control group (healthy volunteers revealed lower Fe and higher IL-6, hepcidin levels in psoriasis patients. No significant difference was seen in the ferritin level between the psoriasis and the control group. Conclusions: We think that studies on hepcidin expression in psoriatic plaques will contribute to our understanding the role of iron and hepcidin in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  8. Edix: A Software for Editing Algebraic Expressions.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhineau , Denis; Nicaud , Jean-François; Pavard , X.

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a computer software, called Edix, devoted to the edition of algebraic expressions in their usual 2D representation. At present, many systems display fine algebraic expressions, but the edition of such expressions is weak. Systems like Word and FrameMaker place sub-expressions in too many boxes so that many editing actions are not simple, while usual CAS (computer algebra systems) just use a 1D representation for the edition. Furthermore, Edix allows ...

  9. Kivy and Langer on expressiveness in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Schoot Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1980 onwards, Peter Kivy has put forward that music does not so much express emotions but rather is expressive of emotions. The character of the music does not represent the character or mood of the composer, but reflects his knowledge of emotional life. Unfortunately, Kivy fails to give credit to Susanne Langer, who brought these views to the fore as early as 1942, claiming that the vitality of music lies in expressiveness, not in expression.

  10. The evolution of gene expression in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Tashakkori Ghanbarian, Avazeh

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a gene’s expression profile is commonly assumed to be independent of its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between expression of neighboring genes in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes, genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their e...

  11. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    IFN-α and IFN-α Receptor mRNA expression in the liver. All the patients showed IFN-α gene expression except one patient who had the highest degree of fibrosis (fibrosis grade 5) and HAI Index of 9. IFN- α Receptor mRNA was expressed in 30% (9/30). (Figure 4). Non of the patients with HCC had. IFNα-Rc expression and ...

  12. Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailly, G.; Theune, Mariet; Meijs, Koen; Campbell, N.; Hamza, W.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Hoge, H.; Jianhua, T.

    Work on expressive speech synthesis has long focused on the expression of basic emotions. In recent years, however, interest in other expressive styles has been increasing. The research presented in this paper aims at the generation of a storytelling speaking style, which is suitable for

  13. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Community Express Pilot Program in its current form through December 31, 2010. Based upon the...

  14. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a...

  15. A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J.C.; Akutsu, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

  16. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  17. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  18. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  19. Expressiveness modulo Bisimilarity of Regular Expressions with Parallel Composition (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos C. M. Baeten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The languages accepted by finite automata are precisely the languages denoted by regular expressions. In contrast, finite automata may exhibit behaviours that cannot be described by regular expressions up to bisimilarity. In this paper, we consider extensions of the theory of regular expressions with various forms of parallel composition and study the effect on expressiveness. First we prove that adding pure interleaving to the theory of regular expressions strictly increases its expressiveness up to bisimilarity. Then, we prove that replacing the operation for pure interleaving by ACP-style parallel composition gives a further increase in expressiveness. Finally, we prove that the theory of regular expressions with ACP-style parallel composition and encapsulation is expressive enough to express all finite automata up to bisimilarity. Our results extend the expressiveness results obtained by Bergstra, Bethke and Ponse for process algebras with (the binary variant of Kleene's star operation.

  20. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. II. Patrón de crecimiento y distribución de la biomasa Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. II. Growth and biomass distribution pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de comparar el patrón de crecimiento y la distribución de biomasa de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca durante 18 semanas en vivero. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura (TCA y de la distribución de la MS (TCMS, así como el porcentaje de materia seca (MS y el peso seco por planta de las fracciones (hojas, tallo, raíz. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Erythrina presentó la mayor TCA y TCMS promedio (3,7 mm/día y 94,8 mg/día, seguida por leucaena (3,1 y 81,3 y, por último, albizia (1,2 mm/día y 53,1 mg/día, respectivamente. Independientemente de la especie, el mayor porcentaje de MS promedio se observó en las raíces (31,9, seguido por el tallo (28,0 y las hojas (25,4. Se observó una mayor distribución de MS por planta en las hojas (3,9 g y la raíz (3,1 g, comparados con el tallo (2,9 g. Se concluye que, para estas condiciones de aviveramiento, E. fusca presentó los mejores resultados; mientras que A. lebbeck necesitaría más tiempo para alcanzar las características deseables para su trasplante a campo.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to compare the growth and biomass distribution pattern of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca for 18 weeks in nursery. The studied variables were: growth rate related to height (GRH and DM distribution (GRDM, as well as dry matter percentage (DM and dry weight per plant of the fractions (leaves, stem, root. A completely randomized design for measurements repeated in time and ten replications per species were used. E. fusca showed the highest average GRH and GRDM (3,7 mm/day and 94,8 mg/day, followed by L. leucocephala (3,1 and 81,3 and, lastly, A. lebbeck (1,2 mm/day and 53,1 mg

  1. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  2. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    knockout and strong overexpression. However, applications such as metabolic optimization and control analysis necessitate a continuous set of expression levels with only slight increments in strength to cover a specific window around the wildtype expression level of the studied gene; this requirement can......The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene...

  3. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  4. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  5. E-mail: Outlook Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Bakri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host. 

  6. Generalized Expression for Polarization Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu; Hahm, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is systematically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.

  7. Perceived intimacy of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, A; Conway, M

    1990-08-01

    Research on norms for emotional expression and self-disclosure provided the basis for two hypotheses concerning the perceived intimacy of emotional self-disclosure. The first hypothesis was that the perceived intimacy of negative emotional disclosure would be greater than that of positive emotional disclosure; the second was that disclosures of more intense emotional states would be perceived as more intimate than disclosures of less intense emotional states for both negative and positive disclosures. Both hypotheses received support when male students in Canada rated the perceived intimacy of self-disclosures that were equated for topic and that covered a comprehensive sample of emotions and a range of emotional intensities. The effects were observed across all the topics of disclosure examined.

  8. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  9. Definition, Detection and Generation of Iyashi Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Tetsuko; Diago, Luis A.; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Yamane, Shigeru

    This paper concerns the engineering analysis of “Iyashi”, a peculiar concept to the Japanese, which affect person's heart and may change their expression and behavior. We have integrated the advocator's view of “Iyashi”, analyzed the social background of “Iyashi” and have defined Iyashi and also the Iyashi expression. As the facial expression is the special and important stimulus for both observers and people who show expressions, we want to prove the existence of expressions that change the observer's emotion with Iyashi. We have developed the system to clarify the combination of facial features important for Iyashi through the psychological experiments and the analysis by Holographic Neural Networks (HNN). HNN analysis gave the structure of the Iyashi expression, that is the important combination of the physical facial parameters contributing to the high degree of Iyashi. Based on the structure of Iyashi we are able to generate the Iyashi expression appropriate for each person.

  10. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  11. Anticausatives are weak scalar expressions, not reflexive expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schäfer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss conceptual and empirical arguments from Germanic, Romance and Slavic languages against an analysis treating anticausative verbs as derived from their lexical causative counterparts under reflexivization. Instead, we defend the standard account to the semantics of the causative alternation according to which anticausatives in general, and anticausatives marked with reflexive morphology in particular, denote simple one-place inchoative events that are logically entailed by their lexical causative counterparts. Under such an account, anticausative verbs are weak scalar expressions that stand in a semantico-pragmatic opposition to their strong lexical causative counterparts. Due to this scalar relation, the use of an anticausative can trigger the implicature that the use of its lexical causative counterpart is too strong. As usual with implicatures, they can be ‘metalinguistically’ denied, cancelled, or reinforced and we argue that these mechanisms explain all central empirical facts brought up in the literature in favor of a treatment of anticausatives as semantically reflexive predicates. Our results reinforce the view that the reflexive morphemes used in many (Indo-European languages to mark anticausatives do not necessarily trigger reflexive semantics. However, we also show that a string involving a reflexively marked (anti-causative verb can be forced into a semantically reflexive construal under particular conceptual or grammatical circumstances.

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body...... and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  13. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  14. Preferencia de vacunos por el follaje de doce especies con potencial para sistemas agrosilvopastoriles en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela Preference of cattle for the foliage of twelve species with potential for agrosilvopastoral systems in the Trujillo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la preferencia de bovinos jóvenes por doce especies forrajeras en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica y Samanea saman se efectuó una prueba de cafetería a través de mediciones del consumo de follaje, mediante un diseño cuadrado latino con período de evaluación de 12 días. A los forrajes se les determinó la composición fitoquímica (PB, EB, FDN, fenoles, taninos condensados, taninos que precipitan proteínas y esteroles totales y la degradabilidad ruminal in situ (DMS y DMO. Las especies más preferidas fueron: P. pedicellare (327,98 g MS, L. leucocephala (325,63 g MS, M. alba (293,37 g MS, G. ulmifolia (292,48 g MS, C. tinctoria (277,18 g MS y C. alba (274,49 g MS. Los follajes de G. sepium (108,05 g MS, T. diversifolia (106,09 g MS, M. oleifera (76,28 g MS, A. indica (76,19 g MS y S. saman (58,72 g MS fueron medianamente consumidos. Sin embargo, la biomasa de T. gigantea (1,39 g MS fue prácticamente rechazada. Durante el período experimental se observaron diferentes tendencias en el consumo de cada espe­cie. No obstante, no se observó una relación significativa entre el consumo y la composición química, la concentración de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. Se concluye que es importante realizar ensayos de preferencia con animales para la selección de especies con potencial para sistemas silvopastoriles.With the objective of knowing the preference of young cattle for twelve forage species of the Trujillo State, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman a cafeteria test

  15. Influência da remoção de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de leguminosas Effect of cotyledon removal on cotyledonal axillary shooting in seedlings of leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaci Fernandes de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos inteiramente casualizados foram conduzidos em condições de viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a importância da permanência de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. e Delonix regia L. Os tratamentos foram: remoção de ambos os cotilédones nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias da emergência, remoção de um só cotilédone no primeiro dia da emergência e não remoção de cotilédones. A recuperação do desenvolvimento em plântulas de P. vulgaris, avaliada através da ocorrência de ramificações, independe do número de cotilédones removidos no período de um a três dias da emergência, mas é menos eficiente que em V. unguiculata. A remoção de ambos os cotilédones em plântulas de V. unguiculata, no dia da emergência, afetou a recuperação do desenvolvimento dessas plântulas em comparação com os outros tratamentos. Em plântulas de L leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica e D. regia, a remoção de ambos os cotilédones, no período de um a três dias da emergência, sugere o aumento de mortalidade nessas plântulas. A remoção de um único cotilédone não afetou significativamente o percentual de sobrevivência das plântulas nem limitou o surgimento de brotações à axila cotiledonar correspondente ao cotilédone removido.Completely randomized experiments under greenhouse conditions were carried to study the role of cotyledons on the cotyledonal axillary shooting of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia L. The seedlings underwent the following treatments: removal of both cotyledons on the first to the third day after emergence, removal of only one cotyledon on the first day of emergence, and no cotyledon

  16. Facial expressions and pair bonds in hylobatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2018-06-06

    Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony

  17. Expressiveness in musical performance: Pedagogic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Natalija R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research relates to pedagogic aspects of expressive vocal-instrumental musical performance. We intended to examine: (1 how undergraduate students see/conceptualize and evaluate expressiveness in musical performance; (2 whether and how they were trained in the skill of expressive musical performance during their musical training; (3 whether and in which way they rehearse the expressive component of musical performance and interpretation and (4 whether there are any differences regarding gender, age, instrument, department, year of study and years of instrument playing in relation to the group of dependant variables related to expressiveness, tuition and practice. The sample for the research included 82 students of instrumental and theory departments at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Psychological and pedagogical aspects of musical expressiveness during vocal-instrumental performance were analyzed. The results show that students highly evaluate expressiveness but its place is secondary compared to mastering technical and tonal requirements. Statistically significant differences were shown regarding gender, age and departments. It can be concluded that there is a potential for the development and enhancement of expressiveness of students if we abandon the traditional view that expressiveness is linked exclusively to talent. The findings indicate that pedagogical work should be directed towards finding purposeful strategies for training individual expressiveness.

  18. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

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    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  19. Platelet cyclooxygenase expression in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J; Lunsford, K; Mullins, K; Stokes, J; Pinchuk, L; Wills, R; McLaughlin, R; Langston, C; Pruett, S; Mackin, A

    2011-01-01

    Human platelets express both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Variation in COX-2 expression could be a mechanism for variable response to aspirin. The hypotheses were that circulating canine platelets express COX-1 and COX-2, and that aspirin alters COX expression. The objective was to identify changes in platelet COX expression and in platelet function caused by aspirin administration to dogs. Eight female, intact hounds. A single population, repeated measures design was used to evaluate platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression by flow cytometry before and after aspirin (10 mg/kg Q12h for 10 days). Platelet function was analyzed via PFA-100(®) (collagen/epinephrine), and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2)) was measured and normalized to urinary creatinine. Differences in COX expression, PFA-100(®) closure times, and urine 11-dTXB(2 ): creatinine ratio were analyzed before and after aspirin administration. Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in canine platelets. COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased in all dogs, by 250% (range 63-476%), while COX-2 expression did not change significantly (P = 0.124) after aspirin exposure, with large interindividual variation. PFA-100(®) closure times were prolonged and urine 11-dTXB(2) concentration decreased in all dogs after aspirin administration. Canine platelets express both COX isoforms. After aspirin exposure, COX-1 expression increased despite impairment of platelet function, while COX-2 expression varied markedly among dogs. Variability in platelet COX-2 expression should be explored as a potential mechanism for, or marker of, variable aspirin responsiveness. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Evaluación del comportamiento productivo de búfalos de río en sistema arborizado y en monocultivo de gramíneas Evaluation of the productive performance of river buffaloes in system with trees and grass monocrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos de río en dos unidades o fincas con 30 búfalas lecheras cada una y sus crías, y se comparó la tecnología del silvopastoreo racional con Leucaena leucocephala y un monocultivo de gramíneas. Se realizó un diagnóstico inicial para conocer las característi­cas propias de cada unidad y la composición florística de las áreas; mensualmente se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos para regular la carga animal en el pastizal y durante cuatro años consecutivos se midieron los indicadores productivos y reproductivos, así como los ingresos económicos. Los resultados en el sistema arborizado fueron superiores en 0,72 kg de leche por búfala por día; 279,8 kg/lactancia; 1,49 kg/ha/ día y 42 días más de lactancia; no obstante, lo más significativo resultó la producción de leche diaria por hectárea en el sistema arborizado, que triplicó la del monocultivo de gramíneas (2,24 vs 0,75 kg, como producto de una mayor disponibilidad de materia seca y nutrimentos. Ello permitió incrementar la carga animal, lo que se manifestó positivamente en los ingresos por la venta de la leche. Todos los indicadores analizados favorecieron al sistema de leucaena con la tecnología del silvopastoreo racional.The effect of trees on the rearing of river buffaloes was studied in two units or farms with 30 dairy cows each and their calves, and the technology of rational silvopastoral system with Leucaena leucocephala was compared to a grass monocrop. An initial diagnosis was carried out to learn the characteristics of each unit and the floristic composition of the areas. The dry matter availability of the pastures was determined monthly in order to regulate the stocking rate in the pastureland and during four consecutive years the productive and reproductive indicators, as well as the economic incomes, were measured. The results in the tree system were higher in 0

  1. Efecto del sistema silvopatoril en el comportamiento productivo de vacas Holstein Effect of the silvopastoral system on the productive performance of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Lamela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de vacas Holstein en sistemas asociados de Leucaena leucocephala y Cynodon nlemfuensis, sin la aplicación de fertilizante químico, se realizó el presente trabajo en dos vaquerías: las unidades 98 y 100 de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, Cuba, las cuales tenían un área de pastos de 35,5 ha y 3 ha para la producción de forraje de caña de azúcar. Se determinó la producción de leche por vaca en ordeño y la producción por vaca total, así como la influencia del bimestre de producción, la época del año y el año en el comportamiento productivo. La leucaena tuvo valores de PB superiores al 20% y la gramínea entre 7,4-9,5%; la disponibilidad de MS fue de 3,4 y 2,5 t/ha/rotación para el período lluvioso y el poco lluvioso, respectivamente. Se encontraron diferencias significativas dentro de cada vaquería para el efecto bimestre de producción. A su vez, el 86 y 65% de las vacas tuvieron una condición corporal (CC entre 3,0 y 3,5 para el período lluvioso y el poco lluvioso, respectivamente. La producción de leche promedio de las vacas, para la CC de 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 y 4,0 fue de 6,5; 8,0; 7,7 y 6,0 kg/vaca/día, respectivamente. Se concluye que el sistema presentó una aceptable disponibilidad de MS (3 t/ha/rotación y los animales mantuvieron una condición corporal favorable para la producción de leche, con valores de 6,8-8,8 kg/vaca/día.With the objective of evaluating the productive performance of Holstein cows in associated systems of Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon nlemfuensis, without applying chemical fertilizers, this work was carried out in two dairy units: 98 and 100 of the Livestock Production Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, Cuba, which had an area for pastures of 35,5 ha and 3 ha for producing sugarcane forage. The milk production per milking cow and total production per cow were determined, as well as the influence of the two-month period of production, season

  2. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  3. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

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    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  4. Adipocyte differentiation and leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, C S; Loftus, T M; Mandrup, S

    1997-01-01

    Adipose tissue has long been known to house the largest energy reserves in the animal body. Recent research indicates that in addition to this role, the adipocyte functions as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of endocrine and paracrine ...... of energy intake and expenditure. The hormonal and transcriptional control of adipocyte differentiation is discussed, as is the role of leptin and other factors secreted by the adipocyte that participate in the regulation of adipose homeostasis.......Adipose tissue has long been known to house the largest energy reserves in the animal body. Recent research indicates that in addition to this role, the adipocyte functions as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of endocrine and paracrine......, most notably those of the C/EBP and PPAR families, which combine to regulate each other and to control the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. One such gene, i.e. the obese gene, was recently identified and found to encode a hormone, referred to as leptin, that plays a major role in the regulation...

  5. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  6. Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ilka Schultheiß; Pietsch, Jessica Magdalena; Keizer, Emma Mathilde; Greese, Bettina; Balkunde, Rachappa; Fleck, Christian; Hülskamp, Martin

    2017-12-14

    Although plant development is highly reproducible, some stochasticity exists. This developmental stochasticity may be caused by noisy gene expression. Here we analyze the fluctuation of protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the photoconvertible KikGR marker, we show that the protein expressions of individual cells fluctuate over time. A dual reporter system was used to study extrinsic and intrinsic noise of marker gene expression. We report that extrinsic noise is higher than intrinsic noise and that extrinsic noise in stomata is clearly lower in comparison to several other tissues/cell types. Finally, we show that cells are coupled with respect to stochastic protein expression in young leaves, hypocotyls and roots but not in mature leaves. Our data indicate that stochasticity of gene expression can vary between tissues/cell types and that it can be coupled in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

  7. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...... prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:  Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors....

  8. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  9. Investigação das atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no bioma caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rogério Santos Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O bioma caatinga é um bioma brasileiro predominante e único no Nordeste do Brasil. Esse bioma abriga uma impressionante biodiversidade florística com espécies ricas em moléculas bioativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies vegetais arbóreas ocorrentes na caatinga. Nos ensaios de atividade antioxidante dos extratos etanólicos da casca do caule das espécies Leucaena leucocephala e Cnidoscolus quercifolius foram avaliados o teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante pelos métodos de captura dos radicais livres DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. A atividade antimicrobiana desses extratos foi avaliada frente às espécies bacterianas Enterococcus faecales (ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619 e Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, através do ensaio de difusão em poço e determinação de Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM.   Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados na espécie L. leucocephala exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, resultado não observado na espécie C. quercifolius.  Foi observado existir uma correlação direta entre a quantidade de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante das espécies testadas. Nenhuma das espécies apresentou atividade antimicrobiana significativa.

  10. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.

  11. "Express yourself": culture and the effect of self-expression on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K

    2007-01-01

    Whereas self-expression is valued in the United States, it is not privileged with such a cultural emphasis in East Asia. Four studies demonstrate the psychological implications of this cultural difference. Studies 1 and 2 found that European Americans value self-expression more than East Asians/East Asian Americans. Studies 3 and 4 examined the roles of expression in preference judgments. In Study 3, the expression of choice led European Americans but not East Asian Americans to be more invested in what they chose. Study 4 examined the connection between the value of expression and the effect of choice expression and showed that European Americans place greater emphasis on self-expression than East Asian Americans, and this difference explained the cultural difference in Study 3. This research highlights the importance of the cultural meanings of self-expression and the moderating role of cultural beliefs on the psychological effect of self-expression. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, G.; Theune, Mariet; Meijs, Koen; Campbell, N.; Hamza, W.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Hoge, H.; Jianhua, T.

    2006-01-01

    Work on expressive speech synthesis has long focused on the expression of basic emotions. In recent years, however, interest in other expressive styles has been increasing. The research presented in this paper aims at the generation of a storytelling speaking style, which is suitable for storytelling applications and more in general, for applications aimed at children. Based on an analysis of human storytellers' speech, we designed and implemented a set of prosodic rules for converting "neutr...

  13. Willingness to Express Emotions to Caregiving Spouses

    OpenAIRE

    Monin, Joan K.; Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients’ willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver’s well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients’ willingness to express happiness was ass...

  14. Comparative gene expression between two yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics brings insight into sequence evolution, but even more may be learned by coupling sequence analyses with experimental tests of gene function and regulation. However, the reliability of such comparisons is often limited by biased sampling of expression conditions and incomplete knowledge of gene functions across species. To address these challenges, we previously systematically generated expression profiles in Saccharomyces bayanus to maximize functional coverage as compared to an existing Saccharomyces cerevisiae data repository. Results In this paper, we take advantage of these two data repositories to compare patterns of ortholog expression in a wide variety of conditions. First, we developed a scalable metric for expression divergence that enabled us to detect a significant correlation between sequence and expression conservation on the global level, which previous smaller-scale expression studies failed to detect. Despite this global conservation trend, between-species gene expression neighborhoods were less well-conserved than within-species comparisons across different environmental perturbations, and approximately 4% of orthologs exhibited a significant change in co-expression partners. Furthermore, our analysis of matched perturbations collected in both species (such as diauxic shift and cell cycle synchrony demonstrated that approximately a quarter of orthologs exhibit condition-specific expression pattern differences. Conclusions Taken together, these analyses provide a global view of gene expression patterns between two species, both in terms of the conditions and timing of a gene's expression as well as co-expression partners. Our results provide testable hypotheses that will direct future experiments to determine how these changes may be specified in the genome.

  15. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Filipović; Milica Vojvodić

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age) has some implications on methodical acts considering artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural develop...

  16. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  17. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  18. Identification of Emotional Facial Expressions: Effects of Expression, Intensity, and Sex on Eye Gaze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jean Wells

    Full Text Available The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal. Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.

  19. Identification of Emotional Facial Expressions: Effects of Expression, Intensity, and Sex on Eye Gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura Jean; Gillespie, Steven Mark; Rotshtein, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise), each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal). Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.

  20. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  1. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  2. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  3. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  4. Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a neutral expression followed by the target expression to judge, and then the neutral expression again, allowing for a simulation of the emergence of the expression from and then return to a baseline. We also examined how signal and intensity clarities of the expressions (explained more fully in the Introduction) were associated with judgment agreement levels. Low-intensity, full-face prototypical expressions of emotion were judged as the intended emotion at rates significantly greater than chance. A number of the proposed variants were also judged as the intended emotions. Both signal and intensity clarities were individually associated with agreement rates; when their interrelationships were taken into account, signal clarity independently predicted agreement rates but intensity clarity did not. The presence or absence of specific muscles appeared to be more important to agreement rates than their intensity levels, with the exception of the intensity of zygomatic major, which was positively correlated with agreement rates for judgments of joy.

  5. Examining emotional expressions in discourse: methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2017-10-01

    This methodological paper presents an approach for examining emotional expressions through discourse analysis and ethnographic methods. Drawing on trends in the current literature in science education, we briefly explain the importance of emotions in science education and examine the current research methodologies used in interactional emotion studies. We put forth and substantiate a methodological approach that attends to the interactional, contextual, intertextual, and consequential aspects of emotional expressions. By examining emotional expressions in the discourse in which they are constructed, emotional expressions are identified through semantics, contextualization, and linguistic features. These features make salient four dimensions of emotional expressions: aboutness, frequency, type, and ownership. Drawing on data from a large empirical study of pre-service elementary teachers' emotional expressions about climate change in a science course, we provide illustrative examples to describe what counts as emotional expressions in situ. In doing so we explain how our approach makes salient the nuanced nature of such expressions as well as the broader discourse in which they are constructed and the implications for researching emotional expressions in science education discourse. We suggest reasons why this discourse orientated research methodology can contribute to the interactional study of emotions in science education contexts.

  6. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M.; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M.; Liebal, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely ‘responded to’ by the partner’s facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics. PMID:26978660

  7. Temporal Dynamics of Arthropods on Six Tree Species in Dry Woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L. , Bucida buceras L. , Pithecellobium dulce , and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora , (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce , Leucaena leucocephala , and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  8. Evaluación de canales de bovinos machos engordados en sistemas silvopastoriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iraola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 90 canales de tres ciclos productivos de bovinos machos, cebados en un sistema silvo-pastoril con inclusión de Leucaena leucocephala. Se utilizaron 30 animales por cada ciclo productivo: Cebú, Cebú mestizo y Mestizos lecheros Holstein x Cebú , con un peso vivo de sacrificio entre 399 y 420 kg. Se aplicó un modelo lineal mixto a partir de un PROC MIXED del SAS. Se consideraron, como efectos fijos: ciclo productivo, la interacción de la covarianza del peso al sacrificio con el ciclo productivo; y como aleatorios: el efecto del animal anidado dentro de ciclo productivo y el error residual. Se estudiaron los indicadores: peso sacrificio, peso de la canal caliente, peso de la canal fría, carne, hueso y grasa, el rendimiento de todas las partes de la canal. Se realizaron análisis de regresiones lineales relacionadas con el rendimiento cárnico con el programa estadístico INFOSTAT. Se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 entre ciclos productivos respecto de la canal y las demás partes. El tercer ciclo presentó el mayor porcentaje de hueso en la canal y menor rendimiento cárnico. Todos los ciclos productivos manifestaron un comportamiento lineal favorable en silvopastoreo con leucaena. Se concluye que los ciclos 1 y 2 tuvieron mejor comportamiento en canal con respecto al tercer ciclo con los animales Mestizos lecheros; lo cual está asociado al plano de alimentación y el peso de sacrificio que condicionaron el rendimiento cárnico.

  9. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Clusterin expression in elastofibroma dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Pichler, Martin; Pixner, Thomas; Janig, Elke; Schuller, Monika; Lackner, Carolin; Scheipl, Susanne; Beham, Alfred; Regauer, Sigrid

    2013-05-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft tissue lesion composed of abnormal elastic fibers. Degenerated elastic fibers in skin and liver are associated with clusterin, an apoprotein that shares functional properties with small heat shock proteins. We evaluated the staining pattern and possible role of clusterin in elastofibroma dorsi. Twenty-one subcutaneous elastofibromas from the scapular region were evaluated with Elastica van Gieson and Orcein stains, immunohistochemically with antibodies to clusterin, smooth muscle actin, S-100, vimentin and CD34 and correlated with clinical data with respect to physical trauma. Clusterin correlated with the staining pattern of Elastica van Gieson and labelled abnormal broad coarse fibrillar and globular elastic fibers in all elastofibromas. Orcein stains additionally identified fine oxytalan fibers which were not stained by clusterin. Clusterin staining was observed only on the outside of the elastin fibers, while the cores of fibers and globules were unstained. 4/21 elastofibromas showed cellular nodules with a myxoid/collagenous stroma. The round to oval cells showed cytoplasmic staining with vimentin and clusterin; CD34 labelled mostly cell membranes. The cells lacked SMA and S-100 expression. The central areas of the nodules were devoid of elastic fibers, but the periphery contained coarse fibers and globules. 9/ 11 patients, for whom clinical data were available, reported trauma to the scapular region. Many investigated ED were associated with trauma, which supports a reactive/degenerative etiology of ED. The abnormal large elastic fibers in all ED were enveloped by clusterin. Clusterin deposition may protect elastic fibers from degradation and thus contribute indirectly to the tumor-like presentation of ED.

  11. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  13. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  14. Explanations for Contempt Expressed Towards Old People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Eleanor Krassen; Maxwell, Robert J.

    The issue of contempt expressed towards the aged was examined from a cross-cultural perspective. Eight reasons for expressions of contempt emerged from a study of 95 societies drawn from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, and were treated as independent variables, with the overall level of contempt as the dependent variable, in a application of…

  15. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  16. Behavior, Experience and Expression: Some Research Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyshyn, Robert D.

    Utilizing research conducted on nostalgia, this paper shows how a phenomenological approach assists in understanding behavior, experience and expression. Moreover, a clearer understanding of them aids one's research with and comprehension of nostalgia. Human action can be studied from the experiential, behavioral and expressive perspectives. These…

  17. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  18. Dihydrotestostenone increase the gene expression of androgen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HNTEP cells were grown in basal medium and treated with DHT in different conditions. HNTEP cells under treatment with DHT (10-13 M) induced an increase in FHL-2 expression. In turn, high DHT concentrations (10-8 M) induced an increase in the expression SHP-1. The present data suggest that the SHP-1 and FHL-2 ...

  19. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael Schantz

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expressi...

  20. A Robot with Complex Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Takeno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors believe that the consciousness of humans basically originates from languages and their association-like flow of consciousness, and that feelings are generated accompanying respective languages. We incorporated artificial consciousness into a robot; achieved an association flow of language like flow of consciousness; and developed a robot called Kansei that expresses its feelings according to the associations occurring in the robot. To be able to fully communicate with humans, robots must be able to display complex expressions, such as a sense of being thrilled. We therefore added to the Kansei robot a device to express complex feelings through its facial expressions. The Kansei robot is actually an artificial skull made of aluminum, with servomotors built into it. The face is made of relatively soft polyethylene, which is formed to appear like a human face. Facial expressions are generated using 19 servomotors built into the skull, which pull metal wires attached to the facial “skin” to create expressions. The robot at present is capable of making six basic expressions as well as complex expressions, such as happiness and fear combined.

  1. Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.

  2. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  3. Assessment of Outcomes of Free Expression Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andsager, Julie; Ross, Susan Dente

    1999-01-01

    Assesses outcomes of instruction in three college-senior-level courses on freedom of expression. Suggests that increased attention to freedom-of-expression issues may have resulted in broader understanding of First Amendment issues, and individual and media rights. Notes that students seem to develop an appreciation of the reflexive nature of…

  4. Local expressions for one-loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasson, D.A.; Koonin, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We develop local expressions for the contributions of the short-wavelength vacuum modes to the one-loop vacuum energy. These expressions significantly improve the convergence properties of various ''brute-force'' calculational methods. They also provide a continuous series of approximations that interpolate between the brute-force calculations and the derivative expansion

  5. Artistic Expression: Another Challenge for Rural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Álvarez-Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the parameters required to create opportunities that would strengthen the social fabric and would promote a comprehensive development through the artistic expression as a method for expressing feelings and constructing –cultural and social– identities as individuals, which, in our global context have been eroded by the homogenization of experiences.

  6. Dirichlet expression for L(1, χ )

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that this expression with obvious modification is valid for the general primitive Dirichlet character χ. Keywords. Hurwitz zeta function; Dirichlet character; Dirichlet L-series; primitive character. 1. Introduction. In Dirichlet's famous work dealing with class number formula, the value of L(1,χ) is expressed in terms of finite ...

  7. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1 and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2 in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions.

  8. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Feng, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness-individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2) in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral) expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral) faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions).

  9. Biased Facial Expression Interpretation in Shy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokin, Jessica; Younger, Alastair; Gosselin, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between shyness and the interpretations of the facial expressions of others was examined in a sample of 123 children aged 12 to 14?years. Participants viewed faces displaying happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, as well as a neutral expression, presented on a computer screen. The children identified each expression…

  10. Characterization of differentially expressed genes using high-dimensional co-expression networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho Goncalves de Abreu, Gabriel; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique to characterize differentially expressed genes in terms of their position in a high-dimensional co-expression network. The set-up of Gaussian graphical models is used to construct representations of the co-expression network in such a way that redundancy and the propagation...... that allow to make effective inference in problems with high degree of complexity (e.g. several thousands of genes) and small number of observations (e.g. 10-100) as typically occurs in high throughput gene expression studies. Taking advantage of the internal structure of decomposable graphical models, we...... construct a compact representation of the co-expression network that allows to identify the regions with high concentration of differentially expressed genes. It is argued that differentially expressed genes located in highly interconnected regions of the co-expression network are less informative than...

  11. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  12. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  13. Emotion Expression of Robot with Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A robot emotional expression model based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM is built to enable robots which have different personalities to response in a more satisfactory emotional level. Gross emotion regulation theory and Five Factors Model (FFM which are the theoretical basis are firstly described. And then the importance of the personality effect on the emotion expression process is proposed, and how to make the effect quantization is discussed. After that, the algorithm of HMM is used to describe the process of emotional state transition and expression, and the performance transferring probability affected by personality is calculated. At last, the algorithm model is simulated and applied in a robot platform. The results prove that the emotional expression model can acquire humanlike expressions and improve the human-computer interaction.

  14. Willingness to express emotions to caregiving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Martire, Lynn M; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients' willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver's well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients' willingness to express happiness was associated with less insensitive caregiver responding, and willingness to express interpersonal emotions (e.g., compassion, guilt) was associated with less caregiving stress. There were also gender differences, such that caregiving wives, in particular, benefited from their husband's willingness to express vulnerable (e.g., anxiety, sadness) and interpersonal emotions. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Personality expression in Chinese language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Lu, Jiahui; Ramsay, Jonathan; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Weina; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-12-01

    To date, little research has investigated personality expressions in languages other than English. Given that the Chinese language has the largest number of native speakers in the world, it is vitally important to examine the associations between personality and Chinese language use. In this research, we analysed Chinese microblogs and identified word categories and factorial structures associated with personality traits. We also compared our results with previous findings in English and showed that linguistic expression of personality has both universal- and language-specific aspects. Expression of personality via content words is more likely to be consistent across languages than expression via function words. This makes an important step towards uncovering universal patterns of personality expression in language. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. PRAME gene expression profile in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Vulcani-Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumors of central nervous system in the childhood. The treatment is severe, harmful and, thus, has a dismal prognosis. As PRAME is present in various cancers, including meduloblastoma, and has limited expression in normal tissues, this antigen can be an ideal vaccine target for tumor immunotherapy. In order to find a potential molecular target, we investigated PRAME expression in medulloblastoma fragments and we compare the results with the clinical features of each patient. Analysis of gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative PCR from 37 tumor samples. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analysis the relationship between gene expression and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate survival. PRAME was overexpressed in 84% samples. But no statistical association was found between clinical features and PRAME overexpression. Despite that PRAME gene could be a strong candidate for immunotherapy since it is highly expressed in medulloblastomas.

  17. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; G?ttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete ...

  18. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural

  19. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions

  20. Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, A.G.; Milne, E.; Drummond, D.; Smith, S.; Handel, I.; Mellanby, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non‐skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog. Objectives To define which non‐skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine. Animals Thirteen non‐skeletal tissues were collected prospectively from 6 control dogs. Thirty‐five dogs diagnosed with a chronic enteropathy (CE) and 24 control dogs were prospectively enrolled and duodenal biopsies were evaluated for VDR expression. Methods Prospective; blinded assessment of canine intestinal VDR. Dogs with CE were included once other identifiable causes of intestinal disease were excluded. Age matched controls were included with no intestinal clinical signs. VDR expression was assessed immunohistochemically in all samples, using a Rat IgG VDR monoclonal antibody. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also used for duodenal biopsies. Results VDR expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was highest in the kidney, duodenum, skin, ileum and spleen, and weak in the colon, heart, lymph node, liver, lung, and ovary. Gastric and testicular tissue did not express the VDR. There was no statistical difference in duodenal VDR expression between the 24 healthy dogs and 34 dogs with CE when quantified by either qPCR (P = 0.87) or IHC (P = 0.099). Conclusions and Clinical Importance The lack of down regulation of VDR expression in inflamed intestine contrasts with previous studies in humans. Our findings support future studies to investigate whether vitamin D and its analogues can be used to modulate intestinal inflammation in the dog. PMID:29469965

  1. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  2. Simultaneous Breast Expression in Breastfeeding Women Is More Efficacious Than Sequential Breast Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Catherine P.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Kent, Jacqueline C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Simultaneous (SIM) breast expression saves mothers time compared with sequential (SEQ) expression, but it remains unclear whether the two methods differ in milk output efficiency and efficacy. Subjects and Methods The Showmilk device (Medela AG, Baar, Switzerland) was used to measure milk output and milk ejection during breast expression (electric pump) in 31 Australian breastfeeding mothers of term infants (median age, 19 weeks [interquartile range, 10–33 weeks]). The order of expression type (SIM/SEQ) and breast (left/right) was randomized. Results SIM expression yielded more milk ejections (p≤0.001) and greater amounts of milk at 2, 5, and 10 minutes (p≤0.01) and removed a greater total amount of milk (p≤0.01) and percentage of available milk (p<0.05) than SEQ expression. After SIM expression the cream content of both the overall (8.3% [p≤0.05]) and postexpression (12.6% [p≤0.001]) milk were greater. During SEQ expression, the breast expressed first had a shorter time to 50% and 80% of the total amount of milk than the breast expressed second (p≤0.05), but, overall, a similar percentage of available milk was removed from both breasts. Conclusions SIM expression stimulated more milk ejections and was a more efficient and efficacious method of expression, yielding milk with a higher energy content. PMID:23039397

  3. The Relations of Mothers' Negative Expressivity to Children's Experience and Expression of Negative Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2004-01-01

    Guided by the heuristic model proposed by Eisenberg et al. [Psychol. Inq. 9 (1998) 241], we examined the relations of mothers' reported and observed negative expressivity to children's (N = 159; 74 girls; M age = 7.67 years) experience and expression of emotion. Children's experience and/or expression of emotion in response to a distressing film…

  4. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  5. ["Les Impatients": expression through art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Céline; Palardy, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The organization called "Les Impatients" was founded in 1992. Using a unique model, Les Impatients welcomes those with mental health issues who would like to express themselves through art. Les Impatients offers free creative workshops and encourages exchanges with the community through the sharing of its participants' creations. The name Les Impatients reinforces the idea that the organization does not consider those attending its workshops as patients, but rather creators who are eager to heal, develop their craft and find their place in society. The participants contribute to the collective objective of breaking down the stigma that surrounds mental illness.Les Impatients collaborates with various mental health organizations in Quebec, such as the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) affiliated to the Université de Montréal, Douglas Mental Health University Institute (DMHUI), the Centre de santé et services sociaux Drummond (CSSS Drummond) and the Centre de santé et services sociaux Pierre-Boucher (CSSS Pierre-Boucher). Les Impatients offers more than 48 workshops in eight different locations to around 450 participants each week.Dissemination activities, remarkable events, original projects: Les Impatients stands out through its realizations. Examples are exhibitions, collections of love letters, comic books, CD, concerts, and reading nights. The organization's originality resides in the exploration of the links between the work of the participants and that of professional artists. An illustration of this interest is the annual Parle-moi d'amour auction-exhibition, which has been one of Les Impatients' major events since 1999.As part of its mission, Les Impatients conserves the works of art created by the participants during the workshops. Its collection includes more than 15,000 works of art from Les Impatients as well as pieces donated by collectors of unconventional art, commonly known as "art brut" or "outsider art". The

  6. Micro-Expression Recognition Using Color Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Jing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Li, Xiaobai; Zhao, Guoying; Zhou, Chun-Guang; Fu, Xiaolan; Yang, Minghao; Tao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Micro-expressions are brief involuntary facial expressions that reveal genuine emotions and, thus, help detect lies. Because of their many promising applications, they have attracted the attention of researchers from various fields. Recent research reveals that two perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) provide useful information for expression recognition. This paper is an extended version of our International Conference on Pattern Recognition paper, in which we propose a novel color space model, tensor independent color space (TICS), to help recognize micro-expressions. In this paper, we further show that CIELab and CIELuv are also helpful in recognizing micro-expressions, and we indicate why these three color spaces achieve better performance. A micro-expression color video clip is treated as a fourth-order tensor, i.e., a four-dimension array. The first two dimensions are the spatial information, the third is the temporal information, and the fourth is the color information. We transform the fourth dimension from RGB into TICS, in which the color components are as independent as possible. The combination of dynamic texture and independent color components achieves a higher accuracy than does that of RGB. In addition, we define a set of regions of interests (ROIs) based on the facial action coding system and calculated the dynamic texture histograms for each ROI. Experiments are conducted on two micro-expression databases, CASME and CASME 2, and the results show that the performances for TICS, CIELab, and CIELuv are better than those for RGB or gray.

  7. Glucose transporters: expression, regulation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO A. MEDINA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.

  8. Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiri Rathnayake

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lockstep construction and a machine that performs some operations in parallel, suitable for implementation on a large number of cores, such as a GPU. We formalize the parallel machine using process algebra and report some preliminary experiments with an implementation on a graphics processor using CUDA.

  9. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter

    2017-01-01

    What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient's losses were uncertain (Experiment 1), the recipient's losses were certain (Experiment 2), or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3). Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  10. Expressive Dissonance: When Emotional Inconsistency Arouses Dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Pelt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the two studies was to explore a new dissonance paradigm–expressive dissonance–based on the inconsistency between what people feel and what people express behaviorally. Expressive dissonance was aroused by asking participants to watch a film with a high emotional content, either positive (joy or negative (sadness. In the no-dissonance condition, they received the instruction to naturally watch the film. In the expressive dissonance condition, they received the instruction to facially express emotions that were the opposite of what they felt. We expected that the expressive dissonance situation would: 1 require cognitive resources leading to a decrease in cognitive performance (studies 1 and 2; 2 be accompanied by emotional regulation strategies (study 1; 3 be accompanied by an increase in dissonance-related affects (study 2. Although our results (studies 1 and 2 corroborated those obtained previously in terms of performance, they also showed that participants in the expressive dissonance situation use emotional regulation strategies: exaggeration and suppression (study 1, and that they felt self-directed negative affects (study 2, just like the participants in a cognitive dissonance situation. These first results allowed us to establish a theoretical bridge between the theories of emotions–particularly those related to the emotional regulation processes–and to widen the scope of relevance of the dissonance theory.

  11. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  12. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

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    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  13. Facial Expression Recognition Through Machine Learning

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    Nazia Perveen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions communicate non-verbal cues which play an important role in interpersonal relations. Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important element of normal human-machine interfaces it might likewise be utilized as a part of behavioral science and in clinical practice. In spite of the fact that people perceive facial expressions for all intents and purposes immediately solid expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. From the point of view of automatic recognition a facial expression can be considered to comprise of disfigurements of the facial parts and their spatial relations or changes in the faces pigmentation. Research into automatic recognition of the facial expressions addresses the issues encompassing the representation and arrangement of static or dynamic qualities of these distortions or face pigmentation. We get results by utilizing the CVIPtools. We have taken train data set of six facial expressions of three persons and for train data set purpose we have total border mask sample 90 and 30 border mask sample for test data set purpose and we use RST- Invariant features and texture features for feature analysis and then classified them by using k- Nearest Neighbor classification algorithm. The maximum accuracy is 90.

  14. Family emotional expressiveness and family structure

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    Čotar-Konrad Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper scrutinizes the relationship between family emotional expressiveness (i.e., the tendency to express dominant and/or submissive positive and negative emotions and components of family structure as proposed in Olson’s Circumplex model (i.e., cohesion and flexibility, family communication, and satisfaction in families with adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of 514 Slovenian adolescents, who filled out two questionnaires: the Slovenian version of Family Emotional Expressiveness - FEQ and FACES IV. The results revealed that all four basic dimensions of family functioning were significantly associated with higher/more frequent expressions of positive submissive emotions, as well as with lower/less frequent expressions of negative dominant emotions. Moreover, expressions of negative submissive emotions explained a small, but significant amount of variance in three out of four family functioning variables (satisfaction, flexibility, and communication. The importance of particular aspects of emotional expressiveness for family cohesion, flexibility, communication, and satisfaction is discussed, and the relevance of present findings for family counselling is outlined.

  15. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ian Reed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it’s unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional video of the recipient’s character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient’s losses were uncertain (Experiment 1, the recipient’s losses were certain (Experiment 2, or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3. Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  16. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  17. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  18. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  19. A comparative gene expression database for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormestad Mattias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As whole genome and transcriptome sequencing gets cheaper and faster, a great number of 'exotic' animal models are emerging, rapidly adding valuable data to the ever-expanding Evo-Devo field. All these new organisms serve as a fantastic resource for the research community, but the sheer amount of data, some published, some not, makes detailed comparison of gene expression patterns very difficult to summarize - a problem sometimes even noticeable within a single lab. The need to merge existing data with new information in an organized manner that is publicly available to the research community is now more necessary than ever. Description In order to offer a homogenous way of storing and handling gene expression patterns from a variety of organisms, we have developed the first web-based comparative gene expression database for invertebrates that allows species-specific as well as cross-species gene expression comparisons. The database can be queried by gene name, developmental stage and/or expression domains. Conclusions This database provides a unique tool for the Evo-Devo research community that allows the retrieval, analysis and comparison of gene expression patterns within or among species. In addition, this database enables a quick identification of putative syn-expression groups that can be used to initiate, among other things, gene regulatory network (GRN projects.

  20. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Rambeau, Joachim; Held, Torsten; Kovacova, Viera; Berg, Johannes; Lässig, Michael

    2017-08-08

    Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tucci, S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, V.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.B. Dos [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, G.E.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  2. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness

  3. Effects of Expressive Writing on Psychological and Physical Health: The Moderating Role of Emotional Expressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltom, Kate E.; Mulvenna, Catherine M.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed main effects and moderators (including emotional expressiveness, emotional processing and ambivalence over emotional expression) of the effects of expressive writing in a sample of healthy adults. Young adult participants (N = 116) were randomly assigned to write for 20 minutes on four occasions about deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their most stressful/traumatic event in the past five years (expressive writing) or about a control topic (control). Dependent variables were indicators of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms. No significant effects of writing condition were evident on anxiety, depressive symptoms, or physical symptoms. Emotional expressiveness emerged as a significant moderator of anxiety outcomes, however. Within the expressive writing group, participants high in expressiveness evidenced a significant reduction in anxiety at three-month follow-up, and participants low in expressiveness showed a significant increase in anxiety. Expressiveness did not predict change in anxiety in the control group. These findings on anxiety are consistent with the matching hypothesis, which suggests that matching a person’s naturally elected coping approach with an assigned intervention is beneficial. These findings also suggest that expressive writing about a stressful event may be contraindicated for individuals who do not typically express emotions. PMID:23742666

  4. Expression-dependent susceptibility to face distortions in processing of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Soornack, Yoshi; Settle, Rebecca

    2018-03-05

    Our capability of recognizing facial expressions of emotion under different viewing conditions implies the existence of an invariant expression representation. As natural visual signals are often distorted and our perceptual strategy changes with external noise level, it is essential to understand how expression perception is susceptible to face distortion and whether the same facial cues are used to process high- and low-quality face images. We systematically manipulated face image resolution (experiment 1) and blur (experiment 2), and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. Our analysis revealed a reasonable tolerance to face distortion in expression perception. Reducing image resolution up to 48 × 64 pixels or increasing image blur up to 15 cycles/image had little impact on expression assessment and associated gaze behaviour. Further distortion led to decreased expression categorization accuracy and intensity rating, increased reaction time and fixation duration, and stronger central fixation bias which was not driven by distortion-induced changes in local image saliency. Interestingly, the observed distortion effects were expression-dependent with less deterioration impact on happy and surprise expressions, suggesting this distortion-invariant facial expression perception might be achieved through the categorical model involving a non-linear configural combination of local facial features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Cupriavidus necator tolerantes a zinco, cádmio, cobre e chumbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de estirpes de Cupriavidus necator a zinco, cádmio, cobre e chumbo, além de determinar a eficiência simbiótica das estirpes mais tolerantes em associação a espécies leguminosas com potencial para revegetação. A tolerância foi testada em meio LB, suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15 mmol L-1 de ZnSO4.7H2O, CdSO4.8H2O, CuSO4.5H2O e PbCl2, respectivamente, em comparação ao controle sem adição de metal. Determinou-se a eficiência simbiótica das quatro estirpes de C. necator mais tolerantes aos metais avaliados (UFLA02-71, UFLA02-73, UFLA01-659 e UFLA01-663, as quais foram inoculadas nas espécies: Leucaena leucocephala, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia mangium, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, M. pudica, M. pigra e M. acutistipula. Em vasos com solos, avaliaram-se L. leucocephala, M. pudica e M. caesalpiniifolia e as estirpes UFLA01-659 e UFLA02-71, selecionadas na avaliação de eficiência simbiótica. A estirpe UFLA02-71 proporcionou incrementos de matéria seca da parte aérea de 870% em M. caesalpiniifolia, enquanto que UFLA01-659 proporcionou 885% em M. pudica e 924% em L. leucocephala. As estirpes UFLA01-659 e UFLA02-71, além da alta tolerância a metais pesados, apresentaram eficiência em fixar nitrogênio, em simbiose com essas leguminosas, em solos com rizóbios nativos capazes de nodulá-las, e devem ser avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial de utilização em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  6. Consumo de forrajes tropicales por vacas lecheras, mestizas Siboney, manejadas en condiciones de estabulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J. Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento de tres forrajes tropicales y su consumo por animales lecheros, durante tres años, se utilizó un área total de cultivos de 4.25 hectáreas, distribuidas en 1.50 hectáreas para caña de azúcar (Sacharum officinarun, 2 hectáreas del king grass clon CT-169 (Pennisetum purpureum vc Cuba CT-169 y 0.75 hectáreas de leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala; para estimar el consumo, se utilizaron 20 vacas lecheras mestizas de Siboney, mantenidas en régimen de estabulación, con dieta semi-integral. Se realizó un análisis de varianza, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, en arreglo factorial. Los resultados arrojan que las disponibilidades promedio del forraje caña de azúcar fueron mayores (P<0.05 en la época poco lluviosa: 1,916.64 vs. 1,474.73 kg MS ha-1 mes-1; mientras que los forrajes de CT-169 y leucaena fueron superiores sus disponibilidades (P<0.01 en la época lluviosa: 924.76 y 519.01 vs. 649.10 y 314.20 kg MS ha-1 mes-1, respectivamente. La calidad de los forrajes fue menor (P<0.001 en la época poco lluviosa. Los consumos totales de materia seca que realizaron los animales, fue superior (P<0.001 en la época lluviosa (10.56 vs. 9.33 kg MS animal-1 día-1; mientras que los animales de ordeño realizaron un mayor (P<0.001 consumo que los secos (10.82 vs. 9.06 kg MS animal-1 día-1. Los resultados expresan la posibilidad del sistema en estabulación de mantener una carga promedio de 4.70 a 4.9 UGM ha-1, con vacas lecheras de mediano potencial y obtener un consumo adecuado de estos forrajes.

  7. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  8. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  9. Lunar Plants Prototype for Moon Express

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our project is to bring the first full life cycle to the moon: to demonstrate germination of plants in lunar gravity and radiation.The Moon Express...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Bacterial Expression Profiles Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to determine the phytochemicals in the active fraction. Results: Five differentially expressed bacterial proteins (four from Escherichia coli and one from Staphylococcus aureus), were identified via ...

  11. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.; Mallick, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which

  12. Gene Expression and Microarray Investigation of Dendrobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L were used as the model group and treated with Dendrobium mixture. (DEN ... Keywords: Diabetes, Gene expression, Dendrobium mixture, Microarray testing ..... homeostasis in airway smooth muscle. Am J.

  13. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  14. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  15. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Natural Sciences, International Christian University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585, Japan ... the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association ... ate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University.

  16. Drosophila melanogaster gene expression changes after spaceflight.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression levels were determined in 3rd instar and adult Drosophila melanogaster reared during spaceflight to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms...

  17. Expression of maize prolamins in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Szu-zhen; Esen, Asim

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA expression library of developing corn (Zea manys L.) endosperm using plasmid pUC8 as vector and Escherichia coli strain DH1 as host. The expression library was screened with non-radioactive immunological probes to detect the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein. When anti-gamma-zein antibody was used as the probe, 23 colonies gave positive reactions. The lengths of cDNA inserts of the 23 colonies were found to be 250-900 base pairs. When anti-alpha zein antibody was used, however, fewer colonies gave positive reactions. The library was also screened by colony-hybridization with 32 P-labeled DNA probes. Based on immunological and hybridization screening of the library and other evidence, we conclude that alpha-zein was either toxic to E. coli cells or rapidly degraded whereas gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed. (author)

  18. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José

    2012-01-01

    weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong...... interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index...... on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently...

  19. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  20. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  1. The human endolymphatic sac expresses natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    : Several natriuretic peptides were found expressed significantly in the ES, including uroguanylin and brain natriuretic peptide, but also peptides regulating vascular tone, including adrenomedullin 2. In addition, both neurophysin and oxytocin (OXT) were found significantly expressed. All peptides were...... verified by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: The present data support the hypothesis that the human ES may have an endocrine/paracrine capacity through expression of several peptides with potent natriuretic activity. Furthermore, the ES may influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and may regulate...... vasopressin receptors and aquaporin-2 channels in the inner ear via OXT expression. We hypothesize that the ES is likely to regulate inner ear endolymphatic homeostasis, possibly through secretion of several peptides, but it may also influence systemic and/or intracranial blood pressure through direct...

  2. Expression Profiling of Tyrosine Kinase Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weier, Heinz

    2000-01-01

    ... of these genes parallels the progression of tumors to a more malignant phenotype. We developed a DNA micro-array based screening system to monitor the level of expression of tyrosine kinase (tk...

  3. Regulation of meiotic gene expression in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in genomics and sequencing technologies, databases of transcriptomes representing many cellular processes have been built. Meiotic transcriptomes in plants have been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa, wheat (Triticum aestivum, petunia (Petunia hybrida, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and maize (Zea mays. Studies in all organisms, but particularly in plants, indicate that a very large number of genes are expressed during meiosis, though relatively few of them seem to be required for the completion of meiosis. In this review, we focus on gene expression at the RNA level and analyze the meiotic transcriptome datasets and explore expression patterns of known meiotic genes to elucidate how gene expression could be regulated during meiosis. We also discuss mechanisms, such as chromatin organization and non-coding RNAs, that might be involved in the regulation of meiotic transcription patterns.

  4. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Protein expression dynamics observed in Experiment, Synchronous and. Asynchronous simulation. .... molecular basis for T cell suppression by IL-10: CD28-asso- ciated IL-10 receptor inhibits CD28 tyrosine ...

  5. Identification of genes preferentially expressed during

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    雨林木风

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method conducted to generate ... which showed the lack of genomic information currently available for lily. ..... characterization of genes expressed during somatic embryo.

  6. An atlas of Caenorhabditis elegans chemoreceptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Vidal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One goal of modern day neuroscience is the establishment of molecular maps that assign unique features to individual neuron types. Such maps provide important starting points for neuron classification, for functional analysis, and for developmental studies aimed at defining the molecular mechanisms of neuron identity acquisition and neuron identity diversification. In this resource paper, we describe a nervous system-wide map of the potential expression sites of 244 members of the largest gene family in the C. elegans genome, rhodopsin-like (class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR chemoreceptors, using classic gfp reporter gene technology. We cover representatives of all sequence families of chemoreceptor GPCRs, some of which were previously entirely uncharacterized. Most reporters are expressed in a very restricted number of cells, often just in single cells. We assign GPCR reporter expression to all but two of the 37 sensory neuron classes of the sex-shared, core nervous system. Some sensory neurons express a very small number of receptors, while others, particularly nociceptive neurons, coexpress several dozen GPCR reporter genes. GPCR reporters are also expressed in a wide range of inter- and motorneurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, suggesting that GPCRs may constitute receptors not just for environmental signals, but also for internal cues. We observe only one notable, frequent association of coexpression patterns, namely in one nociceptive amphid (ASH and two nociceptive phasmid sensory neurons (PHA, PHB. We identified GPCRs with sexually dimorphic expression and several GPCR reporters that are expressed in a left/right asymmetric manner. We identified a substantial degree of GPCR expression plasticity; particularly in the context of the environmentally-induced dauer diapause stage when one third of all tested GPCRs alter the cellular specificity of their expression within and outside the nervous system. Intriguingly, in a number of

  7. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  8. Unsupervised learning of facial expression components

    OpenAIRE

    Egede, Joy Onyekachukwu

    2013-01-01

    The face is one of the most important means of non-verbal communication. A lot of information can be gotten about the emotional state of a person just by merely observing their facial expression. This is relatively easy in face to face communication but not so in human computer interaction. Supervised learning has been widely used by researchers to train machines to recognise facial expressions just like humans. However, supervised learning has significant limitations one of which is the fact...

  9. Gauge choice in Witten's energy expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Witten's equation Dpsi=0 can be interpreted as a gauge fixing condition for classical supergravity. We rigorously prove the existence of asymptotically constant solutions of the more general gauge condition Dpsi=Apsi for almost all endomorphisms A of the spin bundle. Each gives an expression for the gravitational energy similar to Witten's. These include the choice A=√R, which yields the particularly elegant energy expression first noticed by Deser. (orig.)

  10. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  11. Le tappe italiane del Trimble Express 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leonardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimble Express stopped over Italy Trimble Express stopped in Italy, in 6 cities. The european road show has been set up to promote the latest news regarding Trimble technologies such as Trimble Access, the software that offers to survey teams a new approach in surveying; Trimble Access expedites data collection, processing, analysis, and delivery through improved workflows, collaboration and control.

  12. Le tappe italiane del Trimble Express 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leonardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimble Express stopped over ItalyTrimble Express stopped in Italy, in 6 cities. The european road show has been set up to promote the latest news regarding Trimble technologies such as Trimble Access, the software that offers to survey teams a new approach in surveying; Trimble Access expedites data collection, processing, analysis, and delivery through improved workflows, collaboration and control.

  13. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R

    1986-01-01

    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  14. Fluoxetin Upregulates Connexin 43 Expression in Astrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mostafavi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have shown that astrocytes play major roles in normal and disease condition of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis (MS. Molecular target therapy studies in MS have revealed that connexin-43 (Cx43 and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4 contents of astrocytes undergo expression alteration. Fluoxetine had some effects in MS patients unrelated to its known antidepressant effects. Some of fluoxetine effects were attributed to its capability of cAMP signaling pathway stimulation. This study aimed to investigate possible acute effects of fluoxetine on Cx43 and AQP4 expression in astrocyte.  Methods: Astrocytoma cells were treated for 24 hours with fluoxetine (10 and 20 &mug/ml with or without adenyl cyclase (AC and protein kinase A (PKA inhibition. Cx43 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and AQP4 expression at mRNA level were evaluated.  Results: Acquired results showed that fluoxetine with and without AC and PKA inhibition resulted in Cx43 up-regulation both in mRNA and protein levels, whereas AQP4 expression have not changed.  Discussion: In conclusion, data showed that fluoxetine alone and in the absence of serotonin acutely up-regulated Cx43 expression in astrocytes that can be assumed in molecular target therapy of MS patients. It seems that cAMP involvement in fluoxetine effects need more researches.

  15. Dlx homeobox gene family expression in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B L; Blin-Wakkach, C; Castaneda, B; Bolanos, A; Hotton, D; Sharpe, P T; Heymann, D; Carles, G F; Grigoriadis, A E; Berdal, A

    2010-06-01

    Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, Dlx2 expression in osteoclasts was examined using a Dlx2/LacZ transgenic mouse. Dlx2 is expressed in a subpopulation of osteoclasts in association with tooth, brain, nerve, and bone marrow volumetric growths. Altogether the present data suggest a role for Dlx2 in regulation of skeletal morphogenesis via functions within osteoclasts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  17. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  18. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  19. The predictive nature of transcript expression levels on protein expression in adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2017-04-24

    Next generation sequencing methods are the gold standard for evaluating expression of the transcriptome. When determining the biological implications of such studies, the assumption is often made that transcript expression levels correspond to protein levels in a meaningful way. However, the strength of the overall correlation between transcript and protein expression is inconsistent, particularly in brain samples. Following high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses of adult human brain samples, we compared the correlation in the expression of transcripts and proteins that support various biological processes, molecular functions, and that are located in different areas of the cell. Although most categories of transcripts have extremely weak predictive value for the expression of their associated proteins (R 2 values of < 10%), transcripts coding for protein kinases and membrane-associated proteins, including those that are part of receptors or ion transporters, are among those that are most predictive of downstream protein expression levels. The predictive value of transcript expression for corresponding proteins is variable in human brain samples, reflecting the complex regulation of protein expression. However, we found that transcriptomic analyses are appropriate for assessing the expression levels of certain classes of proteins, including those that modify proteins, such as kinases and phosphatases, regulate metabolic and synaptic activity, or are associated with a cellular membrane. These findings can be used to guide the interpretation of gene expression results from primate brain samples.

  20. Differential expression of granulopoiesis related genes in neutrophil subsets distinguished by membrane expression of CD177

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Nan; Mora-Jensen, Helena; Theilgaard-Mønch, Kim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differential gene expression in CD177+ and CD177- neutrophils was investigated, in order to detect possible differences in neutrophil function which could be related to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated Vasculitides (AAV). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy controls (HC......) with high, negative or bimodal CD177 expression, and sorted into CD177+ and CD177- subpopulations. Total RNA was screened for expression of 24,000 probes with Illumina Ref-8 Beadchips. Genes showing differential expression between CD177+ and CD177- subsets in microarray analysis were re-assessed using...... quantitative-PCR. CD177 expression on neutrophil precursors in bone marrow was analyzed using quantitative PCR and flowcytometry. RESULTS: The proportion of CD177+ cells increased during neutrophil maturation in bone marrow. Fold change analysis of gene expression profile of sorted CD177+ and CD177...