WorldWideScience

Sample records for letter si units

  1. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H.; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  2. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    International System of Units abbreviated as SI units has been adopted by most of the countries of the world. Following this development, the implementation of SI units has become mandatory with a transition period of about ten years. Some of the journals have already adopted the SI units and any material sent for publication to them must use only these. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) published letters in several journals including Physics in Medicine and Biology, Health Physics, British Journal of Radiology, etc. outlining the latest recommendations on SI units to elicit the reactions of scientists in the general field of radiological sciences. Reactions to the letters were numerous as can be seen in the correspondence columns of these journals for the last few years and ranged from great misgivings and apprehension to support and appreciation. SI units have also been the subject of editorial comments in several journals. On the basis of a survey of this literature, it may be said that there was general agreement on the long term advantage of SI units inspite of some practical difficulties in their use particularly in the initial stages. This report presents a review of SI units in radiological sciences with a view to familiarize the users with the new units in terms of the old. A time table for the gradual changeover to the SI units is also outlined. (auth.)

  3. SiD Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H., (Ed.); Burrows, P., (Ed.); Oreglia, M., (Ed.); Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; /Argonne, HEP; Zhang, Q.; /Argonne, HEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Srivastava, A.; /Birla Inst. Tech. Sci.; Butler, J.M.; /Boston U.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; /Bristol U.; Radeka, V.; /Brookhaven; Zhu, R.-Y.; /Caltech.; Lutz, P.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; /CERN /Cornell U., LNS /Ewha Women' s U., Seoul /Fermilab /Gent U. /Darmstadt, GSI /Imperial Coll., London /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /KLTE-ATOMKI /Valencia U., IFIC /Cantabria Inst. of Phys. /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Durham U., IPPP /Kansas State U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Annecy, LAPP /LLNL, Livermore /Louisiana Tech. U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Paris U., VI-VII /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /MIT, LNS /Chicago, CBC /Moscow State U. /Nanjing U. /Northern Illinois U. /Obninsk State Nucl. Eng. U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Strasbourg, IPHC /Prague, Inst. Phys. /Princeton U. /Purdue U. /Rutherford /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook /Barcelona U. /Bonn U. /UC, Davis /UC, Santa Cruz /Chicago U. /Colorado U. /Delhi U. /Hawaii U. /Helsinki U. /Indiana U. /Iowa U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Melbourne U. /Michigan U. /Minnesota U. /Mississippi U. /Montenegro U. /New Mexico U. /Notre Dame U. /Oregon U. /Oxford U. /Ramon Llull U., Barcelona /Rochester U. /Santiago de Compostela U., IGFAE /Hefei, CUST /Texas U., Arlington /Texas U., Dallas /Tokyo U. /Washington U., Seattle /Wisconsin U., Madison /Wayne State U. /Yale U. /Yonsei U.

    2012-04-11

    This document presents the current status of the Silicon Detector (SiD) effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R and D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  4. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1978-11-01

    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  5. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.

    1976-10-01

    In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

  6. SI units in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liden, K.

    1975-01-01

    The International commission on radiation units and measurements (ICRU), during the period from 1953 to 1962 presented its definitions of the quantities absorbed dose, exposure, activity, and dose equivalent and the corresponding special units the rad, the roentgen, the curie, and the rem. At the same time an international practical system of units was developed, Le Systeme International d'Unites (SI). It was adopted by the 11th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) in 1960 and is now officially introduced in almost all countries. The general implementation of the SI means difficulties for the future use of the special radiation units, because the numerical factors involved prevent their adoption as SI units. In view of this, and after having sampled the opinion in the radiological field, the ICRU prepared a Statement on Units in July, 1974 which was forwarded to the Comite International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) and its Comite Consultatif des Unites (CCU) for consideration. As a result of this statement the CIPM has now proposed, that the 15rh CGPM adopt special names for two SI units, namely the becquerel, symbol Bq, for the unit of activity of radionuclides equal to the reciprocal second, s 1- , and the gray, symbol Gy, for the unit of absorbed dose equal to the joule per kilogram, J/kg. The 15th CGPM will consider this matter in May, 1975. (author)

  7. SI units in engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Qasim, S H

    2016-01-01

    SI Units in Engineering and Technology focuses on the use of the International System of Units-Systeme International d'Unités (SI). The publication first elaborates on the SI, derivation of important engineering units, and derived SI units in science and engineering. Discussions focus on applied mechanics in mechanical engineering, electrical and magnetic units, stress and pressure, work and energy, power and force, and magnitude of SI units. The text then examines SI units conversion tables and engineering data in SI units. Tables include details on the sectional properties of metals in SI units, physical properties of important molded plastics, important physical constants expressed in SI units, and temperature, area, volume, and mass conversion. Tables that show the mathematical constants, standard values expressed in SI units, and Tex count conversion are also presented. The publication is a dependable source of data for researchers interested in the use of the International System of Units-Systeme Inter...

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  9. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  10. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  11. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  12. Letter Writing as a Tool To Increase Client Motivation To Change: Application to an Inpatient Crisis Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Jonathan G.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Wagner, Eric F.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the application of a letter writing exercise as a motivational technique for group counseling in contemporary crisis unit settings. Discusses guidelines and implications for clinical practice with clients with multiple, chronic problems. (Contains 37 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  13. SI units for radiation measurements : for or against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaratnam, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    The historical evolution of the International System of Units (SI) is traced and concepts regarding radiation quantities and units as given by the ICRU are presented. Implications of the changeover to SI units for radiation measurement from the conventional system of familiar units like curie, roentgen, rad and rem are discussed. The familiar units will be kept for the time being along with SI units. In order to avoid confusion in the changeover period, new names, namely, becquerel and gray have been suggested by the authors for the SI units for activity and absorbed dose respectively. One becquerel will be 1 nuclear transformation per second and is approximately equal to 2.703 x 10 -11 Ci. One gray will be 1 joule per kilogram and is exactly equal to 100 rad. (M.G.B.)

  14. Guidelines for safely changing to S.I. radiological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is adopting the International System of Units (SI) in all sectors of the economy. The basic radiological units formerly in use, the curie, rad, rem, and roentgen are being replaced by the becquerel, gray, sievert, and coulomb per kilogram. During the transition period for conversion to SI units some problems may arise concerning received or administered radiation doses. These guidelines exaiine the occupational safety ramifications of of the change to SI by identifying the major safety concerns and providing guidelines for applying a model method within individual organizations for analyzing safety implicatikns during the changeover period

  15. Foundations of the International System of Units (SI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the events leading to the creation of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). Discusses how the units have been represented by their standards, and investigates how the original metric system evolved into the International System of Units (SI), focusing on the meter, second, kilogram, and electrical units. (SK)

  16. Conversion factors: SI metric and U.S. customary units

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Geological Survey is to foster use of the International System of Units (SI) which was defined by the 11th General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960. This modernized metric system constitutes an international "language" by means of which communications throughout the world's scientific and economic communities may be improved. This publication is designed to familiarize the reader with the SI units of measurement that correspond to the common units frequently used in programs of the Geological Survey. In the near future, SI units will be used exclusively in most publications of the Survey; the conversion factors provided herein will help readers to obtain a "feel" for each unit and to "think metric."

  17. SI units for radiation protection - an interim measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The brief memorandum comments on the problems concerning the delay in publishing the report of the ICRU working group on the change to SI units and makes the following suggestions to organisations considering whether to change over to SI units in the near future: a) It would be preferable to delay change-over to SI units for quantities specifying radiation for protection purposes until ICRU publishes its recommendations. This would avoid the risk of having to make two successive changes in procedure, with their attendant cost, need for retraining and the possibility of errors. (b) If, however, in order to be consistent with a change to SI units that has already been made in other applications of radiation, there are strong reasons for changing to SI units before the ICRU recommendations are published, then as an interim measure, measurements of exposure may be converted to dose equivalent using the approximation that 1 mR = 10 μSv. A decision as to whether to alter the scales of existing instruments, or to convert readings to dose equivalent at a later stage will depend on individual circumstances. (U.K.)

  18. Plants for the Swedish change to SI units in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1977-04-01

    In the years from about 1975 to 1985, a universal adjustment will be made to the international system of units, SI, at least concerning several units used in radiology (Liden 1976). The Swedish authorities have deemed it necessary that the change be coordinated within the country as much as possible, mainly on grounds relating to the safety of patients subjected to radiological procedures. The change will take place around 1 January, 1979. This report descibes briefly the administrative planning behind the change.(author)

  19. Someone is Missing in the Common House: The Empty Place of Women in the Encyclical Letter 'Laudato si'

    OpenAIRE

    Toldy, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Global climatic changes are one of the most tragic threats to our present life and to the future generations, calling for an accurate analysis of the situation and for fearlessness. Pope Francis’ Encyclical Letter, >i>Laudato si’ (LS), is the first papal Encyclical to totally focus on environmental issues. The document had a huge impact and sparked a lively debate of its contents. Notably, it underlines the necessity of a humane, all-encompassing, ecology, able to face the challenges of the d...

  20. LEXICAL UNITS STARTING WITH THE LETTERS «Б» AND «B» MATCHING IN THE PLANE OF EXPRESSION (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Maria A. Ankudinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to lexical units starting with the letters «б» and «b» matching in the plane of expression, based on the Russian and English languages. Lexical units were chosen by the random sampling method, were classified and analyzed, based on their spelling and pronunciation.

  1. Closure Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site - Antelope Lake (TTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    A Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for investigation and closure of CAU 496, Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-008-TAAL (Buried Rocket), at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 21,2004. Approval to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 496 to CAU 4000 (No Further Action Sites) was approved by NDEP on December 21, 2005, based on the assumption that the rocket did not present any environmental concern. The approval letter included the following condition: ''NDEP understands, from the NNSA/NSO letter dated November 30,2005, that a search will be conducted for the rocket during the planned characterization of other sites at the Tonopah Test Range and, if found, the rocket will be removed as a housekeeping measure''. NDEP and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office personnel located the rocket on Mid Lake during a site visit to TTR, and a request to transfer CAS TA-55-008-TAAL from CAU 4000 back to CAU 496 was approved by NDEP on September 11,2006. CAS TA-55-008-TAAL was added to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996, based on an interview with a retired TTR worker in 1993. The original interview documented that a rocket was launched from Area 9 to Antelope Lake and was never recovered due to the high frequency of rocket tests being conducted during this timeframe. The interviewee recalled the rocket being an M-55 or N-55 (the M-50 ''Honest John'' rocket was used extensively at TTR from the 1960s to early 1980s). A review of previously conducted interviews with former TTR personnel indicated that the interviewees confused information from several sites. The location of the CAU 496 rocket on Mid Lake is directly south of the TTR rocket launch facility in Area 9 and is consistent with information gathered on the lost rocket during recent interviews. Most pertinently, an interview in 2005 with a

  2. Elemental analysis: Reduction to SI units; Rueckfuehrung in der Elementanalytik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienitz, O.; Jaehrling, R.; Schiel, D. [PTB-Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Anorganische Analytik' ' , Braunschweig (Germany); Matschat, R.; Kipphardt, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Gernand, W.; Oeter, D. [MercK KGaA (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    In a joint project, PTB, BAM and Merck KGaA worked on a metrological reduction system for all elements relevant to analysis. The BAM certified primary pure substances with a relative error of U{sub rel} {<=} 0.01% for the mass of the main element. This was achieved by measuring the mass components of all potential impurities, i.e. practically all elements of the periodic system except the main element. These pure substances are the national reference standards of elemental analysis. From them, PTB produces primary elementa solutions and transfer solutions which are passed on as reference standards. The industrial partner constructed the DKD calibration laboratory, which certifies commercial secondary calibration solutions on the basis of the reference standard solutions produced by PTB. With this final product, measurements in elemental analysis can be reduced to the SI units system as a routine procedure. (orig.)

  3. Neither a year nor an annus can be a derived unit in the SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.

    2011-01-01

    The year is not a unit of the SI. The only SI unit of measurement for time is the second. The word “annus” or “annum” does not appear anywhere in the current SI document. The word “year” is not in the table of “Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units,” nor in the table of “Non-SI units whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally,” nor even in the table of “Other non-SI units.” The year can be found, however, through the list of “Other non-SI units not recommended for use.” This heading directs the reader to a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) list where three kinds of year (365 days, sidereal, and tropical) are given with conversion to seconds, but are set in type to indicate “in general not to be used in NIST publications.” Table 1 summarizes some of the uses of the year in other publications. For example, in the IUPAC chemistry document, the year is not a constant; in the International Astronomy Union Style Guide, the year (Julian) is a constant.   

  4. The SI-Gap: How British Units Are Impeding Advances in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. P.; Cook, Courtney J.

    2017-11-01

    The United States is one of only three countries in the world that remain uncommitted to the metric system. Perhaps to policymakers the decision to hang on to miles, pounds, and gallons is one of tradition. However, as a physics teacher I have seen firsthand how growing up with U.S. Customary Units (commonly called by the pseudonym "British Units") has negatively impacted my students. Sure, they can convert between "British" and SI units; and they can effectively toggle between SI prefixes. However, they typically lack intuition regarding the values they express in SI. This is a major problem, but is by no means a criticism against them. Their disadvantage is the result of a unique learning gap that exists in the United States. I call it the SI(sī)-gap. The SI-gap not only impedes our ability as teachers to inspire students when it comes to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); it also prevents our students from properly assessing the validity of their own results. As we shall soon see, the SI-gap carries consequences beyond the classroom. If we are to solve the problems that relate to the SI-gap, we need to reform the way we introduce SI units to the current generation of students.

  5. Report of the CIRRPC Policy Subpanel on SI metric radiation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    Recognizing that use of the International System of Units (SI) for radiological quantities is increasing internationally but is not currently widely accepted in the United States, and recognizing that the existing US policy is to plan for the increasing voluntary use of SI units domestically, it is recommended that it be US policy to use dual radiation units in Federal activities. However, it is recognized that in certain operational situations, by reason of economy or safety, the utilization of dual units is undesirable. Therefore, in justified situations, agencies may adopt that system of units which best meets their needs. The objective of the recommended use of dual units is primarily to familiarize people with the SI units. This should serve to ease transition when and where transition is appropriate and mitigate economic and safety concerns. The Subpanel has made suggestions on how this policy should be implemented by Federal agencies: using dual units in issuing regulations containing radiation units, except where determined to be impractical, incorporating dual units in agency internal operating procedures as they are written or revised; and using dual units in contracts and procurement. The Subpanel recommends that this policy be reexamined in about five years following an assessment of the use of SI radiation units both internationally and within the United States. 11 refs

  6. Consistent adoption of the International System of Units (SI) in nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpar, J; Kovar, Z [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Laborator Radiologicke Dozimetrie; Sacha, J [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav

    1975-11-01

    The principles are stressed behind a consistent introduction of the International System of Units (SI) in Czechoslovakia complying with the latest edition of the Czechoslovak Standard CSN 01 1300 on the prescribed system of national and international units. The use of special and auxiliary units in nuclear physics and technology is discussed, particular attention being devoted to the units of activity and to the time units applied in radiology. Conversion graph and tables are annexed.

  7. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  8. Effectiveness of pre-admission data and letters of recommendation to predict students who will need professional behavior intervention during clinical rotations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Engelhard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic.

  9. The new special names of SI units in the field of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, H.O.; Allisy, A.; Liden, K.

    1976-01-01

    The authors write on behalf of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Details are given of two resolutions adopted by the Fifteenth General Conference of Weights and Measures at its meeting in May-June 1975, following proposals put by ICRU to the International Committee of Weights and Measures. The SI unit the joule per kilogram when used for ionizing radiation (absorbed dose, kerma, specific energy imparted, etc.) has been given the name gray with the symbol Gy. l Gy = 100 rad = 1 J/kg. The SI unit the reciprocal second (one per second) for activity has been given the name becquerel, symbol Bq. 1 Bq = 1s -1 approximately 2.703 x 10 -11 Ci. Although ICRU did not then recommend giving a special name to the SI unit of exposure to replace the currently used roentgen, it is now recommended that the special units the rad, the roentgen and the curie be gradually abandoned over a period of not less than about 10 years. The formulation (for selection) of a suitable unit for dose equivalent, which has the same physical dimension as absorbed dose, is a special problem which will be thoroughly discussed by ICRU, since the availability of a proper set of quantitites and units is of paramount importance in the field of radiation protection. (U.K.)

  10. Letter: Meyerhofer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

  11. Development of an angled Si-PM-based detector unit for positron emission mammography (PEM) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Kouhei, E-mail: nakanishi.kouhei@c.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2016-11-21

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) systems have higher sensitivity than clinical whole body PET systems because they have a smaller ring diameter. However, the spatial resolution of PEM systems is not high enough to detect early stage breast cancer. To solve this problem, we developed a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) based detector unit for the development of a PEM system. Since a Si-PM's channel is small, Si-PM can resolve small scintillator pixels to improve the spatial resolution. Also Si-PM based detectors have inherently high timing resolution and are able to reduce the random coincidence events by reducing the time window. We used 1.5×1.9×15 mm LGSO scintillation pixels and arranged them in an 8×24 matrix to form scintillator blocks. Four scintillator blocks were optically coupled to Si-PM arrays with an angled light guide to form a detector unit. Since the light guide has angles of 5.625°, we can arrange 64 scintillator blocks in a nearly circular shape (a regular 64-sided polygon) using 16 detector units. We clearly resolved the pixels of the scintillator blocks in a 2-dimensional position histogram where the averages of the peak-to-valley ratios (P/Vs) were 3.7±0.3 and 5.7±0.8 in the transverse and axial directions, respectively. The average energy resolution was 14.2±2.1% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). By including the temperature dependent gain control electronics, the photo-peak channel shifts were controlled within ±1.5% with the temperature from 23 °C to 28 °C. With these results, in addition to the potential high timing performance of Si-PM based detectors, our developed detector unit is promising for the development of a high-resolution PEM system.

  12. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) power supply for the Power Processing Unit (PPU) of...

  13. Communication dated 5 September 2005 received from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency concerning a letter from the Government of the United Kingdom to the Secretary General of the League of Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 5 September 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom, attaching a letter dated 31 August 2005 from the Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the Secretary General of the League of Arab States. In the light of the request expressed by the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom in that Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the attached letter are hereby circulated for the information of all Member States

  14. Conformance to Generic Letter 83-28, Items 3.1.3 and 3.2.3, Beaver Valley, Unit No. 1, North Anna, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Surry Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-334, 50-338, 50-339, 50-280, and 50-281)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroldsen, R.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides a review of the submittals for Beaver Valley, Unit No. 1, North Anna, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, and Surry, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, for conformance to Generic Letter 83-28, Items 3.1.3 and 3.2.3. The specific plants selected were reviewed as a group because of similarity in type and applicability of review items

  15. Urgent Need to Strengthen the Chain of Survival in the United Arab Emirates; a Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Michael Batt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Further to our recently published findings, we have completed the analysis of our second year of prehospital data collection for the same service. We wish to expedite the availability of this data to clinicians, researchers and policy makers in the region.Our 2015/2016 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA data displayed the following demographic results: 514 OHCA resuscitation attempts were attended by national ambulance (NA emergency medical services (EMS in the Northern Emirates region (75% male. Male patients continued on average to be younger than female ones (50 vs. 61 years, and the median age of OHCA cases in the United Arab Emirates remains well below that of cases in Western countries (52 years, interquartile range: 38; 69.Over half of these cases occurred at a home residence, with the next most common location being a street or highway. A total of 282 (54.5% incidents were witnessed by a bystander, 43 (8.3% events by NA crew, and 189 (36.7% incidents were not witnessed. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was attempted in 135 (28.6% of non-EMS-witnessed cases (n=471. A bystander or public access defibrillator was applied in only five cases (1% and no shocks were delivered by bystanders in any case. A total of 34 (6.6% patients had a return of spontaneous circulation in the pre-hospital setting, over twice the rate demonstrated in the first year of our study. Survival to discharge data has been collected for the first time by our hospital partners, and the publication of these results in the near future will contribute greatly to our understanding of the OHCA issue in the region.The increase in the number of OHCA responses by NA crew is notable in our findings. This may be attributable to several reasons, including greater public awareness of EMS capabilities, and improved access to EMS via the dedicated 998 emergency number and the NA mobile application. This trend is to be welcomed, as implementation of the chain of survival

  16. Cartas de aconselhamento: espaço dialógico da socioconstrução da imagem de si=Counselling letters: a dialogical space for the self's social construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro de Almeida Farias-Marques

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado do trabalho final de Mestrado desenvolvido na linha de pesquisa Linguagem no contexto social do Programa de Pós-Graduação da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - RS (UFSM. Tivemos como objetivos principais analisar os índices de modalização presentes no gênero discursivo carta de aconselhamento a fim de observar como eles auxiliam na construção da imagem de si. Estamos interessadas na análise da imagem que as autoras dessas cartas constroem no seu discurso. Objetivamos verificar se os discursos dessas cartas rompem com o estereótipo tradicional da figura feminina e seu papel social ou pontuam papéis tradicionais. O corpus deste trabalho foi composto por duas cartas de aconselhamento, publicadas na coluna Consultório Sentimental da Revista Veja disponibilizada na internet e assinada pela colunista Betty Milan (2007a, b e c. A análise foi realizada com base nos preceitos de Bakhtin (1986, 1992 acerca da concepção de linguagem, dos gêneros do discurso e de seus constituintes, da noção de ethos discutida por Amossy (2005 e Maingueneau (2001, 2005, 2008 e de Kerbrat-Orecchioni (1986 acerca dos índices de modalização. Os estudos sobre mídia e construção social de gênero nos ajudaram a verificar o papel da mídia na veiculação dos papéis sociais de mulheres e homens nas relações sociais.The aim of this work is analyze the rates of modalization in the discursive genre advice letter, in order to observe how they help in the construction of self image. We are interested in the analysis of images that the authors of letters build in their discourses. As second objective, we intend to verify if the discourses of the letters break with the traditional stereotype of female figure and its social role or pointed traditional roles. The corpus of that work is compound for six advice letters published in the column Consultório Sentimental of Veja.com Magazine and signed by the columnist Betty Milan (2007a

  17. SI Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legislation related to SI (International Systems of Units) in the United States. Indicates that although SI metric units have been officially recognized by law in the United States, U.S. Customary Units have never received a statutory basis. (JN)

  18. Problems in implementing some of the new measurement unit definitions of the SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-09-01

    The paper illustrates and discusses some problems that should be taken into account, should the proposed use of fundamental constants in the definition of measurement units of the SI be implemented: (a) more base units being multi-dimensional, instead of fixing the present problems in this respect; (b) the multidimensionality in the definitions; (c) the use of CODATA adjusted values of the constants for this specific purpose; (d) formal issues in stipulating algebraic expressions of the definitions, and in respect to the rounding or truncation of the numerical values in their transformation from uncertain to exact values; (e) formal issues with the use of the integer number NA; (f) limitations that can arise from the stipulation of the values of several constants for the CODATA Task Group to continue performing in future meaningful least squares adjustments of the fundamental constants taking into account future data.

  19. Problems in implementing some of the new measurement unit definitions of the SI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The paper illustrates and discusses some problems that should be taken into account, should the proposed use of fundamental constants in the definition of measurement units of the SI be implemented: (a) more base units being multi-dimensional, instead of fixing the present problems in this respect; (b) the multidimensionality in the definitions; (c) the use of CODATA adjusted values of the constants for this specific purpose; (d) formal issues in stipulating algebraic expressions of the definitions, and in respect to the rounding or truncation of the numerical values in their transformation from uncertain to exact values; (e) formal issues with the use of the integer number N A ; (f) limitations that can arise from the stipulation of the values of several constants for the CODATA Task Group to continue performing in future meaningful least squares adjustments of the fundamental constants taking into account future data

  20. Communication dated 25 June 2008 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom to the Agency concerning a letter and offer of 12 June 2008 delivered to the Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 25 June 2008 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom, on behalf of the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and the Secretary General and High Representative of the European Union, attaching the text of a letter and offer of 12 June 2008 delivered to the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran by Mr. Javier Solana, together with a summary of remarks made by Mr. Solana on 14 June 2008. The communication and, as requested therein, its attachments, are herewith circulated for information

  1. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  2. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altzitzoglou, T.; Bohnstedt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, and 90 Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented

  3. A Breakthrough Opportunity: The Next Four Years for Higher Education in the United States--"An Open Letter to the 2012 Presidential Candidates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The nation's next President will face a host of challenges, among them the economy, health care, an aging population, energy, the environment, and security at home and aboard. In this open letter, the leaders of higher education coordinating and governing boards across the country urge the 2012 presidential candidates to make improving the…

  4. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  5. Letter to the parliament:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This piece was a letter directed towards various ministers in the parliament, targeted at raising a discussion on the values in the education of architects in Denmark and various related topics.......This piece was a letter directed towards various ministers in the parliament, targeted at raising a discussion on the values in the education of architects in Denmark and various related topics....

  6. Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1 Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report Authors: Irene Gonin and Gregory...Johnson   Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. July 2016 Report No. CG-D-10-16 Maritime Geo-Fence...United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report 1

  7. Traceable working standards with SI units of radiance for characterizing the measurement performance of investigational clinical NIRF imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-03-01

    All medical devices for Food and Drug market approval require specifications of performance based upon International System of Units (SI) or units derived from SI for reasons of traceability. Recently, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged on the market and in investigational clinical studies. Yet the design of devices used in the clinical studies vary widely, suggesting variable device performance. Device performance depends upon optimal excitation of NIRF imaging agents, rejection of backscattered excitation and ambient light, and selective collection of fluorescence emanating from the fluorophore. There remains no traceable working standards with SI units of radiance to enable prediction that a given molecular imaging agent can be detected in humans by a given NIRF imaging device. Furthermore, as technologies evolve and as NIRF imaging device components change, there remains no standardized means to track device improvements over time and establish clinical performance without involving clinical trials, often costly. In this study, we deployed a methodology to calibrate luminescent radiance of a stable, solid phantom in SI units of mW/cm2/sr for characterizing the measurement performance of ICCD and IsCMOS camera based NIRF imaging devices, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS system; comparable contrast of ICCD and IsCMOS depending upon binning strategies.

  8. Letter to Carl Niigeli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We reproduce an english translation of one of these letters below, in which ... contemporary scientific knowledge, and that under the circumstances ... generation it became necessary to limit the numbers because of lack of space, so that, in.

  9. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    This letter selves as the post closure monitoring letter report for the above CAU for the period October 2005 - September 2006. Quarterly inspections were conducted on December 12,2005, on March 23, 2006, on June 20,2006, and on September 19,2006, to observe the condition of the gate, use-restriction warning signs, monuments, fencing, trenches, soil covers, and monitoring well covers. The first inspection was conducted on December 12, 2005. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The second inspection was conducted on March 23, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The third inspection was conducted on June 20, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The fourth inspection was conducted on September 19, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended

  12. Letter dated 18 October 1999 from the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. Uphold the ABM Treaty, push forward nuclear disarmament process and promote international peace and security. General Assembly. 54. session. First Committee. Agenda item 76. General and complete disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the letter dated 18 October 1999 sent to the Secretary-General by the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations in connection with the agenda item 76 (General and complete disarmament) of the 54th session of the General Assembly, First Committee. The letter expresses the position of the Chinese delegation concerning the proposed amendment of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty)

  13. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  14. Nuclear. Exchange of letters between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America. Treaty series 1993 no.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Discussions between officials of the Governments of the United States of America and Canada concerning cooperation between Canada and the United States of America on the application of non-proliferation assurances to Canadian uranium to be transferred from Canada to the United States of America for enrichment and fabrication into fuel and thereafter retransferred to Taiwan for use in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity on Taiwan

  15. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The imaginary Sun? Harold Aspden Energy Science Ltd, PO Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, UK Difficult physics? Tim Akrill Chief Examiner, A-level Physics, Edexcel Foundation Was it a dream? Bill Jarvis 6 Peggy's Mill Road, Edinburgh EH4 6JY

  16. Letters From Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Ann R

    2018-03-01

    Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars. Using content analysis, 24 letters received between 1990 and 1998 were read, reread, and coded. Recurring themes were identified. Three themes were identified. These include Peplau, the Person: Living a Life of Professional Balance; Lighting a Spark: Investing in the Next Generation; and Work in the Vineyards of Nursing: Maintaining a Life of Scholarship. The letters depict Peplau's keen intellect, her wide professional network, her leisure time spent with family and friends, and her own work to assure that her theoretical legacy continued. Peplau's insights continue to be relevant as psychiatric mental health nursing leaders engage in activities to support the next generation of scholars and leaders.

  17. Letters in this Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  18. Letters of Map Change (LOMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Documents, including different types of Letters of MAP Revision (LOMR) and Letters of Map Amendment (LOMA), which are issued by FEMA to revise or amend the flood...

  19. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  20. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on data on elastic (p,n) charge exchange: compilation, the potentialities of δ-electron control of luminosity in experiments with internal targets at the Nuclotron, pion broadening and low-mass dilepton production, fluctuation of electromagnetic cascade axis in dense amorphous segmented media, the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Tracking system and its use in data analysis, quantum field theory with three-dimensional vector time, curvature decomposition and the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations, an integral equation for the spinor amplitude of a massive neutral Dirac particle in a curved space time with arbitrary geometry and surprising resonances in 147 Sm(nα) 144 Nd reaction

  1. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the ν e → ν e neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129 I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  2. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on nonlocal chiral quark model with confinement, perturbation of finite-lattice spectral levels by nearby nuclear resonances, on the application of 'Z 0 + jet' events for determining the gluon distribution in a proton at the LHC, account of light velocity constancy in the Galilean problem on the free movement of a particle and its fall onto the ground, first results of crystal deflector investigations at the Nuclotron external beams, decay parameters of K mesons, measured at proton synchrotron U-70 using 'Hyperon' set-up and modern world data, prototype of atomic-emission spectrometer on the basis of one-electrode impulse RF discharge for analytical measurements, polarimeter for Nuclotron internal beam and primordial bubbles of colour superconducting quark matter

  3. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains thirteen separate letters on start-to-end simulations of SASE FEL at the TESLA test facility, possible ways of improvement of the FEM oscillator with a Bragg resonator, the status and perspectives of the electron cooling method development, crystalline ion beams in storage rings, latest results of modeling of LHC beam injection, charge exchange injection in a synchrotron equipped with an electron cooling system, fringe and hysteresis effects in electron guns, nonstationary regimes of electron flow formation in secondary emission inverse coaxial diodes, a proposal of the experiment testing of the fine structure of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, computer simulation of the electron beam dynamics at the accelerator structure and the injector of S-band linac with energies of 3 and 10 MeV, calculation of the electron beam dynamics of the accelerator LUE-200, the accelerator-accumulation facility ITEP-TWAC and accelerators-drivers of electronuclear facilities

  4. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  5. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  6. Letters on nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Maier-Leibnitz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started. (orig.) [de

  7. medication history documentation in referral letters of children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHILDREN PRESENTING AT THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A TEACHING. HOSPITAL IN LAGOS ... infrequently reported in referral letters to a tertiary care hospital in Lagos,. Nigeria. .... researcher, a pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist.

  8. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621908 (China); Fu, Qiang [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Wang, Kedong, E-mail: wangkd@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Xiao, Xudong, E-mail: xdxiao@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Diffusions of Au, Ag and Cu atoms in the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7×7) have been studied by using a STM-based I-t method. • Despite their similar absorption sites, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. • Theoretical calculations suggest that different potential energy profiles are responsible for the observed differences. - Abstract: The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  9. Accurate Determination of the Values of Fundamental Physical Constants: The Basis of the New "Quantum" SI Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2018-03-01

    The metric system appeared as the system of units designed for macroscopic (laboratory scale) measurements. The progress in accurate determination of the values of quantum constants (such as the Planck constant) in SI units shows that the capabilities in high-precision measurement of microscopic and macroscopic quantities in terms of the same units have increased substantially recently. At the same time, relative microscopic measurements (for example, the comparison of atomic transition frequencies or atomic masses) are often much more accurate than relative measurements of macroscopic quantities. This is the basis for the strategy to define units in microscopic phenomena and then use them on the laboratory scale, which plays a crucial role in practical methodological applications determined by everyday life and technologies. The international CODATA task group on fundamental constants regularly performs an overall analysis of the precision world data (the so-called Adjustment of the Fundamental Constants) and publishes their recommended values. The most recent evaluation was based on the data published by the end of 2014; here, we review the corresponding data and results. The accuracy in determination of the Boltzmann constant has increased, the consistency of the data on determination of the Planck constant has improved; it is these two dimensional constants that will be used in near future as the basis for the new definition of the kelvin and kilogram, respectively. The contradictions in determination of the Rydberg constant and the proton charge radius remain. The accuracy of determination of the fine structure constant and relative atomic weight of the electron has improved. Overall, we give a detailed review of the state of the art in precision determination of the values of fundamental constants. The mathematical procedure of the Adjustment, the new data and results are considered in detail. The limitations due to macroscopic properties of material

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the role of the complanar emission of particles in nuclear interaction for E 0 >10 16 eV detected in the stratosphere, 10 B nucleus fragment yields, nuclear teleportation (proposal for an experiment), invisible 'glue' bosons in model field theory, calculation of the ionization differential effective cross sections in fast ion-atom collisions, interactions of ultracold neutrons near surface of solids, g factors as a probe for high-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes, search for periodicities in experimental data by the autoregressive model methods

  11. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ 6 He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235 U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  12. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6 He and 3 H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  13. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ - , e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  14. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on quantum field theory and symmetries in nuclear physics, multifractal analysis of AFM images of Nb thin film surfaces, the fast-acting memory for multichannel converters of time to digital, an analysis of the anomalous Cherenkov radiation obtained in the relativistic lead ion beam at CERN SPS, the problem of consistency of the thermal-spike model with experimentally determined electron temperature, ATLAS calorimeter performance for charged pion as well as on collective flow in multifragmentation induced by relativistic helium and carbon ions variation of the coulomb repulsion in multifragmentation

  15. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on the DELPHI experiment at LEP, the Fermi-surface dynamics of rotating nuclei, production of large samples of the silica dioxide aerogel in the 37-litre autoclave and test of its optical properties, preliminary radiation resource results on scintillating fibers, a new algorithm for the direct transformation method of time to digital with the high time resolution and development and design of analogue read-out electronics for HADES drift chamber system

  16. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  17. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  18. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the new results on simulation of the nuclotron beam extraction with a bent crystal, the Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field, the e/h ratio of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a new approach to develop hadronic event generators in HEP, an algebraic description of multilayer systems with resonances, a high-voltage module for photomultipliers, an estimation of the spin-flip contribution to the np→pn process from the charge exchange reaction on the deuteron, a measurement of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→ 3 Hp reactions at RIKEN as well as on calibration of SPES4-π set-up in experiments on SATURNE-II

  19. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth, solar neutrino results from SAGE, the present and future oscillation experiments at reactors, as well as on the possibilities to test the LSND parameters at reactors, the energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and searches for new physics (recent developments), angular distribution of radiative gamma quanta in radiative beta decay of neutrons, an 37 Ar based neutrino source for calibration of the iodine solar neutrino detector, detector LENS as a new tool for solar neutrino spectroscopy, limits on different Majoron decay modes of 100 Mo, 116 Cd, 82 Se, and 96 Zr for neutrinoless double beta decays in the NEMO-2 experiment as well as on the search for 76 Ge and 150 Nd double beta decay to excited states

  20. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on Wien filter using in exploring on low-energy radioactive nuclei, memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision, topological charge and topological susceptibility in connection with translation and gauge invariance, solutions of the multitime Dirac equation, the maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description, the charged conductor inside dielectric. Solution of boundary condition by means of auxiliary charges and the method of linear algebraic equations, optical constants of the TGS single crystal irradiated by power pulsed electron beam, interatomic pair potential and n-e amplitude from slow neutron scattering by noble gases, the two-coordinate multiwire proportional chamber of the high spatial resolution and neutron drip line in the region of O-Mg isotopes

  1. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on the integral representation for structure functions and target mass effects, multiscale properties of DNA primary structure including cross-scale correlations, dissipative evolution of the elementary act, the fine structure of the M T =1 Gamow-Teller resonance in 147g Tb→ 147 Gd β + /EC decay, the behaviour of the TVO temperature sensors in the magnetic fields, a fast method for searching for tracks in multilayer drift chambers of HADES spectrometer, a novel approach to particle track etching including surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology, azimuthal correlations of secondary particles in 32 S induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei at 4.5 GeV/ c/ nucleon

  2. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116 Cd double β decay study with 116 CdWO 4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40 Ca and 46 Ca by using low radioactive CaF 2 (Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0 + and 2 + final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23 Na, 127 I and 129 Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  3. Letter-Sound Knowledge: Exploring Gender Differences in Children When They Start School Regarding Knowledge of Large Letters, Small Letters, Sound Large Letters, and Sound Small Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermundur Sigmundsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether there is a gender difference in letter-sound knowledge when children start at school. 485 children aged 5–6 years completed assessment of letter-sound knowledge, i.e., large letters; sound of large letters; small letters; sound of small letters. The findings indicate a significant difference between girls and boys in all four factors tested in this study in favor of the girls. There are still no clear explanations to the basis of a presumed gender difference in letter-sound knowledge. That the findings have origin in neuro-biological factors cannot be excluded, however, the fact that girls probably have been exposed to more language experience/stimulation compared to boys, lends support to explanations derived from environmental aspects.

  4. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  5. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  6. Request for information related to the resolution of generic issue 130, ''Essential service water system failures at multi-unit sites,'' pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54(f) - Generic Letter 91-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partlow, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The essential service water system (ESWS) is important in maintaining plant safety during power operation, shutdown, and accident conditions. As part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) evaluation of loss of essential service water (LOSW), extensive analyses of this issue were performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In addition, the NRC staff performed a regulatory analysis to evaluate the safety benefits and implementation costs associated with various equipment and the administrative-type improvements that were considered. These analyses assume that the flushing and flow testing provisions of Generic Letter (GL) 89-13, ''Service Water System Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment,'' will be applied to the crosstie lines as part of addressees' implementation of the resolution of GI-51, ''Improving the Reliability of Open-Cycle Service Water Systems'' (GL 89-13 and Supplement 1). On the basis of results of these evaluations of this generic safety issue, the NRC staff has concluded that the following administrative-type improvements would significantly enhance the availability of the ESWS in affected plants, and their implementation is warranted in view of the safety benefit to be derived and the cost of implementation: technical specification (TS) changes contained in Enclosure 1 to enhance the availability of the ESWS as applied to the design configuration of affected plants; and improvement of emergency procedures for a LOSW using existing design features, specifically: (a) operating and maintaining high-pressure injection (HPI) pump integrity in the event of loss of reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals as a result of ESWS failure, and (b) testing and manipulating the ESWS crosstie between the units during a LOSW accident

  7. A Letter to Ahmad Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Mirgaleev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We bring to attention of specialists an undated letter of Ottoman ruler Mehmed II Fatih to the Great Horde khan Ahmad from the collection of famous collector of Ottoman charters Feridun-bey [1, S. 289]. The addressee is the famous ruler of the Great Horde, khan Ahmad. Daulat Khan mentioned in the letter is Nur-Davlet. He was connected with khan Ahmad, and, as indicated by the letter, he had also set in close contact with the Ottomans whose ruler openly declares in a letter that “our sight of benevolence and patronage is directed toward him”. Thereby the Sultan made it clear to the “principal” Tatar khan Akhmad that Nur-Davlet was under the patronage of the Ottoman Empire. Considering the period of activity of Nur-Davlet in Crimea, presumably the letter was written in 1477. Famous researcher of the Crimean Khanate V.D. Smirnov had already examined the letter and the question of why Ahmad Khan was named the Crimean khan in the title of the letter [2, p. 221–222].

  8. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  9. Some important features of the proposed new definition of the International System of Units (SI: realization and hierarchical problems that the users should know about

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavese Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, after a short introduction to measurement units in general and to the present international system of units (SI: Système International des Unités, deals with a digest of the basics of the proposed new SI:2018 and of its differences compared with the present SI. The latter issue also involves a review of some problems still unresolved in the last draft, concerning: the role of the constants of physics in the system and their role in the conceptual construction of this international standard; the method employed for using the relevant experimental data, and related statistical issues; finally, the implications for science of the New SI implementation. The consequences for and new duties of the national metrology institutes and practitioners are illustrated, involving the future conformity of the present standards and a possible hierarchy between countries that would result from the new definition, in contrast with certain principles of the Convention du Mètre.

  10. The Complaint Letter and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students write a letter of complaint, and discusses how this assignment aids students in seeing the importance of effective written communication to their daily lives. (SR)

  11. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  12. Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis (somatic delusional disorder): A report of two cases. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  13. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  14. Letter from the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Prieto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Letter from the editor Our first issue of 2018 is available now. We have 9 articles in this issue, in topics ranging from soil characterization, petrophysical properties of rocks, signal processing of images and GNSS station to asteroid impact effects. Mechanical soil properties in sandy-pebble soil are studied as a function of grain size content in Lu et al. Satellite-derived soil moisture estimation is discussed in Thanabalan and Vidhya, based on a semi-empirical approach and backscattering images. Macroscopic mechanical characteristics of rocks depend on a number of factors, including microstructure damage. Under changing temperature conditions (freeze-thaw rock samples studied by Jiang show significant strength decrease, which has important consequences in engineering. Advanced signal processing methods are used in Zeng et al. for image retrieval applied to remote sensing data, using a Bayesian network approach. Similarly, Oktar and Erdogan use linear trend and wavelet analysis to continuous GNSS data showing both displacements due to tectonic as well as atmospheric and hydrologic effects. Debris flows can in some cases become serious hazards because they can block river flow as a debris flow dam. Chen et al. propose a method to identify the formation of such dams, with an example from the Er river in Taiwan. Mamaseni et al. study the petrophysical properties of three formations in the Duhok Basin, northern Iran, based on well-log data. Results suggest a significant thickness with good moveable hydrocarbons in the study area. Methane adsorption and gas content are strongly influenced by shale composition. Zhu et al. show that Total Organic Content has a stronger influence on methane adsorption and gas content than the mineral composition, studying samples from the southern Sichuan Basin. Our last contribution in this issue discussed a large asteroid impact in eastern Colombia. The impact would have affected the environment and landscape, but

  15. The letter knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cassandra; Lousada, Marisa; Pereira, Rita; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-10-10

    There is a need to develop letter knowledge assessment tools to characterise the letter knowledge in Portuguese pre-schoolers and to compare it with pre-schoolers from other countries, but there are no tools for this purpose in Portugal. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation procedures of the Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia (PACPL), which assesses letter knowledge. This study includes data that has been gathered in two phases: pilot and main study. In the pilot study, an expert panel of six speech and language pathologists analysed the instrument. Children (n = 216) aged 5;0-7;11 participated in the main study that reports data related to the psychometric characteristics of the PACPL. Content validity, internal consistency, reliability and contributing factors to performance were examined statistically. A modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement amongst evaluators. The main study showed that the PACPL has a very good internal consistency and high inter-rater (96.2% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.92) and intra-rater (95.6% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.91) agreement. Construct validity of the PCAPL was also assured (Cronbach's α of 0.982). Significant differences were found between age groups with children increasing their letter knowledge with age. In addition, they were better at identifying than at producing both letter names and letter sounds. The PACPL is a valid and reliable instrument to assess letter knowledge in Portuguese children.

  16. Letter to the Editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartemo, Petty; Nilsson, Jenny; Nordlund, Anders; Isaksson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body counting (WBC) is a method for measuring and determining the body burden of gamma-emitting radionuclides. The Research Institute for Industrial and Sea Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, has designed a human whole-body phantom, IRINA, to be used for calibrations of WBC systems. We have created voxel phantoms of the IRINA phantoms in a lying geometry, in a total of six voxel phantoms, for usages of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. All the six voxel phantoms are now available through the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research web site together with a detailed description of the method used to create them. IRINA consists of a number of polyethylene blocks, called scatterers (density 0.95 g cm 3 ) and radionuclide sources. The scatterers come in two sizes: 110 x 165 x 55 mm 3 and 110 x 165 x 25 mm 3 . Two vertical channels, aimed for the insertion of the rod-shaped sources, run parallel to each scatterer's height (165 mm). The scatterers can be assembled to represent six different human bodies, who are either laying down, sitting or sitting bending: a 1-y-old with mass of 12 kg, a 6-y-old with mass of 24 kg, a 14-y-old with mass of 50 kg and an adult with mass of 70, 90 and 110 kg, respectively. Voxel phantoms are commonly created by segmentation of CT or MRI image sets of the real-life phantom, which is a favourable technique for complex geometries such as the human anatomy. This gives a three-dimensional array, whose dimension is determined by millimetre/pixel and slice thickness, where each element defines the position and material composition of a voxel in the xyz-space. However, the less-complicated structure of the IRINA phantom made it possible to construct the voxel phantoms without using segmentation of CT or MRI image sets. Instead, the voxel phantoms were created in MATLAB R , which is a strong computational tool for matrix manipulations. The dimensions of a large scatterer are related by 2:3:1. Each scatterer was divided into six unit cubes, with sides

  17. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  18. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  19. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  20. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  1. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  2. 48 CFR 42.504 - Postaward letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Postaward Orientation 42.504 Postaward letters. In some circumstances, a letter or other written form of communication to the contractor may be adequate postaward...

  3. Open letter to the Vatican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience.

  4. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  5. Written Communications Simulation: Write Me a Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This simulation is intended for use as a culminating activity after students have been exposed to personal and/or business letter writing, use of reference manuals, typing of letters, mailing procedures, typing of numbers, punctuation practice, and filing procedures. Stated objectives are to enable students to type a mailable letter; to inspect,…

  6. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  7. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  9. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  10. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  11. Detecting Phonemes and Letters in Text: Interactions Between Different Types and Levels of Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schnelder, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    .... In addition, visual word unitization processes were implicated. Experiments 3 and 4 provided support for the hypothesis that the Gestalt goodness of pattern affected detection errors when subjects searched for letters...

  12. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  13. Writing more informative letters of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-05-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess "intangibles" that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference.

  14. To Domingos: letters, friends, literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ribas Bastos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The object for studying and analysis in this work is a set of letters received by Domingos Carvalho da Silva, which points to the constitution of a scene consisted of friendship and dissidences around a common literary and intellectual perspective. The objective of this work is to map the heterogeneity of the group as well as the problematic project involving the literary production in that moment, in order to find, thus, the means and ways of permanence of literature as it was configured between the 1940s and the 1960s.

  15. The "One-Letter-War"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder

    2017-01-01

    The resolve of the naming dispute between Denmark, Norway and Sweden over the sea name Skagerrak has always been hailed as a prime example of how a naming dispute between countries over joint geographical name features should be handled and solved. This is a search into the story behind the scenes...... by the national mapping agencies. Practical Implications: Useful for institutions seeking name dispute resolution. Building on the extensive correspondence of almost fifty letters in the Danish Place-Name Commission’s journal archive, this naming dispute is shown to be of a rather different nature and resolve...

  16. The legibility of letters and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The saying made famous by Mathew Carter that "type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters”, highlights the fact that although a typeface consists of a number of letters it is when the letters are assembled in a word that they become type. However, research indicates...... that what makes letters legible in isolation is not necessarily the same as what makes them legible in words. Is it possible to create a typeface where both letters and words have a high level of legibility or are those factors so different that they cannot be combined? Through a literature review...... on relevant experimental investigations, I will in this talk present examples of when the legibility findings on letters and words correlate and when they differ....

  17. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter...

  18. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  19. Standardized letters of recommendation and successful match into otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; McClurg, Stanley W; Del Signore, Anthony G; Tomoum, Mohamed O; Lin, Feng-Chang; Senior, Brent A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, narrative letters of recommendation have been utilized in the selection of applicants for otolaryngology residency programs. In the last two application cycles, our specialty adopted a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR). The intent was to decrease time burden for letter writers and to provide readers with an objective evaluation of applicants. The objective of this study was to determine attributes in the SLOR that correlate with matching into a residency program. We performed a retrospective study using SLOR, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores, and matched outcomes of applicants who applied to our institution for the 2013 and 2014 match cycle. We included the following variables from the SLOR in the statistical analysis to determine which ones were associated with matching: patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, procedural skills, research, initiative and drive, commitment to otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, match potential, and USMLE1 scores. We identified 532 applicants and 963 SLOR. In successful applicants, scores for patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, initiative and drive, and match potential were statistically higher (P otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, and USMLE step 1 scores were not higher among successfully matched applicants. Although SLOR can save time for letter writers and provide an objective description of applicants, the utility of individual domains within the SLOR is questionable. Additionally, it is concerning that applicants' professionalism and procedural skills are not correlated with matching in our specialty. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1071-1076, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  1. Sixty-Minute Review of Letter Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Donald H.; Graham, Louise

    1974-01-01

    The article describes a one-hour presentation which provides a basic stereotyped pattern of letter organization for the four types of letters (order, request, claim, and reply) the business of secretarial student is most likely to have to write. The four paragraphs of the pattern are: purpose, explanation, optional, and closing. (AG)

  2. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them with ef...

  3. When Do First Letters Mnemonics Aid Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. E.; Cook, N.

    1978-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the first letter mnemonic technique is confused. There are at least three studies showing no effect, and one where an improvement in recall occurred. Reports two experiments which attempted to locate the conditions under which the first letter mnemonic is effective. (Author/RK)

  4. The Indirect Empathic Approach to Claim Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James D.

    1985-01-01

    In discussing letter-writing methods for business communication classes, the article explains that claim letter formats other than the direct approach are not only legitimate, but also effective, and suggests that the approach selected should depend upon the circumstances surrounding the claim. (CT)

  5. Digging Deep for Meaning: A Critical Hermeneutic Analysis of CEO Letters to Shareholders in the Oil Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anshuman; Mir, Raza

    2002-01-01

    Uses the methodology of critical hermeneutics to analyze Chief Executive Officers' letters to shareholders in the United States petroleum industry during the 1970s and 1980s. Suggests these letters were deployed to produce a certain attitude toward OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) among their readers that deflected attention of…

  6. Improved communication in post-ICU care by improving writing of ICU discharge letters: a longitudinal before-after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medlock, Stephanie; Eslami, Saeid; Askari, Marjan; van Lieshout, Erik Jan; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2011-01-01

    The discharge letter is the primary means of communication at patient discharge, yet discharge letters are often not completed on time. A multifaceted intervention was performed to improve communication in patient hand-off from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the wards by improving the timeliness

  7. Improved communication in post-ICU care by improving writing of ICU discharge letters: a longitudinal before-after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medlock, S.; Eslami, S.; Askari, M.; van Lieshout, E.J.; Dongelmans, D.A.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The discharge letter is the primary means of communication at patient discharge, yet discharge letters are often not completed on time. A multifaceted intervention was performed to improve communication in patient hand-off from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the wards by improving the

  8. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  9. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  10. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  11. The effect of letter string length and report condition on letter recognition accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Karmazinaite, Berta; Rossow, Andrea S

    Letter sequence recognition accuracy has been postulated to be limited primarily by low-level visual factors. The influence of high level factors such as visual memory (load and decay) has been largely overlooked. This study provides insight into the role of these factors by investigating the interaction between letter sequence recognition accuracy, letter string length and report condition. Letter sequence recognition accuracy for trigrams and pentagrams were measured in 10 adult subjects for two report conditions. In the complete report condition subjects reported all 3 or all 5 letters comprising trigrams and pentagrams, respectively. In the partial report condition, subjects reported only a single letter in the trigram or pentagram. Letters were presented for 100ms and rendered in high contrast, using black lowercase Courier font that subtended 0.4° at the fixation distance of 0.57m. Letter sequence recognition accuracy was consistently higher for trigrams compared to pentagrams especially for letter positions away from fixation. While partial report increased recognition accuracy in both string length conditions, the effect was larger for pentagrams, and most evident for the final letter positions within trigrams and pentagrams. The effect of partial report on recognition accuracy for the final letter positions increased as eccentricity increased away from fixation, and was independent of the inner/outer position of a letter. Higher-level visual memory functions (memory load and decay) play a role in letter sequence recognition accuracy. There is also suggestion of additional delays imposed on memory encoding by crowded letter elements. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Canadian Collaboration - Letter of Interest

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Keith C

    Windows is either a registered trademark or a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Mac is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries.

  13. Alphabetical: How Every Letter Tells a Story

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    From minding your Ps and Qs to wondering why X should mark the spot, Alphabetical is a book for everyone who loves words and language. Whether it's how letters are arranged on keyboards or Viking runes, textspeak or zip codes, this book will change the way you think about letters for ever. How on Earth did we fix upon our twenty-six letters, what do they really mean, and how did we come to write them down in the first place? Michael Rosen takes you on an unforgettable adventure through the hi...

  14. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  15. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeck, Holger; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  16. Why doctors do not answer referral letters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to ... Methods: A qualitative study method was used, as the purpose of this study was to .... The total list of topics ..... Research design: qualitative and quantitative approaches.

  17. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  18. Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Keomany, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In her article "Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters" Melanie Keomany discusses the contents of William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg's The Yage Letters which could be dismissed as openly bigoted and racist. Keomany posits that the text reveals valuable connections between the colonial expansion of the eighteenth century and 1950s USA and Latin America. By re-shaping Burroughs's lived experiences in the Amazon into a text where the narrator William Lee mimics sardonically an...

  19. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  20. Structured printed referral letter (form letter; saves time and improves communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.J.C. Ramanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general

  1. Light emissions from LiNbO sub 3 /SiO sub 2 /Si structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X L; Tang, N; Deng, S S; Bao, X M

    2003-01-01

    LiNbO sub 3 (LN) films with a high degree of (006) texture were deposited on Si-based dense SiO sub 2 layers by pulsed laser deposition. After annealing, the LN/SiO sub 2 /Si structures were revealed to have ultraviolet-, green-, and red-emitting properties related to self-trapped excitons and E' defect pairs in the SiO sub 2 surface, which are induced by the photorefractive effect of the LN films. The emission wavelength can be tuned by introducing different dopants into the LN films. Waveguiding properties of the structures were demonstrated. The results obtained indicate that the LN/SiO sub 2 /Si structures could be expected to have important applications in modern optoelectronic integration. (letter to the editor)

  2. Analysis of reliability of professor recommendation letters based on concordance with self-introduction letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between a checklist's categories of professor recommendation letters and characteristics of the self-introduction letter. Checklists of professor recommendation letters were analyzed and classified into cognitive, social, and affective domains. Simple correlation was performed to determine whether the characteristics of the checklists were concordant with those of the self-introduction letter. The difference in ratings of the checklists by pass or fail grades was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether a pass or fail grade was influenced by ratings on the checklists. The Cronbach alpha value of the checklists was 0.854. Initiative, as an affective domain, in the professor's recommendation letter was highly ranked among the six checklist categories. Self-directed learning in the self-introduction letter was influenced by a pass or fail grade by logistic regression analysis (pprofessor recommendation letters and the sum of all characteristics in the self-introduction letter.

  3. Can "CANISO" Activate "CASINO"? Transposed-Letter Similarity Effects with Nonadjacent Letter Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonwords created by transposing two "adjacent" letters (i.e., transposed-letter (TL) nonwords like "jugde") are very effective at activating the lexical representation of their base words. This fact poses problems for most computational models of word recognition (e.g., the interactive-activation model and its extensions), which assume that exact…

  4. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  5. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  6. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  7. [Various report forms and letters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  8. Editorial - Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sidanius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This time our focus section deals with the topic of ethnic and racial violence and conflict. We are grateful to our guest editors Robert D. Crutchfield (Universityof Washington, United States and Werner Bergmann (TU Berlin, Germany for putting together an appealing collection of contributions addressing this important field. As usual, our Open Section reflects the enormous breadth of our field, with articles on the theories of Clausewitz and the media’s treatment of rape incidents in kibbutzim.Aside from regular activities, the IJCV is in the process of migrating to a new content management system. From next year the journal will appear in a new online design and be easier to browse. The address will not change, though. If you have signed up for our news alerts you will receive further information in good time.

  9. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  10. An Investigation of the Role of Grapheme Units in Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Acha, Joana; Davis, Colin J.; Perea, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In most current models of word recognition, the word recognition process is assumed to be driven by the activation of letter units (i.e., that letters are the perceptual units in reading). An alternative possibility is that the word recognition process is driven by the activation of grapheme units, that is, that graphemes, rather than letters, are…

  11. Improved communication in post-ICU care by improving writing of ICU discharge letters: a longitudinal before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Stephanie; Eslami, Saeid; Askari, Marjan; van Lieshout, Erik Jan; Dongelmans, Dave A; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2011-11-01

    The discharge letter is the primary means of communication at patient discharge, yet discharge letters are often not completed on time. A multifaceted intervention was performed to improve communication in patient hand-off from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the wards by improving the timeliness of discharge letters. A management directive was operationalised by a working group of ICU staff in a longitudinal before-after study. The intervention consisted of (a) changing policy to require a letter for use as a transfer note at the time of ICU discharge, (b) changing the assignment of responsibility to an automatic process, (c) leveraging positive peer pressure by making the list of patients in need of letters visible to colleagues and (d) provision of decision support, through automatic copying of important content from the patient record to the letter and email reminders if letters were not written on time. Statistical process control charts were used to monitor the longitudinal effect of the intervention. The intervention resulted in a 77.9% absolute improvement in the proportion of patients with a complete transfer note at the time of discharge, and an 85.2% absolute improvement in the number of discharge letters written. Statistical process control shows that the effect was sustained over time. A multifaceted intervention can be highly effective for improving discharge communication from the ICU.

  12. Editorial: Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Zick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Editorial 8(2 We are pleased to present issue 8 (2. The focus section is edited by Helmut Thome (University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany and Steven F. Messner (University at Albany, United States, and focuses on methodological constraints, options, and solutions in longitudinal research on criminal violence. We are honored that Helmut Thome, Steven Messner, and the contributors offer their scientific knowledge and evidence in the interests of gaining a deeper understanding of one of the most promising methodological approaches in conflict and violence research, i.e. longitudinal data analyses. Sincere thanks to the editors and authors for opening up the potential of this specific kind of research for advances to better assess and understand criminal violence in a long term perspective. We hope this issue will be discussed and quoted in the interdisciplinary community of researchers. The open section again fulfills its aim to foster contributions on diverse topics in the field of conflict and violence, starting with an analysis of Southeast Asian media reception of the Israeli/Palestine conflict. The second paper shows how social cohesion activities have the potential to change disparaging attitudes in Cyprus. The third and final contribution examines teen dating violence in Switzerland from various angles.

  13. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  14. Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research--research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to…

  15. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  16. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  18. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue of the information letter consists of two articles, "Music Therapy" and "Research and Applications of Psychomusical Techniques"; a review of the book, "La musicotherapie et les methods nouvelles d'association des techniques" by Guilhot and Cecourt, and a bibliography of books on music therapy written in…

  19. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  20. 46 CFR 28.60 - Exemption letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS General Provisions § 28.60 Exemption letter. (a) Types of exemptions. (1) Specific exemption means... for an exemption of either type must be in writing, have specific reasons for the request, and be sent... vessel to which any exemption applies. (e) Right of appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision or...

  1. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T ... and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna. ... Les principaux thèmes qui y sont abordés recouvrent les axes de recherche ...

  3. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  4. A letter from Alvin Weinberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, during the autumn of 1942, a group of physicists, chemists and engineers were assembled to work on what was to become the Canadian atomic energy project. The base for this work was Montreal. This paper concentrates on the contributions of a sub-group of those scientists, namely those working on the development of nuclear reactor theory. The members of that group comprised an international mix of Canadians, Britons and Americans. A few already had international reputations as theoretical physicists, but the majority were young men and women, generally under the age of 30, who were very talented but not yet famous. They worked under conditions of the utmost secrecy, initially with little help from the United States, and developed virtually from first principles most of the important aspects of modern reactor theory. The results of their work were issued as Canadian National Research Council reports with the prefix MT (Montreal Theory), and between 1943 and 1946 about 80 such reports were written. The theory described therein was fundamental to the later design and construction of the Canadian NRX reactor, which was a very successful research tool. Soon after the end of World War II, a few of the MT reports were written up and published in either the Physical Review or the Canadian Journal of Research. However, more than 80% of the work was not published and therefore did not receive the formal recognition that it deserved. A few of the reports that went unpublished were so important that one wonders why they never appeared in the learned journals. To be sure, the work they contained was certainly used world-wide and the reports cited. However, human nature being what it is, after some years the original sources were forgotten and only the published papers which cited them were quoted. After a while those classic, early MT reports seem to have faded from memory. Thus it was that, when I recently tried to find one of them to check on a particular matter (in

  5. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA’s first official notification to a pharmaceutical company that the FDA has discovered a product or activity in violation of the FDCA. This study analyzed trends in the pharmaceutical-related regulatory letters released by the FDA during the period 1997–2011 and assessed differences in the average number and type of regulatory letters released during the last four federal administrations. Methods Data derived from the FDA webpage. Information about the FDA office releasing the letter, date, company, and drug-related violation was collected. Regulatory letters were classified by federal administration. Descriptive statistics were performed for the analysis. Results Between 1997 and 2011 the FDA released 2,467 regulatory letters related to pharmaceuticals. FDA headquarters offices released 50.6% and district offices 49.4% of the regulatory letters. The Office of Prescription Drug Promotion released the largest number of regulatory letters (850; 34.5% of the total, followed by the Office of Scientific Investigations (131; 5.3%, and the Office of Compliance (105; 4.3%. During the 2nd Clinton Administration (1997–2000 the average number of regulatory letters per year was 242.8 ± 45.6, during the Bush Administration (2001–2008 it was 120.4 ± 33.7, and during the first three years of the Obama administration (2009–2011 it was 177.7.0 ± 17.0. The average number of regulatory letters released by the Office of Prescription Drug Promotion also varied by

  6. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diane; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Montagne, Michael

    2013-01-22

    The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation) to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA's first official notification to a pharmaceutical company that the FDA has discovered a product or activity in violation of the FDCA.This study analyzed trends in the pharmaceutical-related regulatory letters released by the FDA during the period 1997-2011 and assessed differences in the average number and type of regulatory letters released during the last four federal administrations. Data derived from the FDA webpage. Information about the FDA office releasing the letter, date, company, and drug-related violation was collected. Regulatory letters were classified by federal administration. Descriptive statistics were performed for the analysis. Between 1997 and 2011 the FDA released 2,467 regulatory letters related to pharmaceuticals. FDA headquarters offices released 50.6% and district offices 49.4% of the regulatory letters. The Office of Prescription Drug Promotion released the largest number of regulatory letters (850; 34.5% of the total), followed by the Office of Scientific Investigations (131; 5.3%), and the Office of Compliance (105; 4.3%). During the 2nd Clinton Administration (1997-2000) the average number of regulatory letters per year was 242.8 ± 45.6, during the Bush Administration (2001-2008) it was 120.4 ± 33.7, and during the first three years of the Obama administration (2009-2011) it was 177.7.0 ± 17.0. The average number of regulatory letters released by the Office of Prescription Drug Promotion also varied by administration: Clinton (122.3 ± 36.4), Bush (29.5

  7. [Changes in CIRUGIA ESPANOLA Letters to the Editor between 2000 and 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Pradas, Jorge; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio

    2008-09-01

    To describe the frequency and bibliographic characteristics of letters to the editor in the journal, Cirugía Española published between 2000 and 2007 and to compare the differences in the periods between 2000-2003 and 2004-2007. A descriptive and cross-sectional study, using the letters to the editor published in Spanish surgery between 2000 and 2007, as observation units. The variables considered were: the number of letters according to the volume and year of publication, substantive content of the paper, text length, graphics resources use, number of signatories and their professional profile, institutions of the authors, by origin and number of Autonomous Communities and number of bibliographical references. To meet the second objective, we compared letters from the period 2000-2003 with the period 2004-2007 against the rest of variables considered as a result. We used descriptive statistics and statistical analysis for comparison of distributions (chi2), with a level of significance of p < 0.05, using the SPSS software (Version 15.0). We identified 312 documents classified as letters. Between 2002 and 2005 their number was small. Often referring to clinical cases 187 (59.9%) and related letters, 98 (31.4%). Of those, 81.1% met the standard length of the text and only 6 letters (1.9%) was the use of graphics exceeded. In 122 letters (39.1%) the permitted number of authors was exceeded. They were mostly contributed by surgeons, 238 cases (76.3%), usually a single hospital, with 294 letters (94.2%) mainly from, Catalonia, Andalusia, Madrid and Valencia. Only 58.1% of the letters complied with the permitted number of references. More related letters were published in the last period (59 letters; 42.1%) than during the years 2000-2003 (39 letters; 22.7%) (chi2 = 14.79; p < 0.001). The correct length of the text improved in the second period, 136 (97.1%), compared to the first 117 (68%) (chi2 = 42.67; p < 0.001. The graphics resources were used properly in both

  8. Letter-transposition effects are not universal: The impact of transposing letters in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of letter transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that transposed-letter (TL) root primes inhibited responses to targets derived from the non-transposed root letters, and that this inhibition was unrelated to relative root frequency. Experiment 2 replicated this result and showed that if the transposed letters of the root created a nonsense-root that had no lexical representation, then no inhibition and no facilitation were obtained. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that in contrast to English, French, or Spanish, TL nonword primes did not facilitate recognition of targets, and when the root letters embedded in them consisted of a legal root morpheme, they produced inhibition. These results suggest that lexical space in alphabetic orthographies may be structured very differently in different languages if their morphological structure diverges qualitatively. In Hebrew, lexical space is organized according to root families rather than simple orthographic structure, so that all words derived from the same root are interconnected or clustered together, independent of overall orthographic similarity.

  9. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  10. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Use of Standard Guidelines for Department of Medicine Summary Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Matthew; La Rochelle, Jeffrey; Lang, Valerie; DeWaay, Deborah; Adams, William; Nasraty, Farah

    2018-04-12

    Phenomenon: Fourth-year medical students obtain Department of Medicine (DOM) letters ("Chair" letters) to support their residency applications. Writing and interpreting DOM letters are challenging. There is heterogeneity in the letters that makes it difficult to both write and read these letters. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of new guidelines developed by a task force of clerkship directors and program directors in internal medicine and assess the implementation of these guidelines. The Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine performed a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine clerkship directors at U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2014. In addition, the primary author's institution reviewed 1,347 DOM letters between 2012 and 2014 to assess the implementation of these guidelines. The survey response rate was 78%. DOM letter writers reported the guidelines were better, easier to implement, and more compatible with the purpose of DOM letters than previously. Most letter readers reported that letters using the guidelines were more credible. Writers of DOM letters in lower academic ranks rated the letters with guidelines higher in several domains than those in higher academic ranks. Readers of DOM letters in higher academic ranks rated the letters with guidelines higher in several domains than those in lower academic ranks. In the DOM letters examined, the odds of meeting each guideline increased with each additional year. However, for 3 guidelines there was an initial decline in adherence from 2012 to 2013 before increasing again in 2014-the recommended length, clerkship description, and detailed narrative guidelines. Letters solely written by a chair were less likely to incorporate the guidelines. Insights: Clerkship directors often write the DOM letters and identify with the purpose of the guidelines. As writers, lower ranking academic faculty value the guidelines more than higher ranking academic faculty. As readers of DOM letters

  12. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  13. Exploring Corporate Rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO's Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Examines how metadiscourse is used to create a positive corporate image in 137 CEOs' letters, showing how CEOs use nonpropositional material to realize rational, credible, and affective appeals. Reveals the essentially rhetorical nature of CEOs' letters by comparing the frequency and distribution of metadiscourse in their letters and directors'…

  14. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, L.; Blom, F.; Leerintveld, A.

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend

  15. Student Teacher Letters of Reference: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Letters of reference are commonly used in acquiring a job in education. Despite serious issues of validity and reliability in writing and evaluating letters, there is a dearth of research that systematically examines the evaluation process and defines the constructs that define high quality letters. The current study used NVivo to examine 160…

  16. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…

  17. Evidence for magnocellular involvement in the identification of flanked letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the magno system in reading. One important hypothesis is that this system is involved in the allocation of attention. We reasoned that the presentation of a single letter automatically draws attention to this letter, whereas in the case of a flanked letter, an

  18. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  19. Hamlet and Japanese Men of Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawachi Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare has exerted a powerful influence on Japanese literature since he was accepted in the second half of the nineteenth century. Particularly Hamlet has had a strong impact on Japanese men of letters and provided them with the impetus to revive the play in contemporary literature. In this paper I discuss how they have utilized Hamlet for their creative activity and enriched Japanese literature.

  20. Letters of credit getting more expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, J

    1991-09-02

    Hospital executives who haven't been in the market recently for a new or renewed letter of credit will find it a more expensive way to back their variable-rate debt. Annual fees are surging, for reasons ranging from an international banking agreement that goes into effect next year to more conservative fee structures being instituted because of bad loans made by some banks in the past decade.

  1. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  2. Magic clusters and (2x1) local structure formed in a half-unit cell of the Si(1 1 1)-(7x7) surface by Tl adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, P.; Visikovskiy, A.V.; Ohira, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Ueda, K.; Tochihara, H.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of a (2x1) local structure is found at submonolayer growth of Tl on the Si(1 1 1)-(7x7) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At low coverages, the (7x7) grid remains and the (2x1) structure is formed inside of the half-unit cells of the (7x7). The (2x1) coexists with other structures, such as of 'magic' clusters observed in the case of all other group III metals. Based on our STM observations we propose an atomic arrangement of the (2x1) structure

  3. New multicell model for describing the atomic structure of La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} piezoelectric crystal: Unit cells of different compositions in the same single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Accurate X-ray diffraction study of langasite (La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14}) single crystal has been performed using the data obtained on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 90.5 K. Within the known La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} model, Ga and Si cations jointly occupy the 2d site. A new model of a “multicell” consisting of two different unit cells is proposed. Gallium atoms occupy the 2d site in one of these cells, and silicon atoms occupy this site in the other cell; all other atoms correspondingly coordinate these cations. This structure implements various physical properties exhibited by langasite family crystals. The conclusions are based on processing four data sets obtained with a high resolution (sin θ/λ ≤ 1.35 Å{sup –1}), the results reproduced in repeated experiments, and the high relative precision of the study (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1; at 295 K, a = 8.1652(6) Å, c = 5.0958(5) Å, R/wR = 0.68/0.68%, 3927 independent reflections; at 90.5 K, a = 8.1559(4) Å, c = 5.0913(6) Å, R/wR = 0.92/0.93%, 3928 reflections).

  4. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  5. The Jamaica Letter and its intellectual genealogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the fundamental objectives of The Jamaica Letter is the reflection on the features that should have the international order after the fall of the Spanish Empire. For its organization, Simon Bolívar appeals to the amphictyonic assemblies of classical Greece and invokes the Pan-European project of the Abbe Saint Pierre. This article traces the documentary sources from which Bolivar derives his notion of confederal union and inspires the unions treaties from 1822 to 1826.

  6. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Evaluation of two thermal neutron detection units consisting of ZnS/{sup 6}LiF scintillating layers with embedded WLS fibers read out with a SiPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosset, J.-B., E-mail: jean-baptiste.mosset@a3.epfl.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Hildebrandt, M.; Schlumpf, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Van Swygenhoven, H. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-11-11

    Two single channel detection units for thermal neutron detection are investigated in a neutron beam. They consist of two ZnS/{sup 6}LiF scintillating layers sandwiching an array of WLS fibers. The pattern of these units can be repeated laterally and vertically in order to build up a one-dimensional position sensitive multi-channel detector with the needed sensitive surface and with the required neutron absorption probability. The originality of this work arises from the fact that the WLS fibers are read out with SiPMs instead of the traditionally used PMTs or MaPMTs. The signal processing system is based on a photon counting approach. For SiPMs with a dark count rate as high as 0.7 MHz, a trigger efficiency of 80% is achieved together with a system background rate lower than 10{sup −3}Hz and a dead time of 30μs. No change of performance is observed for neutron count rates of up to 3.6 kHz.

  8. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  9. Open letter to Mr Christian Bataille, Deputy of Nord region, France. Open letter on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix P

    2007-02-01

    The author, by means of a letter to the deputy Christian Bataille, presents arguments to the shutdown of old nuclear power plants. He points out the environmental and economical arguments in favor of a decrease of the nuclear power use in France. (A.L.B.)

  10. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ''next generation'' melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area

  11. Resource letter SH-1: superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The resource letter covers the general subject of superfluid helium and treats 3 He and 3 He-- 4 He mixtures as well as 4 He. No effort has been made to include the fascinating experiments on either solid helium or the equally fascinating work on adsorbed helium where the helium coverage is below that necessary for superfluidity. An earlier resource letter by C. T. Lane [Am. J. Phys. 35, 367 (1967)] may be consulted for additional comments on some of the cited earlier manuscripts, but the present work is self-contained and may be used independently. Many high-quality research reports have not been cited here. Rather, the author has tried in most cases to include works particularly readable or relevant. There is a relatively heavy emphasis on experimental references. The primary reason is that these works tend to be more generally readable. No doubt some works that might have been included, have not, and for this the author takes responsibility with apology. Articles selected for incorporation in a reprint volume (to be published separately by the American Association of Physics Teachers) are marked with an asterisk(*). Following each referenced work the general level of difficulty is indicated by E, I, or A for elementary, intermediate, or advanced

  12. Implied reading direction and prioritization of letter encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Nguyen, Elizabeth H L; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right. The left-side performance advantage was eliminated. In the second experiment, letters were positioned above and below fixation, oriented such that they appeared to face downward (90° clockwise rotation) or upward (90° counterclockwise rotation). Again consistent with an effect of implied reading direction, performance was better for the top position in the downward condition, but not in the upward condition. In both experiments, mixture modeling of participants' report errors revealed that attentional sampling from the two locations was approximately simultaneous, ruling out the theory that the letter on one side was processed first, followed by a shift of attention to sample the other letter. Thus, the orientation of the letters apparently controls not when the letters are sampled from the scene, but rather the dynamics of a subsequent process, such as tokenization or memory consolidation. Implied reading direction appears to determine the letter prioritized at a high-level processing bottleneck. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Silicon for ultra-low-level detectors and sup 32 Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A recent dark matter experiment using a silicon diode detector confirms that the decay of {sup 32}Si is a dangerous background in ultra-low-level experiments using silicon as detector material or shielding. In this Letter we study the mechanism of how {sup 32}Si enters commercially available silicon. Ways to avoid this contamination are pointed out. Limits on the {sup 32}Si content of silicon from measurements with miniaturized low-level proportional counters are also given. (orig.).

  14. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  15. Commentary to the Letter of Robert Arasimowicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author in his letter to the editor presents his own vision of carrying out archives’ tasks that arise from the public principle of archives. He is concerned especially with stagnation and passive role of archives in promoting their collections. To justify his theses the author conducted a survey among a group of his friends. He asked them four questions that tested their knowledge of archives and archival collections. Answers proved earlier conjectures to be true and were similar to the author’s experience; they showed that the society has poor knowledge of archives and their collections. The author proposed some general solutions, referring especially to actions taken by museums.

  16. Letter contrast sensitivity function of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1998-06-01

    To provide empirical data of letter CSF for various levels of defocus under controlled conditions of luminance and age. Corrected distance visual acuities were tested at different levels of contrast and defocus. An experiment was conducted using the Medmont visual acuity tester on 10 young subjects and under normal room lighting. Empirical data of visual acuity were obtained for 7 levels of contrast (5, 10, 15, 25, 40, 60, 80%) and defocus levels of 0, +1 and +2D. A mathematical model was derived (R2=0.995) and this can be used to estimate visual acuity at various contrast levels for defocus of < or =+2D. This information is useful for the clinician as normative data and for further development of optical models to predict visual performance of the eye.

  17. Maker of patterns an autobiography through letters

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman

    2018-01-01

    While recognizing that quantum mechanics demands serious attention, Albert Einstein in 1926 admonished fellow physicist Max Born that the theory does not bring us closer to the secrets of the Old One. Aware that there are deep mysteries that Nature intends to keep for herself, Freeman Dyson, the 94-year-old theoretical physicist, has nonetheless chronicled the stories of those who were engaged in solving some of the most challenging quandaries of twentieth-century physics. Written between 1940and the early 1980s, these letters to relatives form an historic account of modern science and its greatest players, including J.Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking,and Hans Bethe. Whether reflecting on the horrors of World War II, the moral dilemmas of nuclear development, the challenges of the space program, or the considerable demands of raising six children, Dyson offers a firsthand account of one of the greatest periods of scientific discovery of our modern age.

  18. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words.Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters.We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities.The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  19. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  20. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  1. Pirates at Parties: Letter Position Processing in Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in letter position coding in adults, but little is known about the development of this process in children learning to read. Here, the letter position coding abilities of 127 children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (aged 7-10 years) were examined by comparing their performance in reading aloud "migratable" words (e.g.,…

  2. Letters to a Young Baller: Exploring Epistolary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of epistolary criticism within the realm of sport studies and aspires to encourage scholars to consider the use of non-traditional sport memorabilia and source materials when telling emotive stories about sport and sport practices. The use of letters and the letter-writing format to tell a personal narrative…

  3. Analyzing International Letters in a Business Communication Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Shows how students can use persuasive principles of communication (format and writer's purpose) and of classical rhetoric (organization, ethos, pathos, logos, and style) to improve their ability to analyze business letters. Shows how applying these principles to the analysis of business letters from other countries helps students write better and…

  4. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. The Syntax of Persuasion: Two Business Letters of Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Mohan R.

    1983-01-01

    Business letter-writers are advised to develop reader empathy and benefit before they ask a favor. The author analyzed two model 16th century letters of request to determine if similar advice was given in the past, and found that the request was subordinate to building a mutually beneficial relationship. (PD)

  6. 22 CFR 201.71 - Terms of letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not be inconsistent with or contrary to the terms of the letter of commitment. Any such letter of credit or agreement may be modified or extended at any time in such a manner and to such extent as is acceptable to the approved applicant and the bank: Provided, That such modification or extension may not be...

  7. Why Doctors Do Not Answer Referral Letters | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...

  8. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...

  9. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  10. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  11. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    history, may not be elements that non-psychiatrist phy- sicians routinely collect during their examinations and, therefore, one would not expect such information to be available to be included in referral letters. Conclusion. Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common.

  12. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked...

  13. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization...

  14. Open letter to EU Commission about proposed EDC Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Bero, Lisa; Beronius, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Open letter in response to the proposed criteria for identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, under the PPP and Biocides Regulations......Open letter in response to the proposed criteria for identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, under the PPP and Biocides Regulations...

  15. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  16. Experimental test of contemporary mathematical models of visual letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J T; Ashby, F G

    1982-12-01

    A letter confusion experiment that used brief durations manipulated payoffs across the four stimulus letters, which were composed of line segments equal in length. The observers were required to report the features they perceived as well as to give a letter response. The early feature-sampling process is separated from the later letter-decision process in the substantive feature models, and predictions are thus obtained for the frequencies of feature report as well as letter report. Four substantive visual feature-processing models are developed and tested against one another and against three models of a more descriptive nature. The substantive models predict the decisional letter report phase much better than they do the feature-sampling phase, but the best overall 4 X 4 letter confusion matrix fits are obtained with one of the descriptive models, the similarity choice model. The present and other recent results suggest that the assumption that features are sampled in a stochastically independent manner may not be generally valid. The traditional high-threshold conceptualization of feature sampling is also falsified by the frequent reporting by observers of features not contained in the stimulus letter.

  17. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  18. 7 CFR 1737.80 - Description of characteristics letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the amount of the proposed loan, its purposes, rate of interest, loan security requirements, and other... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Characteristics Letter § 1737.80 Description of characteristics letter. (a) After all of the...

  19. 32 CFR 884.17 - Commander's instruction letter to member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... instruction letter to member. Subject: Instructions in Case of Release on Bail or Personal Recognizance 1. You... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander's instruction letter to member. 884.17... civilian custody on bail or on your own recognizance, report immediately in person or by telephone to the...

  20. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.99 Letter of credit. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the... brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted: Irrevocable Standby.... We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR...

  1. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  2. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  3. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  4. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  5. Teaching Complaint and Adjustment Letters--And Tact (My Favorite Assignment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, Paula

    1992-01-01

    Describes a three-part assignment in which each student writes a complaint letter and an adjustment letter responding to another student's complaint letter. Discusses how the third part of the assignment--journal entries--allows students to formulate their own criteria for excellent letters based upon their reactions to the letters they receive.…

  6. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  7. Revision of the Li13Si4 structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Michael; Fässler, Thomas F

    2013-11-06

    Besides Li17Si4, Li16.42Si4, and Li15Si4, another lithium-rich representative in the Li-Si system is the phase Li13Si4 (trideca-lithium tetra-silicide), the structure of which has been determined previously [Frank et al. (1975 ▶). Z. Naturforsch. Teil B, 30, 10-13]. A careful analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of Li13Si4 revealed discrepancies between experimentally observed and calculated Bragg positions. Therefore, we redetermined the structure of Li13Si4 on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compared to the previous structure report, decisive differences are (i) the introduction of a split position for one Li site [occupancy ratio 0.838 (7):0.162 (7)], (ii) the anisotropic refinement of atomic displacement parameters for all atoms, and (iii) a high accuracy of atom positions and unit-cell parameters. The asymmetric unit of Li13Si4 contains two Si and seven Li atoms. Except for one Li atom situated on a site with symmetry 2/m, all other atoms are on mirror planes. The structure consists of isolated Si atoms as well as Si-Si dumbbells surrounded by Li atoms. Each Si atom is either 12- or 13-coordinated. The isolated Si atoms are situated in the ab plane at z = 0 and are strictly separated from the Si-Si dumbbells at z = 0.5.

  8. Resource letter for Accelerated Matter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.

    1989-07-01

    This resource letter covers diverse literature(400 titles) relevant to the Accelerated Matter Program in the Particles and Fields Group at the University of Melbourne. Specifically, the research areas covered are: inertia induced electric fields in accelerated matter; strain induced contact potentials; the patch effect/surface potentials. There are no claims made for completeness. The areas of gravity, acceleration and strain induced effects in matter, and drift tube experiments with matter/antimatter are extensively covered, if not complete. The literature on acceleration/inertia induced effects in metals has a long history dating back to the 19th century and the reader is referred to the review by Barnett (1935) for an extensive list of references not included here. All other work following this 1935 review, has been included here. The literature on surface physics is very extensive and no attempt has been made to cover it all. Every major paper on metal surfaces has been cited. Several other references have been included which fall only loosely into the above areas and they represent useful and/or interesting material for this research program

  9. Open letter to Pope John Paul II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F

    1991-01-01

    In an Open Letter to Pope John Paul II, written on World Population Day (July 11) 1991, Dr. Fred Sai, President of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), called for a dialogue on voluntary family planning as a means of avoiding unwanted pregnancy. A half million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes--a death toll that could be dramatically reduced by universal access to low cost, effective contraception. Family planning further represents the best protection against abortion. The Catholic Church's vehement opposition to abortion and family planning methods other than periodic abstinence is in marked contrast to its support to human rights in other settings. The Church has supported struggles for economic ju stice in and among nations, sided with the poor, and advocated for transitions to democracy. At the same time, the family planning movement--which has as its overall objective the protection of the health and welfare of women, children, and families--is viewed by the Vatican as a vehicle for the enslavement rather than liberation of women. The opening of a sensitive dialogue between the Catholic Church and supporters of voluntary family planning could help couples make sound moral decisions about their families and contribute to saving the lives of millions of women, most of them poor.

  10. Resource Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2012-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.

  11. Does adoption of electronic health records improve organizational performances of hospital surgical units? Results from the French e-SI (PREPS-SIPS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantier, Morgane; Havet, Nathalie; Durand, Thierry; Caquot, Nicolas; Amaz, Camille; Philip, Irène; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are increasingly being adopted by healthcare systems worldwide. In France, the "Hôpital numérique 2012-2017" program was implemented as part of a strategic plan to modernize health information technology (HIT), including promotion of widespread EHR use. With significant upfront investment costs as well as ongoing operational expenses, it is important to assess this system in terms of its ability to result in improvements in hospital performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of EHR use on the organizational performances of acute care hospital surgical units throughout France. This retrospective study was based on data derived from three national databases for year the 2012: IPAQSS (Indicators of improvement in the quality and the management of healthcare, "IPAQSS"), Hospi-Diag (French hospital performance indicators), and the national accreditation database. National data and methodological support were provided by the French Ministry of Health (DGOS) and the French National Authority for Health (HAS). Multivariate linear models were used to assess four organizational performance indicators: the occupancy rate of surgical inpatient beds, operating room utilization, the activity per surgeon, and the activity per both nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist which were dependent variables. Several independent variables were taken into account, including the degree of EHR use. The models revealed a significant positive impact of EHR use on operating room utilization and bed occupancy rates for surgical inpatient units. No significant association was found between the activity per surgeon or the activity per nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist with EHR use. All four organizational performance indicators were impacted by the type of hospital, the geographical region, and the severity of the pathologies. We were able to verify the purported potential benefits of EHR use on the organizational performances of surgical

  12. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  13. Anonymous letters? DNA and fingerprints technologies combined to solve a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, A; Cormaci, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    Two brothers, living in two different cities, received two different anonymous letters. We performed latent prints development and DNA research on the letters and also on a glass used by a cousin suspected to be the letters' sender.

  14. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  15. "A chiare lettere" Editoriale gennaio 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Casuscelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad onta delle crisi ricorrenti che investono il diritto ecclesiastico, nell’anno appena iniziato la nostra disciplina raccoglie il testimone inatteso della speranza. Il 2006 ci ha offerto la pubblicazione di tre manuali1 che, con un taglio ed un’impostazione nuovi, si rivolgono ad un’utenza che non è fatta soltanto degli studenti delle nostre Università; la pubblicazione del primo numero della nuova rivista semestrale “Diritto e Religioni”2, che intende trattare il fattore religioso da molteplici punti di vista aprendosi ad una molteplicità di scienze affini (antropologia, sociologia, storia, filosofia; la nascita di questa rivista telematica che non vuole avere un proprio indirizzo o orientamento, ma si prefigge lo scopo di essere strumento e manifesto della pluralità e del pluralismo delle scuole, delle sensibilità, dei metodi che alimentano il patrimonio comune del sapere teorico perché in esso trovi a sua volta alimento il concreto, quotidiano farsi dell’esperienza giuridica. Due ricorrenze di particolare rilievo segnano, ancora, questa fase: i cinquanta anni della Corte costituzionale, alla cui attività molto è legato il rinnovamento del “diritto ecclesiastico”, che ha partecipato alla celebrazione corale offrendo uno specifico contributo di analisi della sua giurisprudenza 3; i dodici lustri della Costituzione repubblicana, un’età “matura” che offre l’occasione per un bilancio della sua vitalità, delle compiute attuazioni, delle attese non ancora realizzate.

  16. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  17. Agnes Pockels: Life, Letters and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Christiane A.

    2004-03-01

    Agnes Pockels (1862 - 1935) was a German woman, whose studies pioneered surface science. She was born in malaria infected North Italy while her father served in the Austrian army. Because he suffered adverse health effects, the family moved in1871 to Braunschweig (North Germany). There, Pockels went to high school. She was interested in science, but formal training was not available for girls. She took on the role of household manager and nurse as her parents' health deteriorated further. Her diary illustrates the difficulties she faced in trying to maintain her own health, the health of her parents and her scientific research at the same time. When Pockels was 18 or 19, she designed a ring tensiometer. Additionally, she found a new method to introduce water-insoluble compounds to the water surface by dissolving them in an organic solvent, and applying drops of the solution. Her surface film balance technique from 1882 is the basis for the method later developed by Langmuir. Since her experimental work was highly original and in a new field, she failed to get it recognized in her own country. When she was 28, she wrote to Lord Rayleigh, since she had read about his recent experiments in surface physics. Rayleigh was so impressed with her experimental methods and results that he had her letter translated from German and published it in Nature (1891). She continued her research on surface films, interactions of solutions and contact angles (more papers, 3 in Nature). Still, she did all experiments at home. With the death of her brother in 1913 and the onset of the war, she retired into private life. Thus she was surprised when she was awarded in her late 60ies with a honorary doctorate by the TU Braunschweig (1932) and the annual prize of the German Colloid Society (1931).

  18. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  19. How to write effective business letters: scribing information for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C W

    1993-11-01

    Pharmacists frequently write letters but lack specific training on how to do it well. This review summarizes strategies for improving business correspondence, emphasizes basic writing guidelines, and offers practical advice for pharmacists. The first steps for effective communication are careful planning and identifying the main message to be conveyed. The purpose for writing should be stated in the opening paragraph of the letter. To ensure a successful outcome, actions needed should be clearly summarized and visually highlighted. The tone of the letter should reflect a reasonable speech pattern, not the cryptic writing found in many scientific papers. The layout of the letter should be inviting, which is readily achievable through judicious use of word processing. Many delivery options are available, such as traditional postal services, express mail, and facsimile transmission. Readers are encouraged to test these basic writing principles and decide for themselves whether these recommendations affect the success of business correspondence.

  20. The Quasi-Business Letter: Passport to Foreign Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests having foreign language students write business letters to stimulate interest in developing writing skills. This project gives the students the opportunity of travelling abroad vicariously and to collect souvenirs while improving their communication skills in the foreign language. (CFM)

  1. Region 6: Texas Austin Adequate Letter (11/23/2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter approves the Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets contained in the latest revision to Dallas/Fort Worth 2008 8-hour Ozone State Implementation Plan, finding them adequate for transportation conformity purposes to be announced in the Federal Register.

  2. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  3. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is in reply to the joint letter of October 12, 2000, from the Chairmen of the Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Governmental Affairs, the House Government Reform Committee, House...

  4. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Budget Committee and you on Department of Defense (DoD) management challenges. The joint letter requested that we update our previous assessments of the most significant management problems facing the DoD...

  5. Contemporary trends in the research of the Letter to Philemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Adamczewski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period of last two or three decades interpretation of the Letter to Philemon has undergone significant changes. Exegetes applying the historical-critical method proposed recently several new ways of reconstructing the situation that occasioned Paul’s writing the letter. It has been suggested e.g. that Onesimus was no runaway, but probably an envoy from Colossae, or Philemon’s estranged brother, or a slave justifiably seeking intercession, or a roamer. Synchronic methods applied by many exegetes (structural, rhetorical, narrative and pragmatic criticism elucidate various kinds of influence of the letter upon the reader. More and more popular becomes also nowadays manifold liberationist approach. However, beyond applying these various hermeneutic procedures there is also, at least for believing exegetes, an important task of adequate explaining the significance of the Letter to Philemon as an inspired writing.

  6. The publication lapse of papers in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Nagydiosi-Kocsis, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The time needed for passing through journal editorial and publication processing has been examined for the papers published in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters for the years 1969-1981. (author)

  7. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  8. Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  9. Scientific Letter: Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by erotic bizarre delusions: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home ...

  10. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  11. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  12. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  13. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  14. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  15. Revision of the Li13Si4 structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Fässler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides Li17Si4, Li16.42Si4, and Li15Si4, another lithium-rich representative in the Li–Si system is the phase Li13Si4 (tridecalithium tetrasilicide, the structure of which has been determined previously [Frank et al. (1975. Z. Naturforsch. Teil B, 30, 10–13]. A careful analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of Li13Si4 revealed discrepancies between experimentally observed and calculated Bragg positions. Therefore, we redetermined the structure of Li13Si4 on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compared to the previous structure report, decisive differences are (i the introduction of a split position for one Li site [occupancy ratio 0.838 (7:0.162 (7], (ii the anisotropic refinement of atomic displacement parameters for all atoms, and (iii a high accuracy of atom positions and unit-cell parameters. The asymmetric unit of Li13Si4 contains two Si and seven Li atoms. Except for one Li atom situated on a site with symmetry 2/m, all other atoms are on mirror planes. The structure consists of isolated Si atoms as well as Si–Si dumbbells surrounded by Li atoms. Each Si atom is either 12- or 13-coordinated. The isolated Si atoms are situated in the ab plane at z = 0 and are strictly separated from the Si–Si dumbbells at z = 0.5.

  16. «Lei è ebreo?». Mondi a confronto nelle Lettere a Milena di Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sonino

    2017-12-01

    The essay aims at analyzing, by examining the special bond between Franz Kafka and Milena Jesenská through the lens of their letters, Prague's cultural life in the aftermath of the fall of the Habsburg Empire; an historical event marked by an increasingly threatening and aggressive antisemitism, which made the relationship between the Jewish community and other social units, such as the Czech population, more problematic. The relationship between the Jewish writer and his Czech translator, close friend and confidante, unfolds against this background. A rich and complicated relationship between different albeit communicating worlds.

  17. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  18. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  19. How To Write a Business Letter. Power of the Printed Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Malcolm

    Business letters should turn people on rather than turning them off. To write a good business letter, know what the goal is before starting to write, call the reader by name, tell what the letter is about in the first paragraph, refer to dates when answering letters, and write from the reader's point of view. Be positive, be nice, and be natural.…

  20. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  1. Letters of Marcus Antonius Kappus from colonial America IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter of Marcus Antonius Kappus which we publish in our present the fourth - continuation of his letters from Colonial America, is not preserved - as the first three letters are - in a manuscript. Instead we find it published in the famous contemporary collection of Jesuitic letters which appeared from 1728 till 1758 under the editorship of Joseph Stöcklein and his successors in Augsburg and Graz under the title Der neue Welt-Bott mit Allerhand Nachrichten derer Missionariorum Soc. Jesu. Kappus' letter can be found in vol. I, part II, p. 86-88 under the number 56. It has never since 1728 been reprinted in German, neither has it ever been published in an English translation. Our reprint of the German text is justified because Stöcklein's collection is generally not available even in the largest libraries, especially in America. An English translation can be useful because of the difficulties the old form of its German with its localisms can cause to its readers.

  2. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more—a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible. PMID:22665803

  3. [Representation of letter position in visual word recognition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, S

    1994-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the representation of letter position in visual word recognition process. In Experiment 1, subjects (12 undergraduates and graduates) were asked to detect a target word in a briefly-presented probe. Probes consisted of two kanji words. The latters which formed targets (critical letters) were always contained in probes. (e.g. target: [symbol: see text] probe: [symbol: see text]) High false alarm rate was observed when critical letters occupied the same within-word relative position (left or right within the word) in the probe words as in the target word. In Experiment 2 (subject were ten undergraduates and graduates), spaces adjacent to probe words were replaced by randomly chosen hiragana letters (e.g. [symbol: see text]), because spaces are not used to separate words in regular Japanese sentences. In addition to the effect of within-word relative position as in Experiment 1, the effect of between-word relative position (left or right across the probe words) was observed. These results suggest that information about within-word relative position of a letter is used in word recognition process. The effect of within-word relative position was explained by a connectionist model of word recognition.

  4. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  5. [Report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  6. Thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si and SiGe by ab initio based Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-03-14

    Nanocrystalline thermoelectric materials based on Si have long been of interest because Si is earth-abundant, inexpensive, and non-toxic. However, a poor understanding of phonon grain boundary scattering and its effect on thermal conductivity has impeded efforts to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit. Here, we report an ab-initio based computational study of thermal transport in nanocrystalline Si-based materials using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo method with the full phonon dispersion and intrinsic lifetimes from first-principles as input. By fitting the transmission profile of grain boundaries, we obtain excellent agreement with experimental thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline Si [Wang et al. Nano Letters 11, 2206 (2011)]. Based on these calculations, we examine phonon transport in nanocrystalline SiGe alloys with ab-initio electron-phonon scattering rates. Our calculations show that low energy phonons still transport substantial amounts of heat in these materials, despite scattering by electron-phonon interactions, due to the high transmission of phonons at grain boundaries, and thus improvements in ZT are still possible by disrupting these modes. This work demonstrates the important insights into phonon transport that can be obtained using ab-initio based Monte Carlo simulations in complex nanostructured materials.

  7. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel direct bonded copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect...

  8. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  9. Analysis of letter name knowledge using Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the measurement of LNK. In this study, we analyze responses from 909 children on measures of LNK using the Rasch model and its extensions, and consider two contextual factors: the format of assessment and the own-name advantage, which states that children are more likely to know letters in their own first names. Results indicate that both contextual factors have important impacts on measurement and that LNK does not meet the requirements of Rasch measurement even when accounting for the contextual factors. These findings introduce philosophical concerns for measurement of constrained skills which have limited content for assessment.

  10. Mechanical engineering science in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyther, J L; Williams, G

    1970-01-01

    0.1 Mechanical Engineering Science covers various fundamental concepts that are essential in the practice of mechanical engineering. The title is comprised of 19 chapters that detail various topics, including chemical and physical laws. The coverage of the book includes Newtonian laws, mechanical energy, friction, stress, and gravity. The text also discusses the chemical aspects of mechanical engineering, which include gas laws, states of matter, and fuel combustion. The last chapter tackles concerns in laboratory experiments. The book will be of great use to students of mechanical eng

  11. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  12. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  13. Una lettera a Sylos Labini. (A letter to Sylos Labini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Modigliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The letter, dated 14 September 1956, starts a decade long correspondence between Franco Modigliani and Paolo Sylos Labini. Here Modigliani discusses at length a first draft of Sylos Labini’s book on oligopoly theory. Differently from Modigliani’s well known 1958 review of the book, Modigliani focuses here not mainly on the structure of oligopoly industries, but especially on the macroeconomic implications of Sylos Labini’s model. The letter is reproduced with Sylos Labini’s annotated comments on Modigliani’s remarks. JEL codes: B31, D43, E13

  14. Teaching braille letters, numerals, punctuation, and contractions to sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also numerals, punctuation, symbols, and contractions; we evaluated this program with 4 sighted undergraduate participants. Exposure to this program resulted in mastery of all braille-to-print relations for each participant. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  16. Ordering at Si(111)/o-Si and Si(111)/SiO2 Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, I. K.; Waskiewicz, W. K.; Tung, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction has been used to measure the intensity profile of the two-dimensional rods of scattering from a single interface buried inside a bulk material. In both Si(111)/a-Si and Si(111)/SiO2 examples there are features in the perpendicular-momentum-transfer dependence which are not expec...... are not expected from an ideal sharp interface. The diffraction profiles are explained by models with partially ordered layers extending into the amorphous region. In the Si(111)/a-Si case there is clear evidence of stacking faults which are attributed to residual 7×7 reconstruction....

  17. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  18. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  19. Is coal a four letter word?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.

    2004-01-01

    Political promises about the future phasing out of coal-fired power plants were presented in this paper, as well as a demonstration of coal's importance for baseload. Ontario's other energy supply options were discussed and compared, including imported hydro, nuclear projects, natural gas and green initiatives. It was stated that closing coal plants might reduce emissions by 6 per cent, but at a cost of 2 billion dollars per year. The importance of recognizing air sheds was stated, as well as financial penalties along with worsening air quality. A map of Ontario's air shed covering much of eastern North America illustrated this point. A comparison of approaches in the United States was drawn, where coal is the fuel of choice for new supply, with 92 new coal fired plants announced, and many new gas plants being cancelled. A chart of markets for new coal power plant technology was presented, as well as environmental statistics of clean coal. Criteria for coal power plant performance are: air emissions; by-product utilization; water use and discharge; efficiency and reliability; and, capital and product cost. Various research programs in the US were also discussed, with new performance targets examined. Options for Canada were presented. It was concluded that financial penalties, combined with the fact that air pollution has no borders may lead to a reevaluation of coal plant closure. Suggestions for improving coal plants include: the development of a clean air strategy; new investments in new technology for emission reduction; establishing a North American agreement on clean air with meaningful targets. Additionally, it was also suggested that treaty undertakings should involve Canadian participation in US technology development efforts. tabs., figs

  20. "Letter-Space": Typographic Translations of Urban Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Jacqueline; O'Sullivan, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a Bachelor of Design honours year typography project in the medium of letterpress. The "Letter-space" project positioned letterpress as a textual, spatial and structural visual language, through which the experiences and meanings of a local urban place were translated, mapped and given form through typographic design. We…

  1. Effects of Grammatical Categories on Letter Detection in Continuous Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucambert, Denis; Zuniga, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the interplay between the linguistic principles and the psycholinguistic processes involved in reading. Results from 56 participants on a letter detection task reveal that readers do not process all function words in the same manner. Omission rates were highest for function words occupying the head of maximal…

  2. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  3. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  4. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong | Hampton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 55, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong. M I Hampton ...

  5. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  6. Predatory Journals and Perished Articles; a Letter to Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Narimani, Mashallah; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, academic publishing has been faced with many destructive phenomena. “Predatory publishers” (or journals) are one challenge for  cholarly publishing. This term was introduced to academic societies for the first time by Jeffrey Beall in 2010. This letter to editor is about predatory journals and perished articles in the field of emergency medicine.

  7. Comradely Greetings: The Prison Letters of Nadya and Slavoj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Briziarelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Žižek and Tolokonnikova’s exchange letters provides the reader with the suggestive image and evocative words of two intellectuals speaking from very different contexts. This article discusses the relevance of this volume in the context of localized global capitalism and an equally localized global struggle against it.

  8. Letter to Daniel Gilligan of Petroleum Marketers Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter in response to a request for the Agency’s view regarding whether several approaches would satisfy 40 CFR §112.7(a)(2)’s “equivalent environmental protection” provision and for clarification of the scope of the requirements in 40 CFR §112.

  9. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  10. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit. Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors...

  11. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  12. Transposed-letter priming of prelexical orthographic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian Reader theory of masked priming (D. Norris & S. Kinoshita, 2008), which explains why nonwords do not show priming in lexical decision but why they do in the cross-case same-different task. This analysis is followed by 3 experiments that show that priming in this task is not based on low-level perceptual similarity between the prime and target, or on phonology, to make the case that priming is based on prelexical orthographic representation. The authors then use this task to demonstrate equivalent TL priming effects for nonwords and words. The results are interpreted as the first reliable evidence based on the masked priming procedure that letter position is not coded absolutely within the prelexical, orthographic representation. The implications of the results for current letter position coding schemes are discussed.

  13. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks for... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks...

  14. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. Hamed Abd Allah Al Wadaani, Magdy Hassan Balaha. Abstract. Background: In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their ...

  15. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  16. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  17. 78 FR 19288 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-FHC-2013-N047; FF07CAMM00.FX.FR133707PB000] Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Fairweather, LLC........ Exploration........ Beaufort Sea Acoustic Monitoring July 15, 2012. Recorder...

  18. [Patients' letters and pre-modern medical lay-culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Consulting by letter was fairly common practice among the educated, upper classes of early modern Europe. Surviving letters of consultation written by patients, relatives or friends count among the most valuable source for the analysis of pre-modern experiences of disease and the body. This essay gives a brief overview of the various types of consultation letters and related documents which resulted from this practice before tracing the historical development of epistolary consultations from the late Middle Ages through the heyday medical correspondence in the 18th c. before its decline in the 19th c. It presents "experience", "self-fashioning" and "discourse" as three particularly fruitful levels of analysis on which patients' letters can be used within the wider framework of a cultural history of medicine. These three levels of analysis, or three distinct approaches, enable historians to access a greater awareness of the ways in which the experience of illness and the body is culturally framed with an analysis of the performative effects of patients' narratives and the influence of medical discourse among the wider society.

  19. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take...

  20. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided in...

  1. 50 CFR 216.218 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.218 Letters of...

  2. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. THE SPIRITUALITY OF THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attention. In fact, I am aware of only two studies that focus on Galatians in .... does not explicitly use the term “coming age” here or elsewhere in his letters, .... framework according to which history is divided into the period before and the.

  4. Adolescent Suidice--An Open Letter to Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jane

    1988-01-01

    A mother of a 16 year-old suicide victim writes to school counselors who let her down by not informing her of important changes in her son's activities, personality, and choice of friends at school. The letter also addresses two psychologists in a psychiatric hospital who suppressed information about the boy's suicidal intentions and his…

  5. 48 CFR 49.601-2 - Letter notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter notice. 49.601-2 Section 49.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... immediate complete spoilage of work-in-process having a definite commercial value, or (D) to prevent any...

  6. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  7. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  8. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of Understanding. 700.63 Section 700.63 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  9. Language Arts/Arts: Adopt-a-Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Rhoda K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a five-week project in which elementary students chose a favorite letter as the main character of a 25- to 30-page book for practice in language skills. The book each child made was composed of more than 20 learning activities that stimulated students to review and practice skills, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms and alliteration as…

  10. Rock 'n' Roll Heroes: Letter to President Eisenhower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean W., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This primary source document can be used to teach secondary students about the rock 'n' roll era that emerged in the 1950's. The document is a letter written in 1958 by three teenagers to President Eisenhower concerning the induction of Elvis Presley into the U.S. Army. Class activities are also suggested. (RM)

  11. transformation in love in paul's letter to the galatians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This focus on the faith-works controversy has not been conducive to attempts to read it ... explosion of such studies on the meaning of the letter for contemporary life. .... often love has been studied in terms of a particular word rather than in terms of ..... and affectionate character.25 There is more, however: In Christ, humanity.

  12. LETTERS OF MARIA KUNCEWICZOWA TO HER LATE HUSBAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wzorek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the last book of Maria Kuncewiczowa – a set of twenty-three letters (provided with a postscript addressed to her deceased husband. The uniqueness of this correspondence, presented in literary form, lies in the fact that the recipient is dead, treated by the sender as someone constantly present in the real world and still associated with the temporality. "Listy do Jerzego" ("Letters to Jerzy" are – as Tadeusz Swat, one of the reviewers say – “an attempt at denial of death, to save Jerzy by love, memory, and literature.” The analysis of the work highlights the occurring axiological categories. It has been demonstrated that "Letters to Jerzy" is a book about eternal love reaching beyond the grave (in this respect, in stark contrast with "Tristan" 1946, felt with dignity of old age, and finally transcending into faith. "Letters to Jerzy" is also an attempt to reduce the suffering of the writer over the loss of her beloved husband. To some extent, therefore, they correspond to her earlier work "Cudzoziemka" ("Foreigner" in which Kuncewiczowa liberates from the negative emotions associated with the death of her mother.

  13. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade.

  14. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  15. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  16. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  17. 學生投書中再現之教育問題與學生主體:1993-2009年之聯合報民意論壇 Educational Problems and Student Subjects Reflected in Student-submitted Letters: The Opinion Section of the United Daily News from 1993-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    鄧宗聖 Deng Tzong-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文視學生投書為再現教育秩序與權力知識的論域,以Bernstein提出「表意」與「工具」兩種秩序為框架,透過Foucault對論述分析之觀點,描繪教育改革倡議期間(1993-2009),聯合報民意論壇中的學生投書如何再現教育問題,並分析學生主體的自我建構。結果顯示,臺灣學生辨析的教育問題,不離「考試」帶來種種的生活與秩序。「考試」成為形成學生主體的「評鑑技術」,既能做為道德共識(公平性),亦具有社會區隔(分流與專業化)的功能。 教育在「培養思考」(目的)與「評鑑思考」(手段)中擺盪,多元入學促使「評鑑技術」多樣化,儘管學生可以理解目的,但手段卻從外(區隔)到內(道德)占據著學生,使之從「我思考」轉變為「考思我」的主體。 This paper examined discourse concerning representation of the educational order, power, and knowledge in the opinion letters submitted by students. It employed two types of order proposed by Bernstein as frameworks and explored educational problems through Foucault's methods of discourse analysis. It was found that the education-related problems discussed and analyzed by students in Taiwan were associated with various types of life and order brought about by “examinations.” Because “examinations” constituted an “assessment technique” centered on the student, they could form an ethical consensus (fairness and possess the function of social segmentation (i.e., tracking and specialization. Education had oscillated between “trained thinking” (ends-oriented and “assessment thinking” (means-oriented. More diverse school entrance channels promoted the diversification of “assessment techniques.” Although students could understand the ends, the means preoccupied their external (segmentation and internal (ethical thinking, which caused them to have a shift in

  18. Magnocellular involvement in flanked-letter identification relates to the allocation of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the magnocellular system is important to flanked-letter identification [Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 1881] because it subserves attention allocation, we conducted three letter-naming experiments in which we manipulated magnocellular involvement (colour vs. luminance

  19. Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent scale: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available ...

  20. Orna Me: Laurence Sterne’s Open Letter to Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia B. Barnes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the curious way Laurence Sterne communicates with and reflects on his literary predecessors, most often Alexander Pope, by writing love letters to women. Focusing primarily on his correspondence with Elizabeth Draper, Barnes contends that, even as Sterne looks back to Pope to guarantee himself a place in literary history, he looks forward to women like Draper to ensure his name will survive.  Thus, erotic correspondence becomes an important way of ensuring Sterne’s literary estate, or as he terms it, his “futurity.” “Orna Me”—a phrase that means, roughly, “ornament me” or “set me off,” and that Sterne got from Pope and Swift, who got it from Cicero—allows Sterne to plug in to a literary tradition that privileges collaboration: append something of yours to something of mine. It is this idea of letter-writing as correspondence, a collaborative process between friends or lovers, that unites Sterne to his female correspondent and to literary tradition all at once.

  1. Insights from developmental and acquired letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia(LPD. LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (cloud-could. We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate.The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (signs-signs would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations.We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels. We examined migrations next to inflectional,derivational,or bound function morphemes compared with exterior letters.Root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. Morphologically complex nonwords showed the same pattern, indicating that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven.We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word is re-analyzed as two separate words. In this reanalysis, letter positions in each constituent word are encoded separately,and hence the exterior letters of the root are treated as exterior and

  2. Letter to the King” By Jules Destry: from Separatism to Unitarism in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    are still shaken by Belgium. He reflects on the fact that the central government should be doing to reduce the national tensions that unites two people, and that the shares, which should be a system of education that future generations were able to overcome the historical alienation of such geographically close and ideologically distant peoples. Although Jules Destree firmly defends separatism idea for Wallonia as the only solution to the problem, however, by the end of his letter, reasoning it takes a more balanced position. The idea of a unitary state was not denied completely, but Destree emphasizes the importance of a balanced central government policy in relation to the regions in order to reduce internal tensions between the two nations. The ideas embodied in his "Letter to the King", formed the basis of the principles of peaceful co-existence of further autonomous regions as part of the union, which was manifested in the future during the First World War, when the Walloons and Flemings alongside confronted a common enemy.

  3. Si/Fe flux ratio influence on growth and physical properties of polycrystalline β-FeSi2 thin films on Si(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, I. A.; Visotin, M. A.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Kosyrev, N. N.; Yakovlev, I. A.; Molokeev, M. S.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Krylov, A. S.; Fedorov, A. S.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the Si/Fe flux ratio (2 and 0.34) influence on the growth of β-FeSi2 polycrystalline thin films on Si(100) substrate at 630 °C. Lattice deformations for the films obtained are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The volume unit cell deviation from that of β-FeSi2 single crystal are 1.99% and 1.1% for Si/Fe =2 and Si/Fe =0.34, respectively. Absorption measurements show that the indirect transition ( 0.704 eV) of the Si/Fe =0.34 sample changes to the direct transition with a bandgap value of 0.816 eV for the sample prepared at Si/Fe =2. The absorption spectrum of the Si/Fe =0.34 sample exhibits an additional peak located below the bandgap energy value with the absorption maximum of 0.36 eV. Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) measurements detect the ferromagnetic behavior of the β-FeSi2 polycrystalline films grown at Si/Fe =0.34 at T=10 K, but no ferromagnetism was observed in the samples grown at Si/Fe =2. Theoretical calculations refute that the cell deformation can cause the emergence of magnetization and argue that the origin of the ferromagnetism, as well as the lower absorption peak, is β-FeSi2 stoichiometry deviations. Raman spectroscopy measurements evidence that the film obtained at Si/Fe flux ratio equal to 0.34 has the better crystallinity than the Si/Fe =2 sample.

  4. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL open-quotes Melter Performance Assessmentclose quotes and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report

  5. The A.I.D.A. Plan and the Writing of Sales Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rowena

    A study based on textual analysis of sales letters is reported that evaluates the Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA) approach to teaching the writing of sales letters. Thirty business letters written by undergraduate business students and executives were analyzed. The forms of cohesion, voice pattern, and information focus of the…

  6. Readability of "Dear Patient" device advisory notification letters created by a device manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Luke A; Sharma, Arjun; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) recommended that cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) manufacturers use advisory notification letters to communicate with affected patients. To evaluate the readability of the HRS sample "patient device advisory notification" letter and those created by 1 CIED manufacturer. The HRS sample letter and 25 Boston Scientific Corporation letters dated from 2005 through 2011 were evaluated by using 6 readability tests. Readability (Flesch-Kincaid score) of the HRS sample letter was grade level 12.5, and median readability of the device manufacturer letters was grade level 12.8 (range 10.8-18.9). Similar results were obtained by using other readability scales. No letters had readability scores at the National Work Group on Literacy and Health's recommended reading level-fifth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this recommended level by an average of 7.7 grades (95% confidence interval 6.9-8.5; Preadability scores at the average reading level of US adults-eighth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this level by an average of 4.7 grades (95% confidence interval 3.9-5.5; Preadability of the HRS sample letter and those created by a CIED manufacturer significantly exceeded the recommended and average US adults' reading skill levels. Such letters are unlikely to be informative to many patients. CIED manufacturers should ensure that advisory letters are comprehensible to most affected patients. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  8. 24 CFR 242.49 - Funds and finances: deposits and letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collection under the letter of credit. In the event a demand for payment thereunder is not immediately met... letters of credit. 242.49 Section 242.49 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...: deposits and letters of credit. (a) Deposits. Where HUD requires the mortgagor to make a deposit of cash or...

  9. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  10. 30 CFR 1.3 - Use of letters and acronym MSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of letters and acronym MSHA. 1.3 Section 1.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND...; ESTABLISHMENT AND USE OF OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.3 Use of letters and acronym MSHA. The letters and acronym MSHA may...

  11. Geometric structure of thin SiO xN y films on Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, K.-M.; Klinkenberg, E.-D.; Finster, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    1998-05-01

    Thin films of amorphous stoichometric SiO xN y are deposited on radiation-heated Si(100) by rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We studied the whole range of possible compositions. In order to determine the geometric structure, we used EXAFS and photoelectron spectroscopy. Tetrahedrons constitute the short-range units with a central Si atom connected to N and O. The distribution of the possible tetrahedrons can be described by a mixture of the Random Bonding Model and the Random Mixture Model. For low oxygen contents x/( x+ y)≤0.3, the geometric structure of the film is almost the structure of a-Si 3N 4, with the oxygen preferably on top of Si-N 3 triangles. Higher oxygen contents induce changes in the bond lengths, bond angles and coordination numbers.

  12. Eigenvalues of Words in Two Positive Definite Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Hillar, Christopher J; Johnson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether all words in two real positive definite letters have only positive eigenvalues is addressed and settled (negatively). This question was raised some time ago in connection with a long-standing problem in theoretical physics. A large class of words that do guarantee positive eigenvalues is identified, and considerable evidence is given for the conjecture that no other words do. In the process, a fundamental question about solvability of symmetric word equations is encoun...

  13. Letter concerning Li2B4O7 thermoluminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    This letter reports the comparison of two commercially available types of lithium borate thermoluminesence dosimeters: one in which crystalline lithium borate was pressed into chips, and the other in which lithium borate was dispersed in a glass matrix. When irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation, the response of a single sample of each type was reproducible to within 1%. However, differences between the two samples were apparent in their long term storage characteristics

  14. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  15. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  16. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  17. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  18. Letter to my children about sex and the catholic church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, R J

    1994-09-01

    This essay is directed to a younger generation. It summarizes the conflicting traditions in the Catholic community today: official Church teaching (represented by "Humanae Vitae" and "Veritatis Splendor"), liberal theologians like Charles Curran (who occasioned this letter), and ordinary Catholics struggling in an imperfect world. The paper attempts to integrate values from three traditions, those associated with respect for new life, a loving relationship, and playfulness. The resulting synthesis offers a spiritually and psychologically viable option worth considering, the author believes.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    OpenAIRE

    Elian Iwi Afifah; Triyono Triyono; Yuliati Hotifah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development...

  20. Editorial team for the CERN Computer News Letter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Computer News Letter (CNL) informs the users of CERN computing facilities about changes and trends in this area. The CNL can also include some conference or meeting reports and technical briefs which can --as they are not necessarily CERN specific-- be helpful to non-CERN users. From left to right: W. von Rueden, Nicole Crémel and François Grey

  1. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiYan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8. These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition.

  2. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  3. Si etching with reactive neutral beams of very low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuhiro [Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-chou, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwata, Naotaka; Hara, Tamio [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    A Si etching process has been investigated with reactive neutral beams (NBs) extracted using a low acceleration voltage of less than 100 V from CF{sub 4} and Ar mixed plasmas. The etched Si profile shows that the etching process is predominantly anisotropic. The reactive NB has a constant Si etching rate in the acceleration voltage range from 20 V to 80 V. It is considered that low-energy NBs can trigger Si etching because F radicals adsorb onto the Si surface and weaken Si–Si bonds. The etching rate per unit beam flux is 33 times higher than that with Ar NB. These results show that the low-energy reactive NB is useful for damage-free high speed Si etching.

  4. Verse Letter from Gregory of Nazianzus to Vitalianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Brodňanská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a complex view of the poetic letter of Gregory of Nazianzus II, II, 3 Ad Vitalianum, which has not yet been the subject of modern criticism. The letter is a plea by Vitalianus’ banished sons for their father to take them back. Based on the manuscript tradition, the article’s author concludes that the fictional author of the letter is the son Phocas rather than Peter. The disrupted relationship between father and sons is reflected in both the content of the poem and the forms of salutations used: the seemingly positive epithets φέριστε, μακάρτατε, and φίλε; forms of address which directly express a certain distance and coldness (μέγα φέρτατε, ὦ ἄνα, or even animosity towards the father (ὀλοώτατε δαῖμον, ὦ κακόβουλε. The poetic letter has a concentric structure (A; B; C; D; E; F; G; F´; E´; D´; C´; B´; A´, with individual com­ponents linked for the most part thematically. The letter is written in dactylic hexameter. The most frequently used metre in the verses is the holodactyl, and the most frequent caesura is the caesura post tertium trochaeum. As far as the breach of Hermann’s bridge in verses is concerned, and based on the understanding of the term ‘word’ in metrics, the author of the article concludes that in the majority of cases the breach is only ‘visual’, and cannot be detected when listened to. Gregory did not avoid three true hiatuses; and in two verses, in order to keep the rhythm of dactylic hexameter, it is essential to measure a long syllable as a short one. However, metric errors may be related to prosodic licence.

  5. Letter processing and font information during reading: beyond distinctiveness, where vision meets design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Dyson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Letter identification is a critical front end of the reading process. In general, conceptualizations of the identification process have emphasized arbitrary sets of distinctive features. However, a richer view of letter processing incorporates principles from the field of type design, including an emphasis on uniformities across letters within a font. The importance of uniformities is supported by a small body of research indicating that consistency of font increases letter identification efficiency. We review design concepts and the relevant literature, with the goal of stimulating further thinking about letter processing during reading.

  6. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  7. Involuntary attention with uncertainty: peripheral cues improve perception of masked letters, but may impair perception of low-contrast letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Gauch, Angélique; Buetti, Simona

    2010-10-01

    Improvements of perceptual performance following the presentation of peripheral cues have been ascribed to accelerated accrual of information, enhanced contrast perception, and decision bias. We investigated effects of peripheral cues on the perception of Gabor and letter stimuli. Non-predictive, peripheral cues improved perceptual accuracy when the stimuli were masked. In contrast, peripheral cues degraded perception of low-contrast letters and did not affect the perception of low-contrast Gabors. The results suggest that involuntary attention accelerates accrual of information but are not entirely consistent with the idea that involuntary attention enhances subjective contrast. Rather, peripheral cues may cause crowding with single letter targets of low contrast. Further, we investigated the effect of the amount of uncertainty on involuntary attention. Cueing effects were (initially) larger when there were more possible target locations. In addition, cueing effects were larger when error feedback was absent and observers had no knowledge of results. Despite these strategic factors, location uncertainty was not sufficient to produce cueing effects, showing that location uncertainty paired with non-predictive cues reveals perceptual and not (only) decisional processes.

  8. The elaboration of motor programs for the automation of letter production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Laurence Séraphin; Gerber, Silvain; Kandel, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how children learn to write letters. Letter writing evolves from stroke-by-stroke to whole-letter programming. Children of ages 6 to 9 (N=98) wrote letters of varying complexity on a digitizer. At ages 6 and 7 movement duration, dysfluency and trajectory increased with stroke number. This indicates that the motor program they activated mainly coded information on stroke production. Stroke number affected the older children's production much less, suggesting that they programmed stroke chunks or the whole letter. The fact that movement duration and dysfluency decreased from ages 6 to 8, and remained stable at ages 8 and 9 suggests that automation of letter writing begins at age 8. Automation seems to require the elaboration of stroke chunks and/or letter-sized motor programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 46 CFR 122.740 - Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units. 122.740... hydrostatic release units. (a) Each hydrostatic release unit, other than a disposable unit, must be serviced... hydrostatic release unit must be marked in clearly legible letters with an expiration date of two years after...

  10. Letters of the engraver Francesco Maria Gaetano Ghinghi (1689-1762 to Anton Francesco Gori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Tassinari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Le lettere qui esaminate, conservate nella Biblioteca Marucelliana a Firenze, sono scritte da Napoli dal famoso incisore di pietre dure Francesco Maria Gaetano Ghinghi (1689-1762 al celebre erudito e antiquario Anton Francesco Gori. Esse sono ricche di interessanti notizie relative all’attività del Real Laboratorio delle Pietre Dure di Napoli, fondato nel 1737, di cui il Ghinghi fu il primo direttore, e coordinatore dell’équipe di artisti fiorentini che si erano trasferiti con lui. Il Ghinghi fornisce dati sulla circolazione di gemme a Napoli in quel periodo, sulle antichità di Ercolano (di cui il Gori fu uno dei primi a scrivere e sulla permanenza a Napoli di Antonio Pichler, capostipite di una illustre famiglia di incisori, che il Ghinghi conosceva bene, perché entrambi lavoravano per il noto collezionista di gemme Philipp von Stosch. Inoltre, in un quadro di scarsa disponibilità di calchi riproducenti gemme della collezione Farnese, acquista gran valore l’invio di tali impronte da parte del Ghinghi al Gori, che così aveva gemme non documentate altrimenti.

  11. A Finite Abelian Group of Two-Letter Inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Balbuena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In abstract algebra, the study of concrete groups is fundamentally important to beginners. Most commonly used groups as examples are integer addition modulo n, real number addition and multiplication, permutation groups, and groups of symmetry. The last two examples are finite non-abelian groups and can be investigated with the aid of concrete representations. This study presents a finite abelian group of inversions of two letter symbols with vertical and horizontal axes of symmetry and whose binary operation is established through motions like alternation, rotation, reflection, and a combination of two or all motions.

  12. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...... of American culture and the subculture of science. Research published elsewhere (Okamura and Shaw 1999, ESPJ) shows that neither native speakers of English nor non-natives who were not practising scientists could produce the appropriate genre, while NNS scientists produced texts which only deviated slightly...

  13. Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Silicon Extremely Enriched in (28)Si: From (28)SiF4 (Gas Phase IRMS) to (28)Si Crystals (MC-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramann, Axel; Rienitz, Olaf

    2016-06-07

    A new generation of silicon crystals even further enriched in (28)Si (x((28)Si) > 0.999 98 mol/mol), recently produced by companies and institutes in Russia within the framework of a project initiated by PTB, were investigated with respect to their isotopic composition and molar mass M(Si). A modified isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method treating the silicon as the matrix containing a so-called virtual element (VE) existing of the isotopes (29)Si and (30)Si solely and high resolution multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were applied in combination. This method succeeds also when examining the new materials holding merely trace amounts of (29)Si (x((29)Si) ≈ 5 × 10(-6) mol/mol) and (30)Si (x((30)Si) ≈ 7 × 10(-7) mol/mol) extremely difficult to detect with lowest uncertainty. However, there is a need for validating the enrichment in (28)Si already in the precursor material of the final crystals, silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) gas prior to crystal production. For that purpose, the isotopic composition of selected SiF4 samples was determined using a multicollector magnetic sector field gas-phase isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Contaminations of SiF4 by natural silicon due to storing and during the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurements were observed and quantified. The respective MC-ICP-MS measurements of the corresponding crystal samples show-in contrast-several advantages compared to gas phase IRMS. M(Si) of the new crystals were determined to some extent with uncertainties urel(M) < 1 × 10(-9). This study presents a clear dependence of the uncertainty urel(M(Si)) on the degree of enrichment in (28)Si. This leads to a reduction of urel(M(Si)) during the past decade by almost 3 orders of magnitude and thus further reduces the uncertainty of the Avogadro constant NA which is one of the preconditions for the redefinition of the SI unit kilogram.

  14. Validation of an iPad test of letter contrast sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollbaum, Pete S; Jansen, Meredith E; Kollbaum, Elli J; Bullimore, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    An iPad-based letter contrast sensitivity test was developed (ridgevue.com) consisting of two letters on each page of an iBook. The contrast decreases from 80% (logCS = 0.1) to 0.5% (logCS = 2.3) by 0.1 log units per page. The test was compared to the Pelli-Robson Test and the Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test. Twenty normally sighted subjects and 20 low-vision subjects were tested monocularly at 1 m using each test wearing their habitual correction. After a 5-minute break, subjects were retested with each test in reverse order. Two different letter charts were used for both the Pelli-Robson and iPad tests, and the order of testing was varied systematically. For the Freiburg test, the target was a variable contrast Landolt C presented at eight possible orientations and used a 30-trial Best PEST procedure. Repeatability and agreement were assessed by determining the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) ± 1.96 SD of the differences between administrations or tests. All three tests showed good repeatability in terms of the 95% LoA: iPad = ± 0.19, Pelli-Robson = ± 0.19, and Freiburg = ± 0.15. The iPad test showed good agreement with the Freiburg test with similar mean (± SD) logCS (iPad = 1.98 ± 0.11, Freiburg = 1.96 ± 0.06) and with narrow 95% LoA (± 0.24), but the Pelli-Robson test gave significantly lower values (1.65 ± 0.04). Low-vision subjects had slightly poorer repeatability (iPad = ± 0.24, Pelli-Robson = ± 0.23, Freiburg = ± 0.21). Agreement between the iPad and Freiburg tests was good (iPad = 1.45 ± 0.40, Freiburg = 1.54 ± 0.37), but the Pelli-Robson test gave significantly lower values (1.30 ± 0.30). The iPad test showed similar repeatability and may be a rapid and convenient alternative to some existing measures. The Pelli-Robson test gave lower values than the other tests.

  15. Faces in the Mist: Illusory Face and Letter Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rieth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480 during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2 occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.

  16. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Iwi Afifah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development result showed that this product has the criteria of usefulness, feasibility, accuracy, and attractiveness and appropriate when used to facilitate students to express communication skills in writing. Abstrak: Keterampilan komunikasi merupakan hal yang terpenting bagi remaja. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa remaja yang memiliki keterampilan komunikasi yang rendah dapat dikatakan sebagai seseorang yang berkepribadian introvert. Orang yang berkepribadian introvert cenderung sulit berkomunikasi dan sulit mengungkapkan secara lisan. Pengembangan media letter sharing ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan komunikasi siswa introvert. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan  mengadopsi model penelitian Borg and Gall. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa produk ini mempunyai kriteria kegunaan, kelayakan, ketepatan, kemenarikan dan sesuai apabila digunakan untuk memfasilitasi siswa dalam mengekspresikan keterampilan komunikasi secara tertulis.

  17. The European Communities (Definition of Treaties) (No.5) (Joint European Torus) Order 1978 (S.I. no.1032)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order declares the Exchange of Letters dated 3 May 1978 between the Government of the United Kingdom and the European Atomic Energy Community regarding privileges to be granted to the Joint European Torus to be a Community Treaty as defined in section 1(2) of the European Communities Act 1972. The principal effect of declaring this Exchange of Letters to be a Community Treaty as so defined is to bring into play, in relation to the Exchange of Letters, the provisions of section 2 of the European Communities Act 1972 [fr

  18. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of SiCf/SiC and Cf/SiC Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S P; Cho, K S; Lee, H U; Lee, J K; Bae, D S; Byun, J H

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of SiC based composites reinforced with different types of fabrics have been investigated, in conjunction with the detailed analyses of their microstructures. The thermal shock properties of SiC f /SiC composites were also examined. All composites showed a dense morphology in the matrix region. Carbon coated PW-SiC f /SiC composites had a good fracture energy, even if their strength was lower than that of PW-C f /SiC composites. SiC f /SiC composites represented a great reduction of flexural strength at the thermal shock temperature difference of 300 deg. C.

  20. The role of sensorimotor learning in the perception of letter-like forms: tracking the causes of neural specialization for letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H; Atwood, Thea P

    2009-02-01

    Functional specialization in the brain is considered a hallmark of efficient processing. It is therefore not surprising that there are brain areas specialized for processing letters. To better understand the causes of functional specialization for letters, we explore the emergence of this pattern of response in the ventral processing stream through a training paradigm. Previously, we hypothesized that the specialized response pattern seen during letter perception may be due in part to our experience in writing letters. The work presented here investigates whether or not this aspect of letter processing-the integration of sensorimotor systems through writing-leads to functional specialization in the visual system. To test this idea, we investigated whether or not different types of experiences with letter-like stimuli ("pseudoletters") led to functional specialization similar to that which exists for letters. Neural activation patterns were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after three different types of training sessions. Participants were trained to recognize pseudoletters by writing, typing, or purely visual practice. Results suggested that only after writing practice did neural activation patterns to pseudoletters resemble patterns seen for letters. That is, neural activation in the left fusiform and dorsal precentral gyrus was greater when participants viewed pseudoletters than other, similar stimuli but only after writing experience. Neural activation also increased after typing practice in the right fusiform and left precentral gyrus, suggesting that in some areas, any motor experience may change visual processing. The results of this experiment suggest an intimate interaction among perceptual and motor systems during pseudoletter perception that may be extended to everyday letter perception.

  1. Consideration of the linguistic characteristics of letters makes the universal model of reading more universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Lee, Chang H; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2012-10-01

    We suggest that the linguistic characteristics of letters also need to be considered to fully understand how a reader processes printed words. For example, studies in Korean showed that unambiguity in the assignment of letters to their appropriate onset, vowel, or coda slot is one of the main sources of the letter-transposition effect. Indeed, the cognitive system that processes Korean is tuned to the structure of the Korean writing system.

  2. Realizing stable fully spin polarized transport in SiC nanoribbons with dopant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xixi; Wang, Xianlong; Zheng, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhzheng@theory.issp.ac.cn; Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hao, Hua [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-06-06

    Intrinsic half-metallicity recently reported in zigzag edged SiC nanoribbons is basically undetectable due to negligible energy difference between the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) configurations. In this Letter, by density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate a scheme of N doping at the carbon edge to selectively close the edge state channel at this edge and achieve 100% spin filtering, no matter whether it is in an AFM state or FM state. This turns SiC nanoribbon into a promising material for obtaining stable and completely spin polarized transport and may find application in spintronic devices.

  3. An investigation of hydrogenized amorphous Si structures with Doppler broadening positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, M.P.; Marek, T.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this letter, we examine the feasibility of applying positron annihilation spectroscopy to the study of hydrogenized amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based structures produced by chemical vapor deposition techniques. The positron probe, sensitive to open volume formations, is used to characterize neutral and negatively charged silicon dangling bonds, typical for undoped and n-doped a-Si:H, respectively. Using depth profiling along the growth direction a difference was observed in the electronic environment of these defects, which enables their identification in a p-i-n device. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  4. Diodes of nanocrystalline SiC on n-/n+-type epitaxial crystalline 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junding; Wei, Wensheng; Zhang, Chunxi; He, Mingchang; Li, Chang

    2018-03-01

    The diodes of nanocrystalline SiC on epitaxial crystalline (n-/n+)6H-SiC wafers were investigated, where the (n+)6H-SiC layer was treated as cathode. For the first unit, a heavily boron doped SiC film as anode was directly deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method on the wafer. As to the second one, an intrinsic SiC film was fabricated to insert between the wafer and the SiC anode. The third one included the SiC anode, an intrinsic SiC layer and a lightly phosphorus doped SiC film besides the wafer. Nanocrystallization in the yielded films was illustrated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectrum respectively. Current vs. voltage traces of the obtained devices were checked to show as rectifying behaviors of semiconductor diodes, the conduction mechanisms were studied. Reverse recovery current waveforms were detected to analyze the recovery performance. The nanocrystalline SiC films in base region of the fabricated diodes are demonstrated as local regions for lifetime control of minority carriers to improve the reverse recovery properties.

  5. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  6. The distributed neural system for top-down letter processing: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    This fMRI study used Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) to investigate top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. After an initial training that became increasingly difficult, participant was instructed to detect a letter from pure noise images where there was actually no letter. Such experimental paradigm allowed for isolating top-down components of letter processing and minimizing the influence of bottom-up perceptual input. A distributed cortical network of top-down letter processing was identified by analyzing the functional connectivity patterns of letter-preferential area (LA) within the left fusiform gyrus. Such network extends from the visual cortex to high level cognitive cortexes, including the left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left superior parietal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and left inferior occipital gyrus. These findings suggest that top-down letter processing contains not only regions for processing of letter phonology and appearance, but also those involved in internal information generation and maintenance, and attention and memory processing.

  7. National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    .... These National Security Letters (NSLs) seek customer and consumer transaction information in national security investigations from communications providers, financial institutions, and credit agencies...

  8. Philanthropic Discourse vs Promotional Genre: To Study the Rhetorical Choices of Promotion and Structural Moves of Two Appeal Letters in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Chi-wai LEE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on two appeal letters from (i Oxfam Hong Kong and (ii Hong Kong Committee For United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, this paper aims to study the rhetorical choices of promotion and structural moves of two appeal letters, exploring whether the philanthropic discourse can be viewed in line with the promotional genre. The findings appear to reveal that there is a hybrid form of promotional genre in philanthropic discourse, with reference to Bhatia’s (1998 generic patterns in fund-raising discourse framework. There are similar structural moves of advertising, although the move sequences could vary. However, the move of “introducing the cause” is always found at the very beginning because the readers are more interested to realise what the main theme of the appeal letter is. In addition, appeal letters are found to be modelled in promotional genre, in which they are rhetorical choices of promotion attracting attention from readers – by using “you” and marked devices of attention getters. The findings in this study appear to be in line with the argument that promotional concerns have influenced the nature of philanthropic discourse.

  9. A letter from the United States: the romance of medicine--voyages and heroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V, Lee

    2009-03-01

    Becoming a physician is a lifelong journey, not merely the completion of medical school and postgraduate training. For those pedagogues that wish to train doctors as technicians the notion that there is something heroic and romantic in a physician's life is quaint, old fashioned, and out of date! In today's teaching hospitals virtual patients come via digital technology in computed x-ray and magnetic resonance images, automated laboratory test panels, electrophysiologic studies, and algorhythmic histories. Doctors have no need to leave their computer and increasingly doctors do not leave their computers for the bedside, the home, the neighborhood, or the country of their "patients". Contemporary doctors are in danger of losing their bedside clinical skills and with them go the role of physician as a wise, widely traveled human being knowledgeable about the rigors of inhospitable environs, the hardiness of the species, the despair of poverty, and the seductive dangers of wealth. There is similarity of this kind of physician to mythic heroes, and they still have stories to tell.

  10. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  11. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  12. Refuting feminism: Brazilian lettered culture's complacency/complicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Terezinha Schmidt

    Full Text Available In appraising the power of antifeminist discourse in Brazil, I examine how this discourse appears in the realm of cultural journalism in order to make some connections to Brazilian social history, in the light of which it may be possible to understand why feminism as transforming praxis seems so alien to the habits of the country. To sustain my arguments I draw on the readings of Brazilian historical and cultural thinkers considered "leftists". At the same time, I point out the limits of their analyses, that is, their silence regarding women's oppression and gender issues. Finally, I examine the persistence of various forms of antifeminism in the lettered milieu so as to understand the statute of feminist critique in the field of literary studies and the reasons for its invisibility, including considerations on its achievements and the limitations of its practices.

  13. Particles and nuclei, letters, in Russian, pt.4

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on thermal multifragmentation, nuclear fog and critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, topological and nontopological solutions for the chiral bag model with constituent quarks, comparison of ATLAS tilecal module No. 8 high-precision metrology measurement results obtained by laser (JINR) and photogrammetric (CERN) methods, calibration of the beam polarimeter at the JINR synchrophasotron, anomalous A-, t-dependence and the phase behaviour of partial wave of coherent production of radial state pi (1300), about some inverse problems of nuclear physics, the nuclear matter modification at intermediate energies, experimental research of the NN scattering with polarized particles at the VdG accelerator of Charles university. Project 'NN interactions' and the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Scintillation and Cherenkov hodoscopes

  14. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  15. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  16. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  17. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  18. Interfacial characterization of CVI-SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Kohyama, A.; Noda, T.; Katoh, Y.; Hinoki, T.; Araki, H.; Yu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the interfaces of two families of chemical vapor infiltration SiC/SiC composites, advanced Tyranno-SA and Hi-Nicalon fibers reinforced SiC/SiC composites with various carbon and SiC/C interlayers, were investigated by single fiber push-out/push-back tests. Interfacial debonding and fibers sliding mainly occurred adjacent to the first carbon layer on the fibers. The interfacial debonding strengths and frictional stresses for both Tyranno-SA/SiC and Hi-Nicalon/SiC composites were correlated with the first carbon layer thickness. Tyranno-SA/SiC composites exhibited much larger interfacial frictional stresses compared to Hi-Nicalon/SiC composites. This was assumed to be mainly contributed by the rather rough surface of the Tyranno-SA fiber

  19. The importance of situation-specific encodings: analysis of a simple connectionist model of letter transposition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Smith, Garrett; Tabor, Whitney

    2018-04-01

    This paper analyses a three-layer connectionist network that solves a translation-invariance problem, offering a novel explanation for transposed letter effects in word reading. Analysis of the hidden unit encodings provides insight into two central issues in cognitive science: (1) What is the novelty of claims of "modality-specific" encodings? and (2) How can a learning system establish a complex internal structure needed to solve a problem? Although these topics (embodied cognition and learnability) are often treated separately, we find a close relationship between them: modality-specific features help the network discover an abstract encoding by causing it to break the initial symmetries of the hidden units in an effective way. While this neural model is extremely simple compared to the human brain, our results suggest that neural networks need not be black boxes and that carefully examining their encoding behaviours may reveal how they differ from classical ideas about the mind-world relationship.

  20. Sub-barrier fusion of Si+Si systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, G.; Montagnoli, G.; Stefanini, A. M.; Bourgin, D.; Čolović, P.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Faggian, M.; Fioretto, E.; Galtarossa, F.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Urbani, M.; Szilner, S.; Zhang, G. L.

    2017-11-01

    The near- and sub-barrier fusion excitation function has been measured for the system 30Si+30Si at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro of INFN, using the 30Si beam of the XTU Tandem accelerator in the energy range 47 - 90 MeV. A set-up based on a beam electrostatic deflector was used for detecting fusion evaporation residues. The measured cross sections have been compared to previous data on 28Si+28Si and Coupled Channels (CC) calculations have been performed using M3Y+repulsion and Woods-Saxon potentials, where the lowlying 2+ and 3- excitations have been included. A weak imaginary potential was found to be necessary to reproduce the low energy 28Si+28Si data. This probably simulates the effect of the oblate deformation of this nucleus. On the contrary, 30Si is a spherical nucleus, 30Si+30Si is nicely fit by CC calculations and no imaginary potential is needed. For this system, no maximum shows up for the astrophysical S-factor so that we have no evidence for hindrance, as confirmed by the comparison with CC calculations. The logarithmic derivative of the two symmetric systems highlights their different low energy trend. A difference can also be noted in the two barrier distributions, where the high-energy peak present in 28Si+28Si is not observed for 30Si+30Si, probably due to the weaker couplings in last case.

  1. Sub-barrier fusion of Si+Si systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colucci G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The near- and sub-barrier fusion excitation function has been measured for the system 30Si+30Si at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro of INFN, using the 30Si beam of the XTU Tandem accelerator in the energy range 47 - 90 MeV. A set-up based on a beam electrostatic deflector was used for detecting fusion evaporation residues. The measured cross sections have been compared to previous data on 28Si+28Si and Coupled Channels (CC calculations have been performed using M3Y+repulsion and Woods-Saxon potentials, where the lowlying 2+ and 3− excitations have been included. A weak imaginary potential was found to be necessary to reproduce the low energy 28Si+28Si data. This probably simulates the effect of the oblate deformation of this nucleus. On the contrary, 30Si is a spherical nucleus, 30Si+30Si is nicely fit by CC calculations and no imaginary potential is needed. For this system, no maximum shows up for the astrophysical S-factor so that we have no evidence for hindrance, as confirmed by the comparison with CC calculations. The logarithmic derivative of the two symmetric systems highlights their different low energy trend. A difference can also be noted in the two barrier distributions, where the high-energy peak present in 28Si+28Si is not observed for 30Si+30Si, probably due to the weaker couplings in last case.

  2. New steam generators slated for nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of Duke Power's plans to replace steam generators at its McGuire and Catawba nuclear units. A letter of intent to purchase (from Babcock and Wilcox) the 12 Westinghouse steam generators has been signed, but no constructor has been selected at this time. This action is brought about by the failures of more than 3000 tubes in these units

  3. Growth and characterization of textured well-faceted ZnO on planar Si(100, planar Si(111, and textured Si(100 substrates for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, textured, well-faceted ZnO materials grown on planar Si(100, planar Si(111, and textured Si(100 substrates by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and cathode luminescence (CL measurements. The results show that ZnO grown on planar Si(100, planar Si(111, and textured Si(100 substrates favor the growth of ZnO(110 ridge-like, ZnO(002 pyramid-like, and ZnO(101 pyramidal-tip structures, respectively. This could be attributed to the constraints of the lattice mismatch between the ZnO and Si unit cells. The average grain size of ZnO on the planar Si(100 substrate is slightly larger than that on the planar Si(111 substrate, while both of them are much larger than that on the textured Si(100 substrate. The average grain sizes (about 10–50 nm of the ZnO grown on the different silicon substrates decreases with the increase of their strains. These results are shown to strongly correlate with the results from the SEM, AFM, and CL as well. The reflectance spectra of these three samples show that the antireflection function provided by theses samples mostly results from the nanometer-scaled texture of the ZnO films, while the micrometer-scaled texture of the Si substrate has a limited contribution. The results of this work provide important information for optimized growth of textured and well-faceted ZnO grown on wafer-based silicon solar cells and can be utilized for efficiency enhancement and optimization of device materials and structures, such as heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cells.

  4. The temporal dynamics of implicit processing of non-letter, letter, and word-forms in the human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at around 180ms. This right-sided effect was followed by bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g. interhemispheric processing of those stimuli shortly later. Additional early (130-150ms negative-polarity activity over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally distributed responses (>300ms were present, likely reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported ‘visual-word-form’ area and N400-related responses, respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal flow of information processing in the brain related to the implicit processing of potentially linguistic information and provide valuable information about the interactions between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic processing.

  5. First observations of stimulated emission and of stimulated Raman scattering in acentric cubic Nd3+:Bi12SiO20 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Bagayev, S N; Garsia, Sole J; Jaque, D; Eichler, H J; Findeisen, J; Fernandez, J; Balda, R; Agullo, Rueda F

    1999-01-01

    Laser action (in the 4 F 3/2 - 4 I 11/2 channel) and stimulated Raman scattering were excited for the first time in an Nd 3+ :Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystal at room temperature. All the observed stimulated emission and multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes lines were identified. (letters to the editor)

  6. I like Cities; Do You like Letters? Introducing Urban Typography in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a study of the letters and graphics found in the city, while at the same time opening up unusual spaces linked to the cultural arena and visual geographies for the creation of learning spaces in art education, introducing urban typography for training teachers. The letters in urban spaces can help us reinterpret the…

  7. A 2004 unanswered letter to the Economist magazine requesting a retraction (and apology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2012-01-01

    This is a copy of (the bulk of) a letter I mailed on May 13, 2004 to Sir Robert P. Wilson, President, and three editors of the magazine, the Economist. With the letter, I also sent each recipient a copy of my latest book, "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level" as a gesture of good will.

  8. 31 CFR 500.406 - Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts. 500.406 Section 500.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 500.406 Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit...

  9. 31 CFR 515.406 - Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts. 515.406 Section 515.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.406 Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary...

  10. Sense-Making and Map-Making: War Letters as Personal Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Knopf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Structured in three parts, this article will briefly review David Herman’s idea of “spatial reference” in narrative, particularly in epistolary form, and explain the research method used in this project; introduce military geographies and demonstrate how various spatial references function in war letters; and, lastly, illustrate the value of war letters as spatial artifacts and subjective cartography.

  11. 75 FR 75453 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Technical Data Letter of Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Request; Technical Data Letter of Explanation AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract These technical data letters of explanation will assure the Bureau of Industry and Security that U.S.-origin technical data will be exported only for...

  12. 29 CFR 1621.3 - Procedure for requesting an opinion letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1621.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1621.3 Procedure for requesting an opinion letter. (a) A request for an opinion letter should be submitted in writing to the Chairman, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

  13. An Analysis of English Business Letters from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to find out the features of English business letters. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics is used as the theoretical framework, mainly, interpersonal fucntion. The English business letter (EBL) is an important written text used for international business communication and it has its own features of text.…

  14. Morphology and Spelling in French Students with Dyslexia: The Case of Silent Final Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Spelling is a challenge for individuals with dyslexia. Phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules are highly inconsistent in French, which make them very difficult to master, in particular for dyslexics. One recurrent manifestation of this inconsistency is the presence of silent letters at the end of words. Many of these silent letters perform a…

  15. 39 CFR 320.4 - Suspension for certain letters of college and university organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... universities to carry in their internal mail systems the letters of their bona fide student or faculty... university. Colleges and universities choosing to provide their student or faculty organizations access to their internal mail systems are responsible for assuring that only letters of bona fide student or...

  16. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroko, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…

  17. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  18. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  19. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  20. DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT IN THE REGULATION OF 600-PARIS PUBLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 was adopted the Publication no. 600 of Paris regarding the Rules and the Uniform Practices for documentary letters of credit which replaced the Publication no. 500. Publication no. 600 (UCP 600 is applied to all the irrevocable documentary letters of credit when the parties make express reference to these Rules. The Publication no. 600 includes uniform rules, international practices and standards of irrevocable documentary letters of credit. The new Publication has brought a number of changes on the issues regarding the performance of the letters of credit, both in the relationship with the nonbanking institutions participants and in the relationship between the credit institutions participating in the performance of the letter of credit. This study, without being exhaustive, aims to capture the main aspects of novelty brought by the publication no. 600 and their legal approach to the new perspective of the international trade relations. It has in view, in particular, the irrevocable character of the letter of credit, the elaboration method and procedure of the letter of credit, the participants to the unfolding of the specific relationship of the letter of credit and the main duties of the involved credit institutions.

  1. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  2. Some Influences of Greek and Roman Rhetoric on Early Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how letter writing, especially business letters, was influenced by Greek and Roman oral rhetoricians. Discusses three precepts of oral rhetoric--inventio, dispositio, and style--and notes that the classical theories' reflection in written communication can be seen in selected Italian, German, and English epistolographic works. (MM)

  3. Beginners Remember Orthography when They Learn to Read Words: The Case of Doubled Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donna-Marie; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2007-01-01

    Sight word learning and memory were studied to clarify how early during development readers process visual letter patterns that are not dictated by phonology, and whether their word learning is influenced by the legality of letter patterns. Forty kindergartners and first graders were taught to read 12 words containing either single consonants…

  4. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 3, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Unleashing the "Brain Power" of Groups in the Classroom: The Neuroscience behind Collaborative Work (Nancy Walser); (2) Putting AP to the Test: New Research Assesses the…

  5. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Response to Intervention: A New Approach to Reading Instruction Aims to Catch Struggling Readers Early (Nancy Walser); (2) Getting Advisory Right: Focus and…

  6. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) (In)formative Assessments: New Tests and Activities Can Help Teachers Guide Student Learning (Robert Rothman); (2) Recent Research on the Achievement Gap: How Lifestyle…

  7. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 1, January-February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Leadership Lessons From Schools Becoming "Data Wise" (Jennifer L. Steele and Kathryn Parker Boudett); (2) A Guide on the Side: Mentors Help New Leaders Prepare for Life in the…

  8. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 2, March-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Online Testing, Version 1.0: Oregon's Adaptive Computer-Based Accountability Test Offers a Peek at a Brave New Future (Robert Rothman); (2) Beyond…

  9. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 5, September-October 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Scenes from the School Turnaround Movement: Passion, Frustration, Mid-Course Corrections Mark Rapid Reforms (Laura Pappano); (2) The Media Savvy Educator:…

  10. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) The Road to School Improvement: It's Hard, It's Bumpy, and It Takes as Long as It Takes (Richard F. Elmore and Elizabeth A. City); (2) Better Teaching with Web Tools: How…

  11. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 5, September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) The Invisible Hand in Education Policy: Behind the Scenes, Economists Wield Unprecedented Influence (David McKay Wilson); (2) Bonding and Bridging: Schools Open Doors for…

  12. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 1, January-February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Charters and Unions: What's the Future for This Unorthodox Relationship? (Alexander Russo); (2) From Special Ed to Higher Ed: Transition Planning for Disabled Students Focuses…

  13. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 28, Number 2, March-April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Course Credits on the Quick: Controversial Online Recovery Programs Speed the Path to Graduation (Andrew Brownstein); (2) Collaborating to Make Schools More Inclusive…

  14. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 2, March-April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Money and Motivation: New Initiatives Rekindle Debate over the Link between Rewards and Student Achievement (David McKay Wilson); (2) An Inexact Science: What Are the Technical…

  15. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 3, May-June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) "Equity, Access, and Opportunity": Despite Challenges, More Districts Adopt One-to-One Laptop Programs (Colleen Gillard); (2) Small Kids, Big Words: Research-Based Strategies…

  16. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) When Worlds Collide: Universal PreK Brings New Challenges for Public Elementary Schools (David McKay Wilson); (2) Answers and Questions: Schools Survey Their Students--and…

  17. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 4, July-August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Integrated Data Systems Link Schools and Communities: Researchers Combine School and Non-School Data to Inform Interventions and Policy (Patti Hartigan);…

  18. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 5, September-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Teaching Students to Ask Their Own Questions: One Small Change Can Yield Big Results (Dan Rothstein and Luz Santana); (2) Voice of Experience: Jerry Weast--Leading a System…

  19. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 3, May-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Improving Teaching and Learning through Instructional Rounds (Lee Teitel); (2) Developmentally Appropriate Practice in the Age of Testing: New Reports Outline Key Principles…

  20. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 6, November-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Video Games Take Testing to the Next Level: Researchers See Promise in Game-Like Assessments That Measure Complex Skills (Robert Rothman); (2) An Academic…

  1. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 6, November-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) "Platooning" Instruction: Districts Weigh Pros and Cons of Departmentalizing Elementary Schools (Lucy Hood); (2) Behind the Classroom Door: A Rare Glimpse Indicates the…

  2. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) More Than "Making Nice": Getting Teachers to (Truly) Collaborate (Laura Pappano); (2) "Doing the Critical Things First": An Aligned Approach to PreK and Early Elementary Math;…

  3. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 6, November-December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Charting a New Course toward Racial Integration: Districts Seek Legal Routes to Capture the Benefits of Diversity (Brigid Schulte); (2) Voluntary Integration: Two Views--(a)…

  4. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 28, Number 1, January-February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Using Theater to Teach Social Skills: Researchers Document Improvements for Children with Autism (Patti Hartigan); (2) The Family Model of Schooling Revisited: Few Teachers,…

  5. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 5, September-October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Teaching 21st Century Skills: What Does It Look Like in Practice? (Nancy Walser); (2) Getting and Spending: Schools and Districts Share Lessons on the Effective Uses of…

  6. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Learning Progressions in Science: A New Approach Emphasizes Sustained Instruction in Big Ideas (Patti Hartigan); (2) Putting the "Boy Crisis" in…

  7. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Meeting of the Minds: The Parent-Teacher Conference Is the Cornerstone of School-Home Relations. How Can It Work for All Families? (Laura Pappano); (2) In Search of That "Third…

  8. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 4, July-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Taking the Measure of New Teachers: California Shifts from Standardized Tests to Performance-Based Assessment as a Condition of Licensure (Robert Rothman);…

  9. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 1, January-February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Caroline T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) The Greening of Environmental Ed: Teachers Focus on Complexity, Evidence, and Letting Students Draw Their Own Conclusions (Lucy Hood); (2) Like Teacher,…

  10. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 3, May-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Bringing Art into School, Byte by Byte: Innovative Programs Use Technology to Expand Access to the Arts (Patti Hartigan); (2) Differentiated Instruction…

  11. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 4, July-August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Putting the Brakes on "Summer Slide": Modified School Calendars Build in Time to Enrich Learning and Sustain Gains (Brigid Schulte); (2) Closing…

  12. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 5, September-October 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Autism Epidemic: New Expectations for Children with Autism Means a New Role for Public Schools (Kate McKenna); (2) Internet Research 101:…

  13. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 6, November-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) With Cheating on the Rise, Schools Respond (David McKay Wilson); (2) Waldorf Education in Public Schools: Educators Adopt--and Adapt--This Developmental, Arts-Rich Approach…

  14. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 2, March-April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Educating Teenage Immigrants: High Schools Experiment with Ways to Group New English-Language Learners (Lucy Hood); (2) Hot Topics and Key Words: Pilot Project Brings Teachers…

  15. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  16. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 2, March-April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Hybrid Schools for the iGeneration: New Schools Combine "Bricks" and "Clicks" (Brigid Schulte); (2) Dual Language Programs on the Rise: "Enrichment" Model Puts Content Learning…

  17. George gives to geology Jane: The name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of Utrecht

  18. George gives to geology Jane : the name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    - People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). - In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of

  19. Open Letter Regarding the University of Minnesota's Program on Human Sexuality and Sexual Attitude Reassessment Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, William C.; Nelson, James

    1976-01-01

    This article contains a letter which questions the value and ethics of the Program on Human Sexuality (University of Minnesota) and also contains the response to the letter by a member of the Theological-Ethical Task Force which sponsors the program. (Author)

  20. The New Scarlet Letter: Student Perceptions of the Accounting Profession after Enron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mimi; Kreuze, Jerry; Langsam, Sheldon

    2004-01-01

    Recent scandals have tarnished the integrity of the accounting profession, marking it with a modern version of the scarlet letter "A," which represented disgrace in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter." In this study, the authors surveyed college business students on their perceptions of the accounting profession and examined how it can…

  1. 50 CFR 216.219 - Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance.... Gulf of Mexico § 216.219 Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of...

  2. Teaching Letter Sounds in Preschool, Kindergarten, and Special Education: Five Strategies to Ease the Memory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Teaching students the most frequent sounds of the alphabet letters is the first crucial step in good phonics instruction. But beginning letter and sound lessons, especially if poorly taught or too rapidly paced, can be overwhelming and confusing for some young children and struggling readers. How can we simplify the cognitive task for such…

  3. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 1, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Learning Across Distance: Virtual-Instruction Programs Are Growing Rapidly, but the Impact on "Brick-and-Mortar" Classrooms Is Still up in the Air…

  4. 24 CFR 200.63 - Required deposits and letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner for collection under the letter of credit. In the event a demand for payment thereunder is not... credit. 200.63 Section 200.63 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Required deposits and letters of credit. (a) Deposits. Where the Commissioner requires the mortgagor to...

  5. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  6. Teaching letter sounds to kindergarten English language learners using incremental rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Meredith; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Wilson, Jennifer; Rahn, Naomi L; Egan, Andrea; McComas, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Proficiency in letter-sound correspondence is important for decoding connected text. This study examined the effects of an evidence-based intervention, incremental rehearsal (IR), on the letter-sound expression of three kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) performing below the district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Participants were native speakers of Hmong, Spanish, and Polish. A multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effects of IR on letter-sound expression. Visual analysis of the data showed an increase in level and trend when IR was introduced in each phase. Percentage of all non-overlapping data (PAND) ranged from 95% to 100%. All participants exceeded expected growth and reached the spring district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Results suggest that IR is a promising intervention for increasing letter-sound expression for ELLs who evidence delays in acquiring letter sounds. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  8. Can Governments Use Get Out the Vote Letters to Solve Europe’s Turnout Crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2018-01-01

    to vote in an upcoming Danish election is delivered to more than 60,000 first-time voters using direct personal letters. Eight different letters are designed, based on the calculus of voting and prospect theory. The sample is randomly divided into treatment groups or the control group. Using validated...

  9. Neural Dissociation of Number from Letter Recognition and Its Relationship to Parietal Numerical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Hebrank, Andrew; Polk, Thad A.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    The visual recognition of letters dissociates from the recognition of numbers at both the behavioral and neural level. In this article, using fMRI, we investigate whether the visual recognition of numbers dissociates from letters, thereby establishing a double dissociation. In Experiment 1, participants viewed strings of consonants and Arabic…

  10. Letter to the Editor: Re: A Five-year Survey of Cesarean Delivery at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to the Editor: Re: A Five-year Survey of Cesarean Delivery at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. VO Ajuzieogu, AO Amucheazi. Abstract. Letter to the editor - no abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  11. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 21, Number 6, November-December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Is History... History?: Standards, Accountability, and the Future of Our Nation's Past (Robert Rothman); (2) Curriculum Access for All: How Teachers Can Use Universal Design…

  12. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country with...

  13. Photoluminescence of Er-doped Si-SiO2 and Al-Si-SiO2 sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, C.; Fonseca, L.F.; Jaque, D.; Sole, J.Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Er-doped Si-SiO 2 and Al-Si-SiO 2 films have been deposited by rf-sputtering being annealed afterwards. Annealing behavior of the Er 3+ : 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission of Er-doped Si-SiO 2 yields a maximum intensity for annealing at 700-800 deg. C. 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 peak emission for Er-doped Al-Si-SiO 2 at 1525 nm is shifted from that for Er-doped Si-SiO 2 at 1530 nm and the bandwidth increases from 29 to 42 nm. 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission decays present a fast decaying component related to Er ions coupled to Si nanoparticles, defects, or other ions, and a slow decaying component related to isolated Er ions. Excitation wavelength dependence and excitation power dependence for the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission correspond with energy transfer from Si nanoparticles. Populating of the 4 I 11/2 level in Er-doped Si-SiO 2 involves branching and energy transfer upconversion involving two or more Er ions. Addition of Al reduces the populating of this level to an energy transfer upconversion involving two ions

  14. A Fragmentary Archive: Migratory Feelings in Early Anglo-Saxon Women's Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The letters by Anglo-Saxon women in the Boniface correspondence are connected by cultural practices and emotions centered on the conversion mission that functioned to maintain connections between the Anglo-Saxon diaspora. A striking recurring focus of these letters is on loss and isolation, which connects them to the Old English elegies. Many of the letters describe the writers' traumatic experiences that result from the death or absence of kin. These are women who endured the trauma of being left behind when others migrated overseas or who, in traveling away from their homeland, found themselves isolated in an alien environment, displaced in time as well as space. This article offers an analysis of the letters, focusing on the queer temporalities they explore, the queer emotions they evoke, and the queer kinships that they forge. It argues that the women's letters represent fragments of an early queer archive of migratory feelings.

  15. Y2K affiliation, immediate pedestrian density, and helping responses to lost letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F S; Thompson, P C

    2001-06-01

    Of 75 letters "lost" in Florida, 41 were returned in the mail (the helpful response). Immediate pedestrian density was significantly related to nonhelping responses. The greater the number of subjects passing by a lost letter, the less likely any one of them would respond to it. The rates of return did vary with the addressees' affiliations. Returned responses for the affiliates, Y2K Arkbuilders and the Believers of God's Judgement Against Homosexuals: Y2K Millennium Bug, were substantially lower than for the affiliate, Y2K Computer Repair & Programming, Inc. Returns for the Believers of God's Judgement Against Homosexuals: Y2K Millennium Bug affiliate were significantly lower than for the Y2K Arkbuilders affiliate. Variables such as sex, race, and estimated age of subjects were not associated with helping to return a lost letter. The rate of return of lost letters is not the only important measure to be examined in studies using lost letters.

  16. Undergraduate nursing students writing therapeutic letters to families: an educational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlingsson, Christen

    2009-02-01

    Writing therapeutic letters to families is discussed in this article as an educational strategy encouraging students to think reflectively about family nursing. At the University of Kalmar, Sweden, undergraduate nursing students in a primary care module interviewed families using the Calgary Family Assessment Model and wrote therapeutic letters to these families. This article describes (a) the examination process, which was the context for writing therapeutic letters, (b) results of analyses of the letters, and (c) student's post-examination evaluation comments. Results indicate that most students needed encouragement to focus on the family's strengths and resources instead of focusing on own feelings or problems they perceived the family as having. Students also needed support in relinquishing their hierarchical role of "expert nurse." Students' evaluation comments showed that writing therapeutic letters provided students with opportunities to reflect about the connections between family nursing theory and the family itself.

  17. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters in Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zolfaghari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intensity of emotion and fluctuation of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and convey intellectual and emotional meanings through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparations. He has sharp eyes and a sensitive spirit and creative temperament and attempts strengthening his own literary language and creating personal style by inventing novel images, showing the creativity and imagination and entering in various arenas of imagination. This point more than anything else could be done by presenting images and new figures. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, a wide field that they have competed. It is obvious that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani's Divan of poetry, as one of the greatest poets of this school, is the perfect poetical book of paintings in which meaning has been hidden under a delicate pattern and new different scientific, cultural and religious images. Letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters, new images, and artistic creativity techniques as well. This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet letters, alphabetic-based authenticity of images, different similarity reasons, semantic and literal multi-relevance of letters in the context of poetry, producing figures of speech based on letters, sensational relationship exists between images and letters which have been shown in his poetry. Letter have a double and even multiple application in Khaghani's poetic works (divan and moreover the construction of words and conveying meaning which is the real and common usage, they were used as artistic instruments

  18. Impression management in chairmen’s letters: An empirical study of banks’ annual reports in MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mahboub

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the extent of existence of strategies of impression management (IM in the narrative section of 200 annual reports of a sample of 50 banks in five different countries of Middle East and North Africa (MENA region (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab of Emirates for 2011-2014. Seven variables were employed to identify the existence of IM strategies in the chairmen’s letters of the bank’s annual reports. By employing descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and proportion test, it was found that four out of the seven strategies have existed in the chairmen’s letters. These strategies are reading ease manipulation, visual and structural manipulation, performance comparisons, and performance attribution. It is interesting to note that the narrative of the annual report of major banks in MENA region was very difficult to read. This result may perhaps encourage more consideration to the obstacles of effective communication that are the basic mean of facilitating rational resource decision making. Moreover, the results demonstrated that management of banks in MENA region choose benchmarks that portray current bank performance in the best possible light; further they highlight good news rather than bad news and placing this good news in the most emphasized sections of the chairmen’s letters; also they prefer to blame the environment for bad news, but take the credit themselves for good news. Therefore, the study recommends auditing regulators to issue a new standard in which auditors are required to confirm the reliability of the information in the accounting narratives of banks annual reports.

  19. Compression of Fe-Si-H alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, S.; Ohta, K.; Hirose, K.

    2014-12-01

    The light elements in the Earth's core have not been fully identified yet, but hydrogen is now collecting more attention in part because recent planet formation theory suggests that large amount of water should have been brought to the Earth during its formation (giant-impact stage). Nevertheless, the effect of hydrogen on the property of iron alloys is little known so far. The earlier experimental study by Hirao et al. [2004 GRL] examined the compression behavior of dhcp FeHx (x ≈ 1) and found that it becomes much stiffer than pure iron above 50 GPa, where magnetization disappears. Here we examined the solubility of hydrogen into iron-rich Fe-Si alloys and the compression behavior of dhcp Fe-Si-H alloy at room temperature. Fe+6.5wt.%Si or Fe+9wt.%Si foil was loaded into a diamond-anvil cell (DAC), and then liquid hydrogen was introduced at temperatures below 20 K. X-ray diffraction measurements at SPring-8 revealed the formation of a dhcp phase with or without thermal annealing by laser above 8.4 GPa. The concentration of hydrogen in such dhcp lattice was calculated following the formula reported by Fukai [1992]; y = 0.5 and 0.2 for Fe-6.5wt.%Si-H or Fe-9wt.%Si-H alloys, respectively when y is defined as Fe(1-x)SixHy. Unlike Fe-H alloy, hydrogen didn't fully occupy the octahedral sites even under hydrogen-saturated conditions in the case of Fe-Si-H system. Anomaly was observed in obtained pressure-volume curve around 44 Å3 of unit-cell volume for both Fe-6.5wt.%Si-H and Fe-9wt.%Si-H alloys, which may be related to the spin transition in the dhcp phase. They became slightly stiffer at higher pressures, but their compressibility was still similar to that of pure iron.

  20. Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.

  1. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and

  2. Labelling and 'Dear Doctor' letters: are they noncommittal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootheest, A C Kees; Edwards, I Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, a number of drugs have been withdrawn for safety reasons, either by drug approval authorities, or by the manufacturer. A recent example is the withdrawal of cerivastatin in connection with rhabdomyolysis. Several other drugs have also been taken off the market as a security measure, not because the nature of the risk involved was unknown but because the risk had proved apparently uncontainable. It seems that the inclusion of a warning or contraindication in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) or sending a 'Dear Doctor' letter is insufficient to ensure compliant prescription behaviour. There appears to be a discrepancy between the careful use of evidence underpinning the SPC content and formal warnings and changes to the SPC and the effect they have on the prescription and dispensing of the drugs involved. This results in undue loss or damage for both the manufacturer and the patient. There are no easy solutions to tackle this problem; the ineffectiveness of labelling and 'Dear Doctor' letters has ramifications for the whole regulatory/ industrial/educational complex. We discuss briefly four possible strategies for improving the current situation, with the emphasis on the place the prescriber has in this process. The first strategy is education-based. Clinicians need to know about the comparative merits of the effectiveness and risk of drugs, as well as how they work pharmacologically, toxicologically, and what interactions they have with each other. The second strategy involves improving the information available for clinicians. Frequently, physicians do not consult the SPC for verification, leaving aside whether they have taken notice of the contents of the official SPC in the first place. It is recommended that the accessibility of SPCs is enhanced for doctors and pharmacists, drawing attention specifically to any changes. There needs to be a single body of information that covers every drug. The third strategy involves

  3. The Physicist and Astronomer Christoper Scheiner - Biography Letters, Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, Franz

    The Jesuit priest Christopher Scheiner was one of the most influential astronomers of the first half of the 17th century. He was a creative and down-to-earth natural scientist who worked in the fields of astronomy, physics, optics and ophthalmology, while following his vocations as university lecturer, church builder and pastor. In scientific matters he was Galilei's opponent. Their dispute centred on the priority of discovery in regard to the sunspots. Scheiner was not the first to discover the sunspots, but he gave the most detailed account thereofin his main work "Rosa Ursina sive Sol". He was, however, ceaseless in his defense of the geocentric system. In 1891, Anton v.Braunmühl published a biography of Father Scheiner. Ever since then, new documents have come to light, justifying the publication of a new biography. Among the documents now available is Scheiner's hitherto unknown dissertation. Notes taken during his lectures in Ingolstadt provide valuable information on astronomy using the telescope, an invention of his lifetime. His exchange of letters with personalities like Archduke Leopold V of Austria-Tyrol, with scientists like Magini, Galilei, Gassendi, Kepler and confriars Rader, Guldin, Alber, Minutuli, Cysat und Kircher is a source of precious insights. Letters to Scheiner from the Father Generals of his order display evidence of his superiors' zero tolerance for the helincentric system. They also disclose Scheiner's wish to become a missionary in China, the financial difficulties he faced while trying to find a publisher for his "Rosa Ursina sive Sol" and his personal shortcomings. A Scheiner obituary from 1650 was found in Cracow in 2001. It contains information on the troublesome last years of his life and has finally allowed us to determine the year of his birth. Scheiner's personality has been praised as well as criticized by many authors - sometimes depending on their ideological backgrounds. This holds true especially regarding the argument

  4. SiCloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Cathy Y.; Devore, Peter T.S.; Lonappan, Cejo Konuparamban

    2017-01-01

    The silicon photonics industry is projected to be a multibillion dollar industry driven by the growth of data centers. In this work, we present an interactive online tool for silicon photonics. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCCloud.org) is an easy to use instructional tool for optical properties...

  5. SI: The Stellar Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager (SI) will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 milliarcsec resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and simple snapshots into spellbinding evolving views. SI s science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI s prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era by imaging a sample of magnetically active stars with enough resolution to map their evolving dynamo patterns and their internal flows. By exploring the Universe at ultra-high resolution, SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled structures and processes in the Universe.

  6. U-Mo/Al-Si interaction: Influence of Si concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenou, J.; Palancher, H.; Iltis, X.; Cornen, M.; Tougait, O.; Tucoulou, R.; Welcomme, E.; Martin, Ph.; Valot, C.; Charollais, F.; Anselmet, M.C.; Lemoine, P.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U-Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimised. Indeed at the U-Mo/Al interfaces between U-Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U-Mo/Al-Si protective layer around U-Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. In this work, the evolution of the microstructure and composition of this protective layer with increasing Si concentrations in the Al matrix has been investigated. Conclusions are based on the characterization at the micrometer scale (X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) of U-Mo7/Al-Si diffusion couples obtained by thermal annealing at 450 deg. C. Two types of interaction layers have been evidenced depending on the Si content in the Al-Si alloy: the threshold value is found at about 5 wt.% but obviously evolves with temperature. It has been shown that for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 wt.%, the U-Mo7/Al-Si interaction is bi-layered and the Si-rich part is located close to the Al-Si for low Si concentrations (below 5 wt.%) and close to the U-Mo for higher Si concentrations. For Si weight fraction in the Al alloy lower than 5 wt.%, the Si-rich sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2 Al 20 , when the other sub-layer (close to U-Mo) is silicon free and made of UAl 3 and U 6 Mo 4 Al 43 . For Si weight concentrations above 5 wt.%, the Si-rich part becomes U 3 (Si, Al) 5 + U(Al, Si) 3 (close to U-Mo) and the other sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2 Al 20 . On the basis of these results and of a literature survey, a scheme is proposed to explain the formation of different types of ILs between U-Mo and Al-Si alloys (i.e. different protective layers).

  7. Nonvolatile field effect transistors based on protons and Si/SiO2Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Knoll, M.G.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the authors have demonstrated that annealing Si/SiO 2 /Si structures in a hydrogen containing ambient introduces mobile H + ions into the buried SiO 2 layer. Changes in the H + spatial distribution within the SiO 2 layer were electrically monitored by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The ability to directly probe reversible protonic motion in Si/SiO 2 /Si structures makes this an exemplar system to explore the physics and chemistry of hydrogen in the technologically relevant Si/SiO 2 structure. In this work, they illustrate that this effect can be used as the basis for a programmable nonvolatile field effect transistor (NVFET) memory that may compete with other Si-based memory devices. The power of this novel device is its simplicity; it is based upon standard Si/SiO 2 /Si technology and forming gas annealing, a common treatment used in integrated circuit processing. They also briefly discuss the effects of radiation on its retention properties

  8. The European Communities (Privileges of the Joint European Torus) Order 1978 (S.I. no. 1033)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order confers privileges on the Joint European Torus, as required by Decision 78/472/Euratom of 30 May 1978 of the Council of the European Communities and by the Exchange of Letters of 3 May 1978 between the Government of the United Kingdom and the European Atomic Energy Community [fr

  9. SiC Seeded Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R. C.; Henshall, D.; Tsvetkov, V. F.; Carter, C. H., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The availability of relatively large (30 mm) SiC wafers has been a primary reason for the renewed high level of interest in SiC semiconductor technology. Projections that 75 mm SiC wafers will be available in 2 to 3 years have further peaked this interest. Now both 4H and 6H polytypes are available, however, the micropipe defects that occur to a varying extent in all wafers produced to date are seen by many as preventing the commercialization of many types of SiC devices, especially high current power devices. Most views on micropipe formation are based around Frank's theory of a micropipe being the hollow core of a screw dislocation with a huge Burgers vector (several times the unit cell) and with the diameter of the core having a direct relationship with the magnitude of the Burgers vector. Our results show that there are several mechanisms or combinations of these mechanisms which cause micropipes in SiC boules grown by the seeded sublimation method. Additional considerations such as polytype variations, dislocations and both impurity and diameter control add to the complexity of producing high quality wafers. Recent results at Cree Research, Inc., including wafers with micropipe densities of less than 1 cm - 2 (with 1 cm2 areas void of micropipes), indicate that micropipes will be reduced to a level that makes high current devices viable and that they may be totally eliminated in the next few years. Additionally, efforts towards larger diameter high quality substrates have led to production of 50 mm diameter 4H and 6H wafers for fabrication of LEDs and the demonstration of 75 mm wafers. Low resistivity and semi-insulating electrical properties have also been attained through improved process and impurity control. Although challenges remain, the industry continues to make significant progress towards large volume SiC-based semiconductor fabrication.

  10. Gd-Ni-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.I.; Shvets, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    By X-ray phase analysis method isothermal cross section of phase diagram of the Gd-Ni-Si system at 870 K is studied. The existence of nine previously known compounds (GdNisub(6.72)Sisub(6.28), GdNi 10 Si 2 , GdNi 5 Si 3 , GdNi 4 Si, GdNi 2 Si 2 , GdNiSi 3 , GdNiSi 2 , Gd 3 Ni 6 Si 2 and GdNiSi) is confirmed and three new compounds (GdNisub(0.2)Sisub(1.8), Gdsub(2)Nisub(1-0.8)Sisub(1-1.2), Gd 5 NiSi 4 ) are found. On the base of Gd 2 Si 3 compound up to 0.15 at. Ni fractions, an interstitial solid solution is formed up to 0.25 at Ni fractions dissolution continues of substitution type. The Gd-Ni-Si system is similar to the Y-Ni-Si system

  11. Si-to-Si wafer bonding using evaporated glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Lindahl, M.

    1997-01-01

    Anodic bonding of Si to Si four inch wafers using evaporated glass was performed in air at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 450°C. Although annealing of Si/glass structures around 340°C for 15 minutes eliminates stress, the bonded wafer pairs exhibit compressive stress. Pull testing revealed...

  12. Oblique roughness replication in strained SiGe/Si multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holy, V.; Darhuber, A.A.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Nützel, J.-F.; Abstreiter, G.

    1998-01-01

    The replication of the interface roughness in SiGe/Si multilayers grown on miscut Si(001) substrates has been studied by means of x-ray reflectivity reciprocal space mapping. The interface profiles were found to be highly correlated and the direction of the maximal replication was inclined with

  13. BUDGET IN DANGER : OUR LETTER TO THE MINISTERS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In edition no. 104 of Echo we told you about the Finance Committee meeting which took place on Wednesday 16 June and the tense atmosphere that reigned during this meeting. Echoing the alarming news from most of our countries (budget cuts, restrictions, reforms), CERN’s global budget is indeed under pressure. This is extremely serious. How can we carry out our mission if our Member States do not give us the means? Basic research cannot progress with budget cuts. The Management tried to make this understood at the meeting, however, most delegations could not or would not see reason. Refusing to sit idly by, the Staff Association decided to act immediately. It sent a letter to all ministers in the twenty Member States concerned by CERN and its financing. A copy was also sent to all Finance Committee and Council delegates. We thus hope to help convince all our Member States that it is essential that they continue to invest in basic research, a breeding ground for new ideas and at the roo...

  14. Resource Letter GrW-1: Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Centrella, Joan M.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of gravitational radiation was one of the first predictions of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Progress in understanding this radiation theoretically was slow at first, owing to the difficulty of the nonlinear field equations and the subtleties of their physical effects. The experimental side of this subject also has taken a long time to develop, with efforts at detection severely challenged by the extreme weakness of the waves impinging on the Earth. However, as the 21st century begins, observations of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as black holes, neutron stars, and stellar collapse are expected to open a new window on the universe. Vigorous experimental programs centered on ground-based detectors are being carried out worldwide, and a space-based detector is in the planning stages. On the theoretical side, much effort is being expended to produce robust models of the astrophysical sources and accurate calculations of the waveforms they produce. In this Resource Letter, a set of basic references will be presented first, to provide a general introduction to and overview of the literature in this field. The focus then will shift to highlighting key resources in more specialized areas at the forefront of current research.

  15. Letter to Dimitrie Gusti (21.10.1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFANIA CRISTESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This section contains two important documents here published for the first time. The first is the text of a paper presented by St.C.-G. in 1939 at the Romanian Institute for Social Research and meant to accompany 12 sociological maps on the practices and interdictions concerning confined women in 35 villages of Țara Oltului (Olt county. This paper will allow us to reconstruct the lost maps in the near future. The second document consists of three completed forms of the social inquiry conducted by Șt. C.-G. concerning the everyday lives of students in an industrial College of Bucharest during World War II. The Report prepared by D. Gusti in view of awarding the Vernescu Academy prize to Șt. C.-G. for her book The Household in the Beliefs and Magic Rituals of the Women of Drăguș (Făgăraș, an activity report by Șt. C. and two letters (one by D. Gusti and the other by a former student teaching in her turn complete the picture of Șt. C.-G. at a professional and a personal level.

  16. Apphia: The Addressee of the Letter to Philemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Wajda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentioning Aphia as an addressee of the Letter to Philemon is an important part of considering women’s duties in the early Christian communities. It turns out, that in spite of the role as housewives and mothers frequently assigned to them, some of them became also close and important co-workers of St. Paul. Therefore, contrary to certain opinions of feminist theologians, the Apostle of Nations seems to be the least chauvinist writer of his age. In addition to Apphia, who undoubtedly played an important role in the life of community gathering at Philemon’s home, it is also necessary to mention Priscilla (Acts 18 : 1 ff., Lydia (Acts 16 : 11–14 ff. and Phoebe (Romans 16 : 1 ff.. They were St. Paul’s closest collaborators. The service of these women shows that thanks to Christianity, contemporary social divisions had been overcome. The divisions have completely lost their significance or have changed their character, due to overworking them in the spirit of Gospel.

  17. Resource Letter HEPP-1: History of elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovis, R.C.; Kragh, H.

    1991-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the history of modern elementary-particle physics. Histories that treat developments from the 1930s through the 1980s are focused on and a sampling is included of the historiography covering the period c. 1890--1930, the prehistory of elementary-particle physics as a discipline. Also included are collections of scientific papers, which might be especially valuable to individuals who wish to undertake historical research on particular scientists or subfields of elementary-particle physics. The introduction presents some statistical data and associated references for elementary-particle physics and surveys historiographical approaches and issues that are represented in historical accounts in the bibliography. All references are assigned a rating of E (Elementary), I (Intermediate), or A (Advanced) based on their technical or conceptual difficulty or their appropriateness for a person attempting a graduated study of the history of modern particle physics. That is, items labeled E are suitable for the layman or would be fundamental to a beginning exploration of the history of particle physics, whereas items labeled A are technically demanding (mathematically, historiographically, or philosophically) or would be most appropriate for specialized or advanced examinations of various topics

  18. A neural network model of lateralization during letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, N; Reggia, J A

    1999-03-01

    The causes of cerebral lateralization of cognitive and other functions are currently not well understood. To investigate one aspect of function lateralization, a bihemispheric neural network model for a simple visual identification task was developed that has two parallel interacting paths of information processing. The model is based on commonly accepted concepts concerning neural connectivity, activity dynamics, and synaptic plasticity. A combination of both unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (Widrow-Hoff) learning rules is used to train the model to identify a small set of letters presented as input stimuli in the left visual hemifield, in the central position, and in the right visual hemifield. Each visual hemifield projects onto the contralateral hemisphere, and the two hemispheres interact via a simulated corpus callosum. The contribution of each individual hemisphere to the process of input stimuli identification was studied for a variety of underlying asymmetries. The results indicate that multiple asymmetries may cause lateralization. Lateralization occurred toward the side having larger size, higher excitability, or higher learning rate parameters. It appeared more intensively with strong inhibitory callosal connections, supporting the hypothesis that the corpus callosum plays a functionally inhibitory role. The model demonstrates clearly the dependence of lateralization on different hemisphere parameters and suggests that computational models can be useful in better understanding the mechanisms underlying emergence of lateralization.

  19. A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank

  20. Applications of Si/SiGe heterostructures to CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    For more than two decades, advances in MOSFETs used in CMOS VLSI applications have been made through scaling to ever smaller dimensions for higher packing density, faster circuit speed and lower power dissipation. As scaling now approaches nanometer regime, the challenge for further scaling becomes greater in terms of technology as well as device reliability. This work presents an alternative approach whereby non-selectively grown Si/SiGe heterostructure system is used to improve device performance or to relax the technological challenge. SiGe is considered to be of great potential because of its promising properties and its compatibility with Si, the present mainstream material in microelectronics. The advantages of introducing strained SiGe in CMOS technology are examined through two types of device structure. A novel structure has been fabricated in which strained SiGe is incorporated in the source/drain of P-MOSFETs. Several advantages of the Si/SiGe source/drain P-MOSFETs over Si devices are experimentally, demonstrated for the first time. These include reduction in off-state leakage and punchthrough susceptibility, degradation of parasitic bipolar transistor (PBT) action, suppression of CMOS latchup and suppression of PBT-induced breakdown. The improvements due to the Si/SiGe heterojunction are supported by numerical simulations. The second device structure makes use of Si/SiGe heterostructure as a buried channel to enhance the hole mobility of P-MOSFETs. The increase in the hole mobility will benefit the circuit speed and device packing density. Novel fabrication processes have been developed to integrate non-selective Si/SiGe MBE layers into self-aligned PMOS and CMOS processes based on Si substrate. Low temperature processes have been employed including the use of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition oxide and plasma anodic oxide. Low field mobilities, μ 0 are extracted from the transfer characteristics, Id-Vg of SiGe channel P-MOSFETs with various Ge

  1. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  2. Electronic states at Si-SiO2 interface introduced by implantation of Si in thermal SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnitsky, A.; Poindexter, E.H.; Caplan, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Interface traps due to excess Si introduced into the Si-SiO 2 system by ion implantation are investigated. Implanted oxides are shown to have interface traps at or slightly above the Si conduction band edge with densities proportional to the density of off-stoichiometric Si at the Si-SiO 2 interface. Diluted oxygen annealing is shown to result in physical separation of interface traps and equilibrium substrate electrons, demonstrating that ''interface'' states are located within a 0.5 nm thick layer of SiO 2 . Possible charge trapping mechanisms are discussed and the effect of these traps on MOS transistor characteristics is described using a sheet charge model. (author)

  3. MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 2-D AND 3-D SiC/SiNC CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-23

    any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them...AFRL/RXCC 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4347 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER X0S7 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AFRL/RXCC...0.145-inch material.. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ceramic-matrix composites, SiC/SiNC, tensile, interlaminar shear, creep, stress rupture, elevated

  4. Reliability implications of defects in high temperature annealed Si/SiO2/Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D.; Wilson, I.H.; Xu, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature post-oxidation annealing of poly-Si/SiO 2 /Si structures such as metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors is known to result in enhanced radiation sensitivity, increased 1/f noise, and low field breakdown. The authors have studied the origins of these effects from a spectroscopic standpoint using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and atomic force microscopy. One result of high temperature annealing is the generation of three types of paramagnetic defect centers, two of which are associated with the oxide close to the Si/SiO 2 interface (oxygen-vacancy centers) and the third with the bulk Si substrate (oxygen-related donors). In all three cases, the origin of the defects may be attributed to out-diffusion of O from the SiO 2 network into the Si substrate with associated reduction of the oxide. The authors present a straightforward model for the interfacial region which assumes the driving force for O out-diffusion is the chemical potential difference of the O in the two phases (SiO 2 and the Si substrate). Experimental evidence is provided to show that enhanced hole trapping and interface-trap and border-trap generation in irradiated high-temperature annealed Si/SiO 2 /Si systems are all related either directly, or indirectly, to the presence of oxygen vacancies

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New Ruthenium Silicophosphate: RuP 3SiO 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Imoto, Hideo; Saito, Taro

    1996-01-01

    A new ruthenium silicophosphate RuP3SiO11was obtained and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the trigonal space groupR3cwitha= 8.253(3)Å,c= 39.317(4)Å,V= 2319(2)Å3,Z= 12,R= 0.029, andRW= 0.026. The structure is composed of RuO6, Si2O7, and P2O7units. The Si2O7unit shares the six oxygen atoms with six P2O7units, while the P2O7unit shares the six oxygen atoms with two Si2O7units and four RuO6octahedra. The anionic part forms an infinite three-dimensional network of silicophosphate. RuP3SiO11is isotypic with MoP3SiO11.

  6. Letter position coding across modalities: braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream.

  7. The influence of reading expertise in mirror-letter perception: Evidence from beginning and expert readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, María; Estévez, Adelina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The visual word recognition system recruits neuronal systems originally developed for object perception which are characterized by orientation insensitivity to mirror reversals. It has been proposed that during reading acquisition beginning readers have to “unlearn” this natural tolerance to mirror reversals in order to efficiently discriminate letters and words. Therefore, it is supposed that this unlearning process takes place in a gradual way and that reading expertise modulates mirror-letter discrimination. However, to date no supporting evidence for this has been obtained. We present data from an eye-movement study that investigated the degree of sensitivity to mirror-letters in a group of beginning readers and a group of expert readers. Participants had to decide which of the two strings presented on a screen corresponded to an auditorily presented word. Visual displays always included the correct target word and one distractor word. Results showed that those distractors that were the same as the target word except for the mirror lateralization of two internal letters attracted participants’ attention more than distractors created by replacement of two internal letters. Interestingly, the time course of the effects was found to be different for the two groups, with beginning readers showing a greater tolerance (decreased sensitivity) to mirror-letters than expert readers. Implications of these findings are discussed within the framework of preceding evidence showing how reading expertise modulates letter identification. PMID:24273596

  8. Strained Si/SiGe MOS transistor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pešić-Brđanin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new model of surfacechannel strained-Si/SiGe MOSFET based on the extension of non-quasi-static (NQS circuit model previously derived for bulk-Si devices. Basic equations of the NQS model have been modified to account for the new physical parameters of strained-Si and relaxed-SiGe layers. From the comparisons with measurements, it is shown that a modified NQS MOS including steady-state self heating can accurately predict DC characteristics of Strained Silicon MOSFETs.

  9. Re-Audit of the Contents of GP Referral letters to General Adult Community Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelola, Catherine; Jabbar, Farid

    2017-09-01

    The quality of information provided by referring general practitioners to secondary care mental health services are crucial elements in the effective management of patients. In order to establish effective communication, both primary and secondary care health professionals should contribute to planning and organising this process taking into account their different opinions and views. Anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect information on items that GPs and psychiatrist rated as most important items in GP referral letters to psychiatrists. The questionnaires were sent out electronically. Each item was scored using a rating scale where 0 was least important and 10 was most important. Items that scored 8 and above were agreed by all as the most important items. 76 GP letters were audited using a devised checklist of the identified most important items. Data was collected and analysed using a devised data collection tool. A re-audit was done 6months later. A response rate of 70% was obtained for both psychiatrists and GPs. Reasons for referral were described in almost all GP referral letters (95%). Only 24% referral letters had details about current physical health which improved to 59%. Concerns about risk were described in only 47% of letters and treatment provided by GP in 50% of letters. These improved in 79% and 71% of letters respectively in the re-audit. The involvement of professionals in devising a standardised approach for referral letters has improved communication in this re-audit between GPs and Psychiatrists. This is evident in the improvement in key aspects of the referral letters: past medical history, past psychiatric history, current physical health, treatment provided by GP. Efficient communication between GPs and psychiatrists improves the quality of health care for patients.

  10. A Study of the Effect of Letter Spacing on the Reading Speed of Young Readers with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Eve

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were two-fold: firstly, to establish a method of applying consistent letter spacing to documents using MS Word, and secondly, to investigate the effect of increased letter spacing on the reading speeds of readers with low vision. Tests on 14 readers with low vision showed that increased letter spacing benefited their reading…

  11. Increasing Word-Reading Speed in Poor Readers: No Additional Benefits of Explicit Letter-Cluster Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus, Eva; de Jong, Peter; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether explicit training of letter-clusters leads to more gains in word-reading speed than training of the separate letters of the same clusters. Ninety-nine poor reading second-grade children were randomly assigned to a cluster-training, a parallel letter-training, or a no-training condition. The cluster-training…

  12. An Invitation to between-Session Change: The Use of Therapeutic Letters in Couples and Family Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Nelson, Jill R.; Desmond, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic letters (i.e., brief therapeutic messages that are sent to clients between counseling sessions) have been used since the days of Freud and have been shown to have beneficial therapeutic impacts. This article describes the use of therapeutic letters in couples and family counseling. The use of three types of therapeutic letter (letters…

  13. Study of EEG during Sternberg Tasks with Different Direction of Arrangement for Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihoriuchi, Kenji; Nuruki, Atsuo; Matae, Tadashi; Kurono, Asutsugu; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    In previous study, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients with dementia and healthy subjects during Sternberg task. But, only one presentation method of Sternberg task was considered in previous study. Therefore, we examined whether the EEG was different in two different presentation methods wrote letters horizontally and wrote letters vertically in this study. We recorded EEG of six healthy subjects during Sternberg task using two different presentation methods. The result was not different in EEG topography of all subjects. In all subjects, correct rate increased in case of vertically arranged letters.

  14. Resource Letter MP-3: The Manhattan Project and Related Nuclear Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2016-10-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to the earlier Resource Letters MP-1 and MP-2, and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related research. Books, review papers, journal articles, videos, and websites are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime nuclear programs and related allied intelligence, the use of the bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki, technical papers of historical interest, postwar policy and technical developments, and educational materials. Together, these three Resource Letters describe nearly 400 sources of information on the Manhattan Project.

  15. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping; Sun, Ke; Noh, Sun Young; Kargar, Alireza; Tsai, Meng Lin; Huang, Ming Yi; Wang, Deli; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages

  16. Irradiation effect on Nite-SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, T.; Choi, Y.B.; Kohyama, A.; Ozawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC composites are significantly attractive materials for nuclear application in particular due to exceptional low radioactivity, excellent high temperature mechanical properties and chemical stability. Despite of the excellent potential of SiC/SiC composites, the prospect of industrialization has not been clear mainly due to the low productivity and the high material cost. Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method can produce the excellent SiC/SiC composites with highly crystalline and excellent mechanical properties. It has been reported that the high purity SiC/SiC composites reinforced with highly crystalline fibers and fabricated by CVI method is very stable to neutron irradiation. However the production cost is high and it is difficult to fabricate thick and dense composites by CVI method. The novel processing called Nano-powder Infiltration and Transient Eutectic Phase (NITE) Processing has been developed based on the liquid phase sintering (LPS) process modification. The NITE processing can achieve both the excellent material quality and the low processing cost. The productivity of the processing is also excellent, and various kinds of shape and size of SiC/SiC composites can be produced by the NITE processing. The NITE processing can form highly crystalline matrix, which is requirement for nuclear application. The objective of this work is to understand irradiation effect of the NITESiC/SiC composites. The SiC/SiC composites used were reinforced with high purity SiC fibers, Tyranno TM SA and fabricated by the NITE method. The NITE-SiC/SiC composite bars and reference monolithic SiC bars fabricated by CVI and NITE were irradiated at up to 1.0 dpa and 600-1000 deg. C at JMTR, Japan. Mechanical properties of non-irradiated and irradiated NITESiC/ SiC composites bars were evaluated by tensile tests. Monolithic SiC bars were evaluated by flexural tests. The fracture surface was examined by SEM. Ultimate

  17. Structure and magnetism in Co/X, Fe/Si, and Fe/(FeSi) multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael Ray

    Previous studies have shown that magnetic behavior in multilayers formed by repeating a bilayer unit comprised of a ferromagnetic layer and a non-magnetic spacer layer can be affected by small structural differences. For example, a macroscopic property such as giant magnetoresistance (GMR) is believed to depend significantly upon interfacial roughness. In this study, several complimentary structural probes were used to carefully characterize the structure of several sputtered multilayer systems-Co/Ag, Co/Cu, Co/Mo, Fe/Si, and Fe//[FeSi/]. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used to examine the long-range structural order of the multilayers perpendicular to the plane of the layers. Transmission electron diffraction (TED) studies were used to probe the long-range order parallel to the layer plane. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) studies were used to determine the average local structural environment of the ferromagnetic atoms. For the Co/X systems, a simple correlation between crystal structure and saturation magnetization is discovered for the Co/Mo system. For the Fe/X systems, direct evidence of an Fe-silicide is found for the /[FeSi/] spacer layer but not for the Si spacer layer. Additionally, differences were observed in the magnetic behavior between the Fe in the nominally pure Fe layer and the Fe contained in the /[FeSi/] spacer layers.

  18. Memory properties and charge effect study in Si nanocrystals by scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassani Franck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, isolated Si nanocrystal has been formed by dewetting process with a thin silicon dioxide layer on top. Scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy were used to study the memory properties and charge effect in the Si nanocrystal in ambient temperature. The retention time of trapped charges injected by different direct current (DC bias were evaluated and compared. By ramp process, strong hysteresis window was observed. The DC spectra curve shift direction and distance was observed differently for quantitative measurements. Holes or electrons can be separately injected into these Si-ncs and the capacitance changes caused by these trapped charges can be easily detected by scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy at the nanometer scale. This study is very useful for nanocrystal charge trap memory application.

  19. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  20. 76 FR 34811 - Notice of Renewal Charter and Filing Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Government Entities (ACT). The renewal charter was filed on une 3, 2011, with the Committee on Finance of the United States Senate, the ommittee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the...