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Sample records for lethal relationships chemical

  1. Chemical and radiation induced late dominant lethal effects in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favor, J.; Crenshaw, J.W. Jr.; Soares, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Although theoretically expected, experimental data to date have not shown dominant lethal expression to occur throughout the developmental period. Specifically, late post-implantation effects have not been demonstrated. The authors routinely use an experimental technique in which parental females mated to mutagenically treated males are allowed to give birth and wean their litter, and their uterine horns are then inspected for uterine scars indicative of live and dead embryos. In a number of experiments in which males were mutagenically treated with either chemicals or X-irradiation, a discrepancy was observed between the number of live embryos as determined by the scar technique and the number of live observed at birth, suggesting the possibility of embryonic losses at a late stage in development. Initial analyses showed that mutagenic treatment increased the percentage of these late losses. These differences were statistically significant in 2 of 3 analyses. Factors affecting statistical significance and an understanding of dominant lethal mutations are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Chemical relationship between Pinaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, G.J.; Genderen, H.H. van

    1980-01-01

    Fingerprints of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts of eleven pine species have been made by paper chromatography and HPLC. The results suggest a chemical relationship which agrees fairly well with those based on immunological and morphological characters but not always with the classification

  3. Experimental evaluation of the relationship between lethal or non-lethal virulence and transmission success in malaria parasite infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithiuthai S

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. Establishing the adaptive basis to parasite life history traits has important consequences for predicting parasite responses to public health interventions. In this study we examine the extent to which malaria parasites conform to the predicted adaptive trade-off between transmission and virulence, as defined by mortality. The majority of natural infections, however, result in sub-lethal virulent effects (e.g. anaemia and are often composed of many strains. Both sub-lethal effects and pathogen population structure have been theoretically shown to have important consequences for virulence evolution. Thus, we additionally examine the relationship between anaemia and transmission in single and mixed clone infections. Results Whereas there was a trade-off between transmission success and virulence as defined by host mortality, contradictory clone-specific patterns occurred when defining virulence by anaemia. A negative relationship between anaemia and transmission success was found for one of the parasite clones, whereas there was no relationship for the other. Notably the two parasite clones also differed in a transmission phenotype (gametocyte sex ratio that has previously been shown to respond adaptively to a changing blood environment. In addition, as predicted by evolutionary theory, mixed infections resulted in increased anaemia. The increased anaemia was, however, not correlated with any discernable parasite trait (e.g. parasite density or with increased transmission. Conclusions We found some evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is an adaptive basis correlating virulence (as defined by host mortality and transmission success in malaria parasites. This confirms the validity of applying evolutionary virulence theory to biomedical

  4. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Effect of exposure routes on the relationships of lethal toxicity to rats from oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong H; Long, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan Y; Peng, Zi Y; Sun, Yi N; Chen, Si W; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-11-01

    The lethal toxicity values (log 1/LD(50)) of 527 aliphatic and aromatic compounds in oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes were used to investigate the relationships of log 1/LD(50) from different exposure routes. Regression analysis shows that the log 1/LD(50) values are well correlated between intravenous and intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections. However, the correlations between oral and intravenous or intraperitoneal routes are relatively poor. Comparison of the average residuals indicates that intravenous injection is the most sensitive exposure route and oral administration is the least sensitive exposure route. This is attributed to the difference in kinetic process of toxicity testing. The toxic effect of a chemical can be similar or significantly different between exposure routes, depending on the absorption rates of chemicals into blood. Inclusion of hydrophobic parameter and fractions of ionic forms can improve the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes, but not between intraperitoneal and oral routes. This is due to the differences of absorption rate in different exposure environments from different routes. Several factors, such as experimental uncertainty, metabolism and toxic kinetics, can affect the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence in 25 juvenile murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, C R; Daniel, J; Joost, T F

    2000-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the relationship between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence in adolescent male homicide offenders and their victims. The study employed a retrospective review of criminal justice databases and medical examiner records for murders committed by 25 adolescent males incarcerated in the Commonwealth of Virginia juvenile correctional centers from February 1992 to July 1996. The perpetrator sample was 84% African American and 16% white. The average age at the time of the offense was 15.0 years (range = 13.0 to 17.7 years). The victims were 84% male, 60% African American and 32% white. The median victim age was 28.0 years (mean = 34.8, range = 17 months to 75 years). The results indicated that 52% of the murders were committed by juveniles with identified involvement in drug selling, and 28% of the murders were drug-related. Toxicology results indicated recent drug or alcohol use in 27% of the victims; while 74% of the perpetrators reported substance use, 35% indicating daily use. Using discriminant analysis, it was possible to accurately classify 86% of the drug-related murders with the variables of recent victim drug use and perpetrator substance use history. The results indicated that adolescent males involved in the sale and distribution of illegal drugs comprised a significant percentage of those incarcerated for murder. Recent victim drug use and perpetrator substance use may be important variables in identifying drug-related juvenile homicides. These results underscore the link between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence.

  7. Functional diversity of non-lethal effects, chemical camouflage, and variation in fish avoidance in colonizing beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetarits, William J; Pintar, Matthew R

    2016-12-01

    Predators play an extremely important role in natural communities. In freshwater systems, fish can dominate sorting both at the colonization and post-colonization stage. Specifically, for many colonizing species, fish can have non-lethal, direct effects that exceed the lethal direct effects of predation. Functionally diverse fish species with a range of predatory capabilities have previously been observed to elicit functionally equivalent responses on oviposition in tree frogs. We tested this hypothesis of functional equivalence of non-lethal effects for four predatory fish species, using naturally colonizing populations of aquatic beetles. Among taxa other than mosquitoes, and with the exception of the chemically camouflaged pirate perch, Aphredoderus sayanus, we provide the first evidence of variation in colonization or oviposition responses to different fish species. Focusing on total abundance, Fundulus chrysotus, a gape-limited, surface-feeding fish, elicited unique responses among colonizing Hydrophilidae, with the exception of the smallest and most abundant taxa, Paracymus, while Dytiscidae responded similarly to all avoided fish. Neither family responded to A. sayanus. Analysis of species richness and multivariate characterization of the beetle assemblages for the four fish species and controls revealed additional variation among the three avoided species and confirmed that chemical camouflage in A. sayanus results in assemblages essentially identical to fishless controls. The origin of this variation in beetle responses to different fish is unknown, but may involve variation in cue sensitivity, different behavioral algorithms, or differential responses to species-specific fish cues. The identity of fish species occupying aquatic habitats is crucial to understanding community structure, as varying strengths of lethal and non-lethal effects, as well as their interaction, create complex landscapes of predator effects and challenge the notion of functional

  8. The role of cell progression in potentiation of radiation lethality by hyperthermia and by chemical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, B.; Lange, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Aerobic stationary dense cultures of HeLa cells show very little potentiation of radiation lethality when irradiated cells are incubated with procaine HCl for two hours at 37 0 C, but if cells are diluted in fresh medium after irradiation and incubated for two hours with procaine, a high degree of radiopotentiation is obtained. This effect is not cell density dependent, since the addition of heavily irradiated cells to achieve comparable densities did not diminish lethality in the diluted culture. Procaine radiopotentiation at 37 0 C could be prevented by simultaneous administration with procaine of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Since cycloheximide inhibits cell cycle progression (with block points in G1 and G2) progression is strongly implicated in the phenomenon of radiopotentiation. Cell progression may be also involved in hyperthermic radiopotentiation: adding cycloheximide during heating of irradiated cells at 41 0 C for two hours increased survival. This effect of cycloheximide is even more pronounced in cells also treated with procaine during heating, thus diminishing the interaction of heat and procaine in radiopotentiation. Data pertaining to cell progression in synchronous cultures of HeLa cells under various treatment conditions are presented and discussed

  9. Lethal and mutagenic effects of radiation and chemicals on cultured fish cells derived the erythrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Zoology)

    1983-01-01

    GEM 199 cells derived from an eryhtrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which had a high plating efficiency, were used to investigate the lethal and mutational effects of radiations (UV and ..gamma..-rays) and chemicals (4NQO and MNNG). The cells were more resistant to rays than mammalian cells and CAF-MM1 cells derived from the normal fin tissue of goldfish. They were also more resistant to UV-irradiation than CAF-MM1 cells. Photoreactivation after UV-irradiation was present in GEM 199 cells for both survival and mutation. The initial shoulder of the survival curve of UV-irradiated cells was reduced greatly by caffeine, suggesting a high activity of the post-replication repair. The spontaneous mutation frequency to ouabain resistance was 1-5x10/sup -6/ clones per viable cell. MNNG was effective in inducing ouabain-resistant mutation, while 4NQO and ..gamma..-rays did not induce mutation.

  10. Hyperthermic radiosensitization of synchronous Chinese hamster cells: relationship between lethality and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, W.C.; Sapareto, S.A.; Betten, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Synchronous Chinese hamster cells in vitro were obtained by mitotic selection. The cells were heated at 45.5 0 C for 4 min in mitosis, 11 min in G 1 , or 7 min in S sphase and then x-irradiated immediately thereafter. Colony survival from heat alone was 0.30 to 0.45, and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by heat was 0.00, 0.14, or 0.97 for heat treatments during M, G 1 , or S, respectively. As shown previously, lethality from hyperthermia alone is due to chromosomal aberrations only when the cells are heated during S phase. The log survival (D 0 /sup approximately/ = 80 rad) and aberration frequency curves for cells irradiated during mitosis were linear, and the only effect of hyperthermia was to shift the curves in accord with the effect from heat alone. Thus, hyperthermia did not radiosensitize the mitotic cells. The cells irradiated in G 1 were more resistant (D 0 /sup approximately/ = 100 rad) than those irradiated in mitosis, and the survival and aberration frequency curves both had shoulders. The primary effect of hyperthermia was to greatly reduce the shoulders of the curves and to increase the slopes by about 23%. The cells irradiated in S were the most resistant (D 0 /sup approximately/ = 140 rad), and the survival and aberration frequency curves both had large shoulders. For both end points of lethality and chromosomal aberrations, heat selectively radiosensitized S-phase cells relative to G 1 cells by removing most of the shoulder and increasing the slope by about 45%. For cells treated in G 1 or S, the increase in radiosensitization following hyperthermia can be accounted for by an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations

  11. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at pchemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  12. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  13. Relationship of DNA repair and chromosome aberrations to potentially lethal damage repair in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Nagasawa, H.; Little, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    By the alkaline elution technique, the repair of x-ray-induced DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links was investigated in stationary phase, contact-inhibited mouse cells. During the first hour of repair, approximately 90% of x-ray induced single strand breaks were rejoined whereas most of the remaining breaks were rejoined more slowly during the next 5 h. The number of residual non-rejoined single strand breaks was approximately proportional to the x-ray dose at early repair times. DNA-protein cross-links were removed at a slower rate - T 1/2 approximately 10 to 12 h. Cells were subcultured at low density at various times after irradiation and scored for colony survival, and chromosome aberrations in the first mitosis after sub-culture. Both cell lethality and the frequency of chromosome aberrations decreased during the first several hours of repair, reaching a minimum level by 6 h; this decrease correlated temporally with the repair of the slowly rejoining DNA strand breaks. The possible relationship of DNA repair to changes in survival and chromosome aberrations is discussed

  14. Relationship between chromosomal aberration of germ cells and dominant lethal mutation in male mice after low dosage of X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingdong, Wang; Baochen, Yang; Yuke, Jin [Bethune (N.) Medical Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Dept. of Gentics

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between chromosomal aberration adn dominant mutation in spermatocytes of late pachytene phase in male mice after a single X-irridiation was reported. It was found that the frequency of aberrant cells was correlative to the rate of fetal death, the latter was being about 2.5 times as high as the former. The frequency of dominant lethal mutation induced by X-irradiation is 2.1995x10{sup -3} gamete {center dot} 10 mGy.

  15. Lethal Epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis or nosebleed refers to bleeding from the nostrils, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. Occasional cases may present with torrential lethal hemorrhage. Three cases are reported to demonstrate particular features: Case 1: A 51-year-old woman with lethal epistaxis with no obvious bleeding source; Case 2: A 77-year-old man with treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma who died from epistaxis arising from a markedly neovascularized tumor bed; Case 3: A 2-year-old boy with hemophilia B who died from epistaxis with airway obstruction in addition to gastrointestinal bleeding. Epistaxis may be associated with trauma, tumors, vascular malformations, bleeding diatheses, infections, pregnancy, endometriosis, and a variety of different drugs. Careful dissection of the nasal cavity is required to locate the site of hemorrhage and to identify any predisposing conditions. This may be guided by postmortem computerized tomographic angiography (PCTA). Despite careful dissection, however, a source of bleeding may never be identified. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Differential response of human and rodent cell lines to chemical inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.; Ueno, A.M.; Dahlberg, W.K.

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the effects of several classes of metabolic inhibitors on the repair of potentially lethal damage in density-inhibited cultures of two rodent and two human cell systems which differ in their growth characteristics. Aphidicolin, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) and hydroxyurea showed no effect on PLD repair, whereas the effects of 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) and 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) were cell line dependent. For example, 3-AB suppressed PLD repair almost completely in CHO cells, but showed no inhibitory effects in human diploid fibroblasts. These results indicate that inhibitors of DNA replication and poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis are not efficient inhibitors of cellular recovery in irradiated cells and, moreover, that such effects may be cell line dependent.

  17. Protection of melanized Cryptococcus neoformans from lethal dose gamma irradiation involves changes in melanin's chemical structure and paramagnetism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelahad Khajo

    Full Text Available Certain fungi thrive in highly radioactive environments including the defunct Chernobyl nuclear reactor. Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans, which uses L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA to produce melanin, was used here to investigate how gamma radiation under aqueous aerobic conditions affects the properties of melanin, with the aim of gaining insight into its radioprotective role. Exposure of melanized fungal cell in aqueous suspensions to doses of γ-radiation capable of killing 50 to 80% of the cells did not lead to a detectable loss of melanin integrity according to EPR spectra of melanin radicals. Moreover, upon UV-visible (Xe-lamp illumination of melanized cells, the increase in radical population was unchanged after γ-irradiation. Gamma-irradiation of frozen cell suspensions and storage of samples for several days at 77 K however, produced melanin modification noted by a reduced radical population and reduced photoresponse. More direct evidence for structural modification of melanin came from the detection of soluble products with absorbance maxima near 260 nm in supernatants collected after γ-irradiation of cells and cell-free melanin. These products, which include thiobarbituric acid (TBA-reactive aldehydes, were also generated by Fenton reagent treatment of cells and cell-free melanin. In an assay of melanin integrity based on the metal (Bi(+3 binding capacity of cells, no detectable loss in binding was detected after γ-irradiation. Our results show that melanin in C. neoformans cells is susceptible to some damage by hydroxyl radical formed in lethal radioactive aqueous environments and serves a protective role in melanized fungi that involves sacrificial breakdown.

  18. The effects of 'cell age' upon the lethal effects of physical and chemical mutagens in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Yeast cultures progressing from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth showed changes in cell sensitivity to physical agents such as UV light, heat shock at 52 0 C and the chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate, nitrous acid and mitomycin C. Exponential phase cells showed maximum resistance to heat shock and the three chemicals. The increased resistance of exponential phase cells to UV light was shown to be dependent upon the functional integrity of the RAD 50 gene. Treatment of growing yeast cultures with radioactively labelled ethyl methane sulphonate indicated the preferential uptake of radioactivity during the sensitive exponential stage of growth. The results indicated that the differential uptake of the chemical mutagens was responsible for at least a fraction of the variations in cell sensitivity observed in yeast cultures at different phases of growth. (orig.) [de

  19. Redox biotransformation and delivery of anthracycline anticancer antibiotics: How interpretable structure-activity relationships of lethality using electrophilicity and the London formula for dispersion interaction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Siu-Kwong

    2017-03-30

    Quantum chemical methods and molecular mechanics approaches face a lot of challenges in drug metabolism study because of their either insufficient accuracy or huge computational cost, or lack of clear molecular level pictures for building computational models. Low-cost QSAR methods can often be carried out even though molecular level pictures are not well defined; however, they show difficulty in identifying the mechanisms of drug metabolism and delineating the effects of chemical structures on drug toxicity because a certain amount of molecular descriptors are difficult to be interpreted. In order to make a breakthrough, it was proposed that mechanistically interpretable molecular descriptors were used to correlate with biological activity to establish structure-activity plots. The mechanistically interpretable molecular descriptors used in this study include electrophilicity and the mathematical function in the London formula for dispersion interaction, and they were calculated using quantum chemical methods. The biological activity is the lethality of anthracycline anticancer antibiotics denoted as log LD50, which were obtained by intraperitoneal injection into mice. The results reveal that the plots for electrophilicity, which can be interpreted as redox reactivity of anthracyclines, can describe oxidative degradation for detoxification and reductive bioactivation for toxicity induction. The plots for the dispersion interaction function, which represent the attraction between anthracyclines and biomolecules, can describe efflux from and influx into target cells of toxicity. The plots can also identify three structural scaffolds of anthracyclines that have different metabolic pathways, resulting in their different toxicity behavior. This structure-dependent toxicity behavior revealed in the plots can provide perspectives on design of anthracycline anticancer antibiotics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  1. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weilacher, Lester A

    2003-01-01

    Little more than a month after terrorists took control of four passenger aircraft in the United States and unleashed the horror of 9/11, 50 Chechen terrorists armed with automatic weapons and carrying...

  2. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International...

  4. Relationship Between the Dose-Response Curves for Lethality and Severe Effects for Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sommerville, Douglas R

    2005-01-01

    ... (involving acute inhalation exposures to G-type nerve agents) were reviewed and analyzed. For all three studies, slightly more than one standard deviation separated an effective concentration (ECxx...

  5. RBE-LET relationships for different types of lethal radiation damage in mammalian cells: comparison with DNA dsb and an interpretation of differences in radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE), as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), is evaluated for different types of damage contributing to mammalian cell reproductive death. Survival curves are analysed assuming a linear-quadratic dose dependence of lethal lesions. The linear term represents

  6. Modeling response of species to microcontaminants: comparative ecotoxicology by (sub)lethal body burdens as a function of species size and partition ratio of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A J

    1995-11-01

    A model was designed and calibrated with accumulation data to calculate the internal concentrations of microcontaminants in organisms as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the partition ratio of the compound, and the size of the taxon concerned. The model was applied to calculate the lethal and sublethal body burdens of several priority compounds and some major taxa. Estimations were generally confirmed at the order of magnitude level by measured residues and applied doses if available. According to the estimations, most priority compounds chosen were critical for most taxa above internal concentrations of 0.1 mmol.kg-1 wet wt. Trichloromethane, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were lethal above this level only, whereas other organic microcontaminants affected at least some taxa at lower body burdens. The log(Kow) of the organic compounds ranged from 2.0 to 7.0. Keeping in mind that bioconcentration and -magnification ratios for metals may be quite variable, the lowest critical residues estimated were just below the value of 0.1 mmol.kg-1 wet wt. Here, external concentrations encountered in natural habitats seem to be a promising tool for predictive comparative ecotoxicology. The critical body burdens for plants and invertebrates may have been overestimated due to uncertainty about the parameters. Among the different taxa, however, the fish families chosen (Salmonidae and Cyprinidae) seem to be most sensitive to most compounds. Internal response concentrations of the herbicide atrazine were the lowest in micro- and macrophytes, whereas parathion affected invertebrates at low levels. The database that provided the external response concentrations was also consulted to estimate so-called extrapolation or safety factors. On average, long-term no effect concentrations in water are estimated to be about 10-30 times below short-term median lethal levels. In general, short

  7. An evaluation of chemical photoreactivity and the relationship to phototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Mark H; Smith, Mark D; Kurali, Edit; Kleinpeter, Sarah; Jiang, Kaina; Zhang, Yongxia; Kennedy-Gabb, Sonya A; Lynch, Anthony M; Geddes, Chris D

    2010-11-01

    The existing regulatory guidance for photosafety testing of new drug products states that studies are warranted for those chemicals that both absorb light in the range of 290-700 nm, and that are either applied locally/topically, or "reach" (EMEA)/"significantly partition" (FDA) to the skin or eyes. The initial in vitro study recommended for the assessment of phototoxic potential is the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Assay. The current study was undertaken to establish superior triggers for the initiation of biological photosafety testing. In this study, photophysical and photochemical parameters for 40 drug or drug-like molecules were studied. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and a fivefold cross-validation PLS algorithm were used to evaluate the relationship between subsets of photophysical and photochemical parameters with the 3T3 NRU PIF/MPE (Photo Irritation Factor/Mean Photo Effect) results. The parameters most indicative of a 3T3 NRU positive PIF or MPE score were the extent of degradation in solution, the quantum yield of formation of singlet oxygen and the relative formation of superoxide anion. The results demonstrate that while absorption of light is critical to the induction of a light-induced process, it is the resultant events that may be used to predict the 3T3 NRU assay result. It is therefore proposed that the trigger for photosafety testing be revised to include a molecular basis for photoreactivity. From this limited investigation, estimated thresholds leading to 3T3 NRU positive results due to photodegradation, formation of singlet oxygen quantum yield or a relative superoxide anion formation value are proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between bacterial density and chemical composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    Key words: Bacterial density, chemical composition, oxidation pond, sewage, tropics. INTRODUCTION ... pond for about two weeks during which algae, bacteria and other organisms act ..... Chloride can serve as nutrient for micro- organisms ...

  9. The distribution of and complementation relationships between spontaneous X-linked recessive lethal mutations recovered from crossing long-term laboratory stocks of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalet, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster males from a wild-type laboratory stock, were mated with virgin females of the M-6 stock, and 149 spontaneous independent non-mosaically transmitted, as well as 8 incidentally detected, mosaically transmitted, X-linked recessive lethal mutations were recovered from 95 704 F 2 cultures. 152 mutations were mapped over the entire length of the X-chromosome by complementation and/or crossover tests. Although there were far too few spontaneous mutations to make a meaningful comparison of relative mutability on a locus-by-locus basis, those loci displaying a relatively higher X-ray mutability, when taken as a group, tend to display a relatively higher spontaneous mutability, and those loci displaying a relatively lower X-ray mutability, when taken as a group, tend to display a relatively lower spontaneous mutability. (Auth.)

  10. Radiation and chemically induced potentially lethal lesions in noncycling mammalian cells: recovery analysis in terms of x-ray- and ultraviolet-like-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery from and fixation of potentially lethal damage after exposure of Chinese hamster cells to uv and to x irradiation were investigated, as was recovery after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Recovery after uv radiation has a T/sub 1 / 2 / of about 20 hr; the fraction of cells able to undergo recovery depends upon nutritional factors both before and after exposure. After x irradiation, recovery proceeds with a T/sub 1 / 2 / of approximately 2 hr and is much less influenced by nutritional factors. Fixation after serum stimulation has a T/sub 1 / 2 / of 3 to 4 hr in uv-irradiated cells, a T/sub 1 / 2 / of 30 min in x-irradiated cells. Recovery kinetics after nitrogen mustard and bleomycin exposures mimic those for x-ray exposure; after methyl methane sulfonate the kinetics are mainly uv-like, though with an x-ray-like component. Recovery by cells with BUdR-substituted DNA and irradiated with visible light is primarily x-ray-like, though with a uv-like component. There is no recovery by cells exposed to adriamycin or to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

  11. A corpus for plant-chemical relationships in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjun; Kim, Baeksoo; Cho, Hyejin; Lee, Doheon; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-09-20

    Plants are natural products that humans consume in various ways including food and medicine. They have a long empirical history of treating diseases with relatively few side effects. Based on these strengths, many studies have been performed to verify the effectiveness of plants in treating diseases. It is crucial to understand the chemicals contained in plants because these chemicals can regulate activities of proteins that are key factors in causing diseases. With the accumulation of a large volume of biomedical literature in various databases such as PubMed, it is possible to automatically extract relationships between plants and chemicals in a large-scale way if we apply a text mining approach. A cornerstone of achieving this task is a corpus of relationships between plants and chemicals. In this study, we first constructed a corpus for plant and chemical entities and for the relationships between them. The corpus contains 267 plant entities, 475 chemical entities, and 1,007 plant-chemical relationships (550 and 457 positive and negative relationships, respectively), which are drawn from 377 sentences in 245 PubMed abstracts. Inter-annotator agreement scores for the corpus among three annotators were measured. The simple percent agreement scores for entities and trigger words for the relationships were 99.6 and 94.8 %, respectively, and the overall kappa score for the classification of positive and negative relationships was 79.8 %. We also developed a rule-based model to automatically extract such plant-chemical relationships. When we evaluated the rule-based model using the corpus and randomly selected biomedical articles, overall F-scores of 68.0 and 61.8 % were achieved, respectively. We expect that the corpus for plant-chemical relationships will be a useful resource for enhancing plant research. The corpus is available at http://combio.gist.ac.kr/plantchemicalcorpus .

  12. [Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

    2013-01-01

    The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented

  13. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  14. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD 50 ]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD 50 ) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD 50 and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD 50 s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD 50 for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction

  15. Strong lethality and teratogenicity of strobilurins on Xenopus tropicalis embryos: Basing on ten agricultural fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Mengyun; Yang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huahong; Zhou, Junliang; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the median teratogenic concentrations (TC50s) were determined in line with actual exposure concentrations. These fungicides except two triazoles showed obvious lethal effects on embryos; however LC50s of four strobilurins were the lowest and in the range of 6.81–196.59 μg/L. Strobilurins, SDHIs and fludioxonil induced severe malformations in embryos. Among the ten fungicides, the lowest TC50s were observed for four strobilurins in the range of 0.61–84.13 μg/L. The teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and consistent phenotypes mainly including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fins. The findings indicate that the developmental toxicity of currently-used fungicides involved with ecologic risks on amphibians. Especially strobilurins are highly toxic to amphibian embryos at μg/L level, which is close to environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Effects of ten agricultural fungicides were tested on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. • Strobilurin fungicides showed strong lethal and teratogenic effects on embryos. • Lowest LC50 and TC50 were observed for strobilurins in ten fungicides. • μg/L level of toxic concentrations for strobilurins was environmentally relevant. • Teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and main phenotypes. - Strobilurins induced strong lethality and teratogenicity on Xenopus

  16. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  17. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  18. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  19. Exploring sets of molecules from patents and relationships to other active compounds in chemical space networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimoto, Ryo; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Patents from medicinal chemistry represent a rich source of novel compounds and activity data that appear only infrequently in the scientific literature. Moreover, patent information provides a primary focal point for drug discovery. Accordingly, text mining and image extraction approaches have become hot topics in patent analysis and repositories of patent data are being established. In this work, we have generated network representations using alternative similarity measures to systematically compare molecules from patents with other bioactive compounds, visualize similarity relationships, explore the chemical neighbourhood of patent molecules, and identify closely related compounds with different activities. The design of network representations that combine patent molecules and other bioactive compounds and view patent information in the context of current bioactive chemical space aids in the analysis of patents and further extends the use of molecular networks to explore structure-activity relationships.

  20. Efficient chemical-disease identification and relationship extraction using Wikipedia to improve recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel M; O'Boyle, Noel M; Sayle, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the adverse effects of chemicals is important in biomedical research and healthcare. Text mining can allow timely and low-cost extraction of this knowledge from the biomedical literature. We extended our text mining solution, LeadMine, to identify diseases and chemical-induced disease relationships (CIDs). LeadMine is a dictionary/grammar-based entity recognizer and was used to recognize and normalize both chemicals and diseases to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) IDs. The disease lexicon was obtained from three sources: MeSH, the Disease Ontology and Wikipedia. The Wikipedia dictionary was derived from pages with a disease/symptom box, or those where the page title appeared in the lexicon. Composite entities (e.g. heart and lung disease) were detected and mapped to their composite MeSH IDs. For CIDs, we developed a simple pattern-based system to find relationships within the same sentence. Our system was evaluated in the BioCreative V Chemical-Disease Relation task and achieved very good results for both disease concept ID recognition (F1-score: 86.12%) and CIDs (F1-score: 52.20%) on the test set. As our system was over an order of magnitude faster than other solutions evaluated on the task, we were able to apply the same system to the entirety of MEDLINE allowing us to extract a collection of over 250 000 distinct CIDs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Non-Lethal Weaponry: A Framework for Future Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    community, but was widely popularized by John Naisbitt in his 1982 work, Megatrends . In short, it asserts that much may be learned about a dynamic, but...Notes 1 John Naisbitt, Megatrends : Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives (New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc., 1982), 3-5. 2 Robert J. Bunker...lethals by opponents of biological and chemical weapons. The use of chemical agents…is seen as a Trojan Horse to circumvent the Chemical Weapons

  2. Relationships between chemical structure, mechanical properties and materials processing in nanopatterned organosilicate fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of nanoscale size effects to create new nanostructured materials necessitates the development of an understanding of relationships between molecular structure, physical properties and material processing at the nanoscale. Numerous metrologies capable of thermal, mechanical, and electrical characterization at the nanoscale have been demonstrated over the past two decades. However, the ability to perform nanoscale molecular/chemical structure characterization has only been recently demonstrated with the advent of atomic-force-microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR and related techniques. Therefore, we have combined measurements of chemical structures with AFM-IR and of mechanical properties with contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM to investigate the fabrication of 20–500 nm wide fin structures in a nanoporous organosilicate material. We show that by combining these two techniques, one can clearly observe variations of chemical structure and mechanical properties that correlate with the fabrication process and the feature size of the organosilicate fins. Specifically, we have observed an inverse correlation between the concentration of terminal organic groups and the stiffness of nanopatterned organosilicate fins. The selective removal of the organic component during etching results in a stiffness increase and reinsertion via chemical silylation results in a stiffness decrease. Examination of this effect as a function of fin width indicates that the loss of terminal organic groups and stiffness increase occur primarily at the exposed surfaces of the fins over a length scale of 10–20 nm. While the observed structure–property relationships are specific to organosilicates, we believe the combined demonstration of AFM-IR with CR-AFM should pave the way for a similar nanoscale characterization of other materials where the understanding of such relationships is essential.

  3. A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, Undine; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the association of contaminants with both particulate and dissolved organic matter is critical in determining the fate and bioavailability of chemicals in environmental risk assessment. To date, the association of a contaminant to particulate organic matter is considered in many multimedia transport models, but the effect of dissolved organic matter is typically ignored due to a lack of either reliable models or experimental data. The partition coefficient to dissolved organic carbon (K(DOC)) may be used to estimate the fraction of a contaminant that is associated with dissolved organic matter. Models relating K(DOC) to the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have not been successful for many types of dissolved organic carbon in the environment. Instead, linear solvation energy relationships are proposed to model the association of chemicals with dissolved organic matter. However, more chemically diverse K(DOC) data are needed to produce a more robust model. For humic acid dissolved organic carbon, the linear solvation energy relationship predicts log K(DOC) with a root mean square error of 0.43. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  5. Linear solvation energy relationships for toxicity of selected organic chemicals to Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R.M.; Hickey, James P.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, more than 300 contaminants have been identified in fish, other biota, water, and sediment. Current hazard assessment of these chemicals by the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes is based on their toxicity, occurrence in the environment, and source. Although scientists at the Center have tested over 70 chemicals with the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the number of experimental data needed to screen the huge array of chemicals in the Great Lakes exceeds the practical capabilities of conducting bioassays. This limitation can be partly circumvented, however, by using mathematical models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to provide rapid, inexpensive estimates of toxicity. Many properties of chemicals, including toxicity, bioaccumulation and water solubility are well correlated and can be predicted by equations of the generalized linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The equation we used to model solute toxicity is Toxicity = constant + mVI/100 + s (π* + dδ) + bβm + aαm where VI = intrinsic (Van der Waals) molar volume; π* = molecular dipolarity/polarizability; δ = polarizability 'correction term'; βm = solute hydrogen bond acceptor basicity; and αm = solute hydrogen bond donor acidity. The subscript m designates solute monomer values for α and β. We applied the LSER model to 48-h acute toxicity data (measured as immobilization) for six classes of chemicals detected in Great Lakes fish. The following regression was obtained for Daphnia pulex (concentration = μM): log EC50 = 4.86 - 4.35 VI/100; N = 38, r2 = 0.867, sd = 0.403 We also used the LSER modeling approach to analyze to a large published data set of 24-h acute toxicity for Daphnia magna; the following regression resulted, for eight classes of compounds (concentration = mM): log EC50 = 3.88 - 4.52 VI/100 - 1.62 π* + 1.66 βm - 0.916 αm; N = 62, r2 = 0.859, sd = 0.375 In addition we developed computer software that identifies

  6. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  7. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  8. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  9. Prymnesium parvum revisited: Relationship between allelopathy, ichthyotoxicity, and chemical profiles in 5 strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossom, Hannah E., E-mail: hblossom@bio.ku.dk [Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør (Denmark); Rasmussen, Silas A. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, Building 221, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Nikolaj G. [Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør (Denmark); Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Kristian F. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, Building 221, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Per J. [Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør (Denmark)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Five strains of P. parvum were tested for toxicity towards rainbow trout and microalgae. • Toxicity towards microalgae was not correlated to toxicity towards fish. • A microalgal bioassay cannot be used as a reliable proxy for ichthyotoxicity. • Concentrations of GATs were low and not correlated to effects on fish or on algae. • P. parvum does not produce oleamide based on {sup 13}C labeling and extraction in glass. - Abstract: Bioassay-guided discovery of ichthyotoxic algal compounds using in vivo fish assays is labor intensive, costly, and highly regulated. Since the mode of action of most known algal-mediated fish-killing toxins is damage to the cell membranes in the gills, various types of cell-based bioassays are often used for bioassay guided purification of new ichthyotoxins. Here we tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is related to ichthyotoxicity and thus that a microalgal bioassay can be used as a proxy for ichthyotoxicity by comparing the toxicity of five strains of Prymnesium parvum toward rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, 10 g) and the microalga Teleaulax acuta. No relationship between median effective concentrations (EC{sub 50}s) on fish and median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50}s) on algae was observed in the 5 strains showing that a microalgal bioassay cannot be used as a proxy for ichthyotoxicity. Fish were more sensitive to P. parvum with EC{sub 50}s ranging from 6 × 10{sup 3} to 40 × 10{sup 3} cells ml{sup −1}, compared to the test alga where LC{sub 50}s ranged from 30 × 10{sup 3} to nearly non-toxic at 500 × 10{sup 3} cells ml{sup −1}. In addition, the cellular concentrations of two recently suggested ichthyotoxins produced by P. parvum, the “golden algae toxins”, GAT 512 and a novel GAT 510, did not show any relationship to either ichthyotoxicity or allelopathy, and are not the biologically relevant toxins, but are simply lipids found in algal chloroplasts. Finally, we demonstrate that the recently

  10. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq...

  11. Non-Lethal Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Non-Lethal Weapons FAQs Active Denial System FAQs Human Electro -Muscular Incapacitation FAQs Related Links Business Opportunities Contact JNLWD Congressional Engagement , Wednesday, Sept 20, 2017. The Active Denial System, blunt-impact munitions, dazzling lasers, LRAD 100X

  12. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  13. Assessing dose-response relationships for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): a focus on non-monotonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-05-15

    The fundamental principle in regulatory toxicology is that all chemicals are toxic and that the severity of effect is proportional to the exposure level. An ancillary assumption is that there are no effects at exposures below the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), either because no effects exist or because they are not statistically resolvable, implying that they would not be adverse. Chemicals that interfere with hormones violate these principles in two important ways: dose-response relationships can be non-monotonic, which have been reported in hundreds of studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); and effects are often observed below the LOAEL, including all environmental epidemiological studies examining EDCs. In recognition of the importance of this issue, Lagarde et al. have published the first proposal to qualitatively assess non-monotonic dose response (NMDR) relationships for use in risk assessments. Their proposal represents a significant step forward in the evaluation of complex datasets for use in risk assessments. Here, we comment on three elements of the Lagarde proposal that we feel need to be assessed more critically and present our arguments: 1) the use of Klimisch scores to evaluate study quality, 2) the concept of evaluating study quality without topical experts' knowledge and opinions, and 3) the requirement of establishing the biological plausibility of an NMDR before consideration for use in risk assessment. We present evidence-based logical arguments that 1) the use of the Klimisch score should be abandoned for assessing study quality; 2) evaluating study quality requires experts in the specific field; and 3) an understanding of mechanisms should not be required to accept observable, statistically valid phenomena. It is our hope to contribute to the important and ongoing debate about the impact of NMDRs on risk assessment with positive suggestions.

  14. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora. The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1 TSS (25 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1 TSS (83 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  15. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  16. Frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations in young female mice induced by low dose γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Suyan; Zhang Chaoyang; Dai Lianlian; Gao Changwen

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between aneuploidy, dominant lethal mutations and doses in young feral mice induced by low dose γ-rays was examined. The results suggest that the frequencies of aneuploidy of embryos increased at 0.15 Gy, but increases at over 0.50 Gy after irradiation in groups. The frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations increased with increasing doses and fitted linear relationship. This dose-response relationship of trisomic was not significant. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations induced by 60 Co γ irradiation is 5.59%. The effect of dominant lethal mutation is higher than that of the aneuploidy

  17. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  18. A multivariate model of stakeholder preference for lethal cat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Jacobson, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n=1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (pstakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management.

  19. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  20. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  1. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship between Perceived Sleep Quality, Polysomnographic Measures and Depressive Symptoms in Chemically-Injured Veterans: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moshkani Farahani, Davood; Tavallaie, Abbas; Vahedi, Ensieh; Rezaiemaram, Peyman; Naderi, Zohreh; Talaie, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep complaints are common among Iranian chemically-injured veterans. The growing body of research has investigated (in) equalities between such subjective complaints and objective sleep records. Moreover, sleep complaints are associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, also, have been frequently reported in chemically-injured veterans. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between perceived sleep quality, polysomnographic meas...

  3. The changing employment relationship in the chemical industry : the role of the employment- and psychological contract / Elsabé Keyser.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyser, Elsabé

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the employment relationship in the chemical industry in South Africa and organisational change within it is crucial to the understanding of the changing employment and psychological contract within this industry. This study focused on the employment- and psychological contracts, as well as employees ' work-outcomes (organisational commitment, job insecurity, job performance and intention to quit). Employees from the chemical industry were targeted and a cross-sectional survey...

  4. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting allergic contact dermatitis: a hierarchical structure activity relationship (SAR) approach to chemical classification using topological and quantum chemical descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.

    2008-06-01

    A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.

  6. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-02-01

    More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. THE RESEARCH PROJECTS THROUGH UNIVERSITY-BUSINESS RELATIONSHIP IN THE CONTINUOUS FORMATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Niurka Concepción Toledo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development requires the establishment of strategic alliances of society to higher education. The university, based on the benefits of deep multiplier effect, has the ability and the duty to manage knowledge and transferring scientific results obtained in its substantive processes: teaching, scientific research and university extension to the productive context. In this paper the experience developed by Chemical Engineering Department of Central University “Marta Abreu” of Las Villas in which the scientific community in the industry of sugar cane is prepared to manage knowledge through university- business relationship is exposed. For this effort, an innovative process focused on the execution of research projects from scientific and technological demands set by the sugar factory "Antonio Sanchez" Aguada de Pasajeros develops. In the development of the planned actions it will be attended teacher-researchers, specialists and managers of the company and the incorporation of students in the race for the exercise of labor practice, innovative aspect of its formation, which consolidates professional preparation. The experience showed the potential offered by the connection of university science with industry through the establishment of innovative processes in knowledge management to ensure greater relevance of university substantive processes and the immediate incorporation of scientific results to the productive sector as the supreme goal of this activity.

  8. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  9. Relationship between chemical composition and biological function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide: effect on human neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Fomsgaard, A; Conrad, R S

    1991-01-01

    There are conflicting data on the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the function of human neutrophils. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between chemical composition and the modulatory effect of LPS on human neutrophil function. LPS was extracted from five...

  10. Quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical functional use and weight fractions in consumer articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical functional use -- the functional role a chemical plays in processes or products -- may be a useful heuristic for predicting human exposure potential in that it comprises information about the compound's likely physical properties and the product formulations or articles ...

  11. The Relationship between Perceived Sleep Quality, Polysomnographic Measures and Depressive Symptoms in Chemically-Injured Veterans: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Moshkani Farahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep complaints are common among Iranian chemically-injured veterans. The growing body of research has investigated (in equalities between such subjective complaints and objective sleep records. Moreover, sleep complaints are associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, also, have been frequently reported in chemically-injured veterans. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between perceived sleep quality, polysomnographic measures and depressive symptoms in Iranian veterans with chemical injuries.In this pilot study, 35 Iranian veterans with chemical injuries complaining of a sleep problem were selected. Initially, participants were evaluated via all-night polysomnography, then, they completed the research questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients.Data analyses showed that there was no significant correlation between many of self-reposted variables and polysomnogaphic recordings, however, remarkable relationships were found between the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Beck Depression Inventory scores.The findings indicated that sleep complaints of chemically-injured veterans are not equivalent to objective sleep disturbances, however, these complaints are largely associated with level of depression. This study emphasizes the important role of mood in sleep evaluation. Further, the findings suggest using a combination of both subjective and objective measures for accurate assessment of sleep quality in Iranian veterans with chemical injuries (i.e., multimethod approach.

  12. The Relationship between Perceived Sleep Quality, Polysomnographic Measures and Depressive Symptoms in Chemically-Injured Veterans: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkani Farahani, Davood; Tavallaie, Abbas; Vahedi, Ensieh; Rezaiemaram, Peyman; Naderi, Zohreh; Talaie, Akram

    2014-07-01

    Sleep complaints are common among Iranian chemically-injured veterans. The growing body of research has investigated (in) equalities between such subjective complaints and objective sleep records. Moreover, sleep complaints are associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, also, have been frequently reported in chemically-injured veterans. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between perceived sleep quality, polysomnographic measures and depressive symptoms in Iranian veterans with chemical injuries. In this pilot study, 35 Iranian veterans with chemical injuries complaining of a sleep problem were selected. Initially, participants were evaluated via all-night polysomnography, then, they completed the research questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Data analyses showed that there was no significant correlation between many of self-reposted variables and polysomnogaphic recordings, however, remarkable relationships were found between the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Beck Depression Inventory scores. The findings indicated that sleep complaints of chemically-injured veterans are not equivalent to objective sleep disturbances, however, these complaints are largely associated with level of depression. This study emphasizes the important role of mood in sleep evaluation. Further, the findings suggest using a combination of both subjective and objective measures for accurate assessment of sleep quality in Iranian veterans with chemical injuries (i.e., multimethod approach).

  13. Cheminoes: A Didactic Game to Learn Chemical Relationships between Valence, Atomic Number, and Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis F.; Hincapié, Gina; Alzate, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cheminoes is a didactic game that enables the meaningful learning of some relations between concepts such as chemical element, valence, atomic number, and chemical symbol for the first 36 chemical elements of the periodic system. Among the students who have played the game, their opinions of the activity were positive, considering the game to be a…

  14. Enhanced understanding of the relationship between chemical modification and mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Robert J. Moon; Donald S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes

    2008-01-01

    Chemical additions to wood often change its bulk properties, which can be determined using conventional macroscopic mechanical tests. However, the controlling interactions between chemicals and wood take place at and below the scale of individual cells and cell walls. To better understand the effects of chemical additions to wood, we have adapted and extended two...

  15. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hao [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States)]. E-mail: hao.jiang@wpafb.af.mil; Hong Lianggou [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States); Venkatasubramanian, N. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Grant, John T. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Eyink, Kurt [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Wiacek, Kevin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Fries-Carr, Sandra [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Enlow, Jesse [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States)

    2007-02-26

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} {sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F {sub b}) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F{sub b} of 610 V/{mu}m, an {epsilon} {sub r} of 3.07, and a tan {delta} of 7.0 x 10{sup -3} at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss.

  16. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hao; Hong Lianggou; Venkatasubramanian, N.; Grant, John T.; Eyink, Kurt; Wiacek, Kevin; Fries-Carr, Sandra; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant (ε r ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F b ) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F b of 610 V/μm, an ε r of 3.07, and a tan δ of 7.0 x 10 -3 at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss

  17. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  18. Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal bioassays on Clarias gariepinus were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on weight gain and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 10.5±0.70g) in glass aquaria with aeration system. The concentrations used during the lethal exposure are: ...

  19. Chemical Modification and Structure-property Relationships of Acrylic and Ionomeric Thermoplastic Elastomer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargantwar, Pruthesh Hariharrao

    Block copolymers (BCs) have remained at the forefront of materials research due to their versatility in applications ranging from hot-melt/pressure-sensitive adhesives and impact modifiers to compatibilizing agents and vibration-dampening/nanotemplating media. Of particular interest are macromolecules composed of two or more chemically dissimilar blocks covalently linked together to form triblock or pentablock copolymers. If the blocks are sufficiently incompatible and the copolymer behaves as a thermoplastic elastomer, the molecules can spontaneously self-assemble to form nanostructured materials that exhibit shape memory due to the formation of a supramolecular network. The BCs of these types are termed as conventional. When BCs contain blocks having ionic moieties such as sulfonic acid groups, they are termed as block ionomers. Designing new systems based on either conventional or ionic BCs, characterizing their structure-property relationships and later using them as electroacive polymers form the essential objectives of this work. Electroactive polymers (EAPs) exhibit electromechanical actuation when stimulated by an external electric field. In the first part of this work, it is shown that BCs resolve some of the outstanding problems presently encountered in the design of two different classes of EAP actuators: dielectric elastomers (DEs) and ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). All-acrylic triblock copolymer gels used as DEs actuate with high efficacy without any requirement of mechanical prestrain and, thus, eliminate the need for bulky and heavy hardware essential with prestrained dielectric actuators, as well as material problems associated with stress relaxation. The dependence of actuation behavior on gel morphology as evaluated from mechanical and microstructure studies is observed. In the case of IPMCs, ionic BCs employed in this study greatly facilitate processing compared to other contenders such as NafionRTM, which is commonly used in this class

  20. Semi-lethal high temperature and heat tolerance of eight Camellia species

    OpenAIRE

    He, XY; Ye, H; Ma, JL; Zhang, RQ; Chen, GC; Xia, YY

    2012-01-01

    Annual leaf segments of eight Camellia species were used to study the heat tolerance by an electrical conductivity method, in combination with a Logistic equation to ascertain the semi-lethal high temperature by fitting the cell injury rate curve. Te relationship between the processing temperature and the cell injury rate in Camellia showed a typical "S" shaped curve, following the Logistic model. Te correlation coeficient was above 0.95. Te semi-lethal high temperature LT50 of the eight Came...

  1. Hematologic syndrome in man modeled from mammalian lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data on acute radiation lethality due to failure of the hematologic system in rats, mice, dogs, swine, monkeys and man are analyzed. Based on the available data, the mortality incidences for 1-100% levels can be computed directly if one has only an estimate of the dose lethal to 50% of the population (LD 50 ) for the mammalian strain and radiation environment of interest. The sole restriction is that the dose profile to the marrow be moderately uniform. If an LD 50 for any exposure situation has been measured, then one can readily scale to any desired situation through implicit-biological and empirical-physical relationships. The LD 50 for man, exposed to an isotropic cloud of photons, and knowledge of the bone-marrow dose profiles readily permit evaluation of the model for other levels of human mortality from different irradiating particles, partial body irradiation and spatially dependent and/or mixed radiation environments. (author)

  2. Factors influencing circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R C; Bozigian, H P; Davies, M H; Merrick, B A; Park, K S; McMillan, D A

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of changes in lighting schedules and food consumption on circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice. Under a normal lighting schedule (light: 06.00-18.00 h), male mice exhibited a circadian rhythm in acetaminophen lethality (peak: 18.00 h; nadir: 06.00, 10.00 h) and an inverse rhythm in hepatic glutathione concentrations (peak: 06.00, 10.00 h; nadir: 18.00 h). Under a reversed lighting schedule (light: 18.00-06.00 h) the glutathione rhythm was reversed and the rhythm in acetaminophen lethality was altered showing greater sensitivity to the drug. Under continuous light, there was a shift in the acetaminophen lethality and the hepatic glutathione rhythms. Under continuous dark, both rhythms were abolished. Under a normal lighting regimen, hepatic glutathione levels were closely correlated with food consumption; i.e., both were increased during the dark phase and decreased during the light phase. Fasting the mice for 12 h abolished the rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels; moreover, the lethality was increased and the hepatic glutathione levels were decreased. These experiments show that both lighting schedules and feeding can alter the circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice.

  3. Effects of multi-media partitioning of chemicals on Junge's variability-lifetime relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroebe, Maximilian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    Junge's variability-lifetime relationship describes the relation between the tropospheric residence time of a volatile trace gas and the coefficient of variation of the tropospheric mixing ratio at a remote location. However, no unique or universal quantification of this relationship exists. It can only be derived on a case-by-case basis for consistent data sets on substances with similar source and sink patterns. Using a multi-media model of the long-range transport of organic compounds, we determine variability-lifetime relationships for volatile substances. Next, we demonstrate how the variability-lifetime relationship can be obtained for semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) with the model and we investigate typical deviations from the Junge relationship for volatile compounds that are caused by the multi-media partitioning of SOCs. One cause of deviation from this relationship is substances undergoing significant transport in water so that their distribution in air is noticeably influenced by their distribution in water. The other, wider, deviation is caused by substances with a strong tendency for deposition and re-volatilization. Finally, we address the comparison of the model results with field data. Preliminary analyses of long-term monitoring data for polychlorinated biphenyls at remote sites have shown that the identification of Junge relationships in field data is not straightforward. We discuss possible strategies for the derivation of Junge relationships from field data on SOCs

  4. The method of modelling of relationships between hardenability and chemical composition of the constructional alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W.

    1998-01-01

    Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. The practical usability of the models developed is presented. (author)

  5. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulette, Ben C.; Ryan, Cindy A.; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank

    2005-01-01

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 ), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity

  6. Relationship between physico-chemical characteristics and potential toxicity of PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, Laura; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Negral, Luis; Castrillón, Leonor; Suárez, Susana; Fernández-Nava, Yolanda; Marañón, Elena

    2016-11-01

    PM10 was sampled at a suburban location affected by traffic and industry in the north of Spain. The samples were analysed to determine the chemical components of PM10 (organic and elemental carbon, soluble chemical species and metals). The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of PM10 in terms of the bulk analysis and the physico-chemical properties of the particles. Total carbon, sulphates, ammonium, chlorides and nitrates were found to be the major constituents of PM10. The contribution of the last of these was found to increase significantly with PM10 concentration (Pearson coefficient correlation of 0.7, p-value major risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swartz, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    .... The AIT is a unique military medical team capable of worldwide air evacuation and management of a limited number of patients who are potentially exposed to known and unknown lethal communicable...

  8. Experiences in therapy for lethal midline granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaka, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Takeru

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of the lethal midline granuloma or malignant granuloma of the nose were treated by irradiation and chemotherapy, which are generally prescribed for malignant lymphomas. Clinical, histological and laboratory examination indicated that they were the lethal midline granuloma and clearly differentiated from Wegener's granulomatosis or malignant lymphoma. All of the cases exhibited primary remission. The four cases were observed up to 38, 22, 14, and 10 months since the beginning of the therapy, showing no local or general recurrence. (author)

  9. Further Relationships Between Blood Chemical Values and College Student Performance and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Richard H.; And Others

    Blood serum uric acid and cholesterol levels in the blood were studied in relation to inner drive and external pressures of college students in the U.S.A. and in Sweden. Subjects for the study included 210 American and 78 Swedish male and female college students and 138 college football players. The blood chemicals were measured by Technicon…

  10. Relationships between botanical and chemical composition of forages: a multivariate approach to grasslands in the Western Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetto Enri, Simone; Renna, Manuela; Probo, Massimiliano; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca M; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero

    2017-03-01

    Plant composition of species-rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituents and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi-natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps. Mesophilic and dry grasslands were comparable in terms of phenology, biodiversity indices and proportion of botanical families. The content of total fatty acids and that of the most abundant fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids) were mainly associated to nutrient-rich plant species, belonging to the mesophilic grassland ecological group. Mesophilic grasslands showed also higher values of crude protein, lower values of fibre content and they were related to higher pastoral values of vegetation compared to dry grasslands. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile appeared mainly single species dependent rather than botanical family dependent. These findings highlight that forage from mesophilic grasslands can provide higher nutritive value for ruminants and may be associated to ruminant-derived food products with a healthier fatty acid profile. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for predicting potential ecological hazard of organic chemicals for use in regulatory risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Mike H I; Walker, John D; Watts, Chris; Hermens, Joop

    2003-08-01

    The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for deriving the predicted no-effect concentration of discrete organic chemicals for the purposes of conducting a regulatory risk assessment in Europe and the United States is described. In the United States, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) use SARs to estimate the hazards of existing and new chemicals. Within the Existing Substances Regulation in Europe, QSARs may be used for data evaluation, test strategy indications, and the identification and filling of data gaps. To illustrate where and when QSARs may be useful and when their use is more problematic, an example, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), is given and the predicted and experimental data are compared. Improvements needed for new QSARs and tools for developing and using QSARs are discussed.

  13. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Scolozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  14. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  15. Anatase thin film with diverse epitaxial relationship grown on yttrium stabilized zirconia substrate by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Takahira; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Kamei, Masayuki; Wada, Yoshiki; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    An anatase epitaxial thin film with diverse epitaxial relationship, YSZ (001) // anatase (001), YSZ (010) // anatase (110), was grown on a single crystalline yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (001) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (004) reflection of this anatase epitaxial film was 0.4deg, and the photoluminescence of this anatase epitaxial film showed visible emission with broad spectral width and large Stokes shift at room temperature. These results indicate that this anatase epitaxial film possessed almost equal crystalline quality compared with that grown under identical growth conditions on single crystalline SrTiO 3 substrate. (author)

  16. Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic susceptibility in sediment cores from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Banakar, V.K.; Tomer, A.; Kulkarni, M.

    Three sediment cores in a north–south transect (3 degrees N to 13 degrees S) from different sediment types of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are studied to understand the possible relationship between magnetic susceptibility (Chi) and Al, Fe...

  17. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: I. Spectral Data-Activity Relationship and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Inhibitors and Non-inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Isozymes

    OpenAIRE

    McPhail, Brooks; Tie, Yunfeng; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A.; Schnackenberg, Laura K.; Ge, Weigong; Valerio, Luis G.; Fuscoe, James C.; Tong, Weida; Buzatu, Dan A.; Wilkes, Jon G.; Fowler, Bruce A.; Demchuk, Eugene; Beger, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifi...

  18. Relationships between boiling regimes and chemical concentration processes in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a test inter-relating crevice boiling regimes and chemical concentration in tube support plate crevices are presented. Testing of highly soluble, non-volatile autoclave chemistries produced characteristic crevice pH and impedance distributions during nucleate boiling, initiation of dryout, steady-state operation, and following shutdown. However, the patterns changed as a function of the solubility and volatility of the autoclave chemistry, the solute concentration, and the presence of residual solutes from previous testing. The changes were related to variations in the rates of concentrated solution formation, transport, volatilization, and precipitation. (authors)

  19. Relationship between the evaporation rate and vapor pressure of moderately and highly volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John

    2008-04-01

    Volatilization of chemicals can be an important form of dissipation in the environment. Rates of evaporative losses from plant and soil surfaces are useful for estimating the potential for food-related dietary residues and operator and bystander exposure, and can be used as source functions for screening models that predict off-site movement of volatile materials. A regression of evaporation on vapor pressure from three datasets containing 82 pesticidal active ingredients and co-formulants, ranging in vapor pressure from 0.0001 to >30,000 Pa was developed for this purpose with a regression correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  20. A phenomenological model for the structure-composition relationship of the high Tc cuprates based on simple chemical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Talbot, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model for the relationship between structure and composition of the high Tc cuprates is presented. The model is based on two simple crystal chemistry principles: unit cell doping and charge balance within unit cells. These principles are inspired by key experimental observations of how the materials accommodate large deviations from stoichiometry. Consistent explanations for significant HTSC properties can be explained without any additional assumptions while retaining valuable insight for geometric interpretation. Combining these two chemical principles with a review of Crystal Field Theory (CFT) or Ligand Field Theory (LFT), it becomes clear that the two oxidation states in the conduction planes (typically d 8 and d 9 ) belong to the most strongly divergent d-levels as a function of deformation from regular octahedral coordination. This observation offers a link to a range of coupling effects relating vibrations and spin waves through application of Hund’s rules. An indication of this model’s capacity to predict physical properties for HTSC is provided and will be elaborated in subsequent publications. Simple criteria for the relationship between structure and composition in HTSC systems may guide chemical syntheses within new material systems.

  1. Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbikowski, Radoslaw; Szefer, Piotr; Latala, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gdansk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. - Enteromorpha sp. can be used as efficient biomonitor for chemical elements in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

  2. Relationships between chemical compositions, microstructure, and corrosion properties in molybdenum ion implanted aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis compares the corrosion properties of Al annealed after implantation with selected Mo concentrations to those of as-implanted Al with same Mo level and to pure Al. The principal results in this investigation are the improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance for Al implanted with Mo relative to pure Al in both the as-implanted and as-implanted-annealed state. The corrosion properties were related to the microstructures and chemical profiles in the surface-modified-regions. Potentiodynamic measurements indicate that stability of various species on the surface controls corrosion behavior in the Al-Mo system. Dual energy Mo implant procedure was used to produce a relatively thick ion implanted layer. The processing parameters were selected to produce specimen containing a continuous Al 12 Mo film with two different microstructures in the annealed material. The most improved pitting corrosion resistance was achieved in an as-implanted alloy which was implanted at 95 keV and then at 25 keV. This alloy was very resistant to pitting corrosion in a neutral aqueous solution containing 0.1 M chloride ion. Surface chemical analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy indicates that the role of Mo in inhibiting pitting corrosion is related to the formation of stable Mo oxide film

  3. Lethality Index 2008-2014: Less shootings, same lethality, more opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Forné

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the use of lethal force by Mexican federal security forces during shootings with presumed members of organized crime from 2008-2014. The authors use official data and press reports on deaths and wounded in shootings to construct indicators such as the number of dead civilians over the number of dead officials from the federal security forces and the number of dead civilians over the number of wounded civilians. In a context where certain factors that contribute to an excessive use of force become more common, the results of the study show a growing use of lethal force. This raises questions over the possible excessive use of lethal force as a normal or systematic practice. The study also shows a growing context of opacity in the information available to evaluate the use of lethal force and the general lack of a legal framework to regulate the use of lethal force in Mexico.

  4. Development of polyparameter linear free energy relationship models for octanol-air partition coefficients of diverse chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaochen; Fu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xuehua; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-03-22

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) is a key parameter describing the partition behavior of organic chemicals between air and environmental organic phases. As the experimental determination of K OA is costly, time-consuming and sometimes limited by the availability of authentic chemical standards for the compounds to be determined, it becomes necessary to develop credible predictive models for K OA . In this study, a polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model for predicting K OA at 298.15 K and a novel model incorporating pp-LFERs with temperature (pp-LFER-T model) were developed from 795 log K OA values for 367 chemicals at different temperatures (263.15-323.15 K), and were evaluated with the OECD guidelines on QSAR model validation and applicability domain description. Statistical results show that both models are well-fitted, robust and have good predictive capabilities. Particularly, the pp-LFER model shows a strong predictive ability for polyfluoroalkyl substances and organosilicon compounds, and the pp-LFER-T model maintains a high predictive accuracy within a wide temperature range (263.15-323.15 K).

  5. Relationship between soil 137Cs inventories and chemical properties in a small intensively cropped watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.

    1998-01-01

    After estimating and spatializing the erosion risks in a small agricultural watershed in northeastern France in a previous study, the authors investigate the quality of eroding soils. Soil erosion is a selective process, exporting the finest particles, and associated chemical elements, in a preferential way. Consequently, the spatial redistribution of soil should translate into the depletion of soil in eroding areas and its enrichment in deposition sectors. Of the fifteen elements considered in this study, only organic matter confirms this hypothesis. A significant correlation was found between the soil 137 Cs (indicative of the severity of erosion) and organic matter contents. This result suggests that erosion is a redistribution process that may influence the productivity of agricultural systems on the mid/long term. (authors)

  6. Chemical Relationship On Detection Of Ganoderma Disease On Oil Palm Tree System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, S. N. M.; Baharudin, F.; Ali, M. F.; Rahiman, M. H. F.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of fungal disease is the major issues in agricultural management and production. This disease would attack the plantation area and damaging the based root or the stem tissue of the trees. In oil palm industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) is the major disease in Malaysia that caused by a fungal named Ganoderma Boninense species. Since agricultural areas in Malaysia are the great factors that contribute in the economic sector, therefore the prevention and controlling this disease situation are needed to reduce the extent of the infection. These plant diseases are mostly being caused by the inflectional disease form such as viruses, viroids, bacteria, protozoa and even parasitic plants. It also could included mites and vertebrate or small insects that consume the plant tissues. Studies focused more on the breeding and relationship of the disease in the stumps, roots and soil system if oil palm trees by identifying the heavy metal; Phosphorus, copper, Iron, Manganese, Potassium and Zinc characteristic. Samples were taken from various types of physical appearance of the trees. It shows the relationship of the fungal disease breeding between oil palm trees and the heavy metals does affect the tree’s system.

  7. Relationship between chemical composition and oxidative potential of secondary organic aerosol from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunyao; Ye, Jianhuai; Soong, Ronald; Wu, Bing; Yu, Legeng; Simpson, André J.; Chan, Arthur W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the complex nature and dynamic behaviors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), its ability to cause oxidative stress (known as oxidative potential, or OP) and adverse health outcomes remains poorly understood. In this work, we probed the linkages between the chemical composition of SOA and its OP, and investigated impacts from various SOA evolution pathways, including atmospheric oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation, and mixing with metal. SOA formed from photooxidation of the two most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and phenanthrene) were studied as model systems. OP was evaluated using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The oligomer-rich fraction separated by liquid chromatography dominates DTT activity in both SOA systems (52 ± 10 % for naphthalene SOA (NSOA), and 56 ± 5 % for phenanthrene SOA (PSOA)). Heterogeneous ozonolysis of NSOA was found to enhance its OP, which is consistent with the trend observed in selected individual oxidation products. DTT activities from redox-active organic compounds and metals were found to be not additive. When mixing with highly redox-active metal (Cu), OP of the mixture decreased significantly for 1,2-naphthoquinone (42 ± 7 %), 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (35 ± 1 %), NSOA (50 ± 6 %), and PSOA (43 ± 4 %). Evidence from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy illustrates that such OP reduction upon mixing can be ascribed to metal-organic binding interactions. Our results highlight the role of aerosol chemical composition under atmospheric aging processes in determining the OP of SOA, which is needed for more accurate and explicit prediction of the toxicological impacts from particulate matter.

  8. Analysis of Lethality and Malformations During Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2018-01-01

    The versatility offered by zebrafish (Danio rerio) makes it a powerful and an attractive vertebrate model in developmental toxicity and teratogenicity assays. Apart from the newly introduced chemicals as drugs, xenobiotics also induce abnormal developmental abnormalities and congenital malformations in living organisms. Over the recent decades, zebrafish embryo/larva has emerged as a potential tool to test teratogenicity potential of these chemicals. Zebrafish responds to compounds as mammals do as they share similarities in their development, metabolism, physiology, and signaling pathways with that of mammals. The methodology used by the different scientists varies enormously in the zebrafish embryotoxicity test. In this chapter, we present methods to assess lethality and malformations during zebrafish development. We propose two major malformations scoring systems: binomial and relative morphological scoring systems to assess the malformations in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Based on the scoring of the malformations, the test compound can be classified as a teratogen or a nonteratogen and its teratogenic potential is evaluated.

  9. Relationship between Chemical Structure and Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables against Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-12-28

    We evaluated the potentials of 10 isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables and radish root hydrolysate for inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens, with an emphasis on assessing any structure-function relationship. Structural differences in ITCs impacted their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens differently. The indolyl ITC (indol-3-carbinol) was the most potent inhibitor of the growth of oral pathogens, followed by aromatic ITCs (benzyl ITC (BITC) and phenylethyl ITC (PEITC)) and aliphatic ITCs (erucin, iberin, and sulforaphene). Sulforaphene, which is similar in structure, but has one double bond, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane. Erucin, which has a thiol group, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane, which has a sulfinyl group. BITC and iberin with a short chain exhibited higher antimicrobial potential than PEITC and sulforaphane with a longer chain, respectively. ITCs have strong antimicrobial activities and may be useful in the prevention and management of dental caries.

  10. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  11. Solvent Effects on Oxygen-17 Chemical Shifts in Amides. Quantitative Linear Solvation Shift Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Ernesto; Fabián, Jesús San; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Esteban, Angel L.; Abboud, José-Luis M.; Contreras, Ruben H.; de Kowalewski, Dora G.

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-linear-regression analysis (MLRA) has been carried out using the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft (KAT) solvatochromic parameters in order to elucidate and quantify the solvent effects on the17O chemical shifts ofN-methylformamide (NMF),N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF),N-methylacetamide (NMA), andN,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA). The chemical shifts of the four molecules show the same dependence (in ppm) on the solvent polarity-polarizability, i.e., -22π*. The influence of the solvent hydrogen-bond-donor (HBD) acidities is slightly larger for the acetamides NMA and DMA, i.e., -48α, than for the formamides NMF and DMF, i.e., -42α. The influence of the solvent hydrogen-bond-acceptor (HBA) basicities is negligible for the nonprotic molecules DMF and DMA but significant for the protic molecules NMF and NMA, i.e., -9β. The effect of substituting the N-H hydrogen by a methyl group amounts to -5.9 ppm in NMF and 5.4 ppm in NMA. The effect of substituting the O=C-H hydrogen amounts to 5.5 ppm in NMF and 16.8 ppm in DMF. The model of specific hydration sites of amides by I. P. Gerothanassis and C. Vakka [J. Org. Chem.59,2341 (1994)] is settled in a more quantitative basis and the model by M. I. Burgar, T. E. St. Amour, and D. Fiat [J. Phys. Chem.85,502 (1981)] is critically evaluated.17O hydration shifts have been calculated for formamide (FOR) by the ab initio LORG method at the 6-31G* level. For a formamide surrounded by the four in-plane molecules of water in the first hydration shell, the calculated17O shift change due to the four hydrogen bonds, -83.2 ppm, is smaller than the empirical hydration shift, -100 ppm. The17O shift change from each out-of-plane water molecule hydrogen-bonded to the amide oxygen is -18.0 ppm. These LORG results support the conclusion that no more than four water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to the amide oxygen in formamide.

  12. A framework for analysing relationships between chemical composition and crystal structure in metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program has been written to characterize the coordination polyhedra of metal cations in terms of their volumes and polyhedral elements, i.e. corners, edges and faces. The sharing of these corners, edges and faces between polyhedra is also quantitatively monitored. In order to develop the methodology, attention is focused on ternary oxides containing the Al 3+ ion, whose structures were retrieved from the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). This also permits an objective assessment of the applicability of Pauling's rules. The influence of ionic valence on the structures of these compounds is examined, by calculating electrostatic bond strengths. Although Pauling's second rule is not supported in detail, the calculation of oxygen-ion valence reveals a basic structural requirement, that the average calculated oxygen-ion valence in any ionic oxide structure is equal to 2. The analysis is further developed to define a general method for the prediction of novel chemical compositions likely to adopt a given desired structure. The polyhedral volumes of this structure are calculated, and use is made of standard ionic radii for cations in sixfold coordination. The electroneutrality principle is invoked to take valence considerations into account. This method can be used to guide the development of new compositions of ceramic materials with certain desirable physical properties. (orig.)

  13. A chemical screen probing the relationship between mitochondrial content and cell size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimori Kitami

    Full Text Available The cellular content of mitochondria changes dynamically during development and in response to external stimuli, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. To systematically identify molecular probes and pathways that control mitochondrial abundance, we developed a high-throughput imaging assay that tracks both the per cell mitochondrial content and the cell size in confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We screened 28,786 small molecules and observed that hundreds of small molecules are capable of increasing or decreasing the cellular content of mitochondria in a manner proportionate to cell size, revealing stereotyped control of these parameters. However, only a handful of compounds dissociate this relationship. We focus on one such compound, BRD6897, and demonstrate through secondary assays that it increases the cellular content of mitochondria as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy, mitochondrial protein content, and respiration, even after rigorous correction for cell size, cell volume, or total protein content. BRD6897 increases uncoupled respiration 1.6-fold in two different, non-dividing cell types. Based on electron microscopy, BRD6897 does not alter the percent of cytoplasmic area occupied by mitochondria, but instead, induces a striking increase in the electron density of existing mitochondria. The mechanism is independent of known transcriptional programs and is likely to be related to a blockade in the turnover of mitochondrial proteins. At present the molecular target of BRD6897 remains to be elucidated, but if identified, could reveal an important additional mechanism that governs mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

  14. Development of linear free energy relationships for aqueous phase radical-involved chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Mezyk, Stephen P; Jones, Jace W; Daws, Brittany R; Crittenden, John C

    2014-12-02

    Aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) produce hydroxyl radicals (HO•) which can completely oxidize electron rich organic compounds. The proper design and operation of AOPs require that we predict the formation and fate of the byproducts and their associated toxicity. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a first-principles kinetic model that can predict the dominant reaction pathways that potentially produce toxic byproducts. We have published some of our efforts on predicting the elementary reaction pathways and the HO• rate constants. Here we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) that predict the rate constants for aqueous phase radical reactions. The LFERs relate experimentally obtained kinetic rate constants to quantum mechanically calculated aqueous phase free energies of activation. The LFERs have been applied to 101 reactions, including (1) HO• addition to 15 aromatic compounds; (2) addition of molecular oxygen to 65 carbon-centered aliphatic and cyclohexadienyl radicals; (3) disproportionation of 10 peroxyl radicals, and (4) unimolecular decay of nine peroxyl radicals. The LFERs correlations predict the rate constants within a factor of 2 from the experimental values for HO• reactions and molecular oxygen addition, and a factor of 5 for peroxyl radical reactions. The LFERs and the elementary reaction pathways will enable us to predict the formation and initial fate of the byproducts in AOPs. Furthermore, our methodology can be applied to other environmental processes in which aqueous phase radical-involved reactions occur.

  15. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  16. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Amish lethal microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 500 newborns in the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania. It has not been found outside this population. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ... gene cause Amish lethal microcephaly . The SLC25A19 gene provides instructions for ...

  18. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  19. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  20. A new lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.; Freeman, J.S.; Hall, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    A neonate is described with a lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia associated with prenatal fractures and craniofacial abnormalities including microcephaly, exophthalmos, hypoplastic nose and mid-face, small jaw and nodular hyperplasia of the gums. Parental consanguinity suggests that an autosomal recessive mutation is the likely aetiology. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sisir; Monesi, Alessandro; Drgan, Viktor; Merzel, Franci; Novič, Marjana

    2013-10-30

    In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation.

  2. Relationship between soil oxidizable carbon and physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of umbric ferralsols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Adriano Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Umbric Ferralsols with thick umbric epipedons (> 100 cm thickness in humid Tropical and Subtropical areas is a paradox since the processes of organic matter decomposition in these environments are very efficient. Nevertheless, this soil type has been reported in areas in the Southeast and South of Brazil, and at some places in the Northeast. Aspects of the genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of these Ferralsols still need a better understanding. The processes that made the umbric horizons so thick and dark and contributed to the preservation of organic carbon (OC at considerable depths in these soils are of special interest. In this study, eight Ferralsols with a thick umbric horizon (UF under different vegetation types were sampled (tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest and savanna woodland and their macromorphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties studied to detect soil characteristics that could explain the preservation of high carbon amounts at considerable depths. The studied UF are clayey to very clayey, strongly acidic, dystrophic, and Al-saturated and charcoal fragments are often scattered in the soil matrix. Kaolinites are the main clay minerals in the A and B horizons, followed by abundant gibbsite and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The latter was only found in UFs derived from basalt rock in the South of the country. Total carbon (TC ranged from 5 to 101 g kg-1 in the umbric epipedon. Dichromate-oxidizable organic carbon represented nearly 75 % of TC in the thick A horizons, while non-oxidizable C, which includes recalcitrant C (e.g., charcoal, contributed to the remaining 25 % of TC. Carbon contents were not related to most of the inorganic soil variables studied, except for oxalate-extractable Al, which individually explained 69 % (P < 0.001 of the variability of TC in the umbric epipedon. Clay content was not suited as predictor of TC or of the other studied C forms. Bulk

  3. Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Nam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone, anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L., exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.

  4. Chronic uranium exposure and growth toxicity for phytoplankton. Dose-effect relationship: first comparison of chemical and radiological toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbin, R.; Pradines, C.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    The bioavailability of uranium for freshwater organisms, as for other dissolved metals, is closely linked to chemical speciation in solution (U aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes in the presence of ligands commonly found in natural waters e.g. carbonate, phosphate, hydroxide and natural organic matter). For the studied chemical domain, short-term uranium uptake experiments have already shown that the free uranyl ion concentration [UO 2 2+ ] is a good predictor of uranium uptake by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as predicted by the Free Ion Activity Model. In agreement with these results, acidic pH and low ligands concentrations in water enhance uranium bioavailability and consequently its potential chronic effects on phytoplankton. Moreover, uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The use of different isotopes of uranium allows to expose organisms to different radiological doses for the same molar concentration: e.g. for a given element concentration (chemical dose), replacing depleted U by U-233 obviously leads to an enhanced radiological delivered dose to organisms (x10 4 ). In this work we established relationships between uranium doses (depleted uranium and 233-U ) and effect on the growth rate of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Uranium bioaccumulation was also monitored. Growth rate was measured both in classical batch (0-72 hrs) and continuous (turbidostat) cultures, the latter protocol allowing medium renewal to diminish exudates accumulation and speciation changes in the medium. The differences in effects will be, if possible, related to the development of defence mechanisms against the formation of reactive oxygen species (forms of glutathione) and the production of phyto-chelatins (small peptides rich in cystein that play an important role in the homeostasis and the detoxication of metals in cells). (author)

  5. Left ventricular function during lethal and sublethal endotoxemia in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, R.D.; Nightingale, L.M.; Kish, P.; Weber, P.B.; Loegering, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that after a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of endotoxin, cardiac contractility was depressed in nonsurviving dogs. The canine cardiovascular system is unlike humans in that dogs have a hepatic vein sphincter that is susceptible to adrenergic stimulation capable of raising hepatic and splanchnic venous pressures. The authors retested the hypothesis that lethality after endotoxin administration is associated with cardiac contractile depression in pigs, because of the hepatic circulation in this species is similar to that of humans. They compared cardiac mechanical function of pigs administered a high dose (250 μg/kg) or a low dose (100 μg/kg) endotoxin by use of the slope of the end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship (ESPDR) as well as other measurements of cardiac performance. In all the pigs administered a high dose, ESPDR demonstrated a marked, time-dependent depression whereas we observed no significant ESPDR changes after low endotoxin doses. The other cardiodynamic variables were uninterpretable, due to the significant changes in heart rate, end-diastolic diameter (preload), and aortic diastolic pressure (afterload). Plasma myocardia depressant factor activity accumulated in all endotoxin-administered animals, tending to be greater in the high-dose group. In this group, both subendocardial blood flow and global function were depressed, whereas pigs administered the low dose endotoxin demonstrated slight, but nonsignificant, increases in flow and function. These observations indicate that myocardial contractile depression is associated with a lethal outcome to high doses of endotoxin. Myocardial perfusion was measured using radiolabeled microspheres infused into the left atria

  6. UV-induced lethal sectoring and pure mutant clones in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Duck, P; Nasim, A

    1976-08-01

    The induction of lethal sectoring and pure mutant clones by ultraviolet light has been studied in a homogeneous G1 population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a normal growth medium. At the lowest UV dose of 250 ergs, which corresponds to a shoulder in the survival curve, all mutants appeared as pure clones. At higher doses the frequency of mosaic mutants progressively increased. These results indicate a relationship between the highest frequency of complete mutants and the maximum repair activity. In addition, the frequency of lethal sectoring at all doses tested was too low to account for the origin of pure mutant clones.

  7. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  8. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  9. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  10. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.; Pimentel, P.A.E.; Cruces, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The chlorophyllin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the chlorophyllin

  11. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 #betta#-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains

  12. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  13. The organisational structure of protein networks: revisiting the centrality-lethality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik; Damaraju, Nandita; Joshi, Govind Krishna

    2014-03-01

    Protein networks, describing physical interactions as well as functional associations between proteins, have been unravelled for many organisms in the recent past. Databases such as the STRING provide excellent resources for the analysis of such networks. In this contribution, we revisit the organisation of protein networks, particularly the centrality-lethality hypothesis, which hypothesises that nodes with higher centrality in a network are more likely to produce lethal phenotypes on removal, compared to nodes with lower centrality. We consider the protein networks of a diverse set of 20 organisms, with essentiality information available in the Database of Essential Genes and assess the relationship between centrality measures and lethality. For each of these organisms, we obtained networks of high-confidence interactions from the STRING database, and computed network parameters such as degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity indices. We observe that the networks considered here are predominantly disassortative. Further, we observe that essential nodes in a network have a significantly higher average degree and betweenness centrality, compared to the network average. Most previous studies have evaluated the centrality-lethality hypothesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli; we here observe that the centrality-lethality hypothesis hold goods for a large number of organisms, with certain limitations. Betweenness centrality may also be a useful measure to identify essential nodes, but measures like closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity are not significantly higher for essential nodes.

  14. On the Development and Use of Large Chemical Similarity Networks, Informatics Best Practices and Novel Chemical Descriptors Towards Materials Quantitative Structure Property Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Michael

    After decades of development and use in a variety of application areas, Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPRs) and related descriptor-based statistical learning methods have achieved a level of infamy due to their misuse. The field is rife with past examples of overtrained models, overoptimistic performance assessment, and outright cheating in the form of explicitly removing data to fit models. These actions do not serve the community well, nor are they beneficial to future predictions based on established models. In practice, in order to select combinations of descriptors and machine learning methods that might work best, one must consider the nature and size of the training and test datasets, be aware of existing hypotheses about the data, and resist the temptation to bias structure representation and modeling to explicitly fit the hypotheses. The definition and application of these best practices is important for obtaining actionable modeling outcomes, and for setting user expectations of modeling accuracy when predicting the endpoint values of unknowns. A wide variety of statistical learning approaches, descriptor types, and model validation strategies are explored herein, with the goals of helping end users understand the factors involved in creating and using QSPR models effectively, and to better understand relationships within the data, especially by looking at the problem space from multiple perspectives. Molecular relationships are commonly envisioned in a continuous high-dimensional space of numerical descriptors, referred to as chemistry space. Descriptor and similarity metric choice influence the partitioning of this space into regions corresponding to local structural similarity. These regions, known as domains of applicability, are most likely to be successfully modeled by a QSPR. In Chapter 2, the network topology and scaling relationships of several chemistry spaces are thoroughly investigated. Chemistry spaces studied include the

  15. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle; Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes; Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  16. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-P?rez, Ana; Pablos, Adri?n; Mart?nez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; G?mez-Olivencia, Asier; Berm?dez de Castro, Jos? Mar?a; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  17. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes [Resident of Medical Practice, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz [Unit of Computed Tomography, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  18. Phytoplankton diversity and its relationships to the physico-chemical environment in the Banglang Reservoir, Yala Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowapa Angsupanich

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of phytoplankton and its relationships to the physico- chemical environment were studied in Banglang Reservoir, located on the Pattani River in Southern Thailand. Samples were collected monthly from May 2000 to April 2001 at three stations and three different depths: water surface, 10, and 30 meters. Physico-chemical parameters: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, conductivity, water transparency, and nutrients were measured simultaneously. One-hundred and thirty-five species in seven divisions of phytoplankton were found. The greatest number of species were in Division Chlorophyta (50%, followed by Cyanophyta (21%, Bacillariophyta (13%, Pyrrophyta (6%, Cryptophyta (4%, Chrysophyta (3% and Euglenophyta (3%. The most diverse genus was Staurastrum (15 species. Phytoplankton density ranged from zero to 2.1x109 cells.m-3. Microcystis aeruginosa Kutzing in January at 30 m at the lacustrine zone had the highest phytoplankton density. By applying a PCA(principal components analysis using the MVSP statistical analysis program on the abundance of species, it was found that Cyclotella meneghiniana Kutzing and Melosira varians Agardh were the most abundant in each station. Diversity index (Simpson’s diversity index was maximum at 10 m at the transition zone and lowest at the outflow zone. The factors affecting the phytoplankton species by Canonical correspondence analysis ordination (PC-ORD programwere alkalinity, water temperature, water transparency, nutrients and conductivity. When the water quality parameters were classified by the trophic level, Banglang Reservoir belonged to oligo-mesotrophic status. Furthermore, Cyclotella meneghiniana Kutzing and Melosira varians Agardh could be used as the phytoplankton indicator of oligo-mesotrophic reservoir.

  19. Process-property relationships of SiC chemical vapor deposition in the Si/H/C/O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, C.; Takoudis, C.G.

    1999-01-01

    The thermal, chemical, and physical properties of SiC make it an attractive material for a wide range of applications from wear resistant coatings on tools to high temperature microelectronics operations. A comprehensive thermodynamic analysis has been performed for the Si/H/C/O system from which a priori process-property relationships of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon carbide (SiC) are obtained. The parameter space for pure silicon carbide growth is reported for five orders of magnitude of the system water vapor level (1 ppb--100 ppm), four orders of magnitude of system pressure (0.1--760 Torr), and two orders of magnitude of C/Si feed ratio (0.25--20) and H 2 /Si feed ratio (50--10,000). Lower growth temperatures for pure SiC are predicted in clean systems with low system water vapor levels, at stoichiometric to near carbon excess conditions (C/Si ≅ 1 to C/Si > 1), at high carrier gas flow rates (large H 2 /Si feed ratios), and at low operating pressures. Because relative C/Si and H 2 /Si feed ratios have been considered, the predictions in this study are applicable to both multiple and single precursor systems. Further, these results are valid for the CVD of α-SiC as well as β-SiC. Experimental data reported on the growth of α-SiC and β-SiC are found to be in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions, for numerous systems that include multiple and single source, silicon and carbon, species

  20. Characteristics of chemical binding to alpha 2u-globulin in vitro--evaluating structure-activity relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghoff, S.J.; Miller, A.B.; Bowen, J.P.; Swenberg, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    alpha 2u-Globulin (alpha 2u) has been shown to accumulate in the kidneys of male rats treated with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP). 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol (TMP-2-OH), a metabolite of TMP, is found reversibly bound to alpha 2u isolated from the kidneys of these treated rats. The objectives of the following study were to characterize the ability of [3H]TMP-2-OH to bind to alpha 2u in vitro and to determine whether other compounds that cause this protein to accumulate have the same binding characteristics. Although compounds that have been shown to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u in male rat kidneys compete in vitro with [3H]TMP-2-OH for binding to alpha 2u, they do so to varying degrees. The binding affinity (Kd) of the [3H]TMP-2-OH-alpha 2u complex was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7) M. The inhibition constant values (Ki) determined for d-limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol were all in the range 10(-4) M, whereas the Ki values for isophorone, 2,4,4- or 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol, and d-limonene oxide were determined to be in the range 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, respectively. TMP and 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid did not compete for binding. This suggests that other factors, besides binding, are involved in the accumulation of alpha 2u. In this study the ability of a chemical to bind to alpha 2u was used as a measure of biological activity to assess structure-activity relationships among the chemicals tested and known to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u. The results so far suggest that binding is dependent on both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding

  1. ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MANI RESERVOIR OF WESTERN GHATS, REGION, HOSANAGAR TALUK, SHIVAMOGA DISTRICT KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Veerendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on relationship between zooplankton abundance and water quality parameter in Mani reservoir were made between January 2008 and December 2008. In the current investigation, impact of different physico-chemical parameters on zooplankton population was found. Ten genera of zooplankton were identified. The relationship between zooplankton and water quality parameters was varied from place to place depending upon the condition of the reservoir water.

  2. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemi Sala

    Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  3. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  4. Inactivation of CDK2 is synthetically lethal to MYCN over-expressing cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Jan J.; Ebus, Marli E.; Geerts, Dirk; Koster, Jan; Lamers, Fieke; Valentijn, Linda J.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.

    2009-01-01

    Two genes have a synthetically lethal relationship when the silencing or inhibiting of 1 gene is only lethal in the context of a mutation or activation of the second gene. This situation offers an attractive therapeutic strategy, as inhibition of such a gene will only trigger cell death in tumor cells with an activated second oncogene but spare normal cells without activation of the second oncogene. Here we present evidence that CDK2 is synthetically lethal to neuroblastoma cells with MYCN amplification and over-expression. Neuroblastomas are childhood tumors with an often lethal outcome. Twenty percent of the tumors have MYCN amplification, and these tumors are ultimately refractory to any therapy. Targeted silencing of CDK2 by 3 RNA interference techniques induced apoptosis in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, but not in MYCN single copy cells. Silencing of MYCN abrogated this apoptotic response in MYCN-amplified cells. Inversely, silencing of CDK2 in MYCN single copy cells did not trigger apoptosis, unless a MYCN transgene was activated. The MYCN induced apoptosis after CDK2 silencing was accompanied by nuclear stabilization of P53, and mRNA profiling showed up-regulation of P53 target genes. Silencing of P53 rescued the cells from MYCN-driven apoptosis. The synthetic lethality of CDK2 silencing in MYCN activated neuroblastoma cells can also be triggered by inhibition of CDK2 with a small molecule drug. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, at clinically achievable concentrations induced MYCN-dependent apoptosis. The synthetically lethal relationship between CDK2 and MYCN indicates CDK2 inhibitors as potential MYCN-selective cancer therapeutics. PMID:19525400

  5. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M

    2000-01-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships...... (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application...

  6. Study on investigation and evaluation methods of deep seated sedimentary rocks. Chemical weathering, pore water squeezing and relationships of physical properties of sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Suzuki, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Chemical weathering, porewater squeezing and physical properties for the sedimentary rocks were examined. Chemical weathering potential of rocks was described by the sulfur as a acceleration factor of weathering and carbonate contents as a neutralization factor of it. The carbonate contents in the rocks were measured accurately by the gas pressure measurement method. Pore water squeezing method was applied for the semi-hard sedimentary rocks (Opalinusclay). The chemical change of extracted pore water under high pressure conditions was estimated. Physical property of sedimentary rocks have relationship among the porosity and permeability and resistivity coefficient in the same rock types. It is possible to estimate the water permeability from the geophysical tests. (author)

  7. Relationship between chemical composition of native forage and nutrient digestibility by Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuntao; Gao, Peng; Hou, Fujiang; Yan, Tianhai; Chang, Shenghua; Chen, Xianjiang; Wang, Zhaofeng

    2018-04-02

    To better utilize native pasture at the high altitude region, three-consecutive-year feeding experiments and a total of seven metabolism trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of three forage stages of maturity on the chemical composition, nutrient digestibility, and energy metabolism of native forage in Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Forages were harvested from June to July, August to October, and November to December of 2011 to 2013, corresponding to the vegetative, bloom, and senescent stages of the annual forages. Twenty male Tibetan sheep were selected for each study and fed native forage ad libitum. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, DE, DE/GE, and ME/GE were greatest (P digestibility and energy parameters correlated positively (linear, 0.422 to 0.778; quadratic, 0.568 to 0.815; P digestibility. Contrary to previous studies, in this study, ADF content had a greater linear relationship (0.766 vs. 0.563 to 0.732) with OM digestibility than the other parameters of nutrient digestibility. The quadratic relationship between forage CP content and CP digestibility indicates that when forage CP content exceeds the peak point (9.7% DM in the present study), increasing forage CP content could decrease CP digestibility when Tibetan sheep were offered native forage alone on the QTP. Additionally, using the forage CP, EE, NDF, and ADF content to predict DMI (g/kg BW·d) yielded the best fit equation for Tibetan sheep living in the northeast portion of the QTP.

  8. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, E G; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Rastogi, S C; White, I R; Lepoittevin, J P

    2000-12-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application test on the pre-sensitized patient. The chemical composition of the fractions giving a positive patch-test response and repeated open application test reactions was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the compounds identified, those that contained a "structural alert" in their chemical structure, indicating an ability to modify skin proteins and thus behave as a skin sensitizer, were tested on the patient. The patient reacted positively to the synthetic fragrance p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (Lilial), a widely used fragrance compound not present in the fragrance mix. The combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships seems to be a valuable tool for the investigation of contact allergy to fragrance materials.

  9. Quantitative structure--property relationships for enhancing predictions of synthetic organic chemical removal from drinking water by granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew L; Speth, Thomas F

    2005-10-01

    Granular activated carbon is a frequently explored technology for removing synthetic organic contaminants from drinking water sources. The success of this technology relies on a number of factors based not only on the adsorptive properties of the contaminant but also on properties of the water itself, notably the presence of substances in the water which compete for adsorption sites. Because it is impractical to perform field-scale evaluations for all possible contaminants, the pore surface diffusion model (PSDM) has been developed and used to predict activated carbon column performance using single-solute isotherm data as inputs. Many assumptions are built into this model to account for kinetics of adsorption and competition for adsorption sites. This work further evaluates and expands this model, through the use of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) to predict the effect of natural organic matter fouling on activated carbon adsorption of specific contaminants. The QSPRs developed are based on a combination of calculated topographical indices and quantum chemical parameters. The QSPRs were evaluated in terms of their statistical predictive ability,the physical significance of the descriptors, and by comparison with field data. The QSPR-enhanced PSDM was judged to give results better than what could previously be obtained.

  10. Relationship of Non-Structural Forms of Social Interaction with Problems of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Students Prone to Chemical Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilemkhanova, Elvira N.

    2016-01-01

    The changes in contemporary social and cultural environment determine the necessity to increase the efficiency of adaptive mechanisms, especially for those categories of people who are subject to social risks. One of those categories is students prone to chemical addictions. To study the relationship of forms of social interaction with problems of…

  11. Comparative studies of dose-response curves for recessive lethal mutations induced by ethylnitrosourea in spermatogonia and in spermatozoa of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, I.; Ayaki, T.; Ohshima, K.

    1984-01-01

    Induction of recessive lethal mutation by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) was studied for the second chromosome of spermatogonia and spermatozoa in Drosophila melanogaster. ENU (0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 mM) was given to flies by dissolving it in feeding sucrose solution. When plotted against absorbed doses of ENU, the observed frequencies to recessive lethals showed a linear relationship for induction in spermatozoa but a sigmoidal relationship for induction in spermatogonia. These results suggest that in spermatogonia ENU-induced mutational damage is more repairable in a lower dose range of ENU. Mosaic lethal mutations were induced by ENU but not in spermatogonia.

  12. Evaluation of effects of long term exposure on lethal toxicity with mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between exposure time (LT 50 ) and lethal exposure concentration (LC 50 ) has been evaluated over relatively long exposure times using a novel parameter, Normal Life Expectancy (NLT), as a long term toxicity point. The model equation, ln(LT 50 ) = aLC 50 ν + b, where a, b and ν are constants, was evaluated by plotting lnLT 50 against LC 50 using available toxicity data based on inhalation exposure from 7 species of mammals. With each specific toxicant a single consistent relationship was observed for all mammals with ν always <1. Use of NLT as a long term toxicity point provided a valuable limiting point for long exposure times. With organic compounds, the Kow can be used to calculate the model constants a and v where these are unknown. The model can be used to characterise toxicity to specific mammals and then be extended to estimate toxicity at any exposure time with other mammals. -- Highlights: • Model introduces a new parameter, normal life expectancy, to explain changes in toxicity with time. • Model is innovatory as it can be used to calculate toxicity at any, particularly long exposure times. • Toxicity is influenced by normal life expectancy of the organism particularly longer exposure times. • The model was applicable to all the mammals (7 species) evaluated. • The model can be used to predict toxicity at different exposure times with untested mammals species. -- The RLE model provides a mathematical description of the change in toxicity over time for a particular chemical. This represents a major advance on the use of Haber's Rule in toxicology

  13. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnau, E G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, M

    2000-01-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships...... (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application......" in their chemical structure, indicating an ability to modify skin proteins and thus behave as a skin sensitizer, were tested on the patient. The patient reacted positively to the synthetic fragrance p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (Lilial), a widely used fragrance compound not present in the fragrance...

  14. The relationships between chemical and genetic differentiation and environmental factors across the distribution of Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Li-yan; Zhang, Shu-dong; Zhao, Qin-shi; Yi, Ting-shuang

    2013-01-01

    Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb. In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied. Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B) and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration of scutellarin positively correlated with that of

  15. The relationships between chemical and genetic differentiation and environmental factors across the distribution of Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available AIMS: Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb. METHODS: In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Self-efficacy and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding to the importance of self-efficacy and its impact on health-related behaviors, chronic disease management and quality of life, and limited studies in this field, present study tried to investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the Seyed-o-shohda hospital (Isfahan/ Iran. Methods: This descriptive- correlational study was done in Isfahan Seyed-o-shohada hospital in 2014. Statistical population included all women who had received chemical therapy because of their breast cancer (N=130. 100 participants were selected through Cochran formula and systematic sampling. Data gathering instruments included Sherer's standard questionnaire of self-efficacy and W.H.O questionnaire of quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF. The data were analyzed with use of the descriptive statistics and Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation in SPSS 18. Results: The average and Standard Deviation of both self-efficacy (11.00 ± 55.78 and quality of life (15.28 ± 75.91 were estimated on the average level. There was a direct meaningful relation between self-efficacy and quality of life efficiency. The results also showed that there is meaningful relation between self-efficacy and quality of life’s dimensions including physical health, mental health, social relations and satisfaction with the environment. Conclusion: Based on the significant positive relation found between self-efficacy and quality of life it’s recommended to hold some training courses for these patients, have a physiologist in chemotherapy department, and prepare more palliative care to raise the breast cancer patients’ self-efficacy which finally leads to a better quality of life.

  17. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-02

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure.

  18. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

    2006-09-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland.

  19. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  20. Potentially lethal damage and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms termed fast-and slow-potentially lethal lethal damage (PLD) are introduced and discussed. The effect on the survival of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells (V79) of two different post-treatments is examined in plateau- and in log-phases of growth. The postirradiation treatments used : a) incubation in hypertonic solution, and b) incubation in conditioned medium obtained from plateau-phase. Similar reduction in survival was caused by postirradiation treatment with hypertonic phosphate buffered saline, and similar increased in survival was effected by treatment in conditioned medium in plateau- and in log-phases cells. However, repair of PLD sensitive to hypertonic treatment was faster (half time, 5-10 min)(f-PLD repair) and independent from the repair of PLD (half time, 1-2 hour)(s-PLD repair) observed in conditioned medium. The results indicate the induction of two forms of PLD by radiation. Induction of both PLD was found to decrease with increasing LET of the radiation used. Identification of the molecular processes underlying repair and fixation of PLD is a task of particular interest, since it may allow replacement of a phenomenological definition with a molecular definition. Evidence is reviewed indicating the DNA double strand breaks (directly or indirectly induced) may be the DNA lesions underlying PLD. (author)

  1. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  2. Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanford Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in

  3. Relationships between some soil physical and chemical properties with magnetic properties in different soil moisture regimes in Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valaee

    2016-09-01

    mm and 846 mm in Touskstan uplands (Udic regime, respectively. this study was conducted in four soil moisture regimes (Aridic, Xeric, Udic and Aquic, for exploring the relationships between soil properties and magnetic measures. In each regimes, 25 soil profiles were drug, described and soil samples were collected from each of soil horizons. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved using a 2 mm sieve. The dithionite-citrate bicarbonate (DCB method was used to measure Fed and acid ammonium oxalate for Feo. In this study, a set of environmental magnetic parameters including magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf, saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM100 mT were measured. Magnetic susceptibility (χ was measured at low frequency (0.47 kHz; χlf and high frequency (4.7 kHz; χhf using a Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor using approximately 20 g of soil held in a four-dram clear plastic vial (2.3 cm diameter. Frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd was determined by the difference between the high and low frequency measurements as a percentage of χ at low frequency. IRM was measured at the field of 100 mT generated in a Molspin pulse magnetizer (IRM100mT and at the back field of 100mT (IRM−100mT. The IRM acquired in the maximum field of 1000 mT was measured and defined as the saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM of the soil sample. Results and Discussion: The results showed that moisture regime induced significant differences for soil physical and chemical properties. Diversities in genetic soil horizons and soil development degree have been increased from Aridic to Udic soil moisture regime. The results also indicated that selected properties including magnetic measures and physical and chemical properties were significantly different in four soil moisture regimes. With increasing rainfall and reducing temperature from aridic to udic soil moisture regime, soil organic matter was increased

  4. Computed tomography of lethal medline granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Suk; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1991-01-01

    In order to clarify the CT findings of lethal midline granuloma (LMG) diagnosed clinically or histopathologically, the authors retrospectively analyzed 12 patients who were seen at Kyungpook National University Hospital from February 1985 to August 1989. CT showed nasal mucosal thickening and / or soft tissue mass (9 case), spreading of the lesions along the facial subcutaneous fat plane (8 cases), invasion into the paranasal sinuses (5 cases), bone destruction (5 cases), nasopharyngeal mass lesion (2 cases), and extension of the lesion into the infratemporal fossa (1 case). In spite of the fact that CT does not make definitive diagnosis of LMG, it permits evaluation of the extent of the lesion, detection of the combined lesion, differential diagnosis, and close monitoring of its evolution under treatment

  5. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U- 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis. (author)

  6. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1983-02-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis.

  7. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  8. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  9. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Structure-Use Relationship Model Predictions to evaluate Tox21 Chemicals as Functional Substitutes and Candidate Alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides a prediction for all Tox21 chemicals with available QSUR descriptors across all 41 valid QSUR models developed with FUse. This dataset is...

  11. Chemical and biological relationships relevant to the effect of acid rainfall on the soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Nyborg

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with problems of measuring acidity in rainfall and the interpretation of these measurements in terms of effects on the soil-plant system. Theoretical relationships of the carbon-dioxide-bicarbonate equalibria and its effect on rainfall acidity measurements are given. The relationship of a cation-anion balance model of acidity in rainfall to plant...

  12. Survival of bone marrow-engrafted mice subsequent to protection from lethal radiation by WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnamon, K.E.; Ketterling, L.L.; Ledney, G.D.; Lorenz, G.B.; Mioduszewski, R.J.; Stampfli, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    For the first time data are presented for animals treated with bone marrow cells after lethal radiation exposure while protected with WR 2721 (the single radioprotective chemical compound with the highest known dose reduction factor). The LD 50 30 (lethal dose to 50% in 30 days) for mice exposed to whole-body 60 Co radiation was elevated from 824 +- 8 rad in unprotected and untreated mice to (a) 1181 +- 33 rad in animals which received syngeneic bone marrow cells after exposure; (b) 1342 +- 27 rad in animals which received WR 2721 before radiation exposure; and (c) 1608 +- 33 rad in animals receiving both the radioprotective agent before exposure and bone marrow engraftment after exposure

  13. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides in the management of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Mariana O; Oliveira, José V; Esteves Filho, Alberto B; Barbosa, Douglas Rs; Santos, Andrezo A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of lethal and sublethal effects is of great importance for a complete assessment of the total impact of chemical compounds upon pest populations and the development of management strategies. In this study, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of different synthetic and botanical products on the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), a major pest of Capsicum annuum L. and other crops. Abamectin had the highest lethal effect on P. latus, followed by spiromesifen, azadirachtin, neem oil and nitrogen fertiliser + citric acid. The sublethal effects of the products were indicated by the influence on mite population growth, affecting the numbers of females, males, larvae, pupae and eggs. Furthermore, a negative instantaneous rate of increase in P. latus and repellent effects were observed. The lethal and sublethal effects of abamectin, spiromesifen, azadirachtin and neem oil significantly affect P. latus population growth, as well as causing repellence to this mite on C. annuum, and they should be considered in the integrated pest management of this mite. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  15. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R 2 = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q 2 ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and

  16. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  17. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  18. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: Part vi - Relationship between nutrients and dissolved oxygen in the central basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    of tertiary nitrite maximum associated with lowering of oxygen concentrations in near-bottom waters. Relationships between reserved phosphate and reserved nitrate and Sigma 1 were used to classify the water masses...

  19. Indirect effects are involved in the production of potentially lethal damage in X irradiated escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1985-01-01

    When living cells are exposed to low LET radiation, 60 to 70% of the resulting lethality is said to be due to indirect effects. Using the OH radical scavengers: glycerol n-butanol, t-butanol, and NO/sub 2//sup -/. The authors observed that a radiosensitive E. coli K-12 mutant (W 3110 thy/sup -/ polAl/sup -/) lacking DNA polymerase 1 displays a markedly enhanced radioresistance when exposed to X rays in the presence of these chemicals. The extent of protection afforded by these chemicals correlated with their OH radical scavenging ability over the limited range of concentrations of the chemicals studied. (Only non-toxic concentrations of the chemicals were used). The presence of 2M glycerol during irradiation of the PolAl/sup -/ cells results in a survival level higher than that seen for the unprotected parent strain (W 3110 thy polA/sup +/)

  20. Lethal action of soluble metallic salts on fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, K E

    1927-01-01

    A study of pollution of Welsh rivers by lead-mine effluents revealed the fact that fishes were killed by the action of soluble salts of lead, which proved lethal at concentrations so low as pb i : 3,000,000. A physiological investigation of the action of lead-salts revealed the following facts: the action does not correspond to the normal toxic type. The graph of survival-times in different concentrations closely follows the equation: K = i/t log i/conc. The speed of the reaction is dependent upon the total quantity of metallic ion present, as well as upon the actual concentrations. The speed of the reaction varies in inverse relation to the size and weight of fishes employed. The most marked symptom is the formation of a film over gills and skin, by interaction of the metallic ion with a mucus-constituent. Death by suffocation is the final result. Where insufficient lead ion is present, the film is shed off, and complete recovery takes place. The speed of the reaction varies in direct relation to the temperature. Chemical analysis of residues shows that no trace of metallic ion penetrates into the body itself. The action is thus held to be purely external in process, chemical in type, and mechanical in effect; i.e., it is not a toxic action in the ordinary sense of the term. The action of soluble salts of zinc, iron, copper, cadmium, and mercury is shown to follow the same law as that of lead. Attention is directed to the economic importance of the facts, in connection with the pollution of rivers.

  1. Lethal endomyocarditis caused by chronic "Krokodil" intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Antonella; Trotta, Silvia; Colucci, Anna Pia; Aventaggiato, Lucia; Marzullo, Andrea; Solarino, Biagio

    2018-03-19

    "Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive necrotic ulcerative lesions on the forearms, and autopsy showed a hypertrophic heart with ample endocardial vegetation on the aortic valve and patency of the foramen ovale. Histopathological examination of the heart showed ulcero-vegetative lesions of the aortic valve with an abscess on the annulus and extension to the periaortic adipose tissue, as well as diffuse myocardial interstitial inflammatory neutrophilic infiltrates. Toxicological analysis demonstrated a desomorphine metabolite in urine. On the basis of all these findings the cause of death was ruled to be congestive heart failure caused by endocarditis and myocarditis, correlated with chronic abuse of krokodil.

  2. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  4. Calculation of site affinity constants and cooperativity coefficients for binding of ligands and/or protons to macromolecules. II. Relationships between chemical model and partition function algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, E; Braibanti, A; Lamb, J D; Oscarson, J L

    1990-05-01

    The relationships between the chemical properties of a system and the partition function algorithm as applied to the description of multiple equilibria in solution are explained. The partition functions ZM, ZA, and ZH are obtained from powers of the binary generating functions Jj = (1 + kappa j gamma j,i[Y])i tau j, where i tau j = p tau j, q tau j, or r tau j represent the maximum number of sites in sites in class j, for Y = M, A, or H, respectively. Each term of the generating function can be considered an element (ij) of a vector Jj and each power of the cooperativity factor gamma ij,i can be considered an element of a diagonal cooperativity matrix gamma j. The vectors Jj are combined in tensor product matrices L tau = (J1) [J2]...[Jj]..., thus representing different receptor-ligand combinations. The partition functions are obtained by summing elements of the tensor matrices. The relationship of the partition functions with the total chemical amounts TM, TA, and TH has been found. The aim is to describe the total chemical amounts TM, TA, and TH as functions of the site affinity constants kappa j and cooperativity coefficients bj. The total amounts are calculated from the sum of elements of tensor matrices Ll. Each set of indices (pj..., qj..., rj...) represents one element of a tensor matrix L tau and defines each term of the summation. Each term corresponds to the concentration of a chemical microspecies. The distinction between microspecies MpjAqjHrj with ligands bound on specific sites and macrospecies MpAqHR corresponding to a chemical stoichiometric composition is shown. The translation of the properties of chemical model schemes into the algorithms for the generation of partition functions is illustrated with reference to a series of examples of gradually increasing complexity. The equilibria examined concern: (1) a unique class of sites; (2) the protonation of a base with two classes of sites; (3) the simultaneous binding of ligand A and proton H to a

  5. Relationship between chemical structure of soil organic matter and intra-aggregate pore structure: evidence from X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Grandy, Stuart A.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding chemical structure of soil organic matter (SOM) and factors that affect it are vital for gaining understanding of mechanisms of C sequestration by soil. Physical protection of C by adsorption to mineral particles and physical disconnection between C sources and microbial decomposers is now regarded as the key component of soil C sequestration. Both of the processes are greatly influenced by micro-scale structure and distribution of soil pores. However, because SOM chemical structure is typically studied in disturbed (ground and sieved) soil samples the experimental evidence of the relationships between soil pore structure and chemical structure of SOM are still scarce. Our study takes advantage of the X-ray computed micro-tomography (µ-CT) tools that enable non-destructive analysis of pore structure in intact soil samples. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between SOM chemical structure and pore-characteristics in intact soil macro-aggregates from two contrasting long-term land uses. The two studied land use treatments are a conventionally tilled corn-soybean-wheat rotation treatment and a native succession vegetation treatment removed from agricultural use >20 years ago. The study is located in southwest Michigan, USA, on sandy-loam Typic Hapludalfs. For this study we used soil macro-aggregates 4-6 mm in size collected at 0-15 cm depth. The aggregate size was selected so as both to enable high resolution of µ-CT and to provide sufficient amount of soil for C measurements. X-ray µ-CT scanning was conducted at APS Argonne at a scanning resolution of 14 µm. Two scanned aggregates (1 per treatment) were used in this preliminary study. Each aggregate was cut into 7 "geo-referenced" sections. Analyses of pore characteristics in each section were conducted using 3DMA and ImageJ image analysis tools. SOM chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis/gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the relationships

  6. DNA polymerase I is crucial for the repair of potentially lethal damage caused by the indirect effects of X irradiation in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1985-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in DNA polymerase I was measured in the presence of OH radical scavengers. The extreme X-ray sensitivity of the mutant could be abolished by OH radical scavengers if a sufficiently high level of radioprotector was present. There was a direct correlation between the OH radical scavenging activity of the chemicals tested (NO 2 - , n-butanol, glycerol, t-amyl alcohol, and t-butanol) and their protective ability. The author interprets the data as showing that the indirect actions of X rays (primarily OH radicals) result in major damage to the bacterial DNA which in large part consists of potentially lethal lesions. This potentially lethal damage is repaired through an enzymatic pathway requiring DNA polymerase I. I. In the mutant lacking DNA polymerase I, these potentially lethal lesions are expressed as cell lethality

  7. Command and Control for Distributed Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    extended communications between the AFP CDR and the CCDR are required. As shown in Figure 20, the principle command relationships are between...frequency (RF) communications are limited by maximum antenna height of each surface platform without an airborne relay. LOS is estimated with an online ...documents the interconnections and relationship of information flow and the system requirements for maintaining the interconnection links during a

  8. A new type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-01-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature. (orig.)

  9. Back to the future: revisiting HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of eliminating HIV-1 infectivity by elevating the viral mutation rate was first proposed over a decade ago, even though the general concept had been conceived earlier for RNA viruses. Lethal mutagenesis was originally viewed as a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treating HIV-1 infection in which use of a viral mutagen would over multiple rounds of replication lead to the lethal accumulation of mutations, rendering the virus population non infectious – known as the slow mutation accumulation model. There have been limitations in obtaining good efficacy data with drug leads, leaving some doubt into clinical translation. More recent studies of the APOBEC3 proteins as well as new progress in the use of nucleoside analogs for inducing lethal mutagenesis have helped to refocus attention on rapid induction of HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis in a single or limited number of replication cycles leading to a rapid mutation accumulation model. PMID:23195922

  10. New type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-05-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature.

  11. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  12. Quantitative structure activity relationship model for predicting the depletion percentage of skin allergic chemical substances of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongzong; Wang Tao; Zhang Kejun; Duan Yunbo; Yuan Shuping; Fu Aiping; Hu Zhide

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative model was developed to predict the depletion percentage of glutathione (DPG) compounds by gene expression programming (GEP). Each kind of compound was represented by several calculated structural descriptors involving constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical features of compounds. The GEP method produced a nonlinear and five-descriptor quantitative model with a mean error and a correlation coefficient of 10.52 and 0.94 for the training set, 22.80 and 0.85 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones, better than those of the heuristic method

  13. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis.

  14. Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    during the Vietnam War. US; emulsifying agents are used in food processing, drilling fluids, cosmetics , pharmaceuticals, heavy- duty cleaners, textile...conducted in a professional manner, with no threat to public safety or the environment. 11 References [1] Fenton , G., (2001). NLW Technology Taxonomy...W.A., Mason, R.L., Collins, K.R., (2000). Non-Lethal Applicants of Slippery Substances. NDIA Non-Lethal Defense IV. [24] Fenton , G., (2000). Overview

  15. Lethal synergy involving bicyclomycin: an approach for reviving old antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad; Li, Liping; Zhao, Xilin; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-12-01

    One way to address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance is to revive old compounds that may have intrinsic lethal activity that is obscured by protective factors. Bicyclomycin is an old inhibitor of the Rho transcription terminator that by itself shows little rapid lethal activity. However, bicyclomycin participates in bacteriostatic synergy, which raises the possibility that conditions for lethal synergy may exist, perhaps through a suppression of protective factors. Bicyclomycin was combined with bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression, and bactericidal activity was measured with several cultured Gram-negative pathogens. When used alone, bicyclomycin failed to rapidly kill growing cultures of Escherichia coli; however, the additional presence of bacteriostatic concentrations of tetracycline, chloramphenicol or rifampicin led to rapid killing. Four other pathogen species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae, also exhibited enhanced killing when bicyclomycin was combined with tetracycline or rifampicin. This lethal synergy was achieved at low concentrations (slightly above the MIC) for all agents tested in combinations. Follow-up work with E. coli indicated that lethal synergy arose from a blockage of transcription elongation. Moreover, lethal synergy was reduced when bicyclomycin was added 60 min before tetracycline, suggesting that bicyclomycin induces a protective factor. The action of bicyclomycin illustrates the potential present in a largely abandoned antibacterial agent; it exhibits lethal synergy when coadministered with known, bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression. The identification of protective factors, which are currently uncharacterized, may reveal new ways to promote the lethal action of some old antibiotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved

  16. Sonographic features of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 14 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chan, Gavin Shueng Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Tang, Mary Hoi Yin

    2005-06-01

    Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare inherited disorder. Previous reports suggest that the diagnosis may be based on prenatal sonographic demonstration of severe limb flexion, absence of fetal motion, and a large cystic hygroma in the second and third trimesters. We present the sonographic features and postmortem features of a fetus with lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation, which shows that the condition can possibly be diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  17. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and resistance to radiation lethality in murine tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, C.A.; Tesfay, Z.; Jones, J.; Rosenberg, R.C.; McCarthy, C.; Rosenberg, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    Reduced species of molecular oxygen are produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with aqueous solutions containing molecular oxygen. The enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are thought to function in vivo as scavengers of metabolically produced peroxide and superoxide respectively. SOD has been shown to protect against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. The authors have investigated the relationship between the cytosolic SOD catalase content and the sensitivity to radiation lethality of a number of murine cell lines (402AX, EL-4, MB-2T3, MB-4, MEL, P-815, SAI, SP-2, and SV-3T3). K/sub i/(CN - ) for murine Cu-Zn-SOD was determined to be 6.8 x 10 -6 M. No cytosolic Mn-SOD activity was found in any of the cell lines studied. No correlation was found between the cytosolic Cu-Zn-SOD or cytosolic catalase activity and the resistance to radiation lethality or the murine cell lines studied

  19. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  20. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: I. Spectral Data-Activity Relationship and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Inhibitors and Non-inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Beger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D 13C and 1D 15N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D 13C-NMR and 15N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  1. Oxygen and SO2 Consumption Rates in White and Rosé Wines: Relationship with and Effects on Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    This Article addresses the study of O 2 and SO 2 consumption rates of white and rosé wines, their relationship to the initial chemical composition, and their effects on the chemical changes experienced by wine during oxidation. Eight wines were subjected to five consecutive air-saturation cycles. O 2 was monitored periodically; SO 2 , color, and antioxidant indexes were determined after each cycle, and the initial and final compositions of the wines were thoroughly determined. Wines consumed oxygen at progressively decreasing rates. In the last cycles, after a strong decrease, consistent increases of oxygen levels were seen. Oxygen consumption rates were satisfactorily modeled, being proportional to wine copper, quercetin, and kaempherol contents and negatively proportional to cinnamic acids. SO 2 consumption rates were highly diverse between wines and were positively related to free SO 2 , Mn, and pH, among others. In the last saturations, SO 2 consumption took place regardless of O 2 consumption, implying that SO 2 should reduce chemical species oxidized in previous saturations. Some volatile phenols seem to be the end point of radical-mediated oxidation of polyphenols taking place preferably in the first saturation.

  2. A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

  3. Lethal coalitionary aggression and long-term alliance formation among Yanomamö men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Walker, Robert S; Flinn, Mark V; Chagnon, Napoleon A

    2014-11-25

    Some cross-cultural evidence suggests lethal coalitionary aggression in humans is the product of residence and descent rules that promote fraternal interest groups, i.e., power groups of coresident males bonded by kinship. As such, human lethal coalitions are hypothesized to be homologous to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) border patrols. However, humans demonstrate a unique metagroup social structure in which strategic alliances allow individuals to form coalitions transcending local community boundaries. We test predictions derived from the fraternal interest group and strategic alliance models using lethal coalition data from a lowland South American population, the Yanomamö. Yanomamö men who kill an enemy acquire a special status, termed unokai. We examine the social characteristics of co-unokais or men who jointly kill others. Analyses indicate co-unokais generally are (i) from the same population but from different villages and patrilines, (ii) close age mates, and (iii) maternal half-first cousins. Furthermore, the incident rate for co-unokai killings increases if men are similar in age, from the same population, and from different natal communities. Co-unokais who have killed more times in the past and who are more genetically related to each other have a higher probability of coresidence in adulthood. Last, a relationship exists between lethal coalition formation and marriage exchange. In this population, internal warfare unites multiple communities, and co-unokais strategically form new residential groups and marriage alliances. These results support the strategic alliance model of coalitionary aggression, demonstrate the complexities of human alliance formation, and illuminate key differences in social structure distinguishing humans from other primates.

  4. Sequence heterogeneity of cannabidiolic- and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-synthase in Cannabis sativa L. and its relationship with chemical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Chiara; de Meijer, Etienne P M; Mandolino, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Sequence variants of THCA- and CBDA-synthases were isolated from different Cannabis sativa L. strains expressing various wild-type and mutant chemical phenotypes (chemotypes). Expressed and complete sequences were obtained from mature inflorescences. Each strain was shown to have a different specificity and/or ability to convert the precursor CBGA into CBDA and/or THCA type products. The comparison of the expressed sequences led to the identification of different mutations, all of them due to SNPs. These SNPs were found to relate to the cannabinoid composition of the inflorescence at maturity and are therefore proposed to have a functional significance. The amount of variation was found to be higher within the CBDAS sequence family than in the THCAS family, suggesting a more recent evolution of THCA-forming enzymes from the CBDAS group. We therefore consider CBDAS as the ancestral type of these synthases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial influences on prisoner suicide: a case-control study of near-lethal self-harm in women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena

    2011-03-01

    We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Veronica: Chemical characters for the support of phylogenetic relationships based on nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Özgökce, Fevzi

    2005-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed many relationships in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) never anticipated before. However, phytochemical characters show good congruence with DNA-based analyses. We have analysed a combined data set of 49 species and subspecies derived from the nuclear...... are monophyletic sister groups with the annual species consecutive sisters to them. All species of Veronica that contain cornoside are found in this subgenus, although some species seem to have secondarily lost the ability to produce this compound. Subgenera Pocilla and Pentasepalae are well supported sister...... species in the genus analysed to date to contain melittoside and globularifolin. Subgenus Pentasepalae appears to be a clade of diverse lineages from southwestern Asia and a single European clade. Species shown to have 6-hydroxyflavones do not form a monophyletic group. Subgenus Pseudolysimachium seems...

  8. A review of current knowledge concerning PM2. 5 chemical composition, aerosol optical properties and their relationships across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian

    2017-08-01

    To obtain a thorough knowledge of PM2. 5 chemical composition and its impact on aerosol optical properties across China, existing field studies conducted after the year 2000 are reviewed and summarized in terms of geographical, interannual and seasonal distributions. Annual PM2. 5 was up to 6 times the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in some megacities in northern China. Annual PM2. 5 was higher in northern than southern cities, and higher in inland than coastal cities. In a few cities with data longer than a decade, PM2. 5 showed a slight decrease only in the second half of the past decade, while carbonaceous aerosols decreased, sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) remained at high levels, and nitrate (NO3-) increased. The highest seasonal averages of PM2. 5 and its major chemical components were typically observed in the cold seasons. Annual average contributions of secondary inorganic aerosols to PM2. 5 ranged from 25 to 48 %, and those of carbonaceous aerosols ranged from 23 to 47 %, both with higher contributions in southern regions due to the frequent dust events in northern China. Source apportionment analysis identified secondary inorganic aerosols, coal combustion and traffic emission as the top three source factors contributing to PM2. 5 mass in most Chinese cities, and the sum of these three source factors explained 44 to 82 % of PM2. 5 mass on annual average across China. Biomass emission in most cities, industrial emission in industrial cities, dust emission in northern cities and ship emission in coastal cities are other major source factors, each of which contributed 7-27 % to PM2. 5 mass in applicable cities. The geographical pattern of scattering coefficient (bsp) was similar to that of PM2. 5, and that of aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) was determined by elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration and its coating. bsp in ambient condition of relative humidity (RH) = 80 % can be amplified by about 1.8 times that under dry conditions

  9. Chemical composition of ambient PM2. 5 over China and relationship to precursor emissions during 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guannan; Zhang, Qiang; Tong, Dan; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yixuan; Wang, Siwen; He, Kebin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we presented the characteristics of PM2. 5 chemical composition over China for the period of 2005-2012 by synthesis of in situ measurement data collected from literatures and satellite-based estimates using aerosol optical depth (AOD) data and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We revealed the spatiotemporal variations in PM2. 5 composition during 2005-2012 and investigated the driving forces behind the variations by examining the changes in precursor emissions using a bottom-up emission inventory. Both in situ observations and satellite-based estimates identified that secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium; SNA) ranked as the highest fraction of dust-free PM2. 5 concentrations, followed by organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC). For instance, satellite-based estimates found that SNA, OM, and BC contributed to 59, 33, and 8 %, respectively, of national population-weighted mean dust-free PM2. 5 concentrations during 2005-2012. National population-weighted mean PM2. 5 concentration increased from 63.9 µg m-3 in 2005 to 75.2 µg m-3 in 2007 and subsequently decreased to 66.9 µg m-3 from 2007 to 2012. Variations in PM2. 5 concentrations are mainly driven by the decrease in sulfate and the increase in nitrate. Population-weighted mean sulfate concentration decreased by 2.4 % yr-1 during 2005-2012 (from 14.4 to 12.9 µg m-3), while population-weighted mean nitrate concentration increased by 3.4 % yr-1 during 2005-2012 (from 9.8 to 12.2 µg m-3), largely offsetting the decrease in sulfate concentrations. By examining the emission data from the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), we found that the changes in sulfate and nitrate concentrations were in line with the decrease in SO2 emissions and the increase in NOx emissions during the same period. The desulfurization regulation in power plants enforced around 2005 has been the primary contributor to the SO2 emission reduction since 2006. In contrast

  10. Dominant lethal effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Germ cell mutations are used in ecotoxicological studies as biomarkers of population effects and indicators of ecological changes. Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater mollusk, is a good experimental model for biomonitoring studies due to its biological characteristics and the ecological importance of this invertebrate group. The dominant lethal test was established in B. glabrata for the detection of germ cell mutations. Results with chemical mutagens showed that this system is efficient, specific and sensitive in the evaluation of germ cell mutations induced by reference mutagens. In this work, the dominant lethal effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co were studied. A preliminary experiment was done to establish the dose range and to estimate the chronology of spermatogenesis in B. glabrata. This estimate is possible because of the uniformity in response to ionizing radiation between germ cells at homologous stages of spermatogenesis in widely different species. In general, pre-meiotic germ cells are less sensitive to the induction of lethal dominant mutations than post-meiotic cells. This effect can be attributed to: young gametogenic cells - mitotically active - have greater repair ability from sub-lethal DNA damage and there is a selective elimination of the damaged cells. In our system: induction of lethal dominant mutations causes an increase in the frequency of malformations and, cytotoxic effect is displayed as a reduction in the crossing rates. Total duration of spermatogenesis was estimated in approximately 36 days, with the following distribution of stages: 1 to 13 days - spermatogonia, 14 to 20 days - spermatocytes, 21 to 36 days - spermatids and spermatozoa. Based on this chronology, irradiated wild-type snails with 2,5; 10 and 20Gy and crossed with non-irradiated albino snails after 7, 17, 23, 30 and 36 days. The frequencies of malformations in the heterozygous wild-type offspring of the nonirradiated albino snails were used as indicator of germ cell

  11. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Fruit Purees and Relationship with Sensory Analysis Carried out by Infants (12 to 24 mo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, A M; Mancebo-Campos, V; Cañizares, P; Llanos, J

    2015-05-01

    Fruit purees are one of the foods earliest introduced foods in infants' diet during the complementary period. The rheological characteristics together with the sensory analysis are decisive factors for the acceptance of the food product by the infant. The sensory analysis of three commercial fruit purees (mixed fruits, pear, and plum) was studied by employing a new objective sensory parameter named as SAIR (Sensory Acceptance by Infants Ratio), which is the quotient between the percentage of puree consumed (%) by the time (seconds) throughout the storage time. In parallel, the rheological characteristics of the purees were analyzed in order to obtain a relationship with the SAIR parameter. It was proved that the best acceptance of the product (higher SAIR) was observed for such purees showing a lower apparent viscosity (lower consistency index, "K") and a less pseudoplastic behavior (higher flow behavior index, "n"). These results may help to obtain higher acceptance values based on easy obtainable and objective parameters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Empirical complexities in the genetic foundations of lethal mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-10-01

    From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias-mutagenesis of virions-but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it.

  13. Heat, Acid and Chemically Induced Unfolding Pathways, Conformational Stability and Structure-Function Relationship in Wheat α-Amylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Singh

    Full Text Available Wheat α-amylase, a multi-domain protein with immense industrial applications, belongs to α+β class of proteins with native molecular mass of 32 kDa. In the present study, the pathways leading to denaturation and the relevant unfolded states of this multi-domain, robust enzyme from wheat were discerned under the influence of temperature, pH and chemical denaturants. The structural and functional aspects along with thermodynamic parameters for α-amylase unfolding were probed and analyzed using fluorescence, circular dichroism and enzyme assay methods. The enzyme exhibited remarkable stability up to 70°C with tendency to aggregate at higher temperature. Acid induced unfolding was also incomplete with respect to the structural content of the enzyme. Strong ANS binding at pH 2.0 suggested the existence of a partially unfolded intermediate state. The enzyme was structurally and functionally stable in the pH range 4.0-9.0 with 88% recovery of hydrolytic activity. Careful examination of biophysical properties of intermediate states populated in urea and GdHCl induced denaturation suggests that α-amylase unfolding undergoes irreversible and non-coincidental cooperative transitions, as opposed to previous reports of two-state unfolding. Our investigation highlights several structural features of the enzyme in relation to its catalytic activity. Since, α-amylase has been comprehensively exploited for use in a range of starch-based industries, in addition to its physiological significance in plants and animals, knowledge regarding its stability and folding aspects will promote its biotechnological applications.

  14. Lethal effects of selected novel pesticides on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Ruberson, John R

    2017-12-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied the acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, three fungicides and three herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 days later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs. Seven insecticides (buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, flonicamid, flubendiamide) and miticides (spiromesifen, cyflumetofen), one herbicide (nicosulfuron), and three fungicides (myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) caused no significant mortality to immature stages or pre-emergent adult parasitoids relative to controls. By contrast, seven insecticides/miticides (abamectin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, novaluron, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad) adversely affected immature and pre-emergent adult T. pretiosum, with tolfenpyrad being particularly lethal. Two herbicides had moderate (glufosinate ammonium) to severe (s-metolachlor) acute lethal effects on the immature parasitoids. This study corroborates earlier findings with adult T. pretiosum. Over half of the pesticides - and all the fungicides - tested in the current study would appear to be compatible with the use of T. pretiosum in integrated pest management programs, with respect to acute parasitoid mortality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.Estudou-se o efeito da infecção causada por espécie letal (Plasmodium berghei e não- letal (P. yoelii de plasmódio sobre o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares de camundongo BALB/c. O P. yoelii causou maior e mais prolongada expansão e ativação do sistema de macrófagos. As duas mais importantes populações de fagócitos esplênicos - macrófagos de polpa vermelha e da zona marginal - exibiam maior aumento do número de células nesta infecção. Durante a evolução da malária por P. berghei, o baço foi progressivamente ocupado por tecido hematopoiético e, na fase terminal da infecção, observou-se significativa depleção dos linfócitos e macrófagos esplênicos. Os dados apresentados indicam que a evolução da malária depende do tipo de interação entre o plasmódio e o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares.

  16. Analysis of time of death of prenatally lethal Steeloid mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinchik, E.M.; Cummings, C.C.; Bangham, J.W.; Hunsicker, P.R.; Phipps, E.L.; Stelzner, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Deletion mutations have been extremely useful in initiating the functional and molecular dissections of regions of the mouse genome. For the d-se and c regions, for example, it was observed that radiation mutations carrying lethal factors separable, by complementation analysis, from the primary d, se, or c mutation itself, could often be associated at both the genetic and molecular levels with multilocus chromosomal deletions. Since many of the Oak Ridge Sld mutations arose in radiation mutagenesis experiments, a substantial number may carry chromosomal deletions that involve the Sl locus in chromosome 10. Because of the great value of deletion mutations for the genetic and molecular analysis of chromosomal regions and complex genetic loci, they have initiated a series of experiments designed to test whether radiation-induced Sld mutations carry other lethal factors, in addition to the lethality caused by severe alleles of the Sl locus itself, as one prescreen for identifying Sld's that are caused by deletions

  17. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Frucht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF and lethal factor (LF enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA. LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs, but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  18. Inductions of reproduction and population growth in the generalist predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Hemiptera: Miridae) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Xu, Qiujing; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Chen; Ge, Linquan; Yang, Guoqing; Liu, Fang

    2017-08-01

    The miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, is a significant predacious enemy of rice planthoppers. The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on fecundity, egg hatchability, expression levels of genes associated with reproduction, and population growth in C. lividipennis were investigated. The fecundities for three pair combinations (♀ c × ♂ t , ♀ t × ♂ c and ♀ t × ♂ t ) treated with sub-lethal concentrations of the insecticides triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC 10 and LC 20 ) showed a significant increase compared to the untreated pairs (♀ c × ♂ c ). However, sub-lethal concentration treatments did not affect the egg hatchability. The ClVg expression levels of female adults exposed to triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC 20 ) increased by 52.6, 48.9 and 91.2%, respectively. The ClSPATA13 expression level of adult males exposed to triazophos, deltamethrim and imidacloprid (LC 20 ) increased by 80.7, 41.3 and 48.3%, respectively. Furthermore, sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides (LC 20 ) caused increased population numbers in C. lividipennis. Sub-lethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid stimulated reproduction and enhanced population growth of C. lividipennis. The reproductive stimulation might result from the up-regulation of ClVg or ClSPATA13. These findings may be useful in mediating populations of planthoppers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulston, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 μg/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of 3 H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, β-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment

  20. Lethals induced by γ-radiation in drosophila somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of 3-hour drosophila male embryos to γ-radiation during the topographic segregation of the germ anlage nuclei caused recessive sex-linked lethals in somatic cells only. The selectivity of the screening was determined by the ratio of mutation frequencies induced in embryos and adult males. Analysis of lethal mutations shows that a minimal rate of the divergence between germinal and somatic patterns of the cell development is observed in the embryogenesis, the 3d instar larva and prepupa, and maximal in the 1st and 2nd larva and pupa

  1. Effective lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus by three nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Matthew D; Lauring, Adam S

    2015-04-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and low mutational tolerance of many RNA viruses. This approach uses mutagenic drugs to increase viral mutation rates and burden viral populations with mutations that reduce the number of infectious progeny. We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. All three drugs were active against a panel of seasonal H3N2 and laboratory-adapted H1N1 strains. We found that each drug increased the frequency of mutations in influenza virus populations and decreased the virus' specific infectivity, indicating a mutagenic mode of action. We were able to drive viral populations to extinction by passaging influenza virus in the presence of each drug, indicating that complete lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus populations can be achieved when a sufficient mutational burden is applied. Population-wide resistance to these mutagenic agents did not arise after serial passage of influenza virus populations in sublethal concentrations of drug. Sequencing of these drug-passaged viral populations revealed genome-wide accumulation of mutations at low frequency. The replicative capacity of drug-passaged populations was reduced at higher multiplicities of infection, suggesting the presence of defective interfering particles and a possible barrier to the evolution of resistance. Together, our data suggest that lethal mutagenesis may be a particularly effective therapeutic approach with a high genetic barrier to resistance for influenza virus. Influenza virus is an RNA virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and the low

  2. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by alkylating agnets in germ-cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murota, Tetsuo; Murakami, Akio.

    1977-01-01

    The comparison of the intensity of activity was made by measuring radiation equivalent chemical (REC) dose in the experiment of the induction of dominant lethal mutation, using the germ cells of pupae five days before the moths will be hatched. The alkylating agents employed in the experiment are methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), diethyl sulfate (DSC) and mitomycine-C (MC). X-ray irradiation was employed in order to indicate the capability of inducing mutation of the alkylating agents with the radiation equivalent chemical dose (REC dose). The dose-hatchability curves for the alkylating agents showed sigmoidal fashion as observed in X-ray, regardless of germ cells. The REC value at LD (50) was estimated by comparing the relative mutagenic capability of these chemicals. In sperm, EMS and DES with concentration of 1.0 x 10 -7 M/g showed the same lethality as about 2.3 kR and 0.6 kR of X-ray. However, no significant reduction of embryonic lethality after the treatment of pupae with MC (up to 2.1 x 10 -7 M/g) and MMS (up to 1.0 x 10 -6 M/g) was observed. As the results, the order of mutagenic effectiveness was as follows: EMS>DES>MMS approximately equal to MC. When oocytes in the mid-pupae were treated with MMS, EMS and MC with concentration of 1.0 x 10 -7 M/g, MMS and EMS showed the same effects as 12.8 kR and 0.6 kR. Surprisingly, MC showed the same lethality as 232.3 kR. This extremely high sensitivity of oocytes to MC may be ascribed to the inhibiting effect of the drug on the meiotic division. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Scopolamine methylbromide mitigates radiation induced damage and lethality in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Nitisha; Joshi, Jayadev; Ghosh, Subhajit; Dimri, Manali; Prem Kumar, Indracanti; Sehgal, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    In view of the strategic importance radiation countermeasures hold, the present study was undertaken to screen a collection of small molecule clinical compounds for possible radioprotective action using zebrafish as a model system. Preliminary screening in developing zebrafish embryos (24 hour post fertilization, (hpf)) using damage manifestations and survival as end point identified scopolamine methylbromide (SMB), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, as a potential radiomitigator. It was found to be optimal (60% survival advantage after 6 th post irradiation day) at a dose of 80 μM when added 3 h post 20 Gy exposure. Mechanistic studies suggested that SMB though exhibited no significant antioxidant potential, but was found to limit radiation induced apoptosis (pre G1 population) quantified through flow cytometry (6 and 5% reduction after 8 or 24 h after treatments) and annexin V staining (8% reduction). Further, quantitative analysis, using caspase 3 assay, revealed a 2.46 fold increase in apoptosis in irradiated group and treatment of irradiated zebrafish embryos with SMB led to a significant reduction in global apoptosis (1.7 fold; p<0.05) when compared to irradiated group. In silico studies based on structural and functional similarity with known radioprotectors suggested similarities with atropine, a known anti-inflammatory agent with muscarinic antagonism and radioprotective potential. In view of this SMB was tested, in silico, for possible anti-inflammatory action. Molecular docking studies revealed that SMB interacts (B.E-8.0 Kcal/mole) with cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2). In lieu of this, anti-inflammation activity was assessed through ChIN (chemically induced inflammation) method in 3 dpf (days post fertilization) embryos and SMB was found to significantly inhibit inflammation at all doses studied from 20-200 μM at 3 and 6 hpi (hours post inflammation). Overall the result suggests that scopolamine methylbromide mitigates radiation induced injury and lethality in

  4. Lethal Brands: How VEOs Build Reputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Scott Ligon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ISIS has run the most effective social media marketing campaign in history. In fact, violent extremist organizations (VEOs market their ideology and organizations to a global audience in ways that rival even the savviest of conventional organizations. However, applying marketing theory and methodology to study VEOs has not been done to date for the security community. Thus, the goal of the present effort is to use a novel lens used to apply the marketing strategies of conventional, for-profit organizations to examine the impact of VEO reputation and legitimacy on VEO performance. We coded tactics used by VEOs such as ISIS to establish a strong brand reputation, and examined the relationship between branding strategies and markers of performance (e.g., recruitment and fundraising using a sample of 60 historically notable VEOs spanning a variety of ideologies, cultures, and periods of peak performance. The primary contribution of studying such a diverse sample of VEOs is the identification of how branding strategies can predict recruitment of talented personnel, financial sources, and organizational capacity for violence. Two key findings discussed are (1 VEOs market and differentiate themselves via malevolently innovative attacks, and (2 even negatively-toned media coverage is related to their long-term fundraising viability.

  5. Perforated appendicitis presenting as a thigh abscess: A lethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typical cases of acute appendicitis have excellent treatment outcomes, if managed appropriately.1 We discuss an unusual case of perforated retrocaecal appendicitis that presented as a right thigh abscess without prominent abdominal symptoms, which highlights the lethal nature of advanced appendicitis even when ...

  6. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  7. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  8. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  9. Why the United States Must Adopt Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    intelligence , Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, energy production, energy storage, three-dimensional printing , bandwidth improvements, computer...views on the morality of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics technology. Eastern culture sees artificial intelligence as an economic savior...capable of improving their society. In contrast, Western culture regards artificial intelligence with paranoia, anxiety, and skepticism. As Eastern

  10. Evaluation of effects of long term exposure on lethal toxicity with mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J; Connell, Des W

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure time (LT50) and lethal exposure concentration (LC50) has been evaluated over relatively long exposure times using a novel parameter, Normal Life Expectancy (NLT), as a long term toxicity point. The model equation, ln(LT50) = aLC50(ν) + b, where a, b and ν are constants, was evaluated by plotting lnLT50 against LC50 using available toxicity data based on inhalation exposure from 7 species of mammals. With each specific toxicant a single consistent relationship was observed for all mammals with ν always mammals and then be extended to estimate toxicity at any exposure time with other mammals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of temperature and pressure on the lethality of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, J.; Pagan, R.; Condon, S.; Sala, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    A specially designed resistometer was constructed, and the lethal effect on Yersinia enterocolitica of ultrasonic waves (UW) at different static pressures (manosonication [MS]) and of combined heat-UW under pressure treatments (manothermosonication [MTS]) was investigated. During MS treatments at 30 degrees C and 200 kPa, the increase in the amplitude of UW of 20 kHz from 21 to 150 micrometers exponentially decreased decimal reduction time values (D(MS)) from 4 to 0.37 min. When pressure was increased from 0 to 600 kPa at a constant amplitude (150 micrometers) and temperature (30 degrees C), D(MS) values decreased from 1.52 to 0.20 min. The magnitude of this decrease in D(MS) declined progressively as pressure was increased. The influence of pressure on D(MS) values was greater with increased amplitude of UW. Pressure alone of as much as 600 kPa did not influence the heat resistance of Y. enterocolitica (D60 = 0.094; zeta = 5.65). At temperatures of as much as 58 degrees C, the lethality of UW under pressure was greater than that of heat treatment alone at the same temperature. At higher temperatures, this difference disappeared. Heat and UW under pressure seemed to act independently. The lethality of MTS treatments appeared to result from the added effects of UW under pressure and the lethal effect of heat. The individual contributions of heat and of UW under pressure to the total lethal effect of MTS depended on temperature. The inactivating effect of UW was not due to titanium particles eroded from the sonication horn. The addition to the MS media of cysteamine did not increase the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to MS treatment. MS treatment caused cell disruption

  12. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faty Mahamadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  13. The effect of crop sequences on soil microbial, chemical and physical indicators and its relationship with soybean sudden death syndrome (complex of Fusarium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Perez-Brandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of crop sequences on soil quality indicators and its relationship with sudden death syndrome (SDS, a complex of Fusarium species was evaluated by physical, chemical, biochemical and molecular techniques. Regarding physical aspects, soybean/maize and maize monoculture exhibited the highest stable aggregate level, with values 41% and 43% higher than in soybean monoculture, respectively, and 133% higher than in bean monoculture. Bulk density (BD was higher in soybean monoculture, being 4% higher than in bean monoculture. The chemical parameters organic matter, total N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and water holding capacity also indicated that soybean/maize and maize monoculture improved soil quality. Fungal and bacterial community fingerprints generated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated a clear separation between the rotations. Fatty acid profiles evaluated by FAME showed that bean monoculture had higher biomass of Gram (+ bacteria and stress indicators than maize monoculture, while the soybean/maize system showed a significant increase in total microbial biomass (total FAMEs content in comparison with soybean and bean monoculture. The incidence of SDS (Fusarium crassistipitatum was markedly higher (15% under soybean monoculture than when soybean was grown in rotation with maize. In the present work, soil microbial properties were improved under soybean/maize relative to continuous soybean. The improvement of soil health was one of the main causes for the reduction of disease pressure and crop yield improvement due to the benefits that crop rotation produces for soil quality.

  14. Assessing relationships between chemical exposure, parasite infection, fish health, and fish ecological status: a case study using chub (Leuciscus cephalus) in the Bílina River, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael; Ondracková, Markéta; Machala, Miroslav; Neca, Jirí; Hyrsl, Pavel; Simková, Andrea; Jurajda, Pavel; von der Ohe, Peter; Segner, Helmut

    2010-02-01

    Multiple stressor scenarios, as they are relevant in many watersheds, call for approaches extending beyond conventional chemical-focused approaches. The present study, investigated the fish population, represented by chub (Leuciscus cephalus), in the Bílina River (Czech Republic), which is impacted by various pollution sources and might pose a risk on the fish population. To confirm or reject this hypothesis it was examined whether there exists an association between abundance of chub and exposure to toxic chemicals as well as natural stressors, represented by parasites, and whether health-related suborganismal traits, namely, organ indices, tissue histopathology, and immune parameters, would help in revealing relationships between stressor impact and population status. Toxic pressure was assessed by the toxic unit approach, which gives an integrative estimate of toxic effect concentrations and by measuring the biomarkers cytochrome P4501A and vitellogenin, which indicate exposure to bioavailable arylhydrocarbon- or estrogen receptor ligands. Parasite pressure was estimated by determining abundance and species composition of ecto- and endoparasites of chub. Chub abundance was high upstream in the Bílina, low to zero in the middle stretches, and increased again downstream. Toxic pressure increased in the downstream direction, while parasite intensity decreased in this direction. Health status of chub did not differ clearly between up-, middle-, and downstream sites. Thus, it appears that neither toxic pressure nor parasite pressure nor their combination translates into a change of chub health status. By using varied assessment tools, this study provides evidence against a presumed causative role of toxicants impairing the fish ecological status of the Bílina River. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  15. The effect of crop sequences on soil microbial, chemical and physical indicators and its relationship with soybean sudden death syndrome (complex of Fusarium species)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Brandan, C.; Arzeno, J. L.; Huidobro, J.; Conforto, C.; Grumberg, B.; Hilton, S.; Bending, G. D.; Meriles, J. M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of crop sequences on soil quality indicators and its relationship with sudden death syndrome (SDS, a complex of Fusarium species) was evaluated by physical, chemical, biochemical and molecular techniques. Regarding physical aspects, soybean/maize and maize mono culture exhibited the highest stable aggregate level, with values 41% and 43% higher than in soybean mono culture, respectively, and 133% higher than in bean mono culture. Bulk density (BD) was higher in soybean monoculture, being 4% higher than in bean monoculture. The chemical parameters organic matter, total N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and water holding capacity also indicated that soybean/maize and maize monoculture improved soil quality. Fungal and bacterial community fingerprints generated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated a clear separation between the rotations. Fatty acid profiles evaluated by FAME showed that bean monoculture had higher biomass of Gram (+) bacteria and stress indicators than maize monoculture, while the soybean/maize system showed a significant increase in total microbial biomass (total FAMEs content) in comparison with soybean and bean monoculture. The incidence of SDS (Fusarium crassistipitatum) was markedly higher (15%) under soybean monoculture than when soybean was grown in rotation with maize. In the present work, soil microbial properties were improved under soybean/maize relative to continuous soybean. The improvement of soil health was one of the main causes for the reduction of disease pressure and crop yield improvement due to the benefits that crop rotation produces for soil quality. (Author)

  16. Revertant mutation releases confined lethal mutation, opening Pandora's box: a novel genetic pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When two mutations, one dominant pathogenic and the other "confining" nonsense, coexist in the same allele, theoretically, reversion of the latter may elicit a disease, like the opening of Pandora's box. However, cases of this hypothetical pathogenic mechanism have never been reported. We describe a lethal form of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID syndrome caused by the reversion of the GJB2 nonsense mutation p.Tyr136X that would otherwise have confined the effect of another dominant lethal mutation, p.Gly45Glu, in the same allele. The patient's mother had the identical misssense mutation which was confined by the nonsense mutation. The biological relationship between the parents and the child was confirmed by genotyping of 15 short tandem repeat loci. Haplotype analysis using 40 SNPs spanning the >39 kbp region surrounding the GJB2 gene and an extended SNP microarray analysis spanning 83,483 SNPs throughout chromosome 13 in the family showed that an allelic recombination event involving the maternal allele carrying the mutations generated the pathogenic allele unique to the patient, although the possibility of coincidental accumulation of spontaneous point mutations cannot be completely excluded. Previous reports and our mutation screening support that p.Gly45Glu is in complete linkage disequilibrium with p.Tyr136X in the Japanese population. Estimated from statisitics in the literature, there may be approximately 11,000 p.Gly45Glu carriers in the Japanese population who have this second-site confining mutation, which acts as natural genetic protection from the lethal disease. The reversion-triggered onset of the disesase shown in this study is a previously unreported genetic pathogenesis based on Mendelian inheritance.

  17. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chemical modifications of antisense morpholino oligomers enhance their efficacy against Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Dana L; Warfield, Kelly L; Warren, Travis K; Lovejoy, Candace; Hassinger, Jed N; Ruthel, Gordon; Blouch, Robert E; Moulton, Hong M; Weller, Dwight D; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

    2009-05-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are uncharged nucleic acid-like molecules designed to inactivate the expression of specific genes via the antisense-based steric hindrance of mRNA translation. PMOs have been successful at knocking out viral gene expression and replication in the case of acute viral infections in animal models and have been well tolerated in human clinical trials. We propose that antisense PMOs represent a promising class of therapeutic agents that may be useful for combating filoviral infections. We have previously shown that mice treated with a PMO whose sequence is complementary to a region spanning the start codon of VP24 mRNA were protected against lethal Ebola virus challenge. In the present study, we report on the abilities of two additional VP24-specific PMOs to reduce the cell-free translation of a VP24 reporter, to inhibit the in vitro replication of Ebola virus, and to protect mice against lethal challenge when the PMOs are delivered prior to infection. Additionally, structure-activity relationship evaluations were conducted to assess the enhancement of antiviral efficacy associated with PMO chemical modifications that included conjugation with peptides of various lengths and compositions, positioning of conjugated peptides to either the 5' or the 3' terminus, and the conferring of charge modifications by the addition of piperazine moieties. Conjugation with arginine-rich peptides greatly enhanced the antiviral efficacy of VP24-specific PMOs in infected cells and mice during lethal Ebola virus challenge.

  19. Molecular spectroscopic features of protein in newly developed chickpea: Relationship with protein chemical profile and metabolism in the rumen and intestine of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoli; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-05-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy. The second aim was to quantify the relationship between protein molecular spectral characteristics and CP subfractions, in situ rumen CP degradation characteristics, intestinal digestibility of CP, and MP supply to dairy cows. Samples (n = 4) of each variety, from two consecutive years were analyzed. Chickpeas had higher (P content (21.71-22.11 vs 12.96% DM), with higher (P content, and any of the measured in situ degradation and molecular spectral characteristics of protein. The content of RUP was positively (r = 0.94, P content of CP (R2 = 0.91) D-fraction (R2 = 0.82), RDP (R2 = 0.77), RUP (R2 = 0.77), TDP (R2 = 0.98), MP (R2 = 0.80), and FMV (R2 = 0.80) can be predicted from amide II peak height. Despite extensive ruminal degradation, chickpea is a good source of MP for dairy cows, and molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their digestibility and nutritive value.

  20. Molecular spectroscopic features of protein in newly developed chickpea: Relationship with protein chemical profile and metabolism in the rumen and intestine of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoli; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-05-05

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy. The second aim was to quantify the relationship between protein molecular spectral characteristics and CP subfractions, in situ rumen CP degradation characteristics, intestinal digestibility of CP, and MP supply to dairy cows. Samples (n=4) of each variety, from two consecutive years were analyzed. Chickpeas had higher (Pmolecular spectral data of chickpeas can be distinguished from the barley. The two chickpeas did not differ in CP content, and any of the measured in situ degradation and molecular spectral characteristics of protein. The content of RUP was positively (r=0.94, Pmolecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their digestibility and nutritive value. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.D.; Lyon, M.F.

    1975-01-01

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  2. Are Trp53 rescue of Brca1 embryonic lethality and Trp53/Brca1 breast cancer association related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, Kimberly A; Wiseman, Roger W

    2002-01-01

    Brca1 is involved in multiple biological pathways including DNA damage repair, transcriptional regulation, and cell-cycle progression. A complex pattern of interactions of Brca1 with Trp53 has also emerged. Xu and coworkers found that haploid loss of Trp53 significantly reduces the embryonic lethality observed in mice with a homozygous in-frame deletion of Brca1 exon 11. They report that widespread apoptosis correlates with the embryonic lethality resulting from this homozygous Δ11 Brca1 mutation. A mechanism responsible for Brca1-associated carcinogenesis is proposed. These experiments extend our knowledge of a complex Brca1/Trp53 relationship. However, the precise mechanisms through which Brca1 interacts with Trp53 to suppress mammary tumor formation have yet to be elucidated

  3. Differential expression of the lethal gene Luteus-Pa in cacao of the Parinari series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehem, B C; Almeida, A-A F; Figueiredo, G S F; Gesteira, A S; Santos, S C; Corrêa, R X; Yamada, M M; Valle, R R

    2016-02-22

    The recessive lethal character Luteus-Pa is found in cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes of the Parinari series (Pa) and is characterized by expression of leaf chlorosis and seedling death. Several genotypes of the Pa series are bearers of the gene responsible for the expression of the Luteus-Pa character, which can be used as a tool for determining relationships between genotypes of this group. To evaluate this phenomenon, we analyzed the differential expression of genes between mutant seedlings and wild-type hybrid Pa 30 x 169 seedlings, with the aim of elucidating the possible lethal mechanisms of the homozygous recessive character Luteus-Pa. Plant material was harvested from leaves of wild and mutant seedlings at different periods to construct a subtractive library and perform quantitative analysis using real-time PCR. The 649 sequences obtained from the subtractive library had an average length of 500 bp, forming 409 contigs. The probable proteins encoded were grouped into 10 functional categories. Data from ESTs identified genes associated with Rubisco, peroxidases, and other proteins and enzymes related to carbon assimilation, respiration, and photosystem 2. Mutant seedlings were characterized by synthesizing defective PsbO and PsbA proteins, which were overexpressed from 15 to 20 days after seedling emergence.

  4. A quick method for testing recessive lethal damage with a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.; Puppo, S.; Gualandi, G.; Conti, L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple method capable of detecting recessive lethal damage in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans is described. The method scores the recessive lethals on the 1st, the 3rd and the 5th chromosomes, which represent about 40% of the total map of A. nidulans. Two examples of induced lethals, with ultraviolet irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate are shown. The frequency of lethals may reach 36% of the total population with UV irradiation. (Auth.)

  5. Humanitarian Algorithms : A Codified Key Safety Switch Protocol for Lethal Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    With the deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, there is the requirement that any such platform complies with the precepts of International Humanitarian Law. Humanitarian Algorithms[9: p. 9] ensure that lethal autonomous weapon systems perform military/security operations, within the confines of International Humanitarian Law. Unlike other existing techniques of regulating lethal autonomy this scheme advocates for an approach that enables Machine Learning. Lethal autonomous weapons must be ...

  6. Pacman dysplasia: a lethal skeletal dysplasia with variable radiographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, Norfolk (United States); Proud, V.K. [Dept. of Genetics, Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, Norfolk (United States); Werner, A.L. [Dept. of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, Norfolk (United States); Field, F.M.; Wilcox, W.F.; Lachman, R.S.; Rimoin, D.L. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Background: Punctate or stippled cartilaginous calcifications are associated with many conditions, including chromosomal, infectious, endocrine, and teratogenic etiologies. Some of these conditions are clinically mild, while others are lethal. Accurate diagnosis can prove instrumental in clinical management and in genetic counseling. Objective: To describe the diagnostic radiographic features seen in Pacman dysplasia, a distinct autosomal recessive, lethal skeletal dysplasia. Materials and methods: We present the fourth reported case of Pacman dysplasia and compare the findings seen in our patient with the three previously described patients. Results: Invariable and variable radiographic findings were seen in all four cases of histologically proven Pacman dysplasia. Conclusion: Pacman dysplasia presents both constant and variable diagnostic radiographic features. (orig.)

  7. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  8. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Halvorsen, O.J.; Gjelland, K.; Engebretsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  9. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  10. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  11. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation; Accion inhibidora de la clorofilina de letales recesivos autosonicos inducidos por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V M; Pimentel, P A.E.; Cruces, M P [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The chlorolin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the chlorophyllin on

  12. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation; Accion inhibidora de la clorofilina de letales recesivos autosonicos inducidos por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M.; Pimentel, P.A.E.; Cruces, M.P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The chlorolin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the

  13. Reduction of radio-contamination of vines by the method of 'non-lethal defoliation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study is included in the European Commission Programme RESSAC (Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after a nuclear Accident). Its objective is to investigate the possibility of using 'non-lethal defoliation' as a countermeasure to mitigate the foliar uptake of radionuclides by plant leaves. We experimented on vines in productive agricultural fields in Spata - Attica, Greece. Interception factors and translocation of radionuclides studies were performed by using 134 Cs as marker. The deposition of 134 Cs was dry. Two pesticides, Harvade 60% FL and Basta 20 S.L., were used as defoliants. Our data showed that the recommended commercial doses of these chemicals resulted in defoliating up to 80% of the plants. We observed a reduction of radioactivity translocation to grapes by half, related to the defoliating degree. The efficacy of Harvade seemed higher than that of Basta. (authors)

  14. Genome Replikin Count Predicts Increased Infectivity/Lethality of Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bogoch; Elenore S. Bogoch

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of all groups of viruses whose sequences are listed on Pubmed, specimens since 1918, analyzed by a software from Bioradar UK Ltd., contain Replikins which range in concentration from a Replikin Count (number of Replikins per 100 amino acids) of less than 1 to 30 (see accompanying communications for higher Counts in tuberculosis, malaria, and cancer, associated with higher lethality). Counts of less than 4.0 were found in ‘resting’ virus states; Counts greater than 4....

  15. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. A cause of lethal neonatal dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, R.I.; Wood, B.P.

    1980-07-01

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is a form of primarily short trunk dwarfism, that is manifest at birth but generally has not been regarded as a cause of lethal neonatal dwarfism. Seven neonates with severe dwarfism are presented. The first survived the newborn period, but the other six were early neonatal deaths. All displayed the clinical and radiologic features of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. The striking similarities between spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita and achondrogenesis type 2 are discussed.

  16. Torrance type of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibara, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakano, H.

    1983-01-01

    A rare case of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism is described. Roentgenographic features of this case, distinctly different from those of the classical thanatophoric dysplasia, are indistinguishable from the other three types of short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism. Histologic features of the cartilage in this case are not very different from those of the Torrance type, but the presence of focal disruption of column formation in this case suggests a wider spectrum for this entity. (orig.)

  17. Torrance type of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaibara, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakano, H.

    1983-06-01

    A rare case of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism is described. Roentgenographic features of this case, distinctly different from those of the classical thanatophoric dysplasia, are indistinguishable from the other three types of short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism. Histologic features of the cartilage in this case are not very different from those of the Torrance type, but the presence of focal disruption of column formation in this case suggests a wider spectrum for this entity.

  18. First diagnosed lethal case of lyssavirus infection in Primorsky krai

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, G.; Chentsova, I.; Petukhova, S.; Somova, L.; Belikov, S.; Kondratov, I.; Kryilova, N.; Plekhova, N.; Pavlenko, E.; Romanova, E.; Matsak, V.; Smirnov, G.; Novikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides data of comprehensive study of lethal case of lyssavirus infection first diagnosed in Yakovlevsky municipal district in Primorsky Krai. The data of epidemiologic analysis (contact with a rattle mouse), clinical picture and results of virologic, morphological and molecular genetic tests allow attributing this case to lyssavirus infection. This is the first diagnosed case of lyssavirus infection in the Siberia and Far East.

  19. Transplantation of bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Hermanova, E.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological changes were studied of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen of lethally irradiated mice (0.2 C/kg) after transplantation of living bone marrow cells. It was observed that functional trombopoietic megakaryocytes occur from day 15 after transplantation and that functional active megakaryocytes predominate in bone marrow and spleen from day 20. In addition, other types of cells, primarily granulocytes, were detected in some megakaryocytes. (author)

  20. Lethal mutagenesis: targeting the mutator phenotype in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward J; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2010-10-01

    The evolution of cancer and RNA viruses share many similarities. Both exploit high levels of genotypic diversity to enable extensive phenotypic plasticity and thereby facilitate rapid adaptation. In order to accumulate large numbers of mutations, we have proposed that cancers express a mutator phenotype. Similar to cancer cells, many viral populations, by replicating their genomes with low fidelity, carry a substantial mutational load. As high levels of mutation are potentially deleterious, the viral mutation frequency is thresholded at a level below which viral populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance, and above which the population is no longer viable, i.e., the population undergoes an error catastrophe. Because their mutation frequencies are fine-tuned just below this error threshold, viral populations are susceptible to further increases in mutational load and, recently this phenomenon has been exploited therapeutically by a concept that has been termed lethal mutagenesis. Here we review the application of lethal mutagenesis to the treatment of HIV and discuss how lethal mutagenesis may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of solid cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented.

  3. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro

  4. Straightening Beta: Overdispersion of Lethal Chromosome Aberrations following Radiotherapeutic Doses Leads to Terminal Linearity in the Alpha–Beta Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shuryak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances allow precise radiation delivery to tumor targets. As opposed to more conventional radiotherapy—where multiple small fractions are given—in some cases, the preferred course of treatment may involve only a few (or even one large dose(s per fraction. Under these conditions, the choice of appropriate radiobiological model complicates the tasks of predicting radiotherapy outcomes and designing new treatment regimens. The most commonly used model for this purpose is the venerable linear-quadratic (LQ formalism as it applies to cell survival. However, predictions based on the LQ model are frequently at odds with data following very high acute doses. In particular, although the LQ predicts a continuously bending dose–response relationship for the logarithm of cell survival, empirical evidence over the high-dose region suggests that the survival response is instead log-linear with dose. Here, we show that the distribution of lethal chromosomal lesions among individual human cells (lymphocytes and fibroblasts exposed to gamma rays and X rays is somewhat overdispersed, compared with the Poisson distribution. Further, we show that such overdispersion affects the predicted dose response for cell survival (the fraction of cells with zero lethal lesions. This causes the dose response to approximate log-linear behavior at high doses, even when the mean number of lethal lesions per cell is well fitted by the continuously curving LQ model. Accounting for overdispersion of lethal lesions provides a novel, mechanistically based explanation for the observed shapes of cell survival dose responses that, in principle, may offer a tractable and clinically useful approach for modeling the effects of high doses per fraction.

  5. Chemical radiosensitization and quality of cellular damage in bacteria exposed to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.K.; Pradhan, D.S.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Iodoacetic acid (IAA) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) when present during exposure of Streptococcus faecalis cells to gamma radiation enhance radiation-induced lethality under both anoxic and aerated conditions. The changes brought about by this radiosensitization in cellular functions have been studied with a view to elucidating the mechanism responsible for the increased loss of viability. The quality of cellular damage in chemical radiosensitization was investigated by correlating survival and the biosynthetic capacity of an irradiated cell population. The relationship between surviving fraction and extent of incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA was found to be unaffected regardless of whether the sensitizers (IAA or NEM) were present or absent during irradiation under anoxia. However, under the oxic condition of irradiation the survival--DNA-labeling relationship was completely different in the presence and in the absence of the sensitizers

  6. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. N. Hohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO-/- mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO-/- mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10, superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate assay were prevented in 5-LO-/- mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage.

  7. Binary Classification of a Large Collection of Environmental Chemicals from Estrogen Receptor Assays by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. A promising approach to manage this large universe of untested chemicals is to use a prioritization filter that combines in vitro assays with in silico QSA...

  8. Ultraviolet-B lethal damage on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgi, C.F.; Fernandez, R.O.; Pizarro, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown an increased sensitivity compared with that of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae, when they were exposed to 0.4 kJ/m2 of ultraviolet-B radiation. The rapid decay in cell viability observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the irradiation was influenced by factors such as culture media and the presence of pyocyanine during the irradiation. The radioinduced lethal damage could be prevented by photoreactivating treatment, indicating that pyrimidine dimer formation was the mechanism causing bacterial death. The results indicate that several environmental conditions may act as protective agents against ultraviolet-B-induced damage

  9. Metformin is synthetically lethal with glucose withdrawal in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro

    2012-08-01

    Glucose deprivation is a distinctive feature of the tumor microecosystem caused by the imbalance between poor supply and an extraordinarily high consumption rate. The metabolic reprogramming from mitochondrial respiration to aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (the "Warburg effect") is linked to oncogenic transformation in a manner that frequently implies the inactivation of metabolic checkpoints such as the energy rheostat AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Because the concept of synthetic lethality in oncology can be applied not only to genetic and epigenetic intrinsic differences between normal and cancer cells but also to extrinsic ones such as altered microenvironment, we recently hypothesized that stress-energy mimickers such as the AMPK agonist metformin should produce metabolic synthetic lethality in a glucose-starved cell culture milieu imitating the adverse tumor growth conditions in vivo. Under standard high-glucose conditions, metformin supplementation mostly caused cell cycle arrest without signs of apoptotic cell death. Under glucose withdrawal stress, metformin supplementation circumvented the ability of oncogenes (e.g., HER2) to protect breast cancer cells from glucose-deprivation apoptosis. Significantly, representative cell models of breast cancer heterogeneity underwent massive apoptosis (by >90% in some cases) when glucose-starved cell cultures were supplemented with metformin. Our current findings may uncover crucial issues regarding the cell-autonomous metformin's anti-cancer actions: (1) The offently claimed clinically irrelevant, non-physiological concentrations needed to observe the metformin's anti-cancer effects in vitro merely underlie the artifactual interference of erroneous glucose-rich experimental conditions that poorly reflect glucose-starved in vivo conditions; (2) the preferential killing of cancer stem cells (CSC) by metformin may simply expose the best-case scenario for its synthetically lethal activity because an increased

  10. Genotoxicity test of irradiated spice mixture by dominant lethal test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, J

    1986-03-01

    Dominant lethal test (DLT) was performed in Sprague Dawley male rats prefed with 25% irradiated spice mixture which was composed of 55% non-pungent ground paprika, 14% black pepper, 9% allspice, 9% coriander, 7% marjoram, 4% cumin, 2% nutmeg. Microbial count of the spice mixture was reduced with 15 kGy from a sup(60)Co source. Control groups received spice-free or untreated spice diet or were administered to cyclophosphamide i.p., respectively. DTL parameters altered significantly in the latter group but neither untreated nor irradiated spice mixture proved to be germ cell mutagens. 24 refs.; 8 figs.

  11. Lethal subarachnoid bleeding under immunosuppressive therapy due to mycotic arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, S.; Kloska, S.; Freund, M.; Kehl, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    A subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) occurred 67 days after cardiac transplantation in 10-year-old girl with consecutive immunocompromising therapy. Neither digital subtraction angiography (DSA) nor computed tomographic angiography showed signs of intracranial vascular malformations. One month before the lethal SAH occurred, she had developed arterial hypertension and attacks of severe headache with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis while CT scans showed an infarct of the left thalamus. Pathologic findings established the rare diagnosis of SAH due to aspergillosis-related mycotic arteritis. Imaging characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  12. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made o...... attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry......BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made...... over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines...

  13. Highly predictive support vector machine (SVM) models for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal, acute infectious disease caused by the rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), a zinc metalloprotease secreted by the bacilli, plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis and is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related toxemia and host death, partly via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) enzymes and consequent disruption of key cellular signaling pathways. Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones are capable of clearing the bacilli but have no effect on LF-mediated toxemia; LF itself therefore remains the preferred target for toxin inactivation. However, currently no LF inhibitor is available on the market as a therapeutic, partly due to the insufficiency of existing LF inhibitor scaffolds in terms of efficacy, selectivity, and toxicity. In the current work, we present novel support vector machine (SVM) models with high prediction accuracy that are designed to rapidly identify potential novel, structurally diverse LF inhibitor chemical matter from compound libraries. These SVM models were trained and validated using 508 compounds with published LF biological activity data and 847 inactive compounds deposited in the Pub Chem BioAssay database. One model, M1, demonstrated particularly favorable selectivity toward highly active compounds by correctly predicting 39 (95.12%) out of 41 nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, 46 (93.88%) out of 49 inactives, and 844 (99.65%) out of 847 Pub Chem inactives in external, unbiased test sets. These models are expected to facilitate the prediction of LF inhibitory activity for existing molecules, as well as identification of novel potential LF inhibitors from large datasets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carl D., E-mail: carl.d.smith179.mil@mail.mil; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female

  15. Lethal Nipah virus infection induces rapid overexpression of CXCL10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Mathieu

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus that causes regular outbreaks in East Asia with mortality rate exceeding 75%. Major cellular targets of NiV infection are endothelial cells and neurons. To better understand virus-host interaction, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of NiV infection in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We further assessed some of the obtained results by in vitro and in vivo methods in a hamster model and in brain samples from NiV-infected patients. We found that NiV infection strongly induces genes involved in interferon response in endothelial cells. Among the top ten upregulated genes, we identified the chemokine CXCL10 (interferon-induced protein 10, IP-10, an important chemoattractant involved in the generation of inflammatory immune response and neurotoxicity. In NiV-infected hamsters, which develop pathology similar to what is seen in humans, expression of CXCL10 mRNA was induced in different organs with kinetics that followed NiV replication. Finally, we showed intense staining for CXCL10 in the brain of patients who succumbed to lethal NiV infection during the outbreak in Malaysia, confirming induction of this chemokine in fatal human infections. This study sheds new light on NiV pathogenesis, indicating the role of CXCL10 during the course of infection and suggests that this chemokine may serve as a potential new marker for lethal NiV encephalitis.

  16. Parental response to severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Objective A severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis places great demands on prospective parents, who face choices of far-reaching consequences, such as continuing or terminating the pregnancy. How best to support these parents is a clinical challenge. This systematic review aimed to identify and synt......Objective A severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis places great demands on prospective parents, who face choices of far-reaching consequences, such as continuing or terminating the pregnancy. How best to support these parents is a clinical challenge. This systematic review aimed to identify...... and synthesize the qualitative evidence regarding prospective parents’ responses to such prenatal diagnoses. Methods Following PRISMA guidelines, four databases were systematically searched and 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis guided data extraction and synthesis of findings. The CERQual....... Prospective parents who continued the pregnancy wished to be acknowledged as parents, and engaged in planning to obtain a sense of meaning and control. Selective disclosure and concerns about negative responses were issues both for the parents who terminated and those who continued a pregnancy. Conclusion...

  17. Cell lethality after selective irradiation of the DNA replication fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, K.G.; Warters, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that nascent DNA located at the DNA replication fork may exhibit enhanced sensitivity to radiation damage. To evaluate this hypothesis, Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) either in the presence or absence of aphidicolin. Aphidicolin (5 μg/ml) reduced cellular 125 IUdR incorporation to 3-5% of the control value. The residual 125 I incorporation appeared to be restricted to low molecular weight (sub-replicon sized) fragments of DNA which were more sensitive to micrococcal nuclease attack and less sensitive to high salt DNase I digestion than randomly labeled DNA. These findings suggest that DNA replicated in the presence of aphidicolin remains localized at the replication fork adjacent to the nuclear matrix. Based on these observations an attempt was made to compare the lethal consequences of 125 I decays at the replication fork to that of 125 I decays randomly distributed over the entire genome. Regardless of the distribution of decay events, all treatment groups exhibited identical dose-response curves (D 0 : 101 125 I decays/cell). Since differential irradiation of the replication complex did not result in enhanced cell lethality, it can be concluded that neither the nascent DNA nor the protein components (replicative enzymes, nuclear protein matrix) associated with the DNA replication site constitute key radiosensitive targets within the cellular genome. (orig.)

  18. Lethal mutation of internal irradiation brown planthopper (Nilaparvita lugens Stal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The moulting IVth of BPH nympha were irradiated internally with radiophosphorous 32-P 1 uCi/ml, 10 uCi/ml, 50 uCi/ml, 100 uCi/ml, and 500 uCi/ml concentrations respectivelly. An observation was carried out to determines heredity of hopper sterilities from the mating groups of R male x N female, R male x R female, and N male x R female. The 32-P concentration below of 50 uCi/ml seemed to be the substerile dose, however, the dominant lethal mutation has been visually shown by R male x R female F1 mating group. The hereditary lines of F1, F2, F3, and F4 of the hopper sterilities wich were indicated by the nympha hatch ability have some significant correlations (r1= -0.77, r2= -0.92, r3= -0.93 and r4= -0.85). Thus, the resesif lethal mutations visually showed by F3 and F4 from all of the 100 uCi/ml and 50 uCi/ml treated groups. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Potentiation of radiation lethality by Topotecan, a Topoisomerase I inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamond, J.P.; Kinsella, T.J.; Boothman, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Topotecan is a water soluble Topoisomerase I (Topo I) inhibitor that has demonstrated antineoplastic activity in phase I/II trials of solid tumors (such as non-small cell lung, small cell lung, ovarian, esophageal and head and neck primaries) and leukemias. We sought to determine (1) if Topotecan potentiated the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, and (2) the characteristics of the synergistic effect. Materials and Methods: Human radioresistant melanoma (U1-Mel) and glioma (D54) cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DME) with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) until confluence-arrest. Cells were x-irradiated (0-700 cGy) and exposed to various Topotecan concentrations (2-100μM), either before (for 4 hours), during, or after (for 4 hours) irradiation. Appropriate controls were also performed. Survival was determined via colony forming assays. Survival curves were normalized to correct for drug cytotoxicities and variations in initial viable cells plated. In another set of experiments, U1-Mel cells were exposed to 10 μM Topotecan either before, during or after 400 cGy, as described above. A modification of the SDS and KCl assay was used to quantify Topo I-DNA complexes via glass fiber filter binding. All experiments were performed at least 7 times in duplicate. Results: Potentiation of radiation lethality was seen in the U1-Mel and D54 cell lines. The synergistic effects were (1) dependent on drug concentration, with lethality enhancement and minimal drug lethality alone in the 2-10 μM range (2) dependent on timing, with synergy present only when the drug was present at the time of, or shortly after irradiation, and (3) irreversible, with inhibition of potential lethal damage repair (PLDR). The dose enhancement ratios (DER) for 4 μM Topotecan in the U1-Mel cells was 1.7 - 2.4, depending on the survival endpoints that were used. The DER for 2 μM Topotecan in D54 cells was 3.0 - 4.0. The U1-Mel cells that were exposed to Topotecan

  20. Exposure-dependent variation in cryolite induced lethality in the nontarget insect, Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podder Sayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of toxicity testing of any chemical in an organism is the determination of its Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50. In the present study, LC50 of a fluorinated insecticide cryolite is determined in a non-target insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. Interestingly, the result shows that acute LC50 of cryolite was much greater in comparison to the chronic one in case of Drosophila larvae. Larvae which were exposed to 65,000 to 70,000 μg/ml cryolite through food showed 50% mortality after 18 hours of acute exposure, whereas only 150 to 160 μg/ml cryolite was sufficient to cause 50% mortality in case of chronic exposure. Thus cryolite in a small amount when applied once cannot produce noticeable changes in Drosophila, whereas the same amount when used continuously can be fatal. The non-feeding pupal stage was also seen to be affected by chemical treatment. This suggests that the test chemical affects the developmental fate and results in failure of adult emergence. Absence of chemical-induced mortality in adults assumes that the toxicity of cryolite might be restricted to the preimaginal stages of the organism. Reduction in body size of larvae after ingestion of cryolite (with food in acute treatment schedule is another interesting finding of this study. Some individuals consuming cryolite containing food cannot survive whereas the few survivors manifest a significant growth retardation which might be due to a tendency of refusal in feeding. Hence the present findings provide a scope of assessment of risk of other similar non-target groups

  1. Heterochromatin position effects on circularized sex chromosomes cause filicidal embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Patrick M; Gomez, Karina; Rominger, Peter; Howard, Dagnie; Kornfeld, Hannah; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-04-01

    Some circularized X-Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster are mitotically unstable and induce early embryonic lethality, but the genetic basis is unknown. Our experiments suggest that a large region of X-linked satellite DNA causes anaphase bridges and lethality when placed into a new heterochromatic environment within certain circularized X-Y chromosomes. These results reveal that repetitive sequences can be incompatible with one another in cis. The lethal phenotype also bears a remarkable resemblance to a case of interspecific hybrid lethality.

  2. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergence of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine desintegrations which lead to a disturbed supply of the vessels and afterwards to their sclerosis. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as festures of ageing while in irradiated animals they were manifested in an earlier period. After application of optimal amounts radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival

  3. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  4. Stress response of the black coral Leiopathes glaberrima when exposed to sub-lethal amounts of crude oil and dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannise V. Ruiz-Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil well failure released billions of gallons of crude oil into the deep Gulf of Mexico, and, combined with chemical dispersants, this oil caused significant coral mortality. However, the mechanisms by which oil and dispersed oil impact deep marine fauna are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of oil and dispersed oil on a black coral common in the deep Gulf of Mexico, 'Leiopathes glaberrima. 'This coral occurs in several color morphs that show ecological and genetic differences. We hypothesized that dispersed oil would be more detrimental to coral health than oil alone and that this difference would be detectable in the gene expression response of the colonies even at sub-lethal concentrations. In two experiments, four and six colonies of red and white color morphs were exposed to oil, dispersant, and dispersed oil for a minimum of 96 hours. Visual assessment indicated that indeed dispersant and dispersed oil treatments were more damaging than oil alone, for target concentrations of 25 mg L–1. Decline in health was observed for all treatments, independently of color morphotype, but the decline was faster in the white colonies exposed to dispersant. The responses to the treatments were also investigated by monitoring gene expression after 24 hours of sub-lethal chemical exposure. Coral gene expression differed by chemical stressor. Interestingly, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biomarker gene, cytochrome P450, was only up-regulated in dispersed oil but not oil alone, suggesting that the dispersant increased the availability of such hydrocarbons in the tissue. The gene expression response was apparent at 24 hours when visual impacts were not (yet detectable. The use of chemical dispersants in oil-spill remediation may cause health declines in deep-water corals and deserves further study.

  5. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: Part III - Studies on nutrient fraction and stoichiometric relationship in the Northern and the Eastern Basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen compounds have been divided into 'reserved' andoxidative fractions based on their relationships with apparent oxygen utilization in the northern and the north-eastern basins of the Arabian Sea.Two oxygen minima...

  6. Gastrointestinal decontamination in healthy and lethally irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, W.D.H.

    1980-01-01

    In periods of extreme immunosuppression, infections which are often life-threatening, frequently occur. In an attempt to prevent such infections in lethally irradiated rhesus monkeys, the animals were subjected to strict reverse isolation prior to irradiation and administrated orally with nonabsorbable antibiotics in order to eliminate their microflora. The antibiotic combination was selected on the basis of a sensitivity test and was added to the liquid food supply. To rapidly achieve a high bactericidal concentration in the intestine, the same antibiotics were additionally given orally for 5 days. The microflora was reduced rapidly; within a few days sterile cultures were obtained. Particularly after discontinuation of the administration of the additional antibiotics were colonizations found. In contrast to colonizations persisting from the first day of treatment on, the first were rather easy to suppress. (Auth.)

  7. In vitro cell culture lethal dose submitted to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Carolina S.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carolina_sm@hotmail.com; Ikeda, Tamiko I.; Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effect of gamma radiation in cell culture of mouse connective tissue exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and under several conditions. The cell viability was analyzed by neutral red uptake methodology. This assay was developed for establish a methodology to be used in the future in the study of resveratrol radioprotection. Resveratrol (3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin that occurs naturally in some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is found at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. The intense antioxidant potential of resveratrol provides many pharmacological activities including cardioprotection, chemoprevention and anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that {sup 60}Co gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) on NCTC clone 929 cells was about 340Gy. (author)

  8. In vitro cell culture lethal dose submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Carolina S.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto; Ikeda, Tamiko I.; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effect of gamma radiation in cell culture of mouse connective tissue exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and under several conditions. The cell viability was analyzed by neutral red uptake methodology. This assay was developed for establish a methodology to be used in the future in the study of resveratrol radioprotection. Resveratrol (3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin that occurs naturally in some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is found at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. The intense antioxidant potential of resveratrol provides many pharmacological activities including cardioprotection, chemoprevention and anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that 60 Co gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) on NCTC clone 929 cells was about 340Gy. (author)

  9. Perinatally lethal short rib-polydactyly syndromes. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillence, D.; Kozlowski, K.; Bar-ziv, J.; Fuhrmann-Rieger, A.; Fuhrmann, W.; Pascu, F.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen newborns with lethal short rib-polydactyly (SRP) have been reviewed, 11 with SRP type 3 (Verma-Naumoff) and 2 with SRP tye 2 (Majewski). In the former group there were three sets of siblings. The excess of males with SRP type III (Verma-Naumoff) is confirmed in this present study. A high frequency of phenotypic females including sex-reversed constitutional males with SRP type 1 (Saldino-Noonan) is in marked contrast to these findings in SRP type 3. Possible hypotheses include variable expressivity in non-Majewski short rib-polydactyly syndromes with sex-reversed and constitutional female cases tending to show more severe phenotypic expression both in terms of major anomalies and skeletal dysplastic effects. (orig.)

  10. Lethal carbon monoxide toxicity in a concrete shower unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

    2018-05-23

    A 47-year-old previously-well woman was found dead on the floor of a shower cubicle on a property in rural South Australia. The impression of the attending doctor and police was of collapse due to natural disease. Although there was significant stenosing coronary artery atherosclerosis found at autopsy, cherry pink discoloration of tissues prompted measurement of the blood carboxyhemoglobin level which was found to be 55%. The source of the gas was a poorly-maintained hot water heater that was mounted on the inside wall of the shower. Construction of the shower using an impermeable concrete rain water tank had caused gas accumulation when the water heater malfunctioned. Had lethal carbon monoxide exposure not been identified others using the same shower unit would also have been at risk.

  11. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  12. Mechanisms of Lethal Cerebrovascular Accidents in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-05-01

    A case of intracerebral hemorrhage in Turner syndrome is reported with an analysis of possible causes of cerebrovascular accidents in this condition. A 42-year-old woman with known Turner syndrome died soon after hospital admission having been found unconscious at her home address. At autopsy, she showed typical features of Turner syndrome with short stature, webbing of the neck, underdeveloped breasts, and an increased carrying angle of the arm. Death was due to a large left-sided intracerebral hemorrhage extending from the left basal ganglia into the white matter of the frontal lobe and lateral ventricle. Cases of unexpected death in Turner syndrome may arise from occult cerebrovascular accidents which may be hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic. Associated features include hypertension, vascular malformations, accelerated atherogenesis, cystic medial necrosis, and moyamoya syndrome. The possibility of Turner syndrome should be considered in cases where there has been a lethal cerebrovascular event in a younger woman. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  14. Thyroid and pancreatic hormones in lethally irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine, glucagon and insulin in the serum or plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay in male rats of the Wistar strain 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after irradiation with 14.35 Gy (1500R) of X-rays. The irradiated and sham-irradiated rats were starved till examination. The concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine dropped 6 hours after irradiation as compared with controls, the concentration of thyroxine also dropped after 72 hours. The level of reverse triiodothyronine in irradiated rats increased in the terminal period. The level of insulin dropped 24 hours after irradiation, at 72 hours it was higher than that in controls. The concentration of glucagon in irradiated rats increased in the terminal phase of radiation disease. The results document the diverse reaction of hormones in lethally irradiated rats and contribute to a deeper recognition of metabolic imbalance in the course of radiation disease. (author)

  15. Lethal midline granuloma histologically. Management with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga T, L.; Misad, O.; Moscol, A.; Pinillos G, L.; Barriga T, O.; Heredia, A.; Pinillos A, L.; Mayer Z, T.

    1995-01-01

    From 1973 through 1990, 24 patients with lethal midline granuloma histologically demonstrated were treated with radiation therapy at the Radiation Oncology Department of the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases from Peru. The authors reports the results of their experience, reviewed the literature and present a clinic and pathologic discussion of this rare entity. All the patients received radiotherapy as the main treatment and 12 of them received chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 5:3 with a mean age of 29.33 years (range 6 to 84 years old). Symptoms of nasal obstruction were presented 45.83%, nasal enlargement in 33.33%, nasal discharge in 29.16% and fever in 29.16%, principally. We believe that radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in this report we can not demonstrate it because of the small number of patients. (authors). 28 refs., 10 tabs

  16. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  17. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L A

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergency of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine disintegrations. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as features of ageing. After application of radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival till 30th day, DNA and protein metabolism, immune reactions) of the lethally irradiated animals.

  18. Low-dose mutation-response relationships in Tradescantia; principles and comparison to mutagenesis following low-dose gaseous chemical mutagen exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, C.H.; Sparrow, A.H.; Underbrink, A.G.; Schairer, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Inflorescences of several clones of Tradescantia heterozygous for flower color have been treated with ionizing radiation and with the gaseous form of several known or suspected chemical mutagens. Pink somatic mutations were subsequently scored in the stamen hair cells of mature flowers and dose-/exposure-response curves constructed. Results indicate clearly that there is no evidence for a threshold for mutation response following x or neutron irradiation. Results so far obtained for gaseous chemical mutagens are less clear, but also suggest that there is no threshold for mutation response

  19. Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Using Entropy Analysis: The Relationship between [delta]S[subscript tot](sys[superscript o]) and the Equilibrium Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Entropy analyses as a function of the extent of reaction are presented for a number of physicochemical processes, including vaporization of a liquid, dimerization of nitrogen dioxide, and the autoionization of water. Graphs of the total entropy change versus the extent of reaction give a visual representation of chemical equilibrium and the second…

  20. A Novel Two-Step Hierarchial Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling Workflow for Predicting Acute Toxicity of Chemicals in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Accurate prediction of in vivo toxicity from in vitro testing is a challenging problem. Large public–private consortia have been formed with the goal of improving chemical safety assessment by the means of high-throughput screening. Methods and results: A database co...

  1. Relationships between respiration, chemical and microbial properties of afforested mine soils with different soil texture and tree species: Does the time of incubation matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Józefowska, A.; Pietrzykowski, M.; Woś, B.; Cajthaml, T.; Frouz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, May (2017), s. 102-109 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : afforested mine soils * soil texture * tree species * chemical properties * microbial properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2016

  2. Externally predictive single-descriptor based QSPRs for physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated-naphthalenes: Exploring relationships of log SW, log KOA, and log KOW with electron-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayawan; Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous solubility and partition coefficient are modelled using single-parameter. • Electron-correlation observed as a vital predictorof physico-chemical properties. • For octanol-air partition coefficient, energy and polarizability yield best models. • Dipole-moment is found to be worst single-descriptor for the properties analysed. - Abstract: Quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs), based only on a single-parameter, are proposed for the prediction of physico-chemical properties, namely, aqueous solubility (log S W ), octanol–water partition coefficient (log K OW ) and octanol–air partition coefficient (log K OA ) of polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) including all the 75 chloronaphthalene congeners. The QSPR models are developed using molecular descriptors computed through quantum mechanical methods including ab-initio as well as advanced semi-empirical methods. The predictivity of the developed models is tested through state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set of compounds. To analyse the role of instantaneous interactions between electrons (the electron-correlation), the models are also compared with those developed using only the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum chemical descriptor. The electron-correlation contribution towards the chemical hardness and the LUMO energy are observed to be the best predictors for octanol–water partition coefficient, whereas for the octanol–air partition coefficient, the total electronic energy and electron-correlation energy are found to be reliable descriptors, in fact, even better than the polarisability. For aqueous solubility of PCNs, the absolute electronegativity is observed to be the best predictor. This work suggests that the electron-correlation contribution of a quantum-chemical descriptor can be used as a reliable indicator for physico-chemical properties, particularly the partition coefficients

  3. Externally predictive single-descriptor based QSPRs for physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated-naphthalenes: Exploring relationships of log S{sub W}, log K{sub OA}, and log K{sub OW} with electron-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chayawan; Vikas, E-mail: qlabspu@pu.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Aqueous solubility and partition coefficient are modelled using single-parameter. • Electron-correlation observed as a vital predictorof physico-chemical properties. • For octanol-air partition coefficient, energy and polarizability yield best models. • Dipole-moment is found to be worst single-descriptor for the properties analysed. - Abstract: Quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs), based only on a single-parameter, are proposed for the prediction of physico-chemical properties, namely, aqueous solubility (log S{sub W}), octanol–water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) and octanol–air partition coefficient (log K{sub OA}) of polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) including all the 75 chloronaphthalene congeners. The QSPR models are developed using molecular descriptors computed through quantum mechanical methods including ab-initio as well as advanced semi-empirical methods. The predictivity of the developed models is tested through state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set of compounds. To analyse the role of instantaneous interactions between electrons (the electron-correlation), the models are also compared with those developed using only the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum chemical descriptor. The electron-correlation contribution towards the chemical hardness and the LUMO energy are observed to be the best predictors for octanol–water partition coefficient, whereas for the octanol–air partition coefficient, the total electronic energy and electron-correlation energy are found to be reliable descriptors, in fact, even better than the polarisability. For aqueous solubility of PCNs, the absolute electronegativity is observed to be the best predictor. This work suggests that the electron-correlation contribution of a quantum-chemical descriptor can be used as a reliable indicator for physico-chemical properties, particularly the partition coefficients.

  4. 77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The US Army Research Laboratory's (ARL's), Survivability, Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD...

  5. Indirect effects of non-lethal predation on bivalve activity and sediment reworking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, O.; Merchant, J.N.; Bulling, M.; Teal, L.R.; Gremare, A.; Duchene, J.C.; Solan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit-feeders are the dominant bioturbators of aquatic sediments, where they profoundly impact biogeochemical processes, but they are also vulnerable to both lethal and non-lethal predation by a large variety of predators. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to test the effects of

  6. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Suicidal Intent and Medical Lethality in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method: Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically…

  7. Effect of lethality on the extinction and on the error threshold of quasispecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Hector; Marín, Arturo; Montero, Francisco

    2010-02-21

    In this paper the effect of lethality on error threshold and extinction has been studied in a population of error-prone self-replicating molecules. For given lethality and a simple fitness landscape, three dynamic regimes can be obtained: quasispecies, error catastrophe, and extinction. Using a simple model in which molecules are classified as master, lethal and non-lethal mutants, it is possible to obtain the mutation rates of the transitions between the three regimes analytically. The numerical resolution of the extended model, in which molecules are classified depending on their Hamming distance to the master sequence, confirms the results obtained in the simple model and shows how an error catastrophe regime changes when lethality is taken in account. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence Analysis of Shell Material and Charge on Shrapnel Lethal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the shrapnel lethal power with different shell material and charge, LS-DYNA was used to numerically simulate four kinds of shrapnel lethal power. The shell material was 58SiMn, 50SiMnVB or 40Cr, whereas the charge was RL-F. And the shell material was 58SiMn, whereas the charge was TNT. The shell rupture process and lethal power test were analyzed. The results show that, the lethal power of RL-F charge increase by 25%, 45%, 14% compared with the TNT charge, whereas the shell material was 58SiMn, 50SiMnVB, 40Cr. And then the guarantee range and lethal power can be improved by using the high explosive and changing shell material, whereas the projectile shape coefficient is invariable.

  9. Determination of gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) and resveratrol cytotoxicity level in tumor cells line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Vanessa D.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R.; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease with high incidence and it is considered a worldwide public health problem. Resveratrol is a polyphenol occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants according to response of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposition or according to mechanical stress resulting of pathogens or chemical and physical agents. This polyphenol possesses a pharmacological activity of carcinogenesis inhibition in multiple levels. It also protects cells by scavenging the free radicals which are considered toxic products. These free radicals are formed of natural process of cell aging and also by incidence of ionizing radiation in the organism. Thus, resveratrol is considered as a cell radioprotector. On the other hand, in some elevated concentrations resveratrol may be considered as a radiosensitizing. The aim of this work was the determination of radiation lethal dose (LD 50 ) and also verifies the cytotoxicity level of resveratrol in tumor cells line: muco epidermoid pulmonary carcinoma cells (NCI-H292) and rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD). The cytotoxicity test was performed by neutral red uptake assay. The results of resveratrol IC 50% in NCI-H292 cells was 192μM and in RD cells was 128μM; and RD cells gamma radiation LD 50 was 435Gy. (author)

  10. Investigation of the lethal and behavioral effects of commercial insecticides on the parasitoid wasp Copidosoma truncatellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo S; de Araújo, Vitor C R; Pereira, Renata R; Martins, Júlio C; Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Silva, Ricardo S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-01

    Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%. In contrast, cartap, deltamethrin, and methomyl caused 100% mortality, and acephate and spinosad caused 76% and 78% mortality, respectively. At least one of the detoxifying enzymes (monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase, and/or esterases) may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the selectivity of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb for the parasitoid based on the results for the insecticide plus synergist treatment. Changes in the behavioral patterns (walking time and resting time) of the parasitoid were found with exposure to acephate, flubendiamide, indoxacarb and methomyl, but behavioral avoidance was not observed. Our results indicate that the insecticides chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr are the most suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for the control of C. includens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Lewis, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees before larvae develop or protecting ash with a highly effective, systemic emamectin benzoate insecticide. Injecting this insecticide and then girdling injected trees a few weeks later could effectively create lethal trap trees, similar to a bait-and-kill tactic, if girdling does not interfere with insecticide translocation. We compared EAB larval densities on girdled trees, trees injected with the emamectin benzoate insecticide, trees injected with the insecticide and then girdled 18-21 days later and untreated controls at multiple sites. Pretreatment larval densities did not differ among treatments. Current-year larval densities were higher on girdled and control trees than on any trees treated with insecticide at all sites. Foliar residue analysis and adult EAB bioassays showed that girdling trees after insecticide injections did not reduce insecticide translocation. Girdling ash trees to attract adult EAB did not reduce efficacy of emamectin benzoate trunk injections applied ≥ 18 days earlier and could potentially be used in integrated management programs to slow EAB population growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  13. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  14. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A.; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. → Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. → NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - 1 H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  15. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  17. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Beloti

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1, 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2, 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3 and 56% as harmful (Class 4, according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  18. Todralazine protects zebra fish from lethal doses of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic stem cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimri, Manali; Joshi, Jaidev; Indracanti, Prem Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced cell killing and hematopoietic stem cell depletion leads to compromised immune functions and opportunistic infections which significantly affect the recovery and survival upon irradiation. Any agent which can expand residual hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated organism can render protection from the effects of lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Johns Hopkins Clinical compound library (JHCCL) was screened for protection against lethal doses of ionizing radiation using developing zebra fish as a model organism. Modulation of radiation induced reactive oxygen species by the small molecules were done by DCFDA staining and for visual identification and quantification of apoptosis acridine orange assay, flow cytometry were employed respectively. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion potential was assessed by quantifying runx1 expression, a marker for definitive stem cells, were done by RT-PCR and by the kinetics of recovery from chemically induced anaemia. Todralazine hydrochloride from JHCCL exhibited promising results with potential anti radiation effects. A dose of 5μM was found to be the most effective and has rendered significant organ and whole body protection (100% survival advantage over a period of 6 days) against 20 Gy. However todralazine did not modulated radiation induced free radicals (monitored within 2 h of irradiation) and apoptosis in zebra fish embryos analysed at 8 and 24h post irradiation. Flow cytometric quantification of pre G1 population suggested the same. Chemoinformatics approaches were further carried out to elucidate possible targets which are contributing to its radioprotection potential. Structural similarity search suggested several targets and possible hematopoietic stem cell expanding potential. Treatment of zebra fish embryos with todralazine has lead to significant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell as indicated by increase in expression of runx1. HSC expanding potential of todralazine was further supported by

  19. 35S induced dominant lethals in immature Oocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, K.; Reddy, P.; Reddy, O.S.

    1976-01-01

    CBA female mice were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 20 μCi of sulphur-35 on 15.5 day post conception. Another group of pregnant mice injected with normal saline was kept as control. The pregnant females were allowed to litter and the mothers were separated from their offspring 4 weeks after littering. Eight weeks after treatment i.e. at the age of 22-24 weeks, the treated mothers were mated to control C 3 H/He males. The vaginal plugs were checked everyday morning and those mated were separated. The pregnants were killed on 14th day of gestation. The uterine contents were searched for live and dead embryos and the ovaries for corpora lutea. The pre, post and total loses were calculated in the treated females and compared with those of control. The statistical tests performed indicated that all losses are significant. The results indicate that 35 S can induce chromosomal breaks in immature oocytes and lead to the induction of dominant lethals. (author)

  20. Successful Treatment of Acute Lethal Dose of Acrylamide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylamide (C3H5NO is a vinyl monomer. This water-soluble crystalline solid is a colorless, odorless agent which is used in scientific laboratories and some industries. Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects. Acute or chronic poisoning with this agent happens as a result of skin, respiratory, or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on the dose, duration, and frequency of contact. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies to reduce the oxidative effects. Case: The case was a 29-year-old girl with a Master of Sciences degree in genetics who worked in a university research center with previous history of depression. She had ingested 100cc of 30% Acrylamide solution for intentional suicide attempt. The patient was successfully managed using N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, and melatonin. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with recommended agents together with supportive therapies can save the life of patients exposed to potentially lethal doses of acrylamide, although intentional or accidental.

  1. Lethal effect of glucose load on malignant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakova, N.L.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Kozubek, S.

    1987-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells were treated with glucose load under anoxic conditions (for 15 or 60 min) and/or with γ radiation (20 Gy). The efficiency of the treatment was judged from the tumorigenic activity of EAT cell inocula. The markedly increased efficiency of the combined treatment of EAT cells using glucose load in anoxia and γ radiation is due to the additive action of both agents. The glucose load in anoxia leads to extensive desintegration of tumor cells. Further, the lethal effect of various pH values on EAT cells was investigated. Different pH values were obtained by means of both glucose load and phosphate buffers. The effect was investigated by determining the tumorigenic activity of EAT cells tested in vivo in mice and by determining the radiosensitivity of treated EAT cells. The results allowed us to conclude that the same values of pH lead to the same effect on EAT cells independently of the way by which the given pH value was reached. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  2. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Internet suicide: communities of affirmation and the lethality of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezen, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    As a tool of instant information dissemination and social networking, the Internet has made possible the formation and affirmation of public identities based on personality traits that are usually characterized by clinicians as pathological. The wide variety of online communities of affirmation reveals new conditions for permissiveness and inclusiveness in expressions of these socially marginal and clinically pathologized identities. Much the same kind of discourse common to these online communities is evident in some suicide forums. Web sites with suicide as their central raison d'être, taken together, encompass a wide range of ideas and commitments, including many that provide collective affirmation outside of (and often with hostility toward) professional intervention. The paradox of a potentially life-affirming effect of such forums runs counter to a stark dualism between online therapy versus "prochoice" forums and, by extension, to simple models of the influence of ideas on the lethality of suicide. Different forums either intensify or mitigate self-destructive tendencies in ways that are significant for understanding the place of communication in the occurrence of suicide and for therapeutic practice.

  4. Consortium for Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mutations in the Helical Domain of Type I Collagen: Regions Rich in Lethal Mutations Align With Collagen Binding Sites for Integrins and Proteoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Joan C.; Forlino, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; San Antonio, James D.; Milgrom, Sarah; Hyland, James C.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Prockop, Darwin J.; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Symoens, Sofie; Glorieux, Francis H.; Roughley, Peter J.; Lund, Alan M.; Kuurila-Svahn, Kaija; Hartikka, Heini; Cohn, Daniel H.; Krakow, Deborah; Mottes, Monica; Schwarze, Ulrike; Chen, Diana; Yang, Kathleen; Kuslich, Christine; Troendle, James; Dalgleish, Raymond; Byers, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by fragile bones and easy susceptibility to fracture. Most cases of OI are caused by mutations in type I collagen. We have identified and assembled structural mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2, encoding the proα1(I) and proα2(I) chains, respectively) that result in OI. Quantitative defects causing type I OI were not included. Of these 832 independent mutations, 682 result in substitution for glycine residues in the triple helical domain of the encoded protein and 150 alter splice sites. Distinct genotype–phenotype relationships emerge for each chain. One-third of the mutations that result in glycine substitutions in α1(I) are lethal, especially when the substituting residues are charged or have a branched side chain. Substitutions in the first 200 residues are nonlethal and have variable outcome thereafter, unrelated to folding or helix stability domains. Two exclusively lethal regions (helix positions 691–823 and 910–964) align with major ligand binding regions (MLBRs), suggesting crucial interactions of collagen monomers or fibrils with integrins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), fibronectin, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Mutations in COL1A2 are predominantly nonlethal (80%). Lethal substitutions are located in eight regularly spaced clusters along the chain, supporting a regional model. The lethal regions align with proteoglycan binding sites along the fibril, suggesting a role in fibril–matrix interactions. Recurrences at the same site in α2(I) are generally concordant for outcome, unlike α1(I). Splice site mutations comprise 20% of helical mutations identified in OI patients, and may lead to exon skipping, intron inclusion, or the activation of cryptic splice sites. Splice site mutations in COL1A1 are rarely lethal; they often lead to frameshifts and the mild type I phenotype. In α2(I), lethal exon skipping events are

  5. A relationship between ion balance and the chemical compounds of salt inclusions found in the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dome Fuji ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a method of deducing the chemical compounds found in deep polar ice cores by analyzing the balance between six major ions (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). The method is demonstrated for the Holocene and last glacial maximum regions of the Dome Fuji and GRIP ice cores...... on individual salt inclusions. The abundances in the ice cores are shown to reflect differences in climatic periods (the acidic environment of the Holocene versus the reductive environment of the last glacial maximum) and regional conditions (the marine environment of Antarctica versus the continental...

  6. Tailor-made surfactants for optimized chemical EOR. Meeting oil reservoir conditions by applied knowledge of structure-performance relationship in extended surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, G.; Sorensen, W. [Sasol North America Inc., Westlake, LA (United States); Jakobs-Sauter, B. [Sasol Germany GmbH (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Formulating the surfactant package for chemical EOR is a time consuming and expensive process - the formulation needs to fit the specific reservoir conditions (like oil type, temperature, salinity, etc.) to give optimum performance and the number of formulation variables is virtually endless. This paper studies the impact of surfactant structure on EOR formulation ability and performance and how to adjust the structure of the surfactant molecule to meet a specific reservoir's needs. Data from salinity phase boundary studies of alcohol propoxy sulfates illustrate how changes in alcohol structure as well as in propylene oxide level can shift optimum salinity and temperature to the desired range in a given model oil. From these data the impact of individual structural units was evaluated. Application of the HLD model (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation) shows how to extrapolate from the known data set to actual reservoir conditions. This is illustrated by studies on crude oil samples. Additional tests study how effective the selected surfactants perform. The HLD concept proves to be a valuable tool to select and tailor surfactants to individual reservoir needs, thus simplifying the surfactant screening process for EOR formulations by pre-selection of suitable structures and ultimately reducing cost and effort on the way to the most effective chemical EOR package. (orig.)

  7. On the role of structure-dynamic relationship in determining the excess entropy of mixing and chemical ordering in binary square-well liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalneihpuii, R.; Shrivastava, Ruchi; Mishra, Raj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Using statistical mechanical model with square-well (SW) interatomic potential within the frame work of mean spherical approximation, we determine the composition dependent microscopic correlation functions, interdiffusion coefficients, surface tension and chemical ordering in Ag-Cu melts. Further Dzugutov universal scaling law of normalized diffusion is verified with SW potential in binary mixtures. We find that the excess entropy scaling law is valid for SW binary melts. The partial and total structure factors in the attractive and repulsive regions of the interacting potential are evaluated and then Fourier transformed to get partial and total radial distribution functions. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental values for total structure factor and the reduced radial distribution function are observed, which consolidates our model calculations. The well-known Bhatia-Thornton correlation functions are also computed for Ag-Cu melts. The concentration-concentration correlations in the long wavelength limit in liquid Ag-Cu alloys have been analytically derived through the long wavelength limit of partial correlation functions and apply it to demonstrate the chemical ordering and interdiffusion coefficients in binary liquid alloys. We also investigate the concentration dependent viscosity coefficients and surface tension using the computed diffusion data in these alloys. Our computed results for structure, transport and surface properties of liquid Ag-Cu alloys obtained with square-well interatomic interaction are fully consistent with their corresponding experimental values.

  8. Daily ingestion of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 decreases Vaccinia virus dissemination and lethality in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Pereira Andrade, A C; Lima, M Teixeira; Oliveira, G Pereira; Calixto, R Silva; de Sales E Souza, É Lorenna; da Glória de Souza, D; de Almeida Leite, C M; Ferreira, J M Siqueira; Kroon, E G; de Oliveira, D Bretas; Dos Santos Martins, F; Abrahão, J S

    2017-02-07

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an important pathogen. Although studies have shown relationships between probiotics and viruses, the effect of probiotics on VACV infection is unknown. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the probiotics effects on VACV infection. Mice were divided into four groups, two non-infected groups, one receiving the probiotic, the other one not receiving it, and two groups infected intranasally with VACV Western Reserve (VACV-WR) receiving or not receiving the probiotic. Viral titres in organs and cytokine production in the lungs were analysed. Lung samples were also subjected to histological analysis. The intake of probiotic results in reduction in viral spread with a significant decrease of VACV titer on lung, liver and brain of treated group. In addition,treatment with the probiotic results in attenuated mice lung inflammation showing fewer lesions on histological findings and decreased lethality in mice infected with VACV. The ingestion of Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 (LPST11) after VACV infection resulted in 2/9 animal lethality compared with 4/9 in the VACV group. This is the first study on probiotics and VACV interactions, providing not only information about this interaction, but also proposing a model for future studies involving probiotics and other poxvirus.

  9. Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin kills mice by inducing a major increase in lung vascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geny, Blandine; Khun, Huot; Fitting, Catherine; Zarantonelli, Leticia; Mazuet, Christelle; Cayet, Nadège; Szatanik, Marek; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Huerre, Michel; Popoff, Michel R

    2007-03-01

    When intraperitoneally injected into Swiss mice, Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin reproduces the fatal toxic shock syndrome observed in humans and animals after natural infection. This animal model was used to study the mechanism of lethal toxin-induced death. Histopathological and biochemical analyses identified lung and heart as preferential organs targeted by lethal toxin. Massive extravasation of blood fluid in the thoracic cage, resulting from an increase in lung vascular permeability, generated profound modifications such as animal dehydration, increase in hematocrit, hypoxia, and finally, cardiorespiratory failure. Vascular permeability increase induced by lethal toxin resulted from modifications of lung endothelial cells as evidenced by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that VE-cadherin, a protein participating in intercellular adherens junctions, was redistributed from membrane to cytosol in lung endothelial cells. No major sign of lethal toxin-induced inflammation was observed that could participate in the toxic shock syndrome. The main effect of the lethal toxin is the glucosylation-dependent inactivation of small GTPases, in particular Rac, which is involved in actin polymerization occurring in vivo in lungs leading to E-cadherin junction destabilization. We conclude that the cells most susceptible to lethal toxin are lung vascular endothelial cells, the adherens junctions of which were altered after intoxication.

  10. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  11. A bacterial cocaine esterase protects against cocaine-induced epileptogenic activity and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Cooper, Ziva D; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H

    2009-09-01

    Cocaine toxicity results in cardiovascular complications, seizures, and death and accounts for approximately 20% of drug-related emergency department visits every year. Presently, there are no treatments to eliminate the toxic effects of cocaine. The present study hypothesizes that a bacterial cocaine esterase with high catalytic efficiency would provide rapid and robust protection from cocaine-induced convulsions, epileptogenic activity, and lethality. Cocaine-induced paroxysmal activity and convulsions were evaluated in rats surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices (N=6 per treatment group). Cocaine esterase was administered 1 minute after a lethal dose of cocaine or after cocaine-induced convulsions to determine the ability of the enzyme to prevent or reverse, respectively, the effects of cocaine. The cocaine esterase prevented all cocaine-induced electroencephalographic changes and lethality. This effect was specific for cocaine because the esterase did not prevent convulsions and death induced by a cocaine analog, (-)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-phenyltropane. The esterase prevented lethality even after cocaine-induced convulsions occurred. In contrast, the short-acting benzodiazepine, midazolam, prevented cocaine-induced convulsions but not the lethal effects of cocaine. The data showed that cocaine esterase successfully degraded circulating cocaine to prevent lethality and that cocaine-induced convulsions alone are not responsible for the lethal effects of cocaine in this model. Therefore, further investigation into the use of cocaine esterase for treating cocaine overdose and its toxic effects is warranted.

  12. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBC. MethodsA total of 235 patients with HBC who were admitted to our hospitals from October 2008 to October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The infection rate of H. pylori in those patients was calculated. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices and 97 patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG, the infection rate of H. pylori was compared between those with different degrees of esophagogastric varices or PHG. In the 32 patients whose blood ammonia was determined, the level of blood ammonia was compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. Between-group comparison of continuous data was performed by t test and analysis of variance, and between-group comparison of categorical data was performed by χ2 test. ResultsThe infection rate of H. pylori in the 235 patients with HBC was 80.85% (190/235. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices, who had tortuous serpentine uplift or bead-like changes of esophageal varices and tumor-like changes (with or without gastric erosion of gastric varices visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild, moderate, and severe varices (50.55% (46/91 vs 43.59% (17/39 vs 76% (19/25, χ2=6.913, P<0.05. In the 97 patients with PHG, who had snake skin-like changes, cherry red spots, scarlet rash, and erosion bleeding of gastric mucosa visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild and severe PHG (43.33% (26/60 vs 67.57% (25/37, χ2=5.391, P<005.In patients whose blood ammonia was determined, patients in H. pylori-positive group had a significantly higher average concentration of blood ammonia than those in H. pylori-negative group (62.76±13.43 vs 47.20±12.51 μmol/L, t= 3.39, P<0

  13. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acute lethality data for Ontario's electric power generation sector effluents covering the period from December 1990 to May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, D.G.; Lee, J.T.; Mueller, M.C.; Westlake, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Regulations require that electric power generation facilities monitor their liquid effluents. Acute lethality tests are simple, rapid standard methods for measuring potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. These toxicity tests will detect harmful concentrations of chemicals and mixtures of compounds in effluents, but compliance with end of pipe limits for acute toxicity will not necessarily control all adverse environmental effects. In these tests, aquatic organisms were exposed to undiluted effluent, as well as a series of effluent dilutions for a fixed period of time. This report is a compilation of six months of test results. Typically the most toxic samples were taken from the waste treatment plant (WTP) neutral sumps. This was true for fossil fueled as well as for nuclear generating stations. tabs., figs

  15. Photoreactivable sector of lethal damage in ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balgavy, P.

    1976-01-01

    The photoreactivable sector of lethal damage in Escherichia coli Bsub(s-1), Escherichia coli B/r Hcr - and Escherichia coli B/r Hcr + cells after ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm is 0.823 +- 0.004, 0.70 +- 0.01 and 0.53 +- 0.06, respectively, at 99% confidence limits. For the low values of the photoreactivable sector in the B/r Hcr - and B/r Hcr + strains are likely to be responsible dark repair processes which eliminate lethal damage, brought about by pyrimidine dimers, preferably in comparison with lethal damage caused by photoproducts of another type. (author)

  16. A reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terata, N.; Tanio, Y.; Zbar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs. Injection of 2.5-10 x 10 7 syngeneic bone marrow cells into adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs produced survival of 46-100% of treated animals. Gentamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg of body weight) for 10 days was required for optimal results. Acidified drinking water (pH 2.5) appeared to be required for optimal results. Thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow reconstituted ('B') guinea pigs had impaired ability to develop delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to keyhole limpet hemocyanin; proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were impaired. (Auth.)

  17. Analyzing relationships between surface perturbations and local chemical reactivity of metal sites: Alkali promotion of O2 dissociation on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongliang; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-01

    Many commercial heterogeneous catalysts are complex structures that contain metal active sites promoted by multiple additives. Developing fundamental understanding about the impact of these perturbations on the local surface reactivity is crucial for catalyst development and optimization. In this contribution, we develop a general framework for identifying underlying mechanisms that control the changes in the surface reactivity of a metal site (more specifically the adsorbate-surface interactions) upon a perturbation in the local environment. This framework allows us to interpret fairly complex interactions on metal surfaces in terms of specific, physically transparent contributions that can be evaluated independently of each other. We use Cs-promoted dissociation of O2 as an example to illustrate our approach. We concluded that the Cs adsorbate affects the outcome of the chemical reaction through a strong alkali-induced electric field interacting with the static dipole moment of the O2/Ag(111) system.

  18. The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblat, A.; Haimson, S.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Horvitz, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at ∼35% of surface coverage, θ, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when θ = 35% and the second step at θ = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

  19. A Systematic Study of the Relationship among the Morphological, Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown Using the Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sungjin; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on a ZnO seed layer/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate for different growth durations ranging from 5 to 40 min using the microwave chemical bath deposition method. We studied the effect of growth duration on the morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. From this study, we found that the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were largely affected by their morphological and structural properties. As a result, we obtained the highest photocurrent density of 0.46 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.5 V vs. SCE) from the sample grown for 30 min.

  20. Chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol during foggy and nonfoggy episodes: a relationship between organic and inorganic content of the aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, D. S.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    An extensive field measurement during winter was carried out at a site located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) which gets heavily influenced by the fog during winter almost every year. The chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosols during foggy and nonfoggy episodes and chemical composition of the fogwater are presented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) as a tool for the source apportionment was employed to understand the sources of pollution. Four major sources viz. biomass burning, refractory, secondary and mineral dust were identified. Aerosols properties during foggy episodes were heavily influenced by almost all the sources and they caused considerable loading of almost all the organic and inorganic species during the period. The biomass generated aerosols were removed from the atmosphere by scavenging during foggy episodes. The wet removal of almost all the species by the fog droplets was observed. The K+, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC) and NO3- were most heavily scavenged among the species and their concentrations consequently became lower than the nonfoggy episode concentrations. The production of secondary inorganic aerosol, mainly sulfate and ammonium, during foggy episodes was considerably higher than nitrate which was rather heavily scavenged and removed by the fog droplets. The fogwater analysis showed that dissolved inorganic species play a vital role in processing of organic carbon such as the formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate inside the fog droplets. The formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate in aerosol and the influence of acidity on the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were rather found to be negligible. The study average inorganic component of the aerosol was considerably higher than the carbonaceous component during both foggy and nonfoggy episode. The secondary production of the aerosol changed the microphysical properties of aerosol which was reflected by

  1. [Spatial distribution of birth defects among children aged 0 to 5 years and its relationship with soil chemical elements in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhong, Zhao-hui; Li, Hong; Li, Jie; Wang, Ying-xiong; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Mao-zhong; Huang, Qiao; Yan, Ju; Xu, Fei-long

    2013-10-01

    To explore the correlation between the incidence of birth defects and the contents of soil elements so as to provide a scientific basis for screening the related pathogenic factors that inducing birth defects for the development of related preventive and control strategies. MapInfo 7.0 software was used to draw the maps on spatial distribution regarding the incidence rates of birth defects and the contents of 11 chemical elements in soil in the 33 studied areas. Variables on the two maps were superposed for analyzing the spatial correlation. SAS 8.0 software was used to analyze single factor, multi-factors and principal components as well as to comprehensively evaluate the degrees of relevance. Different incidence rates of birth defects showed in the maps of spatial distribution presented certain degrees of negative correlation with anomalies of soil chemical elements, including copper, chrome, iodine, selenium, zinc while positively correlated with the levels of lead. Results from the principal component regression equation indicating that the contents of copper(0.002), arsenic(-0.07), cadmium(0.05), chrome (-0.001), zinc (0.001), iodine(-0.03), lead (0.08), fluorine(-0.002)might serve as important factors that related to the prevalence of birth defects. Through the study on spatial distribution, we noticed that the incidence rates of birth defects were related to the contents of copper, chrome, iodine, selenium, zinc, lead in soil while the contents of chrome, iodine and lead might lead to the occurrence of birth defects.

  2. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7×104 LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague.

  3. Analyzing temporal variation in the lethality of ETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes time variation in the lethal violence of the terrorist organization ETA. Given the dynamic structure of the time series of fatalities, I look at the effect of a number of independent variables (the celebration of different types of elections, anti-ETA activity by extreme right-wing organizations and the GAL, police arrests, and other relevant events, such as the referendums on the Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy of Guernica. To do so, I have estimated several ARIMA models using the time series of fatalities between 1968 and 2007. Moreover, the results obtained are complemented by a historical-political analysis of the period of maximum violence, which took place during the Spanish transition to democracy.

    Este artículo analiza la variación temporal en la violencia letal de la organización terrorista ETA. Dada la estructura dinámica de la serie temporal de víctimas mortales, se estudia el efecto de una serie de variables independientes (celebración de distintos tipos de elecciones, actividad anti-ETA de la extrema derecha y del GAL, detenciones policiales y sucesos especiales como los referendos sobre la Constitución o el Estatuto de Autonomía de Guernica. Para ello, se estiman diversos modelos ARIMA con la serie trimestral de víctimas mortales entre 1968 y 2007. Además, se completan los resultados obtenidos con un análisis histórico-político del periodo de máxima violencia durante la transición a la democracia.

  4. MKLN1 splicing defect in dogs with lethal acrodermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina Bauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lethal acrodermatitis (LAD is a genodermatosis with monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers. The LAD phenotype is characterized by poor growth, immune deficiency, and skin lesions, especially at the paws. Utilizing a combination of genome wide association study and haplotype analysis, we mapped the LAD locus to a critical interval of ~1.11 Mb on chromosome 14. Whole genome sequencing of an LAD affected dog revealed a splice region variant in the MKLN1 gene that was not present in 191 control genomes (chr14:5,731,405T>G or MKLN1:c.400+3A>C. This variant showed perfect association in a larger combined Bull Terrier/Miniature Bull Terrier cohort of 46 cases and 294 controls. The variant was absent from 462 genetically diverse control dogs of 62 other dog breeds. RT-PCR analysis of skin RNA from an affected and a control dog demonstrated skipping of exon 4 in the MKLN1 transcripts of the LAD affected dog, which leads to a shift in the MKLN1 reading frame. MKLN1 encodes the widely expressed intracellular protein muskelin 1, for which diverse functions in cell adhesion, morphology, spreading, and intracellular transport processes are discussed. While the pathogenesis of LAD remains unclear, our data facilitate genetic testing of Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers to prevent the unintentional production of LAD affected dogs. This study may provide a starting point to further clarify the elusive physiological role of muskelin 1 in vivo.

  5. Can Telescopes Help Leo Satellites Dodge Most Lethal Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUDIEL, ANDREA; Carroll, Joseph; Rowe, David

    2018-01-01

    Authors: Joseph Carroll and David RoweABSTRACT LEO objects are tracked by radar because it works day and night, in all weather. This fits military interest in potentially hostile objects. There is less interest in objects too small to be credible active threats. But accidental hypervelocity impact by even 5-10 mm objects can disable most LEO satellites. Such “cm-class” objects greatly outnumber objects of military interest, and will cause most accidental impact losses.Under good viewing conditions, a sunlit 5mm sphere with 0.15 albedo at 800 km altitude is a 19th magnitude object. A ground-based 0.5m telescope tracking it against a 20 mag/arcsec2 sky can see it in seconds, and provide 1 million such objects in LEO, nearly all debris fragments, mostly cm-class and at 600-1200 km altitude.Maintaining a ~million-item catalog requires a world-wide network of several dozen telescope sites with several telescopes at each site. Each telescope needs a mount capable of ~1,000,000 fast slews/year without wearing out.The paper discusses recent advances that make such a service far more feasible:1. Automated tasking and remote control of distributed telescope networks,2. Direct-drive mounts that can make millions of fast slews without wearing out,3. Telescope optics with low focal curvature that are in focus across large imagers,4. CMOS imagers with 95% peak QE and 1.5e- noise at 2E8 pix/sec readout rates,5. Methods for uncued detection of most lethal LEO debris (eg., >5 mm at 800 km),6. Initial orbit determination using 3 alt-az fixes made during the discovery pass,7. High-speed photometry to infer debris spin axis, to predict drag area changes,8. Better conjunction predictions using explicit modeling of drag area variations.

  6. Chronic toxicity of contaminated sediments on reproduction and histopathology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum and relationship with the chemical contamination and in vitro effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurova, Edita; Hilscherova, Klara; Sidlova-Stepankova, Tereza; Blaha, Ludek [Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Rottenburg (Germany); Jungmann, Dirk [Inst. of Hydrobiology, Dresden Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Giesy, John P. [Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Biology and Chemistry Dept., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of the Environment, Nanjing Univ. (China)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the sediment contaminants and the occurrence of intersex in situ. Two of the studied sediments were from polluted sites with increased occurrence of intersex crustaceans (Lake Pilnok, black coal mining area in the Czech Republic, inhabited by the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus population with 18% of intersex; creek Lockwitzbach in Germany with Gammarus fossarum population with about 7% of intersex). Materials and methods Sediments were studied by a combined approach that included (1) determination of concentrations of metals and traditionally analyzed organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) examination of the in vitro potencies to activate aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), and androgen receptor-mediated responses; and (3) in vivo whole sediment exposures during a 12-week reproduction toxicity study with benthic amphipod G. fossarum. (orig.)

  7. Assessing the cytotoxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its relationship with the PM chemical composition and oxidative potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Plewa, Michael J.; Mukherjee, Ujjal Kumar; Verma, Vishal

    2018-04-01

    We assessed mammalian cell cytotoxicity of ambient PM2.5 and investigated its association with the oxidative potential (OP) and chemical composition of the particles. Sixteen PM samples spanning in various seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) were collected from an urban site in central Illinois. Cytotoxicity (LC50) in terms of the volume of air that kills 50% of the cells were calculated, which varied from 4.3 to 7.2 m3 of air. The OP was measured by two assays - the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the surrogate lung fluid (SLF) assay. In DTT assay, we measured two endpoints - hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generation and DTT consumption (the conventionally measured endpoint), while only •OH generation was measured in the SLF assay. Although, all three endpoints in the OP assays correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with LC50, the correlation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in DTT and SLF assays was much higher (r > 0.80 for •OH generation versus LC50) than the DTT consumption (r = 0.58). To further understand the components in PM that drive cytotoxicity and OP, concentration of water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Among all the chemical components, Fe, Cu and WSOC correlated most (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) with the cytotoxicity. DTT consumption correlated only with OC and WSOC (r > 0.80; P ≤ 0.01), while •OH generation in DTT and SLF assay correlated with both WSOC (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) and metals (i.e. Fe and Cu; r > 0.75; P ≤ 0.01). Our results suggest a strong link between the PM2.5 OP and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the synergistic interactions among the organic compounds (i.e. WSOC) and metals (Fe and Cu) to enhance the ROS generation, which are more effectively captured in •OH generation endpoints in DTT and SLF assay than the DTT consumption, appear to be largely responsible for the observed mammalian cell

  8. Water sources as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 strains in Bepanda, Douala (Cameroon): relationship between isolation and physico-chemical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Mbuntcha, Christelle Kwedjeu Pulcherie

    2014-07-30

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala since 1971. Most outbreaks start from Bepanda, an overcrowded neighbourhood with poor hygiene and sanitary conditions. We investigated water sources in Bepanda as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, determined its antibiotic susceptibility and some physico-chemical characteristics that could maintain the endemicity of this organism in Bepanda. Three hundred and eighteen water samples collected from 45 wells, 8 taps and 1 stream from February to July 2009 were analyzed for V. cholerae using standard methods. Isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically and serologically. The disc diffusion technique was employed to investigate antibiotic susceptibility. Differences in prevalence of organism between seasons were analysed. Correlation strength and direction of association between physico-chemical parameters and occurrence of V. cholerae was analyzed using the Kendall tau_b non-parametric correlation. This was further confirmed with the forward-stepwise binary logistic regression. Eighty-seven (27.4%) samples were positive for V. cholerae. Isolation was highest from wells. The organism was isolated in the rainy season and dry season but the frequency of isolation was significantly higher (χ2 = 7.009, df = 1, P = 0.008) in the rainy season. Of the 96 confirmed V. cholerae isolates, 32 (33.3%) belonged to serogroup O1 and 64 (66.6%) were serogroup non-O1/non-O139. Isolates from tap (municipal water) were non-O1/non-O139 strains. Salinity had a significant positive correlation with isolation in the dry season (+0.267, P = 0.015) and rainy season (+0.223, P = 0.028). The forward-stepwise method of binary logistic regression indicated that as pH (Wald = 11.753, df = 1), P = 0.001) increased, odds of isolation of V. cholerae also increased (B = 1.297, S.E = 0.378, Exp(B) = 3.657). All isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance was predominant among the non-O1/non

  9. Comparative influence of dose rate and radiation nature, on lethality after big mammals irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Le Fleche, Ph.; Grasseau, A.; Reynal, A.

    1997-01-01

    For the same dose and the 30 days lethality as biological criterion, the dose rate influence is more important than the radiation nature on the results of an big mammals total body irradiation. (authors)

  10. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellows, David S

    2006-01-01

    I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's...

  11. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellows, David S

    2004-01-01

    I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's...

  12. 76 FR 6054 - Use of Less-Than-Lethal Force: Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... report any medical problems encountered by subjects being subdued and arrested, and no medical problems.... Therefore, for accuracy in terminology, we replace the term ``non-lethal'' with the more accurate term...

  13. The Effects of Posture, Body Armor and Other Equipment on Rifleman Lethality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramlich, Gary R., II

    2005-01-01

    ...? This study quantifies the effects of Soldier equipment on lethality through multi-factor logistic regression using data from range experiments with the 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized...

  14. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Fenpropathrin on the Biological Performance of Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Determination of negative nontarget effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms by measuring only lethal effects is likely to underestimate effects of sublethal doses. In this study, the sublethal effects of fenpropathrin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: T...

  15. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery : a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. Case report - We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation,

  16. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery: a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation, diagnosis was delayed because of

  17. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  18. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending, Gary D.; Lincoln, Suzanne D.; Edmondson, Rodney N.

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil

  19. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and virtual screening studies for identifying HDAC2 inhibitors from known HDAC bioactive chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-The, H; Casañola-Martin, G; Diéguez-Santana, K; Nguyen-Hai, N; Ngoc, N T; Vu-Duc, L; Le-Thi-Thu, H

    2017-03-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are emerging as promising targets in cancer, neuronal diseases and immune disorders. Computational modelling approaches have been widely applied for the virtual screening and rational design of novel HDAC inhibitors. In this study, different machine learning (ML) techniques were applied for the development of models that accurately discriminate HDAC2 inhibitors form non-inhibitors. The obtained models showed encouraging results, with the global accuracy in the external set ranging from 0.83 to 0.90. Various aspects related to the comparison of modelling techniques, applicability domain and descriptor interpretations were discussed. Finally, consensus predictions of these models were used for screening HDAC2 inhibitors from four chemical libraries whose bioactivities against HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC6 and HDAC8 have been known. According to the results of virtual screening assays, structures of some hits with pair-isoform-selective activity (between HDAC2 and other HDACs) were revealed. This study illustrates the power of ML-based QSAR approaches for the screening and discovery of potent, isoform-selective HDACIs.

  20. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Lincoln, Suzanne D; Edmondson, Rodney N

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160 x 60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated.

  2. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bending, Gary D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gary.bending@warwick.ac.uk; Lincoln, Suzanne D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Rodney N. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil.

  3. Relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the French National Nature Reserve of Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Hélène; Buet, Astrid; Ramade, François

    2002-11-01

    The Reserve of Biosphere of Camargue [French National Nature Reserve of Camargue (NNRC)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. To evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. Metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. In addition, the incorporation of xenobiotic molecules in the lipid compartments was investigated. The contents of glycogen, total lipids, proteins and lipidic phosphorus were analyzed in liver and skeletal muscles of three teleostean: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla); the crucian carp (Carassius auratus); and the catfish (Ictalurus melas). The atmospheric origin of the PAH detected in any season in the biomass and the OCs compounds contamination by derive from agricultural treatments are established. In contradiction with some laboratory acute intoxication studies, we observe a positive correlation between tissue concentrations of contaminants and the muscular glycogen amount, a sensitive energy reserve marker. Moreover, it seems likely that the incorporation of these xenobiotics is located preferentially in the membrane structures.

  4. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY TEST (BSLT DARI BERBAGAI FRAKSI EKSTRAK DAGING BUAH DAN KULIT BIJI MAHKOTA DEWA (Phaleria macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Lisdawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of a natural product involved in several certain characteristics will influence its pharmaceutical application. Secondary metabolites, considered as chemical compounds, are now thought to mediate plant defense mechanism by providing chemical barriers against animal and microbial predators. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method has been used as preliminary test for screening the activity of chemical compounds in n­ hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from mesocarp and seeds of Phaleria macrocarpa, fam. Thymelaeaceae. BSLT method used shrimp larvas of Artemia salina L. to study the mortality effect that was caused by the sample extracts. All of crude extracts showed bioactivity with LC50 values from 0.16 to 11.83 µg/ml (baseline 1000 µg/ml. It means, at the concentration the crude extracts can cause 50% mortality of A. salina L. shrimp larvas, after 24 hours incubation. These results clearly indicate that crude extracts of P. macrocarpa showed high potential biological activity.

  5. Synthetic Lethal Therapeutic Approaches for ARID1A-Mutated Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0496 TITLE: Synthetic lethal therapeutic approaches for ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rugang...AND SUBTITLE Synthetic lethal therapeutic approaches for ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0496 5c...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among gynecological

  6. Lethality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on adalimumab administration: imitation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Goryachev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethality of pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA exceeds mortality values in general population. Possibility of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD influence on RA pts lethality has been widely discussed lately in scientific works. Objective. To determine possible lethality diminishment in Russian population of RA pts with one of biological drugs TNFα antagonist adalimumab. Material and methods. Model construction is based on the fact of lethality dependence on pt functional state assessed by HAQ. Model simulating progression of functional disability in pts with RA visiting medical institutions of Russia was made (RAISER study. 3 model variants for imitation of consecutive change of DMARDs including adalimumab were done. First consecution assessed DMARD change in the next chain: adalimumab-methotrexate-sulfasalazine-leflunomide-azathioprine-cyclosporine-palliative therapy. Second consecution: adalimumab administration after failure of first 3 DMARDs. Third consecution considered only change of synthetic DMARDs without adalimumab inclusion. Model imitated participation of 3000 pts in every consecution. Prognosis horizon was 12 years. Age of pts and initial HAQ distribution were get from results of epidemiological RAISER study. Calculation was done on the base of elevation of standardized lethality level (SLL in population of RA pts in average from 135% to 300%. SLL values from 80 to 320% were used depending on functional disability degree with converting to Russian values of age-specific lethality coefficient for 1999. Results. Lethality in treatment consecutions including adalimumab was significantly lower. To the end of 12th year in group not using adalimumab, using it at once and using it after 376 DMARDs respectively 65,1%, 71,6% and 71,1% of pts were still alive. Conclusion. Significant decrease of lethality with adalimumab inclusion in consecution of DMARD change during treatment of RA pts was demonstrated with imitation modeling

  7. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamansky, G B

    1986-08-01

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells.

  8. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

  9. Non-Lethal Weapons: A Technology Gap or Lack or Available Systems, Training, and Proper Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    102-104. 31 Ibid., 103-104. 32 Michael Wines , “The Aftermath in Moscow: Post-Mortem in Moscow; Russia Names Drug in Raid, Defending Use,” New York...during the past three decades have increased awareness of the benefit of non- lethal options, but increased advocacy within the services has not led to a...during the execution of suitable missions that could benefit from less than lethal technology. Research and Development Once the directorate

  10. 1H NMR-based metabolomics of time-dependent responses of Eisenia fetida to sub-lethal phenanthrene exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankadurai, Brian P.; Wolfe, David M.; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene over time. Earthworms were exposed to 0.025 mg/cm 2 of phenanthrene (1/64th of the LC 50 ) via contact tests over four days. Earthworm tissues were extracted using a mixture of chloroform, methanol and water, resulting in polar and non-polar fractions that were analyzed by 1 H NMR after one, two, three and four days. NMR-based metabolomic analyses revealed heightened E. fetida responses with longer phenanthrene exposure times. Amino acids alanine and glutamate, the sugar maltose, the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine emerged as potential indicators of phenanthrene exposure. The conversion of succinate to fumarate in the Krebs cycle was also interrupted by phenanthrene. Therefore, this study shows that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for elucidating time-dependent relationships in addition to the mode of toxicity of phenanthrene in earthworm exposure studies. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the mode of action of phenanthrene is presented. → The earthworm species E. fetida were exposed to sub-lethal phenanthrene concentrations. → Both polar and non-polar metabolites of E. fetida tissue extracts were analyzed by 1 H NMR. → Longer phenanthrene exposure times resulted in heightened earthworm responses. → An interruption of the Krebs cycle was also observed due to phenanthrene exposure. - 1 H NMR metabolomics is used to determine the relationship between phenanthrene exposure and the metabolic response of the earthworm E. fetida over time and also to elucidate the phenanthrene mode of toxicity.

  11. The Effect of Preceding Crops on the Chemical Fractions of Copper (Cu in the Rhizosphere and the Bulk Soil and its Relationship with Copper Uptake by Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad kabirinejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preceding crops as a source of organic matter are an important source of micronutrient and can play an important role in the soil fertility and the micronutrients cycle of soil. In addition to the role of the organic matter in increasing the concentration of micronutrients in soil solution, attention also should be paid to the role of the kind and the quantity of the root’s exudates that are released in response to the incorporation of different plant residues in the rhizosphere. Present research was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of the kind of preceding crops: Trifolium (Trifolium pretense L, Sofflower (Carthamus tinectirus L, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L, Sunflower (Heliantus annus L and control (fallow on the chemical forms of copper in the wheat rhizosphere and the bulk soil and Cu uptake by wheat and also investigating the correlation between the fractions of Cu in soil and Cu uptake in wheat. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted as split plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with 3 replications and 5 treatments, in field conditions. In the beginning, the preceding crops were cultivated in the experimental plots and after ending growth, preceding crops were harvested. Then the wheat was cultivated in the experimental plots. Finally, after harvesting the wheat, soil samples were collected from the two parts of the root zone (the wheat rhizosphere and the bulk soil. The soil samples were air dried ground and passed through a 2-mm sieve and stored for chemical analysis. Soil pH (in the soil saturation extract and organic matter (Walkley–Black wet digestion were measured in standard methods (1. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC was measured by Analyzer (Primacs SLC TOC Analyzer (CS22, Netherlands. The available Cu in soil was extracted by DTPA and determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (2. The fractionation of soil Cu was carried out using the MSEP method (3. Results and

  12. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S

    2017-08-09

    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  13. Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, Paul L.; Nyman, John A.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated the extent to which various common hydrocarbon measures can be used to predict toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms due to fouling by oil. Actual toxicity results, on laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms using two water-column species and a benthic species, were described earlier. The hydrocarbon measures used were TPH g , TPH FID , TPH MS , TTAH (sum of 41 target aromatic hydrocarbons), principal components of 41 TAHs, and each individual TAH. In general, toxicity was more closely related to TPH MS levels than to TPH FID and (especially) TPH g levels. The strongest relationships were found for TTAH levels and for the principal components of the TAHs. Regressions of toxicity on many individual TAHs were also strong, with a single group of compounds explaining as much as 59% of the variation in survival. While the various regressions were highly significant statistically and at times able to accurately predict broad differences in toxicity, the high variation in survival at a specific hydrocarbon concentration indicates that these hydrocarbon measures can not substitute for actual toxicity determinations in accurately ranking the toxicity of samples from oiled freshwater marshes. - Hydrocarbon measurements cannot be substituted for actual toxicity determinations

  14. Reproductive-phase and interphase lethal cell damage after irradiation and treatment with cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1979-01-01

    After X-ray irradiation of manual cells, two lethal fractions occur due to reproductive and interphase death under low and high radiation doses. The damage kinetics on which this fact is based is compared with hypothetical tumour frequencies and leucemia induction caused in experiments. The reproductive-lethal damage can be manifested by means of colony size spectrometry, with the median colony size class differences (MCD) serving as measure for the damage found. The simultaneous effects of the cytostatics BLEOMYCIN or ICRF 159 and X-rays on reproductive lethal and interphase-lethal damage are measured by means of MCD and survival fraction, and the additive and intensifying effect' is judged with the help of suitably defined terms. This shows that the clinically used ICRF 159 has an additive effect on interphase-lethal and a sub-additive effect on reproductive-lethal cell damage. Thus, favourable results may be expected for the electivity factor in fractionated irradiation and with regard to delayed damage in healthy tissue. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  15. Assessment of multi-chemical pollution in aquatic ecosystems using toxic units: compound prioritization, mixture characterization and relationships with biological descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Guasch, Helena; de Alda, Miren López; López-Doval, Julio C; Muñoz, Isabel; Ricart, Marta; Romaní, Anna M; Sabater, Sergi; Barceló, Damià

    2014-01-15

    Chemical pollution is typically characterized by exposure to multiple rather than to single or a limited number of compounds. Parent compounds, transformation products and other non-targeted compounds yield mixtures whose composition can only be partially identified by monitoring, while a substantial proportion remains unknown. In this context, risk assessment based on the application of additive ecotoxicity models, such as concentration addition (CA), is rendered somewhat misleading. Here, we show that ecotoxicity risk information can be better understood upon consideration of the probabilistic distribution of risk among the different compounds. Toxic units of the compounds identified in a sample fit a lognormal probability distribution. The parameters characterizing this distribution (mean and standard deviation) provide information which can be tentatively interpreted as a measure of the toxic load and its apportionment among the constituents in the mixture (here interpreted as mixture complexity). Furthermore, they provide information for compound prioritization tailored to each site and enable prediction of some of the functional and structural biological variables associated with the receiving ecosystem. The proposed approach was tested in the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain) using exposure and toxicity data (algae and Daphnia) corresponding to 29 pharmaceuticals and 22 pesticides, and 5 structural and functional biological descriptors related to benthic macroinvertebrates (diversity, biomass) and biofilm metrics (diatom quality, chlorophyll-a content and photosynthetic capacity). Aggregated toxic units based on Daphnia and algae bioassays provided a good indication of the pollution pattern of the Llobregat River basin. Relative contribution of pesticides and pharmaceuticals to total toxic load was variable and highly site dependent, the latter group tending to increase its contribution in urban areas. Contaminated sites' toxic load was typically dominated by

  16. Principle component analysis (PCA) for investigation of relationship between population dynamics of microbial pathogenesis, chemical and sensory characteristics in beef slices containing Tarragon essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-04-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) was employed to examine the effect of the exerted treatments on the beef shelf life as well as discovering the correlations between the studied responses. Considering the variability of the dimensions of the responses, correlation coefficients were applied to form the matrix and extract the eigenvalue. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms through the methods of hole-plate diffusion method, disk diffusion method, pour plate method, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content were examined through the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The components were identified through gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Barhang seed mucilage (BSM) based edible coating containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w) Tarragon (T) essential oil mix were applied on beef slices to control the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH) and sensory characteristics (odor, color and overall acceptability) analysis measurements were made during the storage periodically. PCA was employed to examine the effect of the exerted treatments on the beef shelf life as well as discovering the correlations between the studied responses. Considering the variability of the dimensions of the responses, correlation coefficients were applied to form the matrix and extract the eigenvalue. The PCA showed that the properties of the uncoated meat samples on the 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th days of storage are continuously changing independent of the exerted treatments on the other samples. This reveals the effect of the exerted treatments on the samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOOLSBY, TOMMY D.; SCOTT, STEVEN H.

    1999-01-01

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be

  18. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might

  19. The use of non-lethal defoliation to minimize the foliar Cs-uptake by vine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Montruccoli, M.; Anguissola-Scotti, I.; Silva, S.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical non-lethal defoliation of fruit trees might be used to minimize the translocation of radionuclides from the leaves to the fruits and to the internal ligneous tissues, reducing their redistribution in next harvest. The current paper describes a study on vine - a Mediteranian arboreous specie of high economical value. The leaf-fruit translocation of radiocaesium has been analyzed from different points of view, in particular, the possibility of reducing the foliar uptake of such radionuclide by means of a nonlethal defoliation. Vines grown in pots have been directly contaminated in two different years by sprinkling a carrier free solution of 134 Cs on leaves. Grapes have been covered during sprinkling to avoid their direct contamination. Other vines have been defoliated after contamination to evaluate the influence of leaf removal on the radiocaesium translocation to the fruits. The radiocaesium concentration has been determined in grapes at the ripening stage in the must. The radiocaesium interception measured on removed leaves is about 30% of the sprinkled activity. The radioactivity of covered grapes is with 20% lower than uncovered ones. Such a lower activity is likely ascribable only to leaf-fruit translocation without direct contamination of the grapes. The translocation factor expressed as percentage of fruit activity compared to the total intercepted one is about four times lower when the leaf removal treatment is affected just after the contamination. Grapes of plants contaminated a year before have a 134 Cs residual activity about 17 times lower than plants contaminated in the same year. When the vines have been contaminated and defoliated the year before, the residual activity of grapes is about 70 times lower. The ratio between defoliated and non-defoliated plants is still 1:4. Radioactivity of the must is five times lower for defoliated vines than for non-defoliated ones. (author)

  20. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  1. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: I. Public acceptability and performance of lethal ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Rapley, L P; Williams, C; Johnson, P H; Larkman, M; Silcock, R M; Long, S A; Russell, R C

    2009-12-01

    We report on the first field evaluation of the public acceptability and performance of two types of lethal ovitrap (LO) in three separate trials in Cairns, Australia. Health workers were able to set standard lethal ovitraps (SLOs) in 75 and 71% of premise yards in the wet and dry season, respectively, and biodegradable lethal ovitraps (BLOs) in 93% of yards. Public acceptance, measured as retention of traps by residents, was high for both trap types, with porous (grass, soil and mulch) versus solid (tiles, concrete, wood and stone) substrates. The SLOs and the BLOs were readily acceptable to ovipositing Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae); the mean number of eggs/trap was 6 and 15, for the dry season and wet season SLO trial, respectively, and 15 for the BLO wet season trial. Indeed, 84-94% of premise yards had egg positive SLOs or BLOs. A high percentage of both wet and dry season SLOs (29 and 70%, respectively) and BLOs (62%) that were dry after 4 weeks were egg positive, indicating the traps had functioned. Lethal strips from SLOs and BLOs that had been exposed for 4 weeks killed 83 and 74%, respectively, of gravid Ae. aegypti in laboratory assays. These results indicate that mass trapping schemes using SLOs and BLOs are not rejected by the public and effectively target gravid Ae. aegypti. The impact of the interventions on mosquito populations is described in a companion paper.

  2. Dose-response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-03-14

    Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Dose-response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization's Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77% of eggs laid by females exposed to 0

  3. Administration of ondansetron is associated with lethal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Blanca; Burns, Jarrett M; Griffin, Susanne; Boyer, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We report here the case of a child with a known muscular abnormality and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia who abruptly died after receiving a therapeutic dose of ondansetron. Also, we discuss the pharmacodynamic relationship of ondansetron to malignant hyperthermia in a susceptible host.

  4. Establishing RIPDLIPI Lethality Tables for the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Bibliography Anno, G. et al. (2003). “Dose response relationships for acute ionizing-radiation lethality”. In: Health Physics 84.5, pp. 565–575...The new LUTs were created using a plugin to HENRE ( Health Effects from Nuclear and Radiological Environments; (Oldson et al., 2017). HENRE includes

  5. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  6. Lethal and Mutagenic Effects of Tritium Decay Produced by Tritiated Compounds Incorporated into Bacteria and Bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1968-06-15

    The work discussed below is predominantly from the author's laboratory. Some effects of tritium decay on bacteria and bacteriophages, using labelled compounds that are incorporated preferentially into DNA, RNA or protein, have been studied. A relatively high killing efficiency, the probability that a single decay produces loss of colony-forming ability in bacteria or loss of plaque-forming ability in bacteriophages, is observed for thymidine- methyl-{sup 3}H decay, but this is thought to be due to S-particle ionization damage. The most definitive experiments involved a comparison of killing efficiencies for decays originating as thymidine-methyl-{sup 3}H in phage DNA and as amino acid-{sup 3}H in phage protein with the calculated {beta}-particle path length through, the DNA in the two cases. Experimental and calculated values are essentially the same. Radiation-dose calculations to many different bacterial sub-volumes were determined for several different distributions of radioactivity. The high killing efficiency for thymidine-methyl- {sup 3}H decay can be explained by {beta}-particle ionizations, providing DNA is the sensitive target molecule and it is organized in a central volume of the cell (see also Ref.[24]). Although both the lethal and mutagenic effect of thymidine-methyl-{sup 3}H and amino acid-{sup 3}H decays can readily be explained on the basis of {beta}-particle ionizations, the observed large mutation frequency produced by uracil-5{sup 3}H decay cannot. The majority of mutations produced by uracil-5{sup 3}H decays are due to a specific chemical rearrangement of the parent molecule, since decays from uracil-6{sup 3}H are 6 to 7-fold less mutagenic. It is clear that the decays leading to mutations for cells labelled with uracil-5{sup 3}H originate as cytosine-5{sup 3}H in bacterial DNA. Recent work shows that the specific chemical rearrangement causes a C --> T(u) genetic coding change. (author)

  7. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  8. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  9. Lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. Interim report No. 1, June-July 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, M.B.; Brun, P.; Gal, J.Y.; Reza, A.

    1987-07-01

    The objective of this phase of Toxicological Research on Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms is to improve both ecotoxicological tests in a chemically defined medium and a procedure of bioavailability study in field. In this first period the authors worked on breeding stock of earthworms (species Eisenia fetida andrei) in decomposing manure heaps to increase them and make them grow. They also installed two chambers with thermostats fixed at 20 C to do toxicity tests and chose chemical species of heavy-metal contaminants. For field procedure, they improved a practical way to sample both earthworms and soil in very close connections, avoiding artifacts. For both field procedure and laboratory tests, they tried to standardize a method to dissolve earthworms in acids and to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals inside. A preliminary set of samples in calcareous soils was started and analysis of them are in progress. For lab tests, the first part of the test (preliminary test) was started with the different contaminants (cadmium, copper, arsenic, mercury) in an artificial medium named Artisol.

  10. Lethal action of canavanine in Escherichia coli; Etude de l'action lethale de la canavanine sur Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, Gerard Marc

    1972-01-04

    proteines. La canavanine stimule la synthese de l'ARN dans les souches de bacteries RC{sup str} arg{sup -}, carencees en arginine; mais elle inhibe l'incorporation de l'uracile, l'UMP et d'UDP dans les souches RC{sup rel} arg{sup -}. En presence de canavanine, la replication de l'ADN suit le meme type de cinetique que dans les bacteries carencees en acide amine indispensable. L'ADN des bacteries incubees en presence de canavanine presente des alterations qui resultent de coupures de la molecule d'ADN. Il s'ensuit la formation de fragments d'ADN qui ne sedimentent pas a 10 000 xg avec les membranes cellulaires, ni a 150 000 xg en gradient de sucrose alcalin. L'action lethale de la canavanine doit etre le resultat de cette alteration de l'ADN. (auteur)

  11. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  12. Damage to E. coli cells induced by tritium decay: secondary lethality under nongrowth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukalova, B.; Kuhrova, V.

    1980-01-01

    Cells containing incorporated 3 H-thymidine are damaged by its decay. It was found with E.coli TAU-bar cells that a small part of the damage is lethal whereas most of it is reparable and only potentially lethal. If cells are subjected to nongrowth conditions, the potentially lethal damage changes to lethal damage. This process is called secondary lethality (SL). The extent of SL and some changes in DNA under three different modes of growth inhibition were determined. It was found that: (i) SL is maximal under conditions of amino acid starvation (-AA), the viable count decreasing by two orders of magnitude. (ii) SL is 4 times lower in the presence of chloramphenicol (-AA+CLP) and 6.5 times lower under +AA+CLP conditions. Changes in the sedimentation rate of DNA determined in alkaline sucrose gradient correlate with the differences in SL: under -AA conditions the sedimentation rate of DNA decreases whereas in the presence of CLP no decrease occurs. The results suggest that certain enzymatic processes take place under -AA conditions which lead to irreparable changes in DNA. (author)

  13. Tolerization with BLP down-regulates HMGB1 a critical mediator of sepsis-related lethality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tolerization with bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) affords a significant survival benefit in sepsis. Given that high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is a recognized mediator of sepsis-related lethality, we determined if tolerization with BLP leads to alterations in HMGB1. In vitro, BLP tolerization led to a reduction in HMGB1 gene transcription. This was mirrored at the protein level, as HMGB1 protein expression and release were reduced significantly in BLP-tolerized human THP-1 monocytic cells. BLP tolerance in vivo led to a highly significant, long-term survival benefit following challenge with lethal dose BLP in C57BL\\/6 mice. This was associated with an attenuation of HMGB1 release into the circulation, as evidenced by negligible serum HMGB1 levels in BLP-tolerized mice. Moreover, HMGB1 levels in peritoneal macrophages from BLP-tolerized mice were reduced significantly. Hence, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1 protein synthesis and release. The improved survival associated with BLP tolerance could thus be explained by a reduction in HMGB1, were the latter associated with lethality in BLP-related sepsis. In testing this hypothesis, it was noted that neutralization of HMGB1, using anti-HMGB1 antibodies, abrogated BLP-associated lethality almost completely. To conclude, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1, thus offering a novel means of targeting the latter. HMGB1 is also a mediator of lethality in BLP-related sepsis.

  14. The frequency of allelic lethals and complementation maps in natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a previous study on the genetic loads affecting the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster in four natural populations, 171 lethal chromosomes were recovered and maintained as a balanced stocks in the condition Cy L / 1 (l=lethal; of those lethais 24 correspond to population A, 50 to populations B and C and 47 to population D. later on an intra-population allelism test for the four populations was performed for each one. A total of 3807 inter lethal crosses were done yielding a total of i 10 allelic combinations, from them the respective percentage of allelism for each population was calculated and they are as follow: 3.98 % for population A, 1.80 % for population B, 3.67 % for population C and 2.96 % for population D. the observed values for the frequency of allelism in these populations are not significantly different from those reported by other authors in similar studies in natural and/or experimental populations. Beside these values the frequency for singles, doubles, triplets and even quadruplets present in each population were determined, they shown the presence of various complementation maps due to the clustering of few different lethals: also a large complementation map formed by a large cluster involving the presence of 26 different lethals found in population D all of them combined constituting a single unit was found.

  15. Damage to E. coli cells induced by tritium decay: secondary lethality under nongrowth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukalova, B; Kuhrova, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1980-05-01

    Cells containing incorporated /sup 3/H-thymidine are damaged by its decay. It was found with E.coli TAU-bar cells that a small part of the damage is lethal whereas most of it is reparable and only potentially lethal. If cells are subjected to nongrowth conditions, the potentially lethal damage changes to lethal damage. This process is called secondary lethality (SL). The extent of SL and some changes in DNA under three different modes of growth inhibition were determined. It was found that: (i) SL is maximal under conditions of amino acid starvation (-AA), the viable count decreasing by two orders of magnitude. (ii) SL is 4 times lower in the presence of chloramphenicol (-AA+CLP) and 6.5 times lower under +AA+CLP conditions. Changes in the sedimentation rate of DNA determined in alkaline sucrose gradient correlate with the differences in SL: under -AA conditions the sedimentation rate of DNA decreases whereas in the presence of CLP no decrease occurs. The results suggest that certain enzymatic processes take place under -AA conditions which lead to irreparable changes in DNA.

  16. Lethal Area 50 in Patients with Burn Injuries in North West, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of their considerably high rates of mortality and morbidity, burns are still viewed as one of the most important health-threatening environmental hazards imposing a significant burden on the health care system in low and middle-income countries. This study seeks to determine the lethal area fifty percent (LA50 in all burn patients admitted over a period of five years and the factors influencing mortality in burn injuries. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional carried out from 2010 to 2014 in Sina Hospital of Tabriz, 1226 participant including 319 women, 346 men, 272 girls, and 289 boys were selected through stratified sampling. The demographic and clinical data of patients ( their age, gender, burn type, TBSA, the season and consequences of burning were all extracted and then analyzed, using descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and variability and inferential statistics(chi-square and linear regressionat a significance level of 0.05. The LA50 was calculated through determining the relationship between the total body surface area and mortality rate (The extent of the body burns measured and recorded based on Lando Chart in hospitals. Results: The highest (47.6% and the lowest (3.8% rates of burns were observed among those aged below 16 and above 65, respectively. The majority of the participants were residents of cities (55.4%, married (34.6%, illiterate (56.6%, and housewives (14.8%. Most burns were caused by accidents (98.4% at home (90.6%. Most patients had suffered first- and second-degree burns (68.4%, with no inhalation damages (99.5%. Hot liquids were the main culprit in most of the burns (58.7% and the upper extremities were the most frequently affected areas (34.8%. There was .99 rise in mortality for every percent increase in TBSA, and there seemed to be a significant relationship between the age level and the eventual outcome- the higher the age, the more likely for the incident to end in death

  17. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  18. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  19. Efficiency of interaction between various radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Song, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Shin, H. S.; Lee, K. H.; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2002-01-01

    KAERI and INP (Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. Major experimental techniques were TSH assay, comet assay, and synergism assay. The research consisted of the following workscopes. 1) Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of radiation, 2) Relative biological efficiency of californium-252 neutrons in the induction of gene and lethal mutations in TSH cells normal and enriched with boron compound, 3) Effect of pesticide on radiation-induced mutations in TSH cells, 4) Interaction of radiation with pesticide on DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5) Radiomodifying effect of boron and gadolinium compounds in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, 6) Mathematical description of synergistic interactions, 7) General regularities of synergistic interactions, and 8) Determinant of synergistic interaction between radiation, heat and chemicals in cell killing. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to various radiation research through the cooperation. The results of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland

  20. Development of System Architecture to Investigate the Impact of Integrated Air and Missile Defense in a Distributed Lethality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT by Justin K. Davis...TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin K...ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT Justin K. Davis Lieutenant

  1. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged...

  2. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  3. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2017-07-01

    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  4. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  5. Lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner: comparing male murderers to nonlethal abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo

    2007-04-01

    Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.

  6. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides and an insect growth regulator on the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzen, G W; Maldonado, S N; Rojas, M G

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory culture of Catolaccus grandis (Burks), an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, was exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of insecticides and an insect growth regulator using a spray chamber bioassay. Materials tested were azinphos-methyl, endosulfan, fipronil, malathion, cyfluthrin, dimethoate, spinosad, methyl parathion, acephate, oxamyl, and tebufenozide. At full rates, spinosad was significantly less toxic to female C. grandis than other treatments except endosulfan. Fipronil and malathion were significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. Most of the chemicals tested were highly toxic to male C. grandis; spinosad was least toxic. At reduced rates, most of 4 selected chemicals tested were low in toxicity to C. grandis; however, a reduced rate of malathion was significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. No C. grandis pupae developed from parasitism during a 24-h treatment period with malathion or spinosad. The sex ratio of progeny from sprayed adults appeared to be unaffected by the treatments.

  8. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  9. Assessing the Blunt Trauma Potential of Free Flying Projectiles for Development and Safety Certification of Non-Lethal Kinetic Impactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widder, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The primary performance objective for non-lethal, antipersonnel kinetic energy impact projectiles is to reliably deter or incapacitate without causing injuries that require medical treatment beyond...

  10. Pedigree analyses of yeast cells recovering from DNA damage allow assignment of lethal events to individual post-treatment generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, F.; Karwan, A.; Wintersberger, U.

    1990-01-01

    Haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with different DNA damaging agents at various doses. A study of the progeny of individual such cells allowed the assignment of lethal events to distinct post treatment generations. By microscopically inspecting those cells which were not able to form visible colonies the authors could discriminate between cells dying from immediately effective lethal hits and those generating microcolonies probably as a consequence of lethal mutation(s). The experimentally obtained numbers of lethal events were mathematically transformed into mean probabilities of lethal fixations at taking place in cells of certain post treatment generations. Such analyses give detailed insight into the kinetics of lethality as a consequence of different kinds of DNA damage. For example, X-irradiated cells lost viability mainly by lethal hits, only at a higher dose also lethal mutations fixed in the cells that were in direct contact with the mutagen, but not in later generations, occurred. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated cells were hit by 00-fixations in a dose dependent manner. The distribution of all sorts of lethal fixations taken together, which occurred in the EMS-damaged cell families, was not random. For comparison analyses of cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and nitrous acid are also reported

  11. Molecular analysis of two mouse dilute locus deletion mutations: Spontaneous dilute lethal20J and radiation-induced dilute prenatal lethal Aa2 alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, M.C.; Seperack, P.K.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The dilute (d) coat color locus of mouse chromosome 9 has been identified by more than 200 spontaneous and mutagen-induced recessive mutations. With the advent of molecular probes for this locus, the molecular lesion associated with different dilute alleles can be recognized and precisely defined. In this study, two dilute mutations, dilute-lethal20J (dl20J) and dilute prenatal lethal Aa2, have been examined. Using a dilute locus genomic probe in Southern blot analysis, we detected unique restriction fragments in dl20J and Aa2 DNA. Subsequent analysis of these fragments showed that they represented deletion breakpoint fusion fragments. DNA sequence analysis of each mutation-associated deletion breakpoint fusion fragment suggests that both genomic deletions were generated by nonhomologous recombination events. The spontaneous dl20J mutation is caused by an interstitial deletion that removes a single coding exon of the dilute gene. The correlation between this discrete deletion and the expression of all dilute-associated phenotypes in dl20J homozygotes defines the dl20J mutation as a functional null allele of the dilute gene. The radiation-induced Aa2 allele is a multilocus deletion that, by complementation analysis, affects both the dilute locus and the proximal prenatal lethal-3 (pl-3) functional unit. Molecular analysis of the Aa2 deletion breakpoint fusion fragment has provided access to a previously undefined gene proximal to d. Initial characterization of this new gene suggests that it may represent the genetically defined pl-3 functional unit

  12. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Tumor Expression and Lethal Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Thomas U; Tchrakian, Nairi; Wilson, Kathryn M; Lis, Rosina; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Giovannucci, Edward; Mucci, Lorelei A; Finn, Stephen; Shui, Irene M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression. We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study. We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009. Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease. On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0). Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.

  13. Modelling of retention of pesticides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: Quantitative structure-retention relationships based on solute quantum-chemical descriptors and experimental (solvatochromic and spin-probe) mobile phase descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Ruggieri, Fabrizio; Mazzeo, Pietro; Tettamanti, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analysis based on multilinear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is carried out to model the combined effect of solute structure and eluent composition on the retention behaviour of pesticides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The octanol-water partition coefficient and four quantum chemical descriptors (the total dipole moment, the mean polarizability, the anisotropy of the polarizability and a descriptor of hydrogen-bonding based on the atomic charges on acidic and basic chemical functionalities) are considered as solute descriptors. In order to identify suitable mobile phase descriptors, encoding composition-dependent properties of both methanol- and acetonitrile-containing mobile phases, the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (polarity-dipolarity, hydrogen-bond acidity and hydrogen-bond basicity, π * , α and β, respectively) and the 14 N hyperfine-splitting constant (a N ) of a spin-probe dissolved in the eluent are examined. A satisfactory description of mobile phase properties influencing the solute retention is provided by a N and β or alternatively π * and β. The two seven-parameter models resulting from combination of a N and β, or π * and β, with the solute descriptors were tested on a set of 26 pesticides representative of 10 different chemical classes in a wide range of mobile phase composition (30-60% (v/v) water-methanol and 30-70% (v/v) water-acetonitrile). Within the explored experimental range, the acidity of the eluent, as quantified by α, is almost constant, and this parameter is in fact irrelevant. The results reveal that a N and π * , that can be considered as interchangeable mobile phase descriptors, are the most influent variables in the respective models. The predictive ability of the proposed models, as tested on an external data set, is quite good (Q 2 close to 0.94) when a MLR approach is used, but the

  14. Modelling of retention of pesticides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: Quantitative structure-retention relationships based on solute quantum-chemical descriptors and experimental (solvatochromic and spin-probe) mobile phase descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Archivio, Angelo Antonio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: darchivi@univaq.it; Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Mazzeo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Tettamanti, Enzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Comparate, Universita di Teramo, P.zzale A. Moro 45, 64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2007-06-19

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analysis based on multilinear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is carried out to model the combined effect of solute structure and eluent composition on the retention behaviour of pesticides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The octanol-water partition coefficient and four quantum chemical descriptors (the total dipole moment, the mean polarizability, the anisotropy of the polarizability and a descriptor of hydrogen-bonding based on the atomic charges on acidic and basic chemical functionalities) are considered as solute descriptors. In order to identify suitable mobile phase descriptors, encoding composition-dependent properties of both methanol- and acetonitrile-containing mobile phases, the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (polarity-dipolarity, hydrogen-bond acidity and hydrogen-bond basicity, {pi} {sup *}, {alpha} and {beta}, respectively) and the {sup 14}N hyperfine-splitting constant (a {sub N}) of a spin-probe dissolved in the eluent are examined. A satisfactory description of mobile phase properties influencing the solute retention is provided by a {sub N} and {beta} or alternatively {pi} {sup *} and {beta}. The two seven-parameter models resulting from combination of a {sub N} and {beta}, or {pi} {sup *} and {beta}, with the solute descriptors were tested on a set of 26 pesticides representative of 10 different chemical classes in a wide range of mobile phase composition (30-60% (v/v) water-methanol and 30-70% (v/v) water-acetonitrile). Within the explored experimental range, the acidity of the eluent, as quantified by {alpha}, is almost constant, and this parameter is in fact irrelevant. The results reveal that a {sub N} and {pi} {sup *}, that can be considered as interchangeable mobile phase descriptors, are the most influent variables in the respective models. The predictive ability of the proposed models, as tested on an

  15. Discovery and Development of Therapeutic Drugs against Lethal Human RNA Viruses: a Multidisciplinary Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    AD-A239 742 AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-89-Z-9021 TITLE: DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY...62787A871 AB WrJDA317987 11. TITLE (Include Securty Classification) DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A...G. R. Pettit, III, D.-S. Huang, and G. R. Pettit, 23rd Int’l. Horticulture Congress, Italy, 8/27 - 9/1/90. "Bryostatins Define the Role of Protein

  16. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  17. The lethal injection quandary: how medicine has dismantled the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    On February 20, 2006, Michael Morales was hours away from execution in California when two anesthesiologists declined to participate in his lethal injection procedure, thereby halting all state executions. The events brought to the surface the long-running schism between law and medicine, raising the question of whether any beneficial connection between the professions ever existed in the execution context. History shows it seldom did. Decades of botched executions prove it. This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent--and perhaps more necessary--than many would like to believe. The Article also reports the results of this author's unique nationwide study of lethal injection protocols and medical participation. The study demonstrates that states have continued to produce grossly inadequate protocols that severely restrict sufficient understanding of how executions are performed and heighten the likelihood of unconstitutionality. The analysis emphasizes in particular the utter lack of medical or scientific testing of lethal injection despite the early and continuous involvement of doctors but ongoing detachment of medical societies. Lastly, the Article discusses the legal developments that led up to the current rush of lethal injection lawsuits as well as the strong and rapid reverberations that followed, particularly with respect to medical involvement. This Article concludes with two recommendations. First, much like what occurred in this country when the first state switched to electrocution, there should be a nationwide study of proper lethal injection protocols. An independent commission consisting of a diverse group of qualified individuals, including medical personnel, should conduct a thorough assessment of lethal injection, especially the extent of physician participation. Second, this

  18. Sterilization and lethal gamma radiation doses on adults and eggs of Sitotroga Cerealella (OLIVIER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Bovi, O.A.; Arthur, V.

    1975-04-01

    The influence of lethal doses of radiation from a cobalt 60 gamma source on eggs, adults and fertitility of Sitotroga Cerealella (Olivier) is described. Eggs irradiated with a dose of 14 Krad still showed viability of 16.1%. On longevity doses up to 70 Krad were usually non lethal but some variation could be observed related to the larval diet. Females fertilized by males irradiated with a dose of 70 Krad produced 36% fertile eggs. When the females were irradiated with the same dose, their fertility dropped to 2.2% and when both sexes were irradiated with a 60 Krad dose, the fertility was 28.8%

  19. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  20. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalec, François-Gaël [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Holzner, Markus [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Menu, Dominique [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Hwang, Jiang-Shiou [National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Souissi, Sami, E-mail: sami.souissi@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We studied the effects of sub-lethal exposure to pollutants on Eurytemora affinis swimming behavior. •Nonylphenol, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused hyperactivity. •Effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted during a depuration period. •The response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to evade stressful conditions. -- Abstract: Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L{sup −1}, cadmium at 45 ng L{sup −1} and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L{sup −1} all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The

  1. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Menu, Dominique; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Souissi, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We studied the effects of sub-lethal exposure to pollutants on Eurytemora affinis swimming behavior. •Nonylphenol, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused hyperactivity. •Effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted during a depuration period. •The response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to evade stressful conditions. -- Abstract: Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L −1 , cadmium at 45 ng L −1 and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L −1 all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The increase in

  2. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  3. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  4. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  5. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  6. Sub-lethal effects of the neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide Fastac 50EC on the general motor and locomotor activities of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooming, Ene; Merivee, Enno; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly studied in carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) though changes in behaviour caused by chemical stress may affect populations of these non-targeted beneficial insects. General motor activity and locomotion are inherent in many behavioural patterns, and changes in these activities that result from xenobiotic influence mirror an integrated response of the insect to pesticides. Influence of pyrethroid insecticides over a wide range of sub-lethal doses on the motor activities of carabids still remains unclear. Video tracking of Platynus assimilis showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg L(-1) caused initial short-term (24 h) locomotor hypo-activity. In addition, significant short- and long-term concentration and time-dependent changes occurred in general motor activity patterns and rates. Conspicuous changes in motor activity of Platynus assimilis beetles treated at alpha-cypermethrin concentrations up to 75,000-fold lower than maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) suggest that many, basic fitness-related behaviours might be severely injured as well. These changes may negatively affect carabid populations in agro-ecosystems. Long-term hypo-activity could directly contribute to decreased trap captures of carabids frequently observed after insecticide application in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents control of deer was acceptable (near 71%??4.7%, far 62%??5.5%) and taking no action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  8. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... nonessential experimental population areas for the gray wolf under section 10(j) of the ESA: the Yellowstone...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the West Fork Elk Management Unit of Montana; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY...

  9. 76 FR 7875 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... the central Idaho and Yellowstone area nonessential experimental populations of gray wolves in the...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the Lolo Elk Management Zone of Idaho; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish...

  10. When a Fly Has to Fly to Reproduce: Selection against Conditional Recessive Lethals in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Andrea D.; Yampolsky, Lev Y.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experimental model suitable for demonstrating allele frequency change in Drosophila melanogaster populations caused by selection against an easily scorable conditional lethal, namely recessive flightless alleles such as apterous and vestigial. Homozygotes for these alleles are excluded from reproduction because the food source used…

  11. [Gunshot wounds caused by non-lethal ammunition on the porcine model post-mortem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocký, Peter; Pivko, Juraj; Vondráková, Mária; Tažký, Boris

    2013-10-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of so called non-lethal ammunition. We studied possible mechanism of firearm injury formation as a consequence of using firearm on the body, to present a more comprehensive material in wound ballistics. We pointed out possible actions of a projectile causes on human, respectively other animal organisms, as well as to a manner in which an injury is caused by rifles or shotguns using non-lethal ammunition with rubber projectiles. In the experiment, we have focused on macroscopic analysis of the tissue penetrated by a rubber projectile fired from a long firearm and pump-action shotgun while focusing on the anatomical-morphological analysis of entry wounds to determine the effectiveness respectively, the wounding potential of the projectile. The results of the experiment based on the macroscopic analysis of entry wounds, cavities and exit wounds, show that when a rubber projectile penetrates the body it causes loss of the tissue (i.e. the minus effect) and mechanical disruption of the tissue similar to lethal projectile. Based on the measures and ballistic computations we concluded that in specific cases, like for example in a close range hit, a penetration of vital organs can cause serious or even lethal injuries.

  12. Quantitative aspects of repair of potentially lethal damage in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Pohlit, W.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells were irradiated with X-rays and then immediately or after a time interval tsub(rep) plated to measure the survival. The increase in survival observed after delayed plating was interpreted as repair of potentially lethal damage. A cybernetic model was used to analyse these data. Three states of damage were assumed for the cells. In state A the cells could grow to macrocolonies, in state B the cells suffered potentially lethal damage and could grow to macrocolonies only if they were allowed to repair the damage and in state C the cells were lethally damaged. A method of deriving the values of the parameters of the model from the experimental data was given. The dependence of the reaction rate constant of the repair potentially lethal damage on the dose D was used to derive a possible mechanism for the production of the shoulder in the dose effect curve. Finally this model was compared with other models of radiation action in living cells. (author)

  13. The Influence of criminal history on the likelihood of committing lethal versus nonlethal violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganpat, Soenita M.; Liem, Marieke; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the criminal history of serious violent offenders. Our aim is to determine: (a) to what extent the criminal history of lethally violent offenders differs from nonlethally violent offenders and (b) to what extent one's criminal history influences the likelihood that violence

  14. Myxoma virus M130R is a novel virulence factor required for lethal myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W; Werden, Steven J; Wang, Fuan; McKillop, William M; Jimenez, June; Villeneuve, Danielle; McFadden, Grant; Dekaban, Gregory A

    2009-09-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a highly lethal, rabbit-specific poxvirus that induces a disease called myxomatosis in European rabbits. In an effort to understand the function of predicted immunomodulatory genes we have deleted various viral genes from MV and tested the ability of these knockout viruses to induce lethal myxomatosis. MV encodes a unique 15 kD cytoplasmic protein (M130R) that is expressed late (12h post infection) during infection. M130R is a non-essential gene for MV replication in rabbit, monkey or human cell lines. Construction of a targeted gene knockout virus (vMyx130KO) and infection of susceptible rabbits demonstrate that the M130R knockout virus is attenuated and that loss of M130R expression allows the rabbit host immune system to effectively respond to and control the lethal effects of MV. M130R expression is a bona fide poxviral virulence factor necessary for full and lethal development of myxomatosis.

  15. Proteomic characterization of a temperature-sensitive conditional lethal in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Codrea, M.C; Vermeulen, Corneel

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation that is expressed only under specific environmental conditions can contribute to additional adverse effects of inbreeding if environmental conditions change. We present a proteomic characterization of a conditional lethal found in an inbred line of Drosophila melanogaster. The l...

  16. Differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a let...

  17. Molecular basis of the mutagenic and lethal effects of ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.

    1982-01-01

    Using bacteria as a model, the molecular basis of the mutagenic and lethal effects of uv radiation is being studied. Attention is focused on the mechanism of action of uv-1 specific endonucleases in the repair of damaged DNA. The isolation and identification of similar enzymes in human cells are being conducted concurrently

  18. Lethal Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III infection in Steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmannová, L.; Sak, Bohumil; Jekl, V.; Mináriková, A.; Škorič, M.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 205, 1-2 (2014), s. 357-360 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III * Steppe lemmings * Lethal infection * PCR * Histology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.460, year: 2014

  19. Non-lethality in reality: a defence technology assessment of its political and military potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orbons, J.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Het gebruik van non-lethal weapons (NLW’s, niet-dodelijke wapens zoals traangas en plastic kogels) bij het winnen van hearts and minds van de bevolking is alleen effectief als de bevolking een politiek perspectief wordt geboden. Zonder een aanvaardbaar politiek perspectief worden NLW’s toenemend

  20. Mutagenic Potential of Nitroguanidine in the Drosophila melanogaster Sex-Linked Recessive Lethal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Security Classification) Mtutagenic potential of nitroguan idine in the Drosophila melano- gaster sex-linked recessive lethal test 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Frederick, MD 21701-5012 Commander Commandant US Army Environmental Hygine Academy of Health Sciences. US Army Agency ATTN: AHS-CDM ATTN: Librarian, HSDH

  1. Dominant lethal and ovarian effects of plutonium-239 in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Beechey, C.V.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    (C3H x 101)F 1 female mice were injected intravenously with 239 Pu in trisodium citrate, then mated in pairs to strain CBA males, to test for dominant lethality. In the first experiment 10μCi kg -1 and in the second 20μCi kg -1 body mass was injected. Matings were after 6 days in the first experiment (estimated ovarian absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy) and after 3,6 or 12 weeks in the second (estimated ovarian doses of 1.11, 2.45 and 5.91 Gy respectively). No evidence of dominant lethal induction was found in the first experiment, but in the second there was a significant increase over controls in pre-implantation loss in all three series. Post-implantation lethality increased significantly (by 12%) only after 12 weeks' exposure. With the 6- and 12-week exposures (especially the latter) luteal counts fell, fewer females becoming pregnant than in controls. This is attributed to oocyte killing by the α-particles. Histological and autoradiographic investigations showed a marked reduction in ovarian size and follicular numbers with fission-tracks clustered mainly over the medullary stroma. The preimplantation loss may stem from lowered fertilization of oocytes because of their damage, so that the best measure of dominant lethality is that based on post-implantation death. (author)

  2. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  3. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  4. Sub-lethal effects of neonicitinoids on the alfalfa leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonicotinoids are commonly used pesticides in U.S. agriculture. For many beneficial insect species, lethal effects of neonicotinoids are well-documented; however, much less is known about sublethal exposure. The alfalfa leaf cutter bee Megachile rotundata is a managed pollinator that constructs com...

  5. Radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane and lethal action of radiation on cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomenko, B S; Akoev, I G [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1984-01-01

    Data on modification of procaryotes and eukaryotes cell injuries using preparations not penetrating into cells and also membrane-specific drugs localized in cells in a lipid phase are generalized. A conclusion is drawn that radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane of prokaryotes and eukaryotes contribute considerably to lethal action of radiation on cells.

  6. Crowd Confrontation and Non-Lethal Weapons: A Literature Review and Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    counterterrorist situations, when there is a need to incapacitate one or several terrorists operating from within a larger group of harmless individuals. In such...weapons include some microbes capable of degrading fuel, an herbicide (“Agent Orange”), as well as non-lethal anti-personnel mines. It is concluded

  7. The Slimeball: The Development of Broad-Scale Maritime Non-Lethal Weaponry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    commercial applications from waste management to horticulture to baby diapers. By some estimates, it can absorb one thousand times its volume in water...www.nytimes.com/2008/10/31/world/africa/31pirates.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1. Goolsby, Tommy D. “Aqueous Foam as a Less-Than-Lethal Technology for Prison

  8. Crowd Behavior, Crowd Control, and the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    that U.S. forces know these repertoires of actions when they operate in different cultures. Dr. Waddington provided the example of the Zulu tribe in...6 The History of Hostile Crowds and Riots...Mobs, and Non-lethal Weapons,” by Lieutenant Sid Heal. The History of Hostile Crowds and Riots Dr. Wendy Gilpin conducted background research on hostile

  9. Interaction of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone, and Adriamycin on the induction of acute lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    The acute lethality induced by combinations of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), and Adriamycin (ADR) was investigated in mice. Whole-body irradiation produced acute lethality, with an LD-50/30 of approximately 6.5 Gy. ADR and DHAQ produced LD-50/30's of 14 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. When 10 mg/kg doses were fractionated into 5 x 2 mg/kg daily doses, both drugs were equally or more efficient at producing mortality, 90% by day 30. When 4 Gy radiation was combined with 5 mg/kg ADR or 5 mg/kg DHAQ, a response no greater than that produced by drug alone was obtained. However, when 5 mg/kg ADR was administered concomitantly with 5 mg/kg DHAQ, there was a less-than-additive induction of lethality, resulting in only 21% mortality by day 20. ADR and DHAQ (at doses of 5 mg/kg) were combined but with a 1 day interval between drugs, the protective effect was lost and animals died earlier than after either agent alone. At present, no definite explanation is available for this unusual protective effect of ADR against acute lethality induced by DHAQ

  10. Radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane and lethal action of radiation on cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Akoev, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Data on modification of procaryotes and eukaryotes cell injuries using preparations not penetrating into cells and also membrane-specific drugs localized in cells in a lipid phase are generalized. A conclusion is drawn that radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane of prokaryotes and eukaryotes contribute considerably to lethal action of radiation on cells

  11. Soil physical properties regulate lethal heating during burning of woody residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Busse; Carol Shestak; Ken Hubbert; Eric Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Temperatures well in excess of the lethal threshold for roots (60°C) have been measured in forest soils when woody fuels are burned. Whether this heat pulse is strongly moderated by soil moisture or soil texture is not fully understood, however. We measured soil heat profi les during 60 experimental burns, identifying changes in maximum soil temperature and heat...

  12. Control of lethal browning by using ascorbic acid on shoot tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ascorbic acid during explants preparation and the effect of different concentrations of ascorbic acid in controlling lethal browning and survival of the explants in local banana cv. Mzuzu banana were investigated. The explants were taken from young suckers. The shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's ...

  13. Models for pulmonary lethality and morbidity after irradiation from internal and external sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Hahn, E.F.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides a hazard-function model for estimating the risk of death from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis following a light-water nuclear power accident. A similar model is also provided for estimating the prevalence of respiratory functional morbidity among those that survive death from acute effects. Hazard-function models for lethality and for morbidity were constructed using the cumulative hazard estimator H, which is related to the risk estimator R through the equation R = 1-exp(-H). The estimator H can be calculated using information provided in the report. The method of calculation depends on the exposure scenario. In general, the total normalized dose X for lethality or for morbidity is calculated. For lethality, X = 1 corresponds to a median lethal dose (LD 50 ); for morbidity, X = 1 corresponds to a median effective dose (ED 50 ). H is related to X by the equation H = 1n(2)X/sup V/, where V depends on the type of radiation (or radiations) involved. Contributions to X can arise from each of two main modes of exposure: (1) brief exposure of the lung, at a relatively high dose rate, to mainly external gammas, followed by (2) chronic internal alpha, and/or beta, and/or gamma irradiation of the lung. Equations are provided for calculating the contributions to X from both modes of exposure. 73 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Comparative study of different sexis mutability: recessive sex-linked and dominant lethals in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatti, K.V.; Dzhaparidze, L.A.; Mamon, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) and those realizing in embryogenesis of dominant lethals, which form in oo- and spermatogenesis of Drosophila and fly productivity under the effect of X-rays and N-nitroso-N methylourea (NMU), is studied. In the case of effect of both mutagens RSLLM form in spermatocytes with higher frequency as compared with oocytes. Dominant lethal mutations (DLM) during irradiation are also often registered in spermatocytes. NMU induces DLM in mitotic male cells with a very high frequency but is not effective during the effect on oocytes. When both mutagens affect males and X-rays affect females, the decrease of productivity is mainly conditioned by DLM. As NMU does not induce DLM in females realizing in embryogenesis but reduces productivity, a later lethal realization connected with their different nature is supposed. Differences in mole and female mutability found in the course of X-ray and NMU effect are discussed in connection with peculiarities of their mitotic cells and the nature of effect of mutagens applied [ru

  15. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  16. Radiation-induced DNA damage and cellular lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, K.; Okada, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation-induced DNA scissions and their repair were investigated in mammalian cells using an alkaline separation method. DNA breaks in mouse L5178Y cells and Chinese hamster V79 cells were grouped into three in terms of their repair profile; fast-reparable breaks (FRBs; T1/2 = 5 min), slow-reparable breaks (SRBs; T1/2 = 70 min) and non-reparable breaks (NRBs). The three types of DNA lesions were studied under conditions where cellular radiosensitivity was modified. The authors obtained the following results: 1. Cell cycle fluctuation: L5178Y showed maximum sensitivity at M and G/sub 1/-S boundary, and minimum sensitivity at G/sub 1/ and late S. Cycle dependency was not found for FRBs or SRBs, but NRBs showed bimodal fluctuation with peaks at M and G/sub 1/-S, and with bottoms at G/sub 1/ and late S. 2. Different sensitivity of L5178Y and V79: L5178Y cells were more sensitive to X-rays (D/sub ο/ = 0.9 Gy) than V79 (D/sub ο/ = 1.8 Gy). The amount of FRBs or SRBs was identical in the two cell lines. However, the amount of NRBs in L5178Y was greater than that in V79. 3. Split dose irradiation: The time interval between two doses resulted in a gradual decrease of NRBs. The time course of the decrease was similar to the split dose recovery in terms of cell death. The parallel relationship between NRBs and cell killing implies that NRBs could play an important role in radiation-induced cell death

  17. Relationship of responsible Care and Environmental Management Systems Standard ISO 14001. Example of Sumitomo Chemical; Resuponshiburu{center_dot}kea to kankyo manejimento sisutemu kikaku ISO14001. Sumitomo kagaku no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuo. [Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    In the chemical sector, Responsible Care is propelled by the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). The objective of Responsible Care is to improve the performance and reputation of the Chemical Industry in areas that impact on people and environment. Sumitomo Chemical is committed to supporting a continuing effort to improve the chemical industry`s responsible management of chemicals through the Japan Responsible Vare Vouncil program. One the other hand, ISO 14001 had been published on Aug.1996 and have adopted the ISO 14001 as national standards on Oct. 1996. Already 973 companies in Japan, 74 of them in the chemical sector, have been certified to ISO 14001. In this paper, I provides concise commentaries on how Responsible Care and Environmental management systems work in the chemical sector. (author)

  18. Relationship of responsible Care and Environmental Management Systems Standard ISO 14001. Example of Sumitomo Chemical. Resuponshiburu[center dot]kea to kankyo manejimento sisutemu kikaku ISO14001. Sumitomo kagaku no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuo. (Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-01-15

    In the chemical sector, Responsible Care is propelled by the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). The objective of Responsible Care is to improve the performance and reputation of the Chemical Industry in areas that impact on people and environment. Sumitomo Chemical is committed to supporting a continuing effort to improve the chemical industry's responsible management of chemicals through the Japan Responsible Vare Vouncil program. One the other hand, ISO 14001 had been published on Aug.1996 and have adopted the ISO 14001 as national standards on Oct. 1996. Already 973 companies in Japan, 74 of them in the chemical sector, have been certified to ISO 14001. In this paper, I provides concise commentaries on how Responsible Care and Environmental management systems work in the chemical sector. (author)

  19. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  20. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  1. 9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. 430.4 Section 430.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. (a) Listeria... comes into direct contact with a food contact surface which is contaminated with L. monocytogenes. (b...

  2. A comparative study of proliferative nodules and lethal melanomas in congenital nevi from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Arva, Nicoleta C; Obregon, Roxana; Yazdan, Pedram; Wagner, Annette; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating proliferative nodules (PNs) from melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CN) is a considerable challenge for dermatopathologists. Most of the specimens dermatopathologists assess that deal with this differential diagnosis involve proliferations of melanocytes arising in the dermis. In this study, we compare the clinical, histologic, and molecular findings of these 2 conditions. In our database, we found 22 examples of PNs arising in the dermis of CN and 2 cases of lethal melanomas arising from the dermis/epidermis of CN of children. Importantly, we found that among dermal melanocytic proliferations arising from CN in children, PNs are far more common than lethal melanomas. Clinically, multiplicity of lesions favored a diagnosis of PNs, whereas ulceration was infrequent in PNs compared with lethal melanomas. Histologically, PNs showed several distinct patterns including expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with mitotic counts lower than that seen in the melanomas (1.67 vs. 12.5 mitoses/mm), a small round blue cell pattern often highly mitotically active, neurocristic-like, blue nevus-like, a nevoid melanoma-like pattern, or an undifferentiated spindle cell pattern. The lethal melanomas both featured expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with high mitotic counts (range, 5 to 20 mitoses/mm) and an ulcerated overlying epidermis. At the molecular level, the PNs showed mostly whole chromosomal copy number aberrations, which in some cases were accompanied by rare partial chromosomal aberrations, whereas both lethal melanomas showed highly elevated copy number aberrations involving 6p25 without gains of the long arm of chromosome 6.

  3. Integrative Chemical-Biological Read-Across Approach for Chemical Hazard Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yen; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Whelan, Maurice; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Traditional read-across approaches typically rely on the chemical similarity principle to predict chemical toxicity; however, the accuracy of such predictions is often inadequate due to the underlying complex mechanisms of toxicity. Here we report on the development of a hazard classification and visualization method that draws upon both chemical structural similarity and comparisons of biological responses to chemicals measured in multiple short-term assays (”biological” similarity). The Chemical-Biological Read-Across (CBRA) approach infers each compound's toxicity from those of both chemical and biological analogs whose similarities are determined by the Tanimoto coefficient. Classification accuracy of CBRA was compared to that of classical RA and other methods using chemical descriptors alone, or in combination with biological data. Different types of adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, hepatocarcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and acute lethality) were classified using several biological data types (gene expression profiling and cytotoxicity screening). CBRA-based hazard classification exhibited consistently high external classification accuracy and applicability to diverse chemicals. Transparency of the CBRA approach is aided by the use of radial plots that show the relative contribution of analogous chemical and biological neighbors. Identification of both chemical and biological features that give rise to the high accuracy of CBRA-based toxicity prediction facilitates mechanistic interpretation of the models. PMID:23848138

  4. Modification of the repair of potentially lethal damage in plateau-phase Chinese hamster cells by 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Matsuda, Akira; Ueda, Tohru; Sato, Fumiaki.

    1988-09-01

    The ability of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, to inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage was demonstrated in Chinese hamster V79 cells after X irradiation in plateau-phase cultures. This ability of the drug was completely diminished when deoxycytidine was added at the same time, though this was slightly affected by the addition of adenosine, suggesting that this drug was phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to serve as an inhibitor of the repair of potentially lethal damage. Compared with hydroxyurea, another ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, this drug appeared to contain its own activity which suppressed the repair of potentially lethal damage. A combined study of post-irradiation treatment with hypertonic salt solution and with this drug on the fixation of potentially lethal damage revealed that this drug inhibited the repair of hypertonic-insensitive potentially lethal damage.

  5. Modification of the repair of potentially lethal damage in plateau-phase Chinese hamster cells by 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Matsuda, Akira; Ueda, Tohru; Sato, Fumiaki.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, to inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage was demonstrated in Chinese hamster V79 cells after X irradiation in plateau-phase cultures. This ability of the drug was completely diminished when deoxycytidine was added at the same time, though this was slightly affected by the addition of adenosine, suggesting that this drug was phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to serve as an inhibitor of the repair of potentially lethal damage. Compared with hydroxyurea, another ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, this drug appeared to contain its own activity which suppressed the repair of potentially lethal damage. A combined study of post-irradiation treatment with hypertonic salt solution and with this drug on the fixation of potentially lethal damage revealed that this drug inhibited the repair of hypertonic-insensitive potentially lethal damage. (author)

  6. Determination of gamma radiation lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) and resveratrol cytotoxicity level in tumor cells line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Vanessa D.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL-SP) Secao de Culturas Celulares, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cancer is a disease with high incidence and it is considered a worldwide public health problem. Resveratrol is a polyphenol occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants according to response of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposition or according to mechanical stress resulting of pathogens or chemical and physical agents. This polyphenol possesses a pharmacological activity of carcinogenesis inhibition in multiple levels. It also protects cells by scavenging the free radicals which are considered toxic products. These free radicals are formed of natural process of cell aging and also by incidence of ionizing radiation in the organism. Thus, resveratrol is considered as a cell radioprotector. On the other hand, in some elevated concentrations resveratrol may be considered as a radiosensitizing. The aim of this work was the determination of radiation lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) and also verifies the cytotoxicity level of resveratrol in tumor cells line: muco epidermoid pulmonary carcinoma cells (NCI-H292) and rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD). The cytotoxicity test was performed by neutral red uptake assay. The results of resveratrol IC{sub 50%} in NCI-H292 cells was 192{mu}M and in RD cells was 128{mu}M; and RD cells gamma radiation LD{sub 50} was 435Gy. (author)

  7. Characterization and metabolic synthetic lethal testing in a new model of SDH-loss familial pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, John; Hamidi, Oksana; Wang, Lin; Holte, Molly Nelson; Khazal, Fatimah Al; Erber, Luke; Chen, Yue; Maher, L James

    2018-01-19

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-loss pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are tumors driven by metabolic derangement. SDH loss leads to accumulation of intracellular succinate, which competitively inhibits dioxygenase enzymes, causing activation of pseudohypoxic signaling and hypermethylation of histones and DNA. The mechanisms by which these alterations lead to tumorigenesis are unclear, however. In an effort to fundamentally understand how SDH loss reprograms cell biology, we developed an immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line with conditional disruption of Sdhc and characterize the kinetics of Sdhc gene rearrangement, SDHC protein loss, succinate accumulation, and the resultant hypoproliferative phenotype. We further perform global transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic characterization of changes resulting from SDHC loss, identifying specific perturbations at each biological level. We compare the observed patterns of epigenomic derangement to another previously-described immortalized mouse chromaffin cell model of SDHB loss, and compare both models to human SDH-loss tumors. Finally, we perform analysis of SDHC synthetic lethality with lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and pyruvate carboxylase (PCX), which are important for regeneration of NAD+ and aspartate biosynthesis, respectively. Our data show that SDH-loss cells are selectively vulnerable to LDH genetic knock-down or chemical inhibition, suggesting that LDH inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for SDH-loss PPGL.

  8. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  10. Cell-cycle variation in the induction of lethality and mitotic recombination after treatment with UV and nitrous acid in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.J.; Tippins, R.S.; Parry, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Exponentially growing yeast cultures separated into discrete periods of the cell cycle by zonal rotor centrifugation show cyclic variation in both UV and nitrous acid induced cell lethality, mitotic gene conversion and mitotic crossing-over. Maximum cell survival after UV treatment was observed in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle at a time when UV induction of both types of mitotic recombination was at a minumum. In contrast, cell inactivation by the chemical mutagen nitrous acid showed a single discrete period of sensitivity which occurred in S phase cells which are undergoing DNA synthesis. Mitotic gene conversion ahd mitotic crossing-over were induced by nitrous acid in cells at all stages of the cell cycle with a peak of induction of both events occurring at the time of maximum cell lethality. The lack of correlation observed between maximum cell survival and the maximum induction of mitotic intragenic recombination suggest that other DNA-repair mechanisms besides DNA-recombination repair are involved in the recovery of inactivated yeast cells during the cell cycle. (Auth.)

  11. Lethal Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and its Effect on Certain Physicochemical Properties of Potato Tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, G.M.; Rizk, S. A.; Abdalla, R.S.; Sobeiha, A.M.K.; Dahroug, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of 4-day-old eggs of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) to a dose level of 800 Gy of gamma radiation caused complete mortality and prevent egg hatching after 4 days from exposure to radiation. This dose level was considered as the lethal dose for the egg stage. The dose levels of 700 and 2800 Gy were considered lethal for the full grown larvae after periods of 9 and 1 days elapsed respectively from exposure to gamma radiation .The percent larval mortality increased with the increase of both the dose level applied and the time elapsed after exposure to gamma radiation. Irradiation of full grown pupae at the dose level 1900 Gy resulted in a complete reduction of adult emergence, reached 100 % . It could be concluded that gamma irradiation with a dose level 2800 Gy caused complete mortality to different stages of Phthorimaea operculella. Moreover, the physical and chemical properties of irradiated potato tubers did not significantly differ as compared to unirradiated tubers .This obtained, fatal irradiation dose did not exceed the safe limits recommended by the international organization FAO/WHO.

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  13. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  14. Improved chemical radioprotection following activation with dextran sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonickova, A.; Vacek, A.; Rotkovska, D.

    1982-01-01

    The radioresistance was observed of mice after sublethal and lethal gamma irradiation following a combined application of dextran sulphate and the chemical radioprotectors cystamine and mexamine. The mechanism of the radioprotection by mexamine and cystamine is connected with their effect on the oxygen tension in tissues. With the application of dextran sulphate an increase was observed in metabolic activity of tissues and a reduced oxygen tension in the medium will result in a deeper cell hypoxia in the tissue. (M.D.)

  15. Dose–response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Dose–response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization’s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77

  16. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  17. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of antibodies lacking Fcγ receptor binding against lethal dengue virus infection is due to neutralizing potency and blocking of enhancing antibodies [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Williams

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS are life-threatening complications following infection with one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV. At present, no vaccine or antiviral therapies are available against dengue. Here, we characterized a panel of eight human or mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and their modified variants lacking effector function and dissected the mechanism by which some protect against antibody-enhanced lethal DENV infection. We found that neutralizing modified MAbs that recognize the fusion loop or the A strand epitopes on domains II and III of the envelope protein, respectively, act therapeutically by competing with and/or displacing enhancing antibodies. By analyzing these relationships, we developed a novel in vitro suppression-of-enhancement assay that predicts the ability of modified MAbs to act therapeutically against antibody-enhanced disease in vivo. These studies provide new insight into the biology of DENV pathogenesis and the requirements for antibodies to treat lethal DENV disease.

  19. Lethal/sublethal responses of Daphnia magna to acute norfloxacin contamination and changes in phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions induced by this antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Yan, Shi-Wei; Li, Ruo-Zhu; Hu, Yi-Wen; Chang, Xue-Xiu

    2017-01-01

    Although the well-known antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) is recognized as an important environmental pollutant, little is known about its impacts on ecological processes, particularly on species interactions. In this paper, we quantified Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) responses in mortality rate at lethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1), and in heartbeat rate, swimming behavior and feeding rate (on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa) at sublethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) to determine the effects of this antibiotic in plankton systems. In 96-h-long lethal experiment, mortality rates of D. magna increased significantly with increasing NOR concentration and exposure time. In sublethal experiments, heartbeat rate decreased, while time ratio of vertical to horizontal swimming (TVH) and the duration of quiescence increased in D. magna individuals exposed to increasing NOR concentrations after 4 and 12 h of exposure. These collectively led to decreases in both average swimming ability and feeding rate, consistent with the positive relationship between average swimming ability and feeding rate. Overall, results indicate that, by affecting zooplankton heartbeat rate and behavior, NOR decreased feeding efficiency of D. magna even at low doses, therefore, it might seriously compromise ecosystem health and function.

  20. Calculation of baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential in resonance matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Hu Shouyang; Lu Zhongdao

    2006-01-01

    Based on the high energy heavy-ion collisions statistical model, the baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential are calculated for resonance matter with net baryon density and net strangeness density under given temperature. Furthermore, the relationship between net baryon density, net strangeness density and baryon chemical potential, strangeness chemical potential are analyzed. The results show that baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential increase with net baryon density and net strangeness density increasing, the change of net baryon density affects baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential more strongly than the change of net strangeness density. (authors)

  1. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your expectations. Talk with your doctor about your motivations and expectations, as well as the potential risks. ... the sun permanently to prevent changes in skin color. Keep in mind that chemical peel results might ...

  2. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  3. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-11-07

    Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.)). Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  4. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  5. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  6. When Suicide Kills: An Empirical Analysis of the Lethality of Suicide Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Pinar Alakoc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Why are some suicide terrorist attacks deadlier than others? Suicide bombers, unlike stationary bombs, are self-guided human weapons; they can deliver and detonate explosives at a specific time and place with precision. Coding and analyzing new data on over four hundred suicide terrorist incidents from all around the world between 1998 and 2015, this paper argues that the number of fatalities resulting from suicide attacks is a function of strategic choices made by the perpetrators, such as where to attack and whom to target. Results of this analysis show that suicide attacks that seize targets of opportunity are the most lethal. Specifically, suicide attacks that target civilians in enclosed and easily accessible places, and that are undertaken by multiple perpetrators result in the highest numbers of fatalities. Understanding these strategic tactical attributes of suicide terrorism is fundamental to devising effective counterterrorism strategies that aim at hardening soft targets and minimizing the lethal impact of these attacks.

  7. A novel plant glutathione S-transferase/peroxidase suppresses Bax lethality in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Damianova, R; Atallah, M

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian inducer of apoptosis Bax is lethal when expressed in yeast and plant cells. To identify potential inhibitors of Bax in plants we transformed yeast cells expressing Bax with a tomato cDNA library and we selected for cells surviving after the induction of Bax. This genetic screen allows...... for the identification of plant genes, which inhibit either directly or indirectly the lethal phenotype of Bax. Using this method a number of cDNA clones were isolated, the more potent of which encodes a protein homologous to the class theta glutathione S-transferases. This Bax-inhibiting (BI) protein was expressed...... in Escherichia coli and found to possess glutathione S-transferase (GST) and weak glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Expression of Bax in yeast decreases the intracellular levels of total glutathione, causes a substantial reduction of total cellular phospholipids, diminishes the mitochondrial membrane...

  8. Low survival of mice following lethal gamma-irradiation after administration of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Pipalova, I.; Hola, J.

    1992-01-01

    An impairment was observed of the survival of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation with a lethal dose of 10 Gy and treated with a repeated postirradiation administration of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (PGSIs) indomethacin or diclofenac. Morphological examination of the gastrointestinal tract and estimation of the blood loss into its lumen in animals treated with diclofenac did not show serious damage such as hemorrhages or perforation, but revealed structural injury to the intestinal mucosa indicating inflammatory processes. The lesions found are supposed to be connected with increased intestinal permeability which leads to endotoxin escape from the gut and a subsequent increased mortality rate of irradiated animals. It may be concluded that PGSIs are not suitable for the management of radiation sickness after an exposure to lethal doses of ionizing radiation. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 20 refs

  9. A linear-quadratic model of cell survival considering both sublethal and potentially lethal radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutz, H.P.; Coucke, P.A.; Mirimanoff, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The authors assessed the dose-dependence of repair of potentially lethal damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells x-irradiated in vitro. The recovery ratio (RR) by which survival (SF) of the irradiated cells was enhanced increased exponentially with a linear and a quadratic component namely ζ and ψ: RR=exp(ζD+ψD 2 ). Survival of irradiated cells can thus be expressed by a combined linear-quadratic model considering 4 variables, namely α and β for the capacity of the cells to accumulate sublethal damage, and ζ and ψ for their capacity to repair potentially lethal damage: SF=exp((ζ-α)D+ (ψ-β)D 2 ). author. 26 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Clinical and symptomatological study of pigs subjected to a lethal dose of integral gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiman, M.; Guenet, J.-L.; Maas, J.; Nizza, P.

    1966-05-01

    Results are reported from a clinical and haematological study on a Corsican species of pigs wholly exposed to an approximately lethal dose of γ radiation. The aim of this work was to examine the changes in the irradiation syndrome of irradiation for pigs to make it thus possible to devise further experiments, in particular in the therapeutic field. The dose received was 285 rads (measured as the absorption in the vertical antero-posterior medial plane). Data are presented on cyto-haematological changes in the blood circulating immediately after irradiation, and followed up to death, and changes in the medullary cytology after irradiation. The clinical picture of lethal radiation injury in swine is described. (authors) [fr

  11. Mutagenicity assayed by dominant lethality testing in mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Katsarova, Ts.; Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Tencheva, S.

    1980-01-01

    Mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet were examined for a mutagenic effect using the dominant lethality test. Their feed contained the following irradiated ingredients: 20% maize, 10% dried plums, and 5% walnut kernels. Taking into account cycle duration in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, males were fed this special diet throughout 56 days, and females throughout 21 days. The experiments involved three animal groups: (1) fed the special diet containing irradiated ingredients; (2) fed the special diet but with the ingredients nonirradiated; and (3) fed standard vivarium diet. Matings to provide the first generation were between one parent fed the special diet and a partner fed standard diet. With an adequate number of implants examined on day 16 of gestation, embryonic death rate was not found to be increased; hence, induction of dominant lethality from consumption of irradiated diet failed to be demonstrated

  12. Interactive lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light and bleomycin in yeast: synergism or antagonism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, O L; Severgnini, A A; Nunes, E M

    1997-11-01

    The mutagenic interactions of ultraviolet light and bleomycin in haploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed. Survival and mutation frequency as a function of different bleomycin concentrations after one conditioning dose of UV radiation were determined. Furthermore, corresponding interaction functions and sensitization factors were calculated. A synergistic interaction between UV light and bleomycin was shown for both lethal and mutagenic events when the cells were in nutrient broth during the treatments. Conversely, the interaction between UV light and bleomycin was antagonistic when the cells were in deionized water during the treatment. The magnitude of lethal and mutagenic interactions depends on dose, and thus presumably on the number of lesions. The observed interactions between UV light and bleomycin suggest that the mechanism that is most likely involved is the induction of repair systems with different error probabilities during the delay of cell division.

  13. Induction of dominant lethals in male mice treated as embryos with 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.S.; Reddy, P.P.; Reddy, O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant female mice were injected (ip) with 20 μCi of 35 S or 0.5 ml of saline (control) on 3.5 day of gestation. The animals were allowed to litter and the (CBA female x C 3 H/He male) F 1 males treated as embryos were tested at maturity (8-10 weeks) for dominant lethal incidence. Each male was mated to 3 untreated virgin females for a period of 3 weeks. The pregnant animals were killed at mid gestation and the uterine contents and corpora lutea were examined. There was a significant increase in the frequency of dominant lethals both at pre- and post-implantation stages in the treated group when compared to controls. As a result a significant increase in dead implantations/female and reduction in live implantations/female were noticed in the treated group. Thus the results clearly delineate the genetic effects of sulfur-35 in mice. (auth.)

  14. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheresiz, S V; Semenova, E A; Chepurnov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups.

  15. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Cheresiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups.

  16. The effects of oil sands wastewater on fish resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, D.A.; Goudey, J.S.; Balch, G.C.; Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of oil sands wastewater in flow through laboratory experiments as well as to artificial ponds containing sub-lethal concentrations of tailings pond water and fine tails in order to study the viability of the wet landscape remediation option. Large (200--300 g) fish were used for all the exposures in this preliminary study and the following data were collected: blood cell counts, sex hormone concentrations, sexual maturation, stress protein concentrations, PAH-metabolites in bile, condition factors, liver somatic indices, mixed function oxygenase induction, PAHs in muscle, external condition and the condition of internal organs. The data obtained from this study revealed no adverse effects upon fish during extended field exposures. Given similar exposure conditions in the release waters of a wet landscape reclamation, the data suggest that there may be no adverse effects upon fish, however, longer term studies, other indicator organisms and additional chronic tests should be conducted

  17. Points of Influence for Lethal Means Counseling and Safe Gun Storage Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Carol W; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Betz, Marian E

    2018-06-07

    Counseling about reducing access to lethal means of suicide, especially firearms, is a recommended practice in emergency departments (EDs) but does not occur routinely. Understanding influencers of decisions makers in health care (ED nurse leaders, mental health providers) and temporary firearm storage (law enforcement and gun retailers) could enhance practice. We surveyed these 4 groups in the 8-state region of the Mountain West. For ED nurse leaders (n = 190), hospital legal, risk management, and quality improvement representatives, and the ED nursing director were most often cited as influential, whereas mental health providers (n = 67) cited their own team. Law enforcement officials (n = 448) identified the overall community and leaders of mental health or general health organizations as influential. Firearm retailers (n = 95) cited local law enforcement and national firearm organizations. Advocacy from influential groups may encourage efforts to provide lethal means counseling and temporary off-site storage of firearms for suicide prevention.

  18. Estimation of the contribution of ionization and excitation to the lethal effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petin, V.G.; Komarov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A simple theoretical model is proposed for estimating the differential contribution of ionization and excitation to the lethal effect of ionizing radiation. Numerical results were obtained on the basis of published experimental data on the ability of bacterial cells Escherichia coli to undergo photoreactivation of radiation-induced damage. It was shown that inactivation by excitation may be highly significant for UV-hypersensitive cells capable of photoreactivation; inactivation by excitation increased with the energy of ionizing radiation and the volume of irradiated suspensions. The data are in qualitative agreement with the assumption of a possible contribution of the UV-component of Cerenkov radiation to the formation of excitations responsible for the lethal effect and the phenomenon of photoreactivation after ionizing radiation. Some predictions from the model are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Fluorescent-light-induced lethality and DNA repair in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M.A.; Williams, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Cell survival and induction of endonuclease-sensitive sites in DNA were measured in human fibroblast cells exposed to fluorescent light or germicidal ultraviolet light. Cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient were hypersensitive to cell killing by fluorescent light, although less so than for germicidal ultraviolet light. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells were deficient in the removal of fluorescent light-induced endonuclease sites that are probably pyrimidine dimers, and both the xeroderma pigmentosum and normal cells removed these sites with kinetics indistinguishable from those for ultraviolet light-induced sites. A comparison of fluorescent with ultraviolet light data demonstrates that there are markedly fewer pyrimidine dimers per lethal event for fluorescent than for ultraviolet light, suggesting a major role for non-dimer damage in fluorescent lethality. (Auth.)

  20. Dominant lethal mutations and histological changes produced in mouse oocytes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyglenov, A.; Baev, I.; Rupova, I.; Kusheva, R.

    1976-01-01

    Mouse female were exposed to a total dose of 500 or 1000 rad 137 Cs gamma rays delivered at 0.01 rad/min. Effects were scored at 1, 5, 7, and 10 weeks after cessation of treatment. Histologically, ovaria in the 500 rad group showed a decrease up to 11% in follicle numbers as compared to controls; with the prolongation of the time after exposure, a further fall in follicle numbers is observed. In the 1000 rad group, depopulation of ovaria was complete. With the 500 rad dose, total dominant lethality was found to be increased for any of the time intervals between radiation exposure and conception; postimplantation dominant lethality was comparatively low, with similar scores between the weeks investigated. (author)