WorldWideScience

Sample records for lethal hemorrhagic coagulant

  1. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: coagulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Kenet, Gili; Papadakis, Emmanuel; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    It has long been considered that a severe coagulation deficiency in premature newborns could be a major contributing factor in the occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). High-grade IVH has also been shown to coincide with severe derangement of coagulation in extremely low birth weight infants. This review focuses on the relevance of the physiologically developing immature hemostatic system to IVH, and the potential benefit of agents affecting hemostasis for IVH therapy or prevention in preterm infants. The findings of small, open-label interventional studies on the effect of ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII, and prothrombin complex concentrate on the premature coagulation system will be reviewed. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. Early markers of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in Argentine hemorrhagic fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M. V.; Marta, R. F.; Sturk, A.; Maiztegui, J. I.; Hack, C. E.; Cate, J. W.; Molinas, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Junin virus, an arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. In addition to thrombocytopenia, patients present several alterations in both the blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, but diffuse intravascular coagulation could not be demonstrated. To investigate

  3. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants and coagulation--ambivalent perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Brenner, Benjamin; Kenet, Gili

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth, and large hemorrhages may yield significant future disability. During the last few decades, the survival of preterm infants has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, morbidity is still a major problem especially for very young and extremely low birth weight infants. As both, mortality and incidence of morbidities known to influence outcome, show a weekly decline with increasing gestational age, prematurity and low birth weight have been identified as major risk factors for IVH occurrence. This stems probably from the increased vulnerability of the premature germinal matrix as well as the physiologically impaired hemostasis, demonstrated in neonates. The hypothesis that a severe coagulation deficiency in the premature newborn could be a major contributing factor for IVH has been suggested, and small open label interventional studies targeting the premature coagulation system have been conducted with ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate. Nevertheless, potential venous origin of hemorrhages, which may be related to thrombophilic risk factors, has also been discussed. The following manuscript will focus upon IVH pathogenesis and address potential therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of perioperative crystalloid or colloid fluid therapy on hemorrhage, coagulation competence, and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Secher, Niels H.; Pedersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background: A meta-analysis concerning perioperative coagulation competence, hemorrhage, and outcome was conducted including the use of hydroxyethyl starches (HESs), dextran, or albumin versus administration of a crystalloid as control to assess the efficacy and safety of colloids and crystalloids...

  5. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage. Increasing Survival of Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Using our novel animal models of severe hemorrhage, focusing on evaluation of outcome to 3-10 days, the following strategies were found superior in terms of intact survival compared to standard resuscitation...

  6. Lethal Ultra-Early Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of De Novo Aneurysm 5 Months After Primary Aneurysmatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Johannes; Unterberg, Andreas W; Zweckberger, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 1% of all patients surviving rupture of a cerebral aneurysm suffer from a second aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage later in their lives, 61% of which are caused by rupture of a de novo aneurysm. Latency between bleedings is usually many years, and younger patients tend to achieve better outcomes from a second subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report an unusual case of lethal ultra-early rupture of a de novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery only 5 months after the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and complete coiling in a young, healthy male patient. Despite complete aneurysm obliteration, young age, and good recovery, patients may be subjected to secondary subarachnoid hemorrhages from de novo aneurysms after only a few months of the initial bleeding. Early-control magnetic resonance angiography might hence be advisable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of radiation hemorrhagic gastritis successfully treated by endoscopic argon plasma coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Ho, Nichyau; Kuroda, Ken; Ikarashi, Kentarou; Hata, Koujirou; Tukioka, Satosi

    2003-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman underwent irradiation of 46 Grey in total dose, for lumbago of the advanced pancreatic cancer in August 2000. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe anemia in February 2001 with occasionally positive fecal occult blood. Endoscopy revealed erosive gastric mucosa diffuse in the lower body of the stomach, which resulted from radiation. We applied argon plasma coagulation (APC) in March 2001 and succeeded in hemostasis of the widely spreading radiation hemorrhagic gastritis. The progress of the severe anemia improved without cicatricial stenosis. As the coagulation of the APC is limited in the surface mucosa, APC is an easy and effective treatment for radiation hemorrhagic gastritis. (author)

  8. Normal saline influences coagulation and endothelial function after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted

    2014-01-01

    ), colloids (Hextend [HEX]), and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation are associated with differential effects on coagulation and endothelial systems. METHODS: We subjected 15 Yorkshire swine to TBI and HS (40% blood volume), and kept in HS for 2 hours before resuscitation with NS, HEX, or FFP. Markers......BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related deaths. These insults disrupt coagulation and endothelial systems. This study investigated whether previously reported differences in lesion size and brain swelling during normal saline (NS...... of endothelial activation (E-selectin, Intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1), coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), and natural anticoagulation (activated protein C [aPC]) were determined in serum and brain whole cell lysates. RESULTS: Serum levels of aPC were greater in the NS group (203 ± 30...

  9. Early Blood Transfusion and Resolution of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Associated with Massive Subgaleal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanlou, Houchang; Hutson, Shandee; Merritt, Allan Thurman

    2016-01-01

    A male infant delivered to a primipara woman following vacuum applications. He was vigorous at birth, with small caput and scalp bruising. His head was enlarging; he became pale with respiratory distress. Subgaleal hemorrhage (SGH) was suspected. His hematocrit was noted to be 26.2 percent prior to transfusion of O, Rh-negative blood (40 mL/kg). Moderate disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was noted at 12 hours of age. Posttransfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), his condition became stable, and DIC gradually resolved. Head magnetic resonance imaging did not show intracranial hemorrhage. Although one episode of seizures was noted, electroencephalogram was normal. With the application of obstetric vacuum, we recommend that the neonatal health care professionals frequently evaluate the infant's condition. In light of developing fluctuant subgaleal fluid associated with pallor, anemia, metabolic acidosis, and respiratory distress, immediate blood transfusion is warranted. In the presence of DIC, transfusion of FFP is beneficial.

  10. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: Outcome Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Eun Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kwon, Bo Ra; Kim, See Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy and predictors of clinical outcome after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Of 127 patients who underwent TAE for postpartum hemorrhage, 46 progressed to DIC (group 1), 81 showed normal range hematological parameters (group 2). We retrospectively evaluated etiology, embolization methods and the efficacy of TAE for intergroup comparison Pearson Chi-Square test and logistic regression model. Overall TAE failed to control bleeding in 9 patients in spite of technical success. Lower bleeding control rate was found in group 2 (82.6%) relative to group 1 (98.8%, p = 0.001). And embolization methods were not statistically different between two groups no statistically significant predictors associated with failed hemostasis except the amount of transfusion in group 1. Although bleeding control rate is lower in postpartum hemorrhage with DIC than without DIC, we believe that TAE with correction of DIC is an effective method for postpartum hemorrhage with DIC.

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: Outcome Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Eun Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kwon, Bo Ra; Kim, See Hyung

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and predictors of clinical outcome after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Of 127 patients who underwent TAE for postpartum hemorrhage, 46 progressed to DIC (group 1), 81 showed normal range hematological parameters (group 2). We retrospectively evaluated etiology, embolization methods and the efficacy of TAE for intergroup comparison Pearson Chi-Square test and logistic regression model. Overall TAE failed to control bleeding in 9 patients in spite of technical success. Lower bleeding control rate was found in group 2 (82.6%) relative to group 1 (98.8%, p = 0.001). And embolization methods were not statistically different between two groups no statistically significant predictors associated with failed hemostasis except the amount of transfusion in group 1. Although bleeding control rate is lower in postpartum hemorrhage with DIC than without DIC, we believe that TAE with correction of DIC is an effective method for postpartum hemorrhage with DIC.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment attenuates coagulation imbalance in a lethal murine model of sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ting; Li, Yongqing; Liu, Baoling

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis has a profound impact on the inflammatory and hemostatic systems. In addition to systemic inflammation, it can produce disseminated intravascular coagulation, microvascular thrombosis, consumptive coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure. We have shown that treatment with suber...

  13. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Janice M; Pollpeter, Molly J

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  14. Delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : the role of coagulation and fibrinolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, M.D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are at risk to develop complications, especially within the first two weeks after the hemorrhage. Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a complication which occurs in about 30% of SAH patients, leading to symptoms such as aphasia, hemiparesis, or

  15. Host genetic diversity enables Ebola hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Angela L; Okumura, Atsushi; Ferris, Martin T; Green, Richard; Feldmann, Friederike; Kelly, Sara M; Scott, Dana P; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; LaCasse, Rachel; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Miller, Darla R; Shaw, Ginger D; Korth, Marcus J; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G

    2014-11-21

    Existing mouse models of lethal Ebola virus infection do not reproduce hallmark symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, neither delayed blood coagulation and disseminated intravascular coagulation nor death from shock, thus restricting pathogenesis studies to nonhuman primates. Here we show that mice from the Collaborative Cross panel of recombinant inbred mice exhibit distinct disease phenotypes after mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection. Phenotypes range from complete resistance to lethal disease to severe hemorrhagic fever characterized by prolonged coagulation times and 100% mortality. Inflammatory signaling was associated with vascular permeability and endothelial activation, and resistance to lethal infection arose by induction of lymphocyte differentiation and cellular adhesion, probably mediated by the susceptibility allele Tek. These data indicate that genetic background determines susceptibility to Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Impact of Albumin on Coagulation Competence and Hemorrhage During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Pär I.

    2016-01-01

    trial evaluates whether administration of 5% human albumin (HA) or lactated Ringer solution (LR) affects coagulation competence and in turn blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included to receive either 5% HA (n = 20) or LR (n = 20......). Nineteen patients were analyzed in the HA group and 20 patients in the lactated Ringer group. Blinded determination of the blood loss was similar in the 2 groups of patients: 1658 (800-3300) mL with the use of HA and 1472 (700-4330) mL in the lactated Ringer group (P = 0.45). Yet, by thrombelastography...... (TEG) evaluated coagulation competence, albumin affected clot growth (TEG-angle 69 ± 5 vs 74° ± 3°, P 

  17. Coagulation competence for predicting perioperative hemorrhage in patients treated with lactated Ringer's vs. Dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2015-01-01

    to receive either lactated Ringer's solution or Dextran 70 (Macrodex ®) that affects coagulation competence. RESULTS: By thrombelastography evaluated coagulation competence, Dextran 70 reduced "maximal amplitude" (MA) by 25 % versus a 1 % reduction with the administration of lactated Ringer's solution (P ....001). Blinded evaluation of the blood loss was similar in the two groups of patients - 2339 ml with the use of Dextran 70 and 1822 ml in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.27). Yet, the blood loss was related to the reduction in MA (r = -0.427, P = 0.008) and by multiple regression analysis independently...... associated with MA (P = 0.01). Thus, 11 patients in the dextran group (58 %) developed a clinical significant blood loss (>1500 ml) compared to only four patients (22 %) in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: With the use of Dextran 70 vs. lactated Ringer's solution during cystectomy...

  18. Lethal pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to Leptospira infection transmitted by pet rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made after the patient died. The transmitting animal was a pet rat. Leptospirosis has to be considered in case of rapid multi-organ failure presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage.

  19. Effects of Thermal Status on Markers of Blood Coagulation During Simulated Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Keywords Hemorrhage Hyperthermia Dehydration Hemostasis Exercise Heat stress Environment Pre- hospital Triage 3. Overall Project...Perspectives and significance The present study suggests that individuals performing physical work (e.g. exercise) in a hot environment will be likely to...3 6. Publications, Abstracts and Presentations ................................................. 4 7. Inventions, Patents and Licenses

  20. Comparison of argon plasma coagulation in management of upper gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and gastric antral vascular ectasia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Chun; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Tam, William; Hu, Ming-Luen; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chiu, King-Wah; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2012-06-09

    Vascular ectasias, including gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) and angiodysplasia, are increasingly recognized as important sources of gastrointestinal bleeding. This study investigated and compared the efficacies and outcomes of treatment of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) angiodysplasia and GAVE hemorrhage by endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC). From January 2006 to December 2009, 46 patients diagnosed with upper GI bleeding caused by angiodysplasia or GAVE at a tertiary hospital were recruited into this study. They included 26 males and 20 females with an average age of 65.6 years (range, 45-90 years). All patients underwent APC for hemostasis during an endoscopic procedure. Parameters such as underlying co-morbidities, number of endoscopic treatment sessions, recurrent bleeding, and clinical outcomes during follow-up were analyzed. The 46 patients with UGI vascular ectasia hemorrhage included 27 patients with angiodysplasia and 19 with GAVE. The patients with angiodysplasia were older than those with GAVE (71.6 ± 10.2 years versus 61.8 ± 11.9 years, P = 0.005). More GAVE patients than angiodysplasia patients had co-existing liver cirrhosis (63.2% versus 25.9%, P = 0.012). The patients with GAVE had a higher rate of recurrent bleeding (78.9% versus 7.4%, P bleeding. Further multivariate analysis revealed that GAVE was the only independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding after APC treatment (OR = 0.027, P bleeding. The efficacy of APC treatment is greater for angiodysplasia than for vascular ectasia bleeding. GAVE patients have a higher recurrent bleeding rate and may require multiple treatment sessions for sustained hemostasis.

  1. Effect of Dan seven soft capsule adjuvant therapy on serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes in patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Gui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Dan seven soft capsule on the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease and the influence of serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes. Methods: A total of 112 cases of patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=57 and observation group (n=55, the patients in the control group received routine treatment combined with edaravone, on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the observation group was treated with Dan seven soft capsule. The serum levels of inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference in the inflammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, blood coagulation function (FIB, PT and APTT and hemorheology (high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity levels between the control group and observation group. Compared with the levels of the same group before treatment, two groups of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, FIB, high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity level after treatment were significantly decreased, and levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of PT and APTT in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Dan seven soft capsule in the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease can effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, improve coagulation function and blood rheology index, it has an important clinical value.

  2. Life-threatening urethral hemorrhage after placement of a Foley catheter in a patient with uroseptic disseminated intravascular coagulation due to chronic urinary retention induced by untreated benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Imaizumi, Tsuyoshi; Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Kurosawa, Shin; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    A 77-year-old man with severe septic disseminated intravascular coagulation following urinary infection was transported to our hospital. He had developed urinary retention induced by untreated prostatic hyperplasia. Immediate drainage with a Foley catheter was successfully carried out, but the hematuria progressed to life-threatening hemorrhage. Complete hemostasis was impossible by surgical treatment because the tissue around the prostatic urethra was very fragile and hemorrhagic. Organized treatments (continuous hemodiafiltration combined with polymyxin-B immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion and systemic treatment with antibiotics and coagulation factors) were commenced soon after the operation. The patient eventually recovered from the septic disseminated intravascular coagulation. This case report illustrates the risk of placement of Foley catheters in patients with severe septic disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  3. Neutralizing properties of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) juice on phospholipase A2, myotoxic, hemorrhagic and lethal activities of crotalidae venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M H; Alves, D L F; Raslan, D S; Piló-Veloso, D; Rodrigues, V M; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; de Lima, M E

    2005-04-08

    The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. In this work, we verify the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) against the toxicity of snake venoms. Musa paradisiaca, an important source of food in the world, has also been reported to be popularly used as an anti-venom. Interaction of Musa paradisiaca extract (MsE) with snake venom proteins has been examined in this study. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities, including lethality in mice, induced by crotalidae venoms were significantly inhibited when different amounts of MsE were mixed with these venoms before assays. On the other hand, mice that received MsE and venoms without previous mixture or by separated routes were not protected against venom toxicity. Partial chemical characterization of MsE showed the presence of polyphenols and tannins and they are known to non-specifically inactivate proteins. We suggest that these compounds can be responsible for the in vitro inhibition of the toxic effects of snake venoms. In conclusion, according to our results, using mice as experimental model, MsE does not show protection against the toxic effects of snake venoms in vivo, but if was very effective when the experiments were done in vitro.

  4. Coagulation Parameters and Risk of Progressive Hemorrhagic Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH after traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly increases in size and coagulopathy has been implicated in such progression. Our aim is to perform a meta-analysis to assess their relationship. Cochrane library, PubMed, and EMBASE were searched for literatures. Pooled effect sizes and 95% confidential intervals (CIs were calculated using random-effects model. We included six studies, involving 1700 participants with 540 progressive hemorrhagic injuries (PHIs. Our findings indicate that PT, D-dimer level, and INR value are positively associated with the risk of PHI. Higher level of PLT and Fg seemed to suggest a lower risk of PHI. Among these parameters, higher D-dimer level and INR value would possess more powerful strength in predicting PHI.

  5. Lethal Epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis or nosebleed refers to bleeding from the nostrils, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. Occasional cases may present with torrential lethal hemorrhage. Three cases are reported to demonstrate particular features: Case 1: A 51-year-old woman with lethal epistaxis with no obvious bleeding source; Case 2: A 77-year-old man with treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma who died from epistaxis arising from a markedly neovascularized tumor bed; Case 3: A 2-year-old boy with hemophilia B who died from epistaxis with airway obstruction in addition to gastrointestinal bleeding. Epistaxis may be associated with trauma, tumors, vascular malformations, bleeding diatheses, infections, pregnancy, endometriosis, and a variety of different drugs. Careful dissection of the nasal cavity is required to locate the site of hemorrhage and to identify any predisposing conditions. This may be guided by postmortem computerized tomographic angiography (PCTA). Despite careful dissection, however, a source of bleeding may never be identified. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Novel keratin (KeraStat™) and polyurethane (Nanosan(R)-Sorb) biomaterials are hemostatic in a porcine lethal extremity hemorrhage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Luke R; Richter, Jillian G; Rahmany, Maria B; Soler, Roberto; Steen, Julie A; Orlando, Giuseppe; Abouswareb, Tamer; Van Dyke, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in people aged 44 or less in the US. It is also estimated that 82% of deaths from battlefield hemorrhage may be survivable with better treatment options. In this study, two biomaterial hemostats having disparate mechanisms were evaluated in a large animal lethal hemorrhage model and compared to a commercial product and standard cotton gauze. We hypothesized that the biomaterial with a biologically active mechanism, as opposed to a mechanical mechanism, would be the most effective in this model. Using a published study protocol, the femoral artery in swine was punctured and treated. KeraStat™ (KeraNetics) and Nanosan®-Sorb (SNS Nano) hemostats were compared to a commercial chitosan dressing (second generation Hemcon®) and cotton gauze. Both KeraStat and Nanosan increased survival, significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), and significantly decreased shock index compared to both controls. The Hemcon dressing was no different than gauze. Platelet adhesion assays suggested that the KeraStat mechanism of action involves β1 integrin mediated platelet adhesion while Nanosan-Sorb operates similar to one reported mechanism for Hemcon, absorbing fluid and concentrating clotting components. The Nanosan also swelled considerably and created pressure within the wound site even after direct pressure was removed.

  7. Glycoprotein-Specific Antibodies Produced by DNA Vaccination Protect Guinea Pigs from Lethal Argentine and Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W; Maes, Piet; Kwilas, Steven A; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W

    2016-01-20

    Several members of the Arenaviridae can cause acute febrile diseases in humans, often resulting in lethality. The use of convalescent-phase human plasma is an effective treatment in humans infected with arenaviruses, particularly species found in South America. Despite this, little work has focused on developing potent and defined immunotherapeutics against arenaviruses. In the present study, we produced arenavirus neutralizing antibodies by DNA vaccination of rabbits with plasmids encoding the full-length glycoprotein precursors of Junín virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MACV), and Guanarito virus (GTOV). Geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers, as measured by the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT(50)), exceeded 5,000 against homologous viruses. Antisera against each targeted virus exhibited limited cross-species binding and, to a lesser extent, cross-neutralization. Anti-JUNV glycoprotein rabbit antiserum protected Hartley guinea pigs from lethal intraperitoneal infection with JUNV strain Romero when the antiserum was administered 2 days after challenge and provided some protection (∼30%) when administered 4 days after challenge. Treatment starting on day 6 did not protect animals. We further formulated an IgG antibody cocktail by combining anti-JUNV, -MACV, and -GTOV antibodies produced in DNA-vaccinated rabbits. This cocktail protected 100% of guinea pigs against JUNV and GTOV lethal disease. We then expanded on this cocktail approach by simultaneously vaccinating rabbits with a combination of plasmids encoding glycoproteins from JUNV, MACV, GTOV, and Sabia virus (SABV). Sera collected from rabbits vaccinated with the combination vaccine neutralized all four targets. These findings support the concept of using a DNA vaccine approach to generate a potent pan-arenavirus immunotherapeutic. Arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses. In infected humans, convalescent-phase plasma containing neutralizing antibodies can mitigate the

  8. Glycoprotein-Specific Antibodies Produced by DNA Vaccination Protect Guinea Pigs from Lethal Argentine and Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W.; Maes, Piet; Kwilas, Steven A.; Ballantyne, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several members of the Arenaviridae can cause acute febrile diseases in humans, often resulting in lethality. The use of convalescent-phase human plasma is an effective treatment in humans infected with arenaviruses, particularly species found in South America. Despite this, little work has focused on developing potent and defined immunotherapeutics against arenaviruses. In the present study, we produced arenavirus neutralizing antibodies by DNA vaccination of rabbits with plasmids encoding the full-length glycoprotein precursors of Junín virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MACV), and Guanarito virus (GTOV). Geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers, as measured by the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), exceeded 5,000 against homologous viruses. Antisera against each targeted virus exhibited limited cross-species binding and, to a lesser extent, cross-neutralization. Anti-JUNV glycoprotein rabbit antiserum protected Hartley guinea pigs from lethal intraperitoneal infection with JUNV strain Romero when the antiserum was administered 2 days after challenge and provided some protection (∼30%) when administered 4 days after challenge. Treatment starting on day 6 did not protect animals. We further formulated an IgG antibody cocktail by combining anti-JUNV, -MACV, and -GTOV antibodies produced in DNA-vaccinated rabbits. This cocktail protected 100% of guinea pigs against JUNV and GTOV lethal disease. We then expanded on this cocktail approach by simultaneously vaccinating rabbits with a combination of plasmids encoding glycoproteins from JUNV, MACV, GTOV, and Sabia virus (SABV). Sera collected from rabbits vaccinated with the combination vaccine neutralized all four targets. These findings support the concept of using a DNA vaccine approach to generate a potent pan-arenavirus immunotherapeutic. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses. In infected humans, convalescent-phase plasma containing neutralizing antibodies can

  9. Genetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis isolated from a chimpanzee with lethal hemorrhagic colitis and pathology of the associated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Yuji; Okabayashi, Sachi; Abe, Niichiro; Masatou, Haruhisa; Iida, Shinya; Teramoto, Isao; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    Human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, are normally recognized as minor pathogens. However, a fatal case of human pinworm infection has been reported in a nonhuman primate, a zoo reared chimpanzee. Here, we histopathologically examined the lesions in tissues from the deceased chimpanzee and genetically characterized the isolated worms to investigate the pathogenicity and determine the phylogeny. We identified ulcers deep in the submucosa where many parasites were found to have invaded the lamina propria mucosa or submucous tissue. An inflammatory reaction consisting mainly of neutrophils and lymphocytes but not eosinophils was observed around the parasites, and intense hemorrhage in the lamina propria was confirmed. The parasites were morphologically similar to E. vermicularis based on the shape of the copulatory spicules. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene products were amplified from worm DNA by PCR and were genetically identified as E. vermicularis based on >98.7% similarity of partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences clustered together with other chimpanzee E. vermicularis isolates in a group which has been referred to as type C and which differs from human isolates (type A). The samples were negative for bacterial pathogens and Entamoeba histolytica indicating that E. vermicularis could be pathogenic in chimpanzees. Phylogenetic clustering of the isolates indicated that the parasite may be host specific.

  10. A non-lethal traumatic/hemorrhagic insult strongly modulates the compartment-specific PAI-1 response in the subsequent polymicrobial sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Raeven

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 is a key factor in trauma- and sepsis-induced coagulopathy. We examined how trauma-hemorrhage (TH modulates PAI-1 responses in subsequent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP-induced sepsis, and the association of PAI-1 with septic outcomes. METHODS: Mice underwent TH and CLP 48 h later in three separate experiments. In experiment 1, mice were sacrificed pre- and post-CLP to characterize the trajectory of PAI-1 in plasma (protein and tissues (mRNA. Post-CLP dynamics in TH-CLP (this study and CLP-Only mice (prior study were then compared for modulatory effects of TH. In experiment 2, to relate PAI-1 changes to outcome, mice underwent TH-CLP and were sampled daily and followed for 14 days to compare non-survivors (DEAD and survivors (SUR. In experiment 3, plasma and tissue PAI-1 expression were compared between mice predicted to die (P-DIE and to live (P-LIVE. RESULTS: In experiment 1, an early post-TH rise of circulating PAI-1 was contrasted by a delayed (post-TH decrease of PAI-1 mRNA in organs. In the post-CLP phase, profiles of circulating PAI-1 were similar between TH-CLP and CLP-Only mice. Conversely, PAI-1 mRNA declined in the liver and heart of TH-CLP mice versus CLP-Only. In experiment 2, there were no DEAD/SUR differences in circulating PAI-1 prior to CLP. Post-CLP, circulating PAI-1 in DEAD was 2-4-fold higher than in SUR. PAI-1 increase heralded septic deaths up to 48 h prior but DEAD/SUR thrombomodulin (endothelial injury marker levels were identical. In experiment 3, levels of circulating PAI-1 and its hepatic gene expression were higher in P-DIE versus P-LIVE mice and those increases closely correlated with liver dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma modulated septic PAI-1 responses in a compartment-specific fashion. Only post-CLP increases in circulating PAI-1 predicted septic outcomes. In posttraumatic sepsis, pre-lethal release of PAI-1 was mostly of hepatic origin and was independent

  11. Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Intracerebral Hemorrhage Intracerebral Hemorrhage What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Warning Signs Stroke Statistics ...

  12. Impaired fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, E. van; Setiati, T.E.; Mairuhu, A.T.; Suharti, C.; Cate, H.H.; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Hack, C.E.; Brandjes, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to bleeding complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever were studied by investigating the pattern of activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in 50 children with severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thirteen patients (26%) died, and activation of coagulation was

  13. Impaired fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Setiati, Tatty E.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; Suharti, Catharina; Cate Ht, Hugo ten; Dolmans, Wil M. V.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Hack, C. Erik; Brandjes, Dees P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to bleeding complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever were studied by investigating the pattern of activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in 50 children with severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thirteen patients (26%) died, and activation of coagulation was

  14. The lethality test used for estimating the potency of antivenoms against Bothrops asper snake venom: pathophysiological mechanisms, prophylactic analgesia, and a surrogate in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Francisco; Oviedo, Andrea; Escalante, Teresa; Solano, Gabriela; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The potency of antivenoms is assessed by analyzing the neutralization of venom-induced lethality, and is expressed as the Median Effective Dose (ED50). The present study was designed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lethality induced by the venom of Bothrops asper, in the experimental conditions used for the evaluation of the neutralizing potency of antivenoms. Mice injected with 4 LD50s of venom by the intraperitoneal route died within ∼25 min with drastic alterations in the abdominal organs, characterized by hemorrhage, increment in plasma extravasation, and hemoconcentration, thus leading to hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play a predominat role in lethality, as judged by partial inhibition by the chelating agent CaNa2EDTA. When venom was mixed with antivenom, there was a venom/antivenom ratio at which hemorrhage was significantly reduced, but mice died at later time intervals with evident hemoconcentration, indicating that other components in addition to SVMPs also contribute to plasma extravasation and lethality. Pretreatment with the analgesic tramadol did not affect the outcome of the neutralization test, thus suggesting that prophylactic (precautionary) analgesia can be introduced in this assay. Neutralization of lethality in mice correlated with neutralization of in vitro coagulant activity in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J; Scott, Dana P; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-12-15

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF.

  16. Platelet activation and dysfunction in a large-animal model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Johansson, Pär I; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhage are the leading causes of trauma-related mortality. Both TBI and hemorrhage are associated with coagulation disturbances, including platelet dysfunction. We hypothesized that platelet dysfunction could be detected early after injury...

  17. Contribution of interleukin-1 to activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, neutrophil degranulation, and the release of secretory-type phospholipase A2 in sepsis: studies in nonhuman primates after interleukin-1 alpha administration and during lethal bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. M.; Boermeester, M. A.; Fischer, E.; de Jong, I. W.; van der Poll, T.; Moldawer, L. L.; Hack, C. E.; Lowry, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Although studies with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in animal models have shown that IL-1 contributes to mortality in sepsis, the mechanisms whereby IL-1 mediates lethal effects are not well established. A possible mechanism is that IL-1 enhances the activation and release of other

  18. Splinter hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingernail hemorrhage ... Splinter hemorrhages look like thin, red to reddish-brown lines of blood under the nails. They run in the direction of nail growth. They are named splinter hemorrhages because they look like a splinter under the ...

  19. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov...

  20. PATHOGENESIS OF HEMORRHAGIC DUE TO DENGUE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Suseno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a viral disease that is mediated by a mosquito, which causes morbidity and mortality. Viruses can increase vascular permeability which can lead to hemorrhagic diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. In Indonesia, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are caused by dengue virus infection which was found to be endemic accompanied by an explosion of extraordinary events that appear at various specified period. The diagnosis of dengue is determined based on the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, 1999, which are sudden high fever accompanied by a marked tendency to hemorrhage positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymosis, purpura, mucosal hemorrhagic, hematemesis or melena and thrombocytopenia. The problem that still exists today is the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with varying degrees of dengue involving levels of vWF (von Willebrand factor and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2 can not be explained. The mechanism of hemorrhagic in dengue virus infections acquired as a result of thrombocytopenia, platelet disfunction decreased coagulation factors, vasculopathy with endothelial injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC.

  1. Preretinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Felippe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy treated with Nd:YAGlaser indescribed. The patient presented decreased visual acuityafter coughing, and a preretinal hemorrhage was diagnosed in theposterior pole; puncturing the posterior hyaloid face was performedwith Nd:Yag laser. Rapid hemorrhage absorption was observedafter the therapy proposed and visual acuity was recovered. Nd:Yaglaser proved to be safe and efficient in the management of preretinalhemorrhage.

  2. Hemorrhagic Aspects of Gaucher Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Rsenbaum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed “Gaucher cells.” Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. Four main etiological factors account for the hemostatic defect in GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures.

  3. Factors contributing to the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is one of the hallmarks of dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, the mechanisms that cause hemorrhage are unclear. In this review we focus on the possible factors that may be involved in the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis during dengue virus (DENV infection. Factors such as autoantibodies and cytokines induced by DENV infection as well as hemostatic molecules expressed on DENV-infected cells, and DENV viral proteins may all contribute to the defect of hemostasis during DENV infection. It is the combination of these viral and host factors that may tilt the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis toward bleeding in dengue patients.

  4. Efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis Eficacia y seguridad de la electrocoagulación con plasma de argón en el tratamiento del sangrado rectal secundario a proctitis por radioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de la Serna Higuera

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and medium-/long-term clinical course of patients undergoing endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy. Design: descriptive, retrospective study with medium- and long-term follow-up. Patients, material and methods: ten patients were treated with argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy between July 1998 and February 2003. Inclusion criteria were: evidence of chronic rectal bleeding, consistent endoscopic findings, and absence of any other cause of hematochezia after a comprehensive ano-rectal examination and complete colonoscopy. The equipment used was a standard colonoscope, an argon delivery unit, an argon plasma coagulation probe 1.5 mm in internal diameter, and a high-frequency electrosurgical generator. Consecutive treatment sessions were programmed whenever it was considered necessary until all mucosal lesions had been treated. Clinical and evolutive follow-up was performed with a focus on tolerance, efficacy, and potential argon plasma coagulation-related complications. Data were updated by personal or telephonic interview. Results: in all patients, chronic rectal bleeding stopped after the last treatment session. The mean number of treatment sessions to stop symptoms was 1.7. Mean follow-up was 31.1 months. All sessions were well tolerated, similarly to standard rectoscopy. In one case a recurrence of rectal bleeding was observed four months later, which required two repeat sessions. Four patients were anemic at inclusion. Three of them reported a resolved anemia at the end of the study. No delayed argon plasma coagulation-related complications such us ulcers or strictures were seen. Conclusions: argon plasma coagulation appears to be a useful, effective and safe treatment for rectal bleeding resulting from chronic radiation proctitis when compared to standard medical and endoscopic treatments. These successful outcomes seem

  5. Subconjunctival hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eyes Viral infection Certain eye surgeries or injuries A subconjunctival hemorrhage is common in newborn infants. In this case, the condition is thought to be caused by the pressure changes across the infant's body during childbirth.

  6. Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition, the outcome of which can be improved by intensive care. Intracranial hemorrhage may be spontaneous, precipitated by an underlying vascular malformation, induced by trauma, or related to therapeutic anticoagulation. The goals of critical care are to assess the proximate cause, minimize the risks of hemorrhage expansion through blood pressure control and correction of coagulopathy, and obliterate vascular lesions with a high risk of acute rebleeding. Simple bedside scales and interpretation of computed tomography scans assess the severity of neurological injury. Myocardial stunning and pulmonary edema related to neurological injury should be anticipated, and can usually be managed. Fever (often not from infection) is common and can be effectively treated, although therapeutic cooling has not been shown to improve outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Most functional and cognitive recovery takes place weeks to months after discharge; expected levels of functional independence (no disability, disability but independence with a device, dependence) may guide conversations with patient representatives. Goals of care impact mortality, with do-not-resuscitate status increasing the predicted mortality for any level of severity of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Future directions include refining the use of bedside neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram, invasive monitors), novel approaches to reduce intracranial hemorrhage expansion, minimizing vasospasm, and refining the assessment of quality of life to guide rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:22167847

  7. Theories of blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddel, James P; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine; Lillicrap, David P

    2007-01-01

    Although the concept of the coagulation cascade represented a significant advance in the understanding of coagulation and served for many years as a useful model, more recent clinical and experimental observations demonstrate that the cascade/waterfall hypothesis does not fully and completely reflect the events of hemostasis in vivo. The goal of this article is to review the evolution of the theories of coagulation and their proposed models to serve as a tool when reviewing the research and practice literature that was published in the context of these different theories over time.

  8. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  9. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  10. Coagulation and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    Severe infection induces both activation of the coagulation system and multiple other inflammatory mediator cascades. This concise review summarizes the current knowledge of mechanisms that are considered to contribute to the procoagulant response to sepsis. Furthermore, evidence is discussed that

  11. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  12. Microwave coagulation therapy and drug injection to treat splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoming; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jie; Dong, Lei; Mu, Nannan; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaofei; Liang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the efficacy of 915- and 2450-MHz contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation with that of CEUS-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of trauma-induced spleen hemorrhage. In a canine splenic artery hemorrhage model with two levels of arterial diameter (A, microwaves and drug injection. Therapy efficacy was measured by comparing bleeding rate, hemostatic time, bleeding index, bleeding volume, and pathology. The most efficient technique was CEUS-guided 915-MHz percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in terms of action time and total blood loss. The success rate of the 915-MHz microwave group was higher than that of the 2450-MHz microwave and the drug injection groups (except A level, P microwave group than those in the 2450-MHz microwave and drug injection groups (P microwave group, but pathologic changes of light injury could be seen in the other groups. The present study provides evidence that microwave coagulation therapy is more efficient than thrombin injection for the treatment of splenic hemorrhage. Furthermore, treatment with 915-MHz microwaves stops bleeding more rapidly and generates a wider cauterization zone than does treatment with 2450-MHz microwaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Rodenticides on the Coagulation Properties of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A. Ibrahim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the impact of the rodenticides (strychnine, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum on milk pH, rennet coagulation time (RCT, and coagulum strength. Sub-lethal amounts of strychnine and bromadiolone produced an unnaturally large change in milk pH, compared to brodifacoum and brodifacoum on milk coagulation properties. All three studied rodenticides significantly affected RCT and coagulum strength. The presence of sub-lethal amounts of each individual rodenticide increased RCT by an overall mean of 17% (p < 0.001. Rodenticide contamination decreased coagulum strength by an overall mean of 26% (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that such changes could be noticeable at the farm, thus, potentially averting the mixture of contaminated milk with the tanker supply, and preventing downstream distribution to consumers.

  14. Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the ...

  15. Development and Resuscitation of a Sedated, Mature Male Miniature Swine Severe Hemorrhage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    control. Results: Hemorrhage resulted in a characteristic hypotension and metabolic acidosis . Survival time for the control swine was 64 minutes...domestic swine4 and was characteristic of a hemorrhage- induced metabolic acidosis , with a decrease in blood HCO3, and BE and an increase in blood...Hammett M, Asher L, et al. Effects of bovine polymerized hemoglobin on coagulation in controlled hemorrhagic shock in swine. Shock. 2005;24:145–152

  16. Evaluation of computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seon Young; Lee, Young Sik; Suh, Jeong Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of computed tomography, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult. C.T. scanning is an invaluable investigation providing the rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. It reliably demonstrates the presence and distribution of fresh blood within the ventricular system. C.T. is also useful as a surgical guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematoma by easily performable follow-up studies. We reviewed 31 cases of intraventricular hemorrhage in C.T. in the department of radiology of Ewha Womans University Hospital during the period from August, 1982 to August, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The most patients were encountered in the 5th decade and the male to female ratio was 1.2 : 1. 2. Hypertension was the main cause of the intraventricular hemorrhage; 18 out of 31 patients. Remaining 13 patients were caused by hypoxia, aneurysm, Moya Moya disease, coagulation defect, trauma and undetermined etiology. 3. 18 out of 31 patients showed hemorrhage in the lateral ventricles only and all ventricles in 10 patients. 4. 28 out of 31 patients showed associated with intracranial hematoma; Those were intracerebral hematomas in 16 patients, intracerebral hematoma with subarachnoid hemorrhage in 4 patients and extracerebral hematoma in 2 patients. 5. Outcome was assessed using the Glasgow scale. According to them, the total mortality rates was 54.8%, however, 32.3% of patients returned to normal or minor disability. Patients, who had hypertension and marked degree of hemorrhage in the ventricular systems had a poor outcome. Patients with only ventricular hemorrhage had better outcome than associated intracranial hematoma. 6. 16 out of 31 patients were treated by surgical methods and 15 out of 31 patients by conservative methods. 75% of patients were died in conservative treatment. 7. Conclusively, causes, degree of intraventricular

  17. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  18. Overview of the coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Palta, Anshu

    2014-09-01

    Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms 'coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  19. Preliminary study of haemostasis in irradiated-enterectomised dog. Primary haemostasis, coagulation, plasma factors exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubos, M.; Niaussat, P.M.; Neveux, Y.; Nguyen, T.L.; Drouet, J.; Bac, P.

    Some hematological changes due to the combined effects of ionizing radiations and surgery were studied in dogs irradiated at 250, 300 and 350R. A constant hemorrhagic syndrome was observed with an impairment of the platelets functions and a depletion of several coagulation factors [fr

  20. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  1. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  2. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ecer Menteş

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is a rare form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Mostly it appears under three years of age and is characterized by purpuric skin lesions, fever and edema. A three years-old boy, who has cough and coryzea was admitted to our clinic for fever and red spots on legs and arms. In physical examination; ecimotic skin lesions on right ear, face, arms, dorsal of the hands, buttocks, legs and dorsal of the feet were found. In the laboratory tests acute phase reactants were elevated and blood coagulation tests were in normal range. Hepatit A,B,C and TORCH markers were negative. Punch biopsy obtained from gluteal area showed leukositoclastic vasculity. Focal fibrinogen accumulation was detected by immun fluorescent microscopy. Regression on lesions was not observed despite supportive therapy, so prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day therapy was started. On the third day of the steroid therapy, complete recovery was achived.

  3. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  4. Comparative evolution of coagulation disorders in baboons and Pigs after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Lefleche, P.; Veyret, J.; Grasseau, A.; Agay, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acute total body irradiation in pigs, with a lethal dose of either gamma or mixed gamma-neutron radiation, induced similar plasmatic coagulation disorders as those observed in baboons. These data validated pathophysiological hypothesis which were developed during previous studies, but do not support the idea of a possible species specific radiosensitivity. (author)

  5. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    19 X. A ppendices ...Programmed cell death is triggered by acute brain injury yet its reliable detection is complicated by effective clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. During...Tisherman’s book on hypothermia in acute medicine entitled ’Therapeutic Hypothermia" was published by Kluwer. It included 253 pages and, germane to

  6. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    a temperatura alvo emn doentes fora do hospital ou jA intemados permanece urn desaflo. Este estudo procurou testar a exequibilidade do arrefecimento...Durante a normotensiio espontfinea, o arrefecirniento veno-venoso forniecia sangue A veia cava a uma temperatura de 6.2 ’CC desvio padr~o (SID 1.4) e...dirninuiu a temperatura da membrana timpfinica (fly) de 37.5 para 34.0’C aos 5 min (SID 0.7) e para os; 32 ’C aos 7.9 min (SID 1.3). 0 arrefecimento da

  7. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... We have conceived and documented "suspended animation for delayed resuscitation" with the use of hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 minute of no blood flow, using novel...

  8. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  9. Trauma and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding and coagulation disorders related to trauma are pathological processes which are frequently seen and increase mortality. For the purpose, trauma patients should be protected from hypoperfusion, hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution which may aggravate the increase in physiological responses to trauma as anticoagulation and fibrinolysis. Performing damage control surgery and resuscitation and transfusion of adequate blood and blood products in terms of amount and content as stated in protocols may increase the rate of survival. Medical treatments augmenting fibrin formation (fibrinogen, desmopressin, factor VIIa or preventing fibrin degradation (tranexamic acid have been proposed in selected cases but the efficacy of these agents in trauma patients are not proven. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:71-6

  10. Mechanisms of Lethal Cerebrovascular Accidents in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-05-01

    A case of intracerebral hemorrhage in Turner syndrome is reported with an analysis of possible causes of cerebrovascular accidents in this condition. A 42-year-old woman with known Turner syndrome died soon after hospital admission having been found unconscious at her home address. At autopsy, she showed typical features of Turner syndrome with short stature, webbing of the neck, underdeveloped breasts, and an increased carrying angle of the arm. Death was due to a large left-sided intracerebral hemorrhage extending from the left basal ganglia into the white matter of the frontal lobe and lateral ventricle. Cases of unexpected death in Turner syndrome may arise from occult cerebrovascular accidents which may be hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic. Associated features include hypertension, vascular malformations, accelerated atherogenesis, cystic medial necrosis, and moyamoya syndrome. The possibility of Turner syndrome should be considered in cases where there has been a lethal cerebrovascular event in a younger woman. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Effect of edaravone torasemide treatment on elderly patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of edaravone torasemide treatment on acute cerebral hemorrhage in elderly patients. Methods: A total of 100 patient with acute intracerebral hemorrhage senile patient were selected and randomly divided into groups: the combined group (50 people and the control group (50 people. The senile patients in the control group were treated with conventional therapy and the senile patients in the combined group were treated with edaravone combined with torasemide and conventional therapy. Inflammatory, coagulation function and hemorheology were compared before and after seven days therapy. Results: Before treatment, inflammatory, coagulation function and hemorheology of two groups showed no statistically significant difference. Inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α and hemorheology (WLV, WMV, WHV, PV, and PCV of two groups decreased significantly than before treatment (P<0.05, coagulation function (PT, APPT of two groups increased significantly than before treatment (P<0.05; Coagulation function (PT, APPT and hemorheology (WLV, WMV, WHV, PV, and PCV of the combined groups after treatment increased significantly than control group after treatment (P<0.05, inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α and FIB of the combined groups after treatment decreased significantly than control group after treatment (P<0.05. Conclusions: Edaravone combined with torasemide can perfect effectively inflammatory, coagulation function and hemorheology on senile patient acute intracerebral hemorrhage, it has important clinical significance for senile patient acute intracerebral hemorrhage treatment.

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracerebral hemorrhage may be caused by trauma (brain injury) or abnormalities of the blood vessels (aneurysm or angioma), but it is most commonly associated with high blood pressure (hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage).

  13. CT in pontine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuo; Kinoshita, Masao; Ikeda, Ken; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical and CT findings in 10 patients with primary pontine hemorrhage were reviewed. All patients were hypertensive. Pontine hemorrhage can be divided into 3 groups from the viewpoint of location of hematomas. These are the tegmentobasilar type, tegmental type and basilar type. The tegmentobasilar type produces characteristic clinical features for pontine hemorrhage and poor prognosis, otherwise, another two types produce atypical clinical features for pontine hemorrhage and good prognosis. (author)

  14. Blood coagulation factors as inflammatory mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2005-01-01

    After the first observations about blood coagulation by Hippocrates, it took until the early 1900s before the classic theory of blood coagulation was presented. As more and more other coagulation factors were discovered, the four-factor coagulation scheme became more complex, but better understood,

  15. A Case of Hemophilia A Associated with Spontaneous Hemorrhagic Pleural Effusion and Intracranial Hem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Tutar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a sex-linked recessive coagulation disorder almost exclusively occurring in male subjects and caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. It  is a rare disorder characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages. Spontaneous bleeding in the pleural space is very rare in hemophilia both in children and adults. Here in, we present the case of a 56-year-old hemophilia A patient with hemorrhagic pleural effusion and intracranial hematoma.

  16. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  17. The pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, A; Kawaoka, Y

    2001-10-01

    Ebola virus causes lethal hemorrhagic disease in humans, yet there are still no satisfactory biological explanations to account for its extreme virulence. This review focuses on recent findings relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and developing vaccines and effective therapy. The available data suggest that the envelope glycoprotein and the interaction of some viral proteins with the immune system are likely to play important roles in the extraordinary pathogenicity of this virus. There are also indications that genetically engineered vaccines, including plasmid DNA and viral vectors expressing Ebola virus proteins, and passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies could be feasible options for the control of Ebola virus-associated disease.

  18. Hemorrhages and hemostasis in guinea-pigs exposed to irradiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskij, V.N.; Daniyarov, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic intensity, hemostasis and blood vessel wall resistance to mechanical effects were studied in guinea-pigs exposed to whole-body irradiation (3.0 Gy). The animals were irradiated at low altitude (760 m above sea level) and at high altitude (3200 m above sea level) after 1 and 31 days of adaptation. It was demonstrated that hemorrhagic intensity in both groups of guinea-pigs irradiated at high altitude was significantly reduced in comparison with that at low altitude. The decrease of radiation-induced hemorrhages at high altitude is associated with less severe changes in thrombopoiesis, blood vessel wall and blood coagulation

  19. Intravesical instillation of Formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiation for gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnam, K.; Patil, U.B.; Mariano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Our experience with the use of Formalin instillation in intractable gross hematuria secondary to radiation cystitis in patients with gynecological malignancies is reported. This study indicates coagulative effect of low concentration of Formalin with minimal side effects as a method to control hemorrhage

  20. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-si...

  1. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, Belma; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  2. Effective oral favipiravir (T-705 therapy initiated after the onset of clinical disease in a model of arenavirus hemorrhagic Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mendenhall

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa and Junín viruses are the most prominent members of the Arenaviridae family of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndromes Lassa fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever, respectively. At present, ribavirin is the only antiviral drug indicated for use in treatment of these diseases, but because of its limited efficacy in advanced cases of disease and its toxicity, safer and more effective antivirals are needed.Here, we used a model of acute arenaviral infection in outbred guinea pigs based on challenge with an adapted strain of Pichindé virus (PICV to further preclinical development of T-705 (Favipiravir, a promising broad-spectrum inhibitor of RNA virus infections. The guinea pig-adapted passage 19 PICV was uniformly lethal with an LD(50 of ∼5 plaque-forming units and disease was associated with fever, weight loss, thrombocytopenia, coagulation defects, increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST concentrations, and pantropic viral infection. Favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day, twice daily orally for 14 days was highly effective, as all animals recovered fully from PICV-induced disease even when therapy was initiated one week after virus challenge when animals were already significantly ill with marked fevers and thrombocytopenia. Antiviral activity and reduced disease severity was evidenced by dramatic reductions in peak serum virus titers and AST concentrations in favipiravir-treated animals. Moreover, a sharp decrease in body temperature was observed shortly after the start of treatment. Oral ribavirin was also evaluated, and although effective, the slower rate of recovery may be a sign of the drug's known toxicity.Our findings support further development of favipiravir for the treatment of severe arenaviral infections. The optimization of the experimental favipiravir treatment regimen in the PICV guinea pig model will inform critical future studies in the same species based on challenge with highly pathogenic arenaviruses

  3. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  4. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  5. Artificial liver support with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system: activation of coagulation and bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachli, Esther B; Schuepbach, Reto A; Maggiorini, Marco; Stocker, Reto; Müllhaupt, Beat; Renner, Eberhard L

    2007-05-01

    Numerous, mostly uncontrolled, observations suggest that artificial liver support with the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) improves pathophysiologic sequelae and outcome of acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure. MARS is felt to be safe, but extracorporeal circuits may activate coagulation. To assess the frequency of and risk factors for activation of coagulation during MARS treatment. Retrospective analysis of coagulopathy/bleeding complications observed during 83 consecutive MARS sessions in 21 patients (11 men; median age 46 years; median three sessions per patient; median duration of session 8 h). Nine clinically relevant episodes of coagulopathy/bleeding were observed in eight patients, forced to premature cessation of MARS in seven and ended lethal in four. Four complications occurred during the first, five during later (third to seventh) MARS sessions and two bleeders tolerated further sessions without complications. Coagulation parameters worsened significantly also during MARS sessions not associated with bleeding (PMARS therapy, potentially leading to bleeding complications and mortality.

  6. The interplay between platelets and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, C.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet activation and blood coagulation are two processes often studied separately, but which cannot be seen independently from each other. Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, not only by providing negatively charged phospholipids, but also in localizing the coagulation process from a

  7. Coagulants modulate the hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... The recent increase in soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption especially in western countries is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods. The amount and the type of coagulated biomolecules (such as isoflavones) vary with the type of coagulant, and this will inevitable alter their ...

  8. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  9. Hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Turkel, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mnaymneh, W. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Simple prepatellar bursitis is easily diagnosed both clinically and by MRI. MRI shows the typical T1 and T2 lengthening of fluid within the bursa. However, because of complex MRI appearance of hemorrhage, chronic hemorrhagic bursitis and the size of the prepatellar mass the clinical and MRI appearance can be very different. (orig.)

  10. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  11. CT evaluation of underlying cause in spontaneous subcapsular and perirenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastia, M.C.; Perez-Molina, M.O.; Alvarez-Castells, A.; Quiroga, S.; Pallisa, E.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the CT scans of 13 patients with spontaneous subcapsular or perinephric hemorrhage (SPH) associated with these underlying causes: 4 angiomyolipomas, 2 renal cell carcinomas, 1 renal metastatic malignant melanoma, 1 ruptured renal artery aneurysm, 1 adrenal myelolipoma, 1 ruptured renal abscess, 2 ruptured hemorrhagic cysts, and 1 patient with undiagnosed coagulation disorder. Our objective was to ascertain whether an underlying cause of SPH was identifiable by CT, and to determine the extension of the hematomas. Computed tomography identified the hematoma in all 13 cases (sensitivity 100 %). In all 12 cases in which there was a renal or adrenal anatomic lesion, the underlying cause was identified with CT (100 %), with correct diagnosis in 11 cases (91.6 %). The case in which no lesion was identified was the undiagnosed coagulation disorder. We conclude that CT is a useful technique for the initial evaluation of SPH, permitting diagnosis of hemorrhage and identification of the underlying cause. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. CT evaluation of underlying cause in spontaneous subcapsular and perirenal hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastia, M.C. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Molina, M.O. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Alvarez-Castells, A. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Quiroga, S. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Pallisa, E. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the CT scans of 13 patients with spontaneous subcapsular or perinephric hemorrhage (SPH) associated with these underlying causes: 4 angiomyolipomas, 2 renal cell carcinomas, 1 renal metastatic malignant melanoma, 1 ruptured renal artery aneurysm, 1 adrenal myelolipoma, 1 ruptured renal abscess, 2 ruptured hemorrhagic cysts, and 1 patient with undiagnosed coagulation disorder. Our objective was to ascertain whether an underlying cause of SPH was identifiable by CT, and to determine the extension of the hematomas. Computed tomography identified the hematoma in all 13 cases (sensitivity 100 %). In all 12 cases in which there was a renal or adrenal anatomic lesion, the underlying cause was identified with CT (100 %), with correct diagnosis in 11 cases (91.6 %). The case in which no lesion was identified was the undiagnosed coagulation disorder. We conclude that CT is a useful technique for the initial evaluation of SPH, permitting diagnosis of hemorrhage and identification of the underlying cause. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Postprandial triglycerides and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of our lifetime we spend in the postprandial state. Postprandial triglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in particular due to elevation of the plasma levels of activated factor VII (VIIa) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). Therefore, disturbances of the hemostatic system might, at least partly, account for by the link between hypertriglyceridemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). Factor VIIa is the first enzyme of the blood coagulation system and serves a priming function for triggering of the clotting cascade. The coagulant activity of factor VII (VIIc, total activity of factor VII in plasma) was identified as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction in initially healthy middle-aged men, and particularly of fatal coronary events, and both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations correlated positively with the VIIc level. Addition of fat to diet has been consistently shown to cause a rapid conversion of the factor VII zymogen into its active form (VIIa) whereas the concentration of total protein is unaffected. Postprandial activation of factor VII is dependent on lipolytic activity and it is mainly supported by large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein of the VLDL class. Studies in vivo with specific coagulation factor-deficient patients indicate that factor IX is essential for the postprandial activation of factor VII. The basal generation of thrombin seems to be unaffected by increased plasma levels of VIIa. However, since VIIa-tissue factor complex is responsible for the initiation of the coagulation cascade, increased generation of VIIa in the postprandial state would increase the potential for thrombin production in the event of plaque rupture. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor of the plasminogen activators in the circulation and thereby the principal inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. Postprandial

  14. Efficacy of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Inserted for Refractory Hemorrhage of Duodenal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Orii

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy and improvements in the quality of stents, it has become routine to place a stent as palliative therapy for malignant gastrointestinal obstruction. On the other hand, stent placement for malignant gastrointestinal hemorrhage has scarcely been reported, although it may be performed for hemorrhage of the esophageal varicose vein. We recently experienced a patient with refractory hemorrhage from an unresectable duodenal cancer who underwent placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS and thereafter had no recurrence of the hemorrhage. A 46-year-old man underwent laparotomy to radically resect a cancer in the third portion of the duodenum, which invaded widely to the superior mesenteric vein and its branches and was considered unresectable. After stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy was performed, chemotherapy was initiated according to the regimen of chemotherapy of far advanced gastric cancer. One year and 4 months after induction of chemotherapy, gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the hemorrhage oozing from the duodenal cancer, and endoscopic hemostasis, such as injection of hypertonic saline epinephrine and argon plasma coagulation, was unsuccessful. Twenty days after emergence of the hemorrhage, an endoscopic covered SEMS was placed with confirmation by fluoroscopy. Immediately after placement of the stent, the tarry stool stopped and the anemia ceased to progress. The recurrence of the hemorrhage has not been confirmed without migration of the stent. SEMS is an effective hemostatic procedure for malignant refractory hemorrhage.

  15. Hemorrhagic, Hemostatic, and Thromboelastometric Disorders in 35 Dogs with a Clinical Diagnosis of Leptospirosis: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barth?lemy, A.; Magnin, M.; Pouzot?Nevoret, C.; Bonnet?Garin, J.?M.; Hugonnard, M.; Goy?Thollot, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis in dogs is occasionally associated with a hemorrhagic syndrome, the pathophysiology of which is not fully understood. Hypothesis/Objectives To characterize hematologic, hemostatic, and thromboelastometric abnormalities in dogs with leptospirosis and to study their association with hemorrhagic diatheses and outcomes. Animals Thirty?five client?owned dogs. Methods A prospective observational single cohort study was conducted. Results from the CBC, coagulation tests (pro...

  16. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-six (57%) had intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (22%) had pure intraventricular hemorrhage, and 10 (22%) had both. There were 2 deaths, both with intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume. Presence of intraventricular hemorrhage was not associated with poor outcome, but hydrocephalus showed a trend (p=0.09) toward poor outcome. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, combined intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume also showed a trend toward better outcome prediction than intraparenchymal hemorrhage volume alone. Although not an independent outcome predictor, future studies should assess intraventricular hemorrhage qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:22068828

  18. Coagulation Status in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Johansen, Maria Egede; Mogensen, Ulla B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases other than hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have been associated with prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between the chronic inflammatory skin disease HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable state. METHODS: We.......3432). CONCLUSION: We did not find an association between HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. Thus, thrombocytes may not be activated in HS. Furthermore, INR may not be affected in HS, suggesting that intrinsic and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors appear unaffected....

  19. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of individuals die in the first month after hemorrhagic stroke, and patients younger than 50 years are more likely to die after ICH than SAH. Short-term case fatality has decreased over time. Patients who survive hemorrhagic stroke have a continuing elevated......, 54.6% for 80-89 years; SAH: 20.3% for 20-49 years, 56.7% for 80-89 years; both p-trend stroke patients...

  20. Coagulation system changes associated with susceptibility to infection in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine; Davenport, Ross; De'Ath, Henry; De-Ath, Henry; Manson, Joanna; Brockamp, Thomas; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Infection following trauma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is common following severe hemorrhage. There is a strong interaction between the coagulation and immunity. The objective of this study was to establish if there was an association between changes in coagulation status after hemorrhage and the subsequent incidence of infection. Prospective cohort study of adult injured patients presenting to a major trauma center during a 2-year period. Blood was drawn at 24 hours following admission and analyzed using functional thromboelastography testing and laboratory defined tests of coagulation and blood count. Patients were followed up for infectious episodes while in the hospital using Center for Disease Control definitions. A total of 158 patients were recruited; 71 (45%) developed infection and were older (44 years vs. 32 years, p = 0.01) and more severely injured (Injury Severity Score [ISS], 25 vs.10; p < 0.01). White blood cell counts at 24 hours were normal, and there was no difference between groups (both 9.6 × 10/(9)L). Protein C was lower in those with infection (70.2 IU/dL vs. 83.3 IU/dL, p = 0.02), with a dose-dependent increase in infection as levels of protein C decreased. Plasmin activation at 24 hours was also strongly associated with infection plasmin-antiplasmin (infection vs. no infection, 6,156 μg/L vs. 3,324 μg/L, p = 0.03). The infection cohort had overall 12% lower procoagulant levels (varied between factor VIII 6.4% and factor II 16.2%). There is a strong association between the status of the coagulation system after 24 hours and the development of infection following trauma. Improved early coagulation management may decrease infection rates in this patient group. Prognostic prospective study, level III.

  1. Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Linnea Boegeskov; Goertz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a disease with high mortality and a substantial risk of recurrence. However, the recurrence risk is poorly documented and the knowledge of potential predictors for recurrence among co-morbidities and medicine with antithrombotic effect is limited....... OBJECTIVES: 1) To estimate the short- and long-term cumulative risks of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). 2) To investigate associations between typical comorbid diseases, surgical treatment, use of medicine with antithrombotic effects, including antithrombotic treatment (ATT), selective serotonin...

  2. Anomalous coagulation factors in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with central retinal vein occlusion: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hong; Kang, Min Ho; Seong, Mincheol; Cho, Heeyoon; Shin, Yong Un

    2018-04-01

    Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is characterized by sudden, painless visual loss and optic disc edema. NAION occurs mainly in the presence of cardiovascular disease and hypercoagulability, mainly in patients over 50 years of age. We experienced a case of NAION associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in a young man with no underlying disease. A 46-year-old man was referred to our clinic following a sudden loss of vision in his right eye. The patient exhibited no underlying disease and reported no ongoing medication. Significant visual loss and visual disturbance of the right eye were observed. The pupil of the right eye was enlarged and an afferent pupillary defect was observed. On fundus examination, retinal hemorrhage was observed in the peripheral retina; macular edema was observed in optical coherence tomography analysis. However, optic disc edema was not evident. No abnormal findings were found in routine blood tests for hypercoagulability. After 3 days of steroid intravenous injection, macular edema disappeared and visual acuity was improved, but optic disc edema began to appear. One week later, optic disc edema was evident and visual acuity was significantly reduced; thus, the patient was diagnosed with NAION. In fluorescein angiography, peripheral retinal ischemia was observed, suggesting that CRVO was complicated. Blood tests, including analysis of coagulation factors, were performed again, showing that coagulation factors IX and XI were increased. Anomalous coagulation factors in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with central retinal vein occlusion. Systemic steroids were administered. One month later, optic disc edema and retinal hemorrhage gradually diminished and eventually disappeared; however, visual acuity did not recover. In young patients without underlying disease, cases of NAION require careful screening for coagulation disorders. Even if there is no abnormality in the test for routine

  3. Hemorrhagic brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Motoichiro; Takekawa, S.D.; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    Tumor hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) was found in 14 patients with brain metastases (7 % of two hundred patients with brain metastases), from April 1979 to July 1983. Primary foci of these lesions were the lung (6 patients), breast (2), kidney (2), uterus (2), colon (1) and adrenal gland (1). ''Stroke'' syndrome was the initial presenting symptom in 3 patients; neurological focal sign or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure in the remaining patients. CT demonstrated peritumoral hemorrhage in all patients with solid mass, intratumoral hemorrhage in a few patients and also cerebral or ventricular hemorrhage, which was fatal complication, in 2 patients (colon and breast cancers). A cystic mass with fluid-blood level was noted in a patient with breast cancer. Several predisposing factors including chemotherapy, thrombocytopenia, radiotherapy or combination of these were recognized in 8 patients. Of these, chemotherapy was the most causative factor of tumor hemorrhage. Brain irradiation for hemorrhagic brain metastases was effective for prolongation of mean survival time of these patients as follows; 10 months in irradiated group, whereas 1.5 months in non-irradiated group. (author)

  4. Preparación toxoide a partir de la fracción hemorrágica del veneno de Bothrops asper (serpiente de América Central y del Sur) (Toxoid preparation from hemorrhagic fraction of the venom from Bothrops asper (snake from Central and South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described for preparing a toxoid from the hemorrhagic fraction of the Bothrops asper venom. This method conserves a high degree of immunogenicity although it eliminates lethal effects. None of the animals vaccinated with the toxoid from this fraction had hemorrhagic lesions after they were injected the venom from the hemorrhagic fraction.

  5. Imaging of Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Ryan; Garg, Ankur

    2016-10-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke comprises approximately 15% to 20% of all strokes. This article provides readers with an understanding of the indications and significance of various neuroimaging techniques available for patients presenting with hemorrhagic strokes of distinct causes. The most common initial neuroimaging study is a noncontrast head CT, which allows for the identification of hemorrhage. Once an intracranial hemorrhage has been identified, the pattern of blood and the patient's medical history, neurologic examination, and laboratory studies lead the practitioner to pursue further neuroimaging studies to guide the medical, surgical, and interventional management. Given that hemorrhagic stroke constitutes a heterogeneous collection of diagnoses, the subsequent neuroimaging pathway necessary to better evaluate and care for these patients is variable based on the etiology.With an increasing incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation associated with the aging population and the introduction of three new direct factor Xa inhibitors and one direct thrombin inhibitor to complement vitamin K antagonists, oral anticoagulant use continues to increase. Patients on oral anticoagulants have a sevenfold to tenfold increased risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Furthermore, patients who have an ICH associated with oral anticoagulant use have a higher mortality rate than those with primary ICH. Despite the reduced incidence of hypertension-related ICH over the past decade, it is expected that the incidence of ICH will continue to increase. Neuroimaging studies are integral to the identification of hemorrhagic stroke, determination of the underlying etiology, prevention of hematoma expansion, treatment of acute complications, and treatment of the underlying etiology, if indicated. Neuroimaging is essential for prognostication and thus directly impacts patient care.

  6. [Whole-blood transfusion for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation: two cases in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic shock in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic shock; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine rupture. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery.

  7. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  8. [Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia presenting with hematuria and severe anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, A; Goren, E; Segal, M

    1995-07-01

    A patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was admitted with hematuria and severe anemia after mild recurrent episodes of epistaxis. Telangiectasias were found in the skin and buccal and nasal mucosa. No defect in the coagulation mechanism was found; thrombocyte count and function were normal. On cystoscopy, tortuous engorged vessels, some actively bleeding, were seen in the trigonal mucosa. Biopsy showed enlarged vessels in the lamina propria. Electrocoagulation of the bleeding vessels stopped hematuria, but 6 months later it recurred. This time Nd-YAG laser was used to stop the bleeding after electrocoagulation was ineffective.

  9. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  10. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  11. Microcatheter embolization of hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, Seppo K.; Leppaenen, Martti J.; Pimenoff, Georg; Seppaenen, Janne M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of embolotherapy using microcatheters in patients with hemorrhage from various locations. Methods. Among 29 patients there were 13 with severe epistaxis, 7 with gastrointestinal bleeding, 4 with hemorrhage in the kidney, 4 with bleeding in pelvic organs and 1 with bleeding in the shoulder region. In all cases, a Tracker-18 or Tracker-10 microcatheter was advanced coaxially through a 4.1 Fr guiding catheter in order to reach the bleeding site as distally as possible. Polyvinyl alcohol microparticles and/or platinum microcoils were used as embolic material. Results. The bleeding was stopped in 90% (26 of 29) of cases. In 66% of cases the treatment was curative, in 7% preoperative, and in 17% palliative. There were 3 clinical failures. Conclusion. Microcatheter embolization is an effective and safe means of managing different kinds of hemorrhage of various causes from a variety of sites

  12. Investigational drugs for coagulation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Mancuso, Maria Elisa

    2013-08-01

    The current standard treatment in persons with hemophilia (PWH) is prophylaxis, given intravenously twice or thrice weekly, which is associated with a non negligible burden on patients' quality of life. Therefore the main attempts aiming to improve the management of PWH are targeted towards the development of a new generation of coagulation factors endowed with properties facilitating prophylaxis and/or a better control of bleeding. This article summarizes the main results obtained so far in the development of new antihemophilic products, and emphasizes the formidable requirements imposed upon by regulatory agencies to get marketing authorization for new drugs, which make progress in this field difficult. Published literature on new molecules for replacement treatment in hemophilia A and B has been retrieved by using PubMed search and all ongoing clinical trials have been looked for online. New molecules are usually engineered to have a longer plasma half-life but also in some instances a higher potency. The prolongation of half-life may be obtained by using sustained release delivery vehicles, by chemical modification or by creating fusion proteins. Factors VIII, IX and VII have been variably modified in order to obtain improved coagulation products and results from Phase I/II studies are encouraging, particularly for factor IX. However, Phase III studies that should provide evidence on efficacy and effectiveness more cogent for clinical use are still ongoing and results are not yet available.

  13. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007301.htm Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the ...

  14. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by moojenactivase, a procoagulant snake venom metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartim, Marco A; Cezarette, Gabriel N; Jacob-Ferreira, Anna L; Frantz, Fabiani G; Faccioli, Lucia H; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-10-01

    Snake venom toxins that activate coagulation factors are key players in the process of venom-induced coagulopathy, and account for severe clinical manifestations. The present study applies a variety of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological approaches to broadly investigate the intravascular and systemic effects of moojenactivase (MooA), the first described PIIId subclass metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops sp. venom that activates coagulation factors. MooA induced consumption coagulopathy with high toxic potency, characterized by prolongation of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time, consumption of fibrinogen and the plasma coagulation factors X and II, and thrombocytopenia. MooA promoted leukocytosis and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, accompanied by tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This metalloprotease also caused intravascular hemolysis, elevated plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, and urea/creatinine, and induced morphopathological alterations in erythrocytes, heart, kidney, and lungs associated with thrombosis and hemorrhage. Diagnosis of MooA-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation represents an important approach to better understand the pathophysiology of Bothrops envenomation and develop novel therapeutic strategies targeting hemostatic disturbances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The effects of nanomaterials on blood coagulation in hemostasis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simak, Jan; De Paoli, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The blood coagulation balance in the organism is achieved by the interaction of the blood platelets (PLTs) with the plasma coagulation system (PCS) and the vascular endothelial cells. In healthy organism, these systems prevent thrombosis and, in events of vascular damage, enable blood clotting to stop bleeding. The dysregulation of hemostasis may cause serious thrombotic and/or hemorrhagic pathologies. Numerous engineered nanomaterials are being investigated for biomedical purposes and are unavoidably exposed to the blood. Also, nanomaterials may access vascular system after occupational, environmental, or other types of exposure. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the effects of engineered nanomaterials on hemostasis. This review focuses on investigations of nanomaterial interactions with the blood components involved in blood coagulation: the PCS and PLTs. Particular emphases include the pathophysiology of effects of nanomaterials on the PCS, including the kallikrein-kinin system, and on PLTs. Methods for investigating these interactions are briefly described, and a review of the most important studies on the interactions of nanomaterials with plasma coagulation and platelets is provided. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1448. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1448 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  18. [Team approaches to critical bleeding (massive bleeding and transfusion) - chairmen's introductory remarks. Questionnaire survey on current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shuichi; Suwabe, Akira

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, "the Guidelines for Actions against Intraoperative Critical Hemorrhage" were established by the Japanese Society of Anaesthesiologists and the Japanese Society of Blood transfusion and Cell Therapy. The documentation of in-hospital procedures for critical hemorrhage, especially about how to select RBC units, has widely standardized hospital practice. Patients with intraoperative critical hemorrhage sometimes suffer from massive blood loss. In this situation, some patients develop coagulopathy. To treat them, we need to evaluate their coagulation status based on laboratory test results. So, we performed a nationwide questionnaire survey on the current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage. From the results of this survey, it was recommended that central hospital laboratories should try to reduce the turn-around time required to test for coagulation parameters as much as possible for appropriate substitution therapy. (Review).

  19. Role of avastin on the incidence of post-operative vitreous hemorrhage after vitrectomy in diabetic vitreous hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Shaheer, M.; Tahir, M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common cause of legal blindness. Five to 10% of diabetic patients suffer from the proliferative diabetic retinopathy which includes the formation of new vessels on the retina and optic disc which can be complicated as vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. Pars plana vitrectomy along with laser photocoagulation is being used for the management of vitreous hemorrhage. In our study we used injection avastin one week before surgery to see its role on the incidence of rebleed after vitrectomy in diabetic vitreous hemorrhage. Materials and Methods; Fifty patients were divided into 2 equal groups on the basis of simple random sampling. 25 patients in Group I were operated with routine pars plana vitrectomy with endolaser photo- coagulation while in Group II all the 25 patients were given injection avastin intra-vitreally one week before surgery. Evaluation was done on the first post operative day, first follow up visit (one week) and after one month to see the incidence of re-bleed. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty patients divided into two groups. In Group I, 3 patients had recurrent vitreous hemorrhage on first post-operative day, 3 patients had re-bleed on first follow up visit, and only 2 patients had re-bleed after one month. In Group II, none of the patients had recurrent vitreous hemorrhage on first post-operative day and on first follow-up visit (one week) while 2 patients had re-bleed after one month. Conclusion: Injection intravitreal Avastin (Bevaci- zumab) one week before surgery significantly reduces the risk of vitreous hemorrhage after vitrectomy in diabetic patients. (author)

  20. Effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Kuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: A total of 39 patients with AMI who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2016 to November, 2016 were included in the study and served as the observation group. The peripheral venous blood before and after thrombolysis was collected. The plasma NTproBNP level, related coagulation factors, and fibrinolysis indicators were detected. The cardiac function before treatment was evaluated. A total of 30 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group for contrastive analysis. Results: The plasma NT-proBNP, Fg, and D-D levels before thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while PT, APTT, and TT in the observation group were significantly shortened. The plasma NT-proBNP and D-D levels 2-48 h after thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly elevated first and reduced later and reached the peak 4 h after treatment, while PT, APTT, and TT were significantly extended first and shortened later. The plasma Fg level was significantly reduced first and elevated later and reached the minimum 4 h after treatment. During the treatment process, in the observation group, 2 had mucocutaneous hemorrhage, 3 had nasal hemorrhage, and 1 had gingival bleeding, but no gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurred. Conclusions: The thrombolytic therapy can effectively reduce the coagulation activity in patients with AMI, strengthen the fibrinolysis activity, and improve the cardiac function.

  1. Non-Lethal Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Non-Lethal Weapons FAQs Active Denial System FAQs Human Electro -Muscular Incapacitation FAQs Related Links Business Opportunities Contact JNLWD Congressional Engagement , Wednesday, Sept 20, 2017. The Active Denial System, blunt-impact munitions, dazzling lasers, LRAD 100X

  2. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time.

  3. Subarachnoid mesencephalic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Soledad; De Luca, Silvina; Ceciliano, Alejandro; Mondello, Eduardo; Oviedo, Jorge D.; Lopardo Villarino, Guzman; Eyheremendy, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 57 y.o. male who has had severe headache of sudden onset without neck stiffness or other signs of neurological foci was reported. Initial CT scan showed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain MRI and digital angiography were performed later and bleeding was interpreted as a result of an abnormal hemodynamic status developed by cerebral venous thrombosis. (author)

  4. Hemorrhage and vascular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    While many brain lesions have a similar appearance on MRI and CT, this is not true of hemorrhage. On CT, acute hemorrhage becomes hyperdense within an hour as the clot forms. This lasts for several days and then fades to isodensity and eventually hypodensity. On MRI, hemorrhage less than 12 to 24 hours old may not be distinguishable from vasogenic edema. Its appearance subsequently is an evolving pattern of variable signal intensity which depends on the specific form of hemoglobin which is present, or whether the red cells are intact or lysed, on the operating field strength, on the type of signal (that is, spin echo or gradient echo), and on contrast (that is, T 1 - or T 2 -weighing). The appearance of hemorrhage also depends on the compartment of the brain involved---subarachnoid, subdural, or intraparenchymal. Finally, for parenchymal hematomas, different zones may be defined from the inner core to the outer rim which all vary in appearance depending on field strength and imaging technique

  5. Massive antenatal fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Koldkjaer, Ole; Berkowicz, Adela

    2005-01-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation...

  6. Process of coagulating asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J A; Pfersch, G

    1931-03-28

    The present invention has for its object a process of deasphaltizing and deparaffining applicable to mixtures of hydrocarbons such as crude mineral oils and tars obtained under the influence of heat from shales, lignites, peats, and similar products, to natural bitumens and those obtained by extraction with organic solvents and also all those derived from the substances, the process in question having the following characteristics: the coagulation or the precipitation of the asphaltic material, the resinous material, and the asphaltic and resinous material, which is found in the colloidal state or any other state in the substances given above, is obtained by the addition of a small amount of solvent and of acids or mixtures of acids.

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: Fatal outcome following strontium-89 therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, C.; McKenzie, R.; Coupland, D.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    A patient with metastatic prostate cancer was found to have low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). He had significant bone pain despite external-beam radiotherapy and was given {sup 89}Sr with subsequent thrombocytopenia and epistaxis. The patient died from generalized hemorrhage 36 days postinjection. Although it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between {sup 89}Sr and DIC, practitioners should be alert to complications associated with the primary disorder which might occur at a time to raise concern about the intervention. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Percutaneous liver biopsy and revised coagulation guidelines: a 9-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchin, Douglas R; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Woods, Michael; Ludeman, Lucas; Hinshaw, J Louis

    2017-09-19

    To retrospectively review revised pre-procedural coagulation guidelines for percutaneous liver biopsy to determine whether their implementation is associated with increased hemorrhagic complications on a departmental scale. Secondary endpoints were to determine the effect of this change on pre-procedural blood product (FFP and platelet) utilization, to evaluate the impact of administered blood products on hemorrhagic complications, and to determine whether bleeding complications were related to INR and platelet levels. This IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study reviewed 1846 percutaneous liver biopsies in 1740 patients, comparing biopsies performed, while SIR consensus pre-procedural coagulation guidelines were in place (INR ≤ 1.5, platelets ≥50,000 µL) to those performed after departmental implementation of revised, less stringent guidelines (INR ≤ 2.0, platelets ≥25,000 µL). On a departmental scale, there were significantly fewer hemorrhagic complications in the population of patients treated after adoption of less stringent guidelines as compared to those treated under the SIR guidelines (1.6% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.0192) despite a significant decrease in pre-procedural FFP (0.8% vs. 3.9%, p guidelines for percutaneous liver biopsy (INR ≤ 2.0, platelets ≥25,000 µL) did not result in an increase in departmental hemorrhagic complication rates but did significantly decrease pre-procedural FFP/platelet administration. An individual patient's bleeding risk does increase as INR increases and platelets decrease, but pre-procedural FFP and/or platelet transfusion did not mitigate that increased risk.

  9. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  10. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. • The optimal removal efficiencies for the four coagulants were achieved at pH 7.5. • The removal efficiency of AgNPs was affected by the natural water characteristics. • TEM and XRD showed that AgNPs or silver-containing NPs were adsorbed onto the flocs. -- Abstract: Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca 2+ and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions

  11. Emergent self-similarity of cluster coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, Dmtiri O.

    A wide variety of nonequilibrium processes, such as coagulation of colloidal particles, aggregation of bacteria into colonies, coalescence of rain drops, bond formation between polymerization sites, and formation of planetesimals, fall under the rubric of cluster coagulation. We predict emergence of self-similar behavior in such systems when they are 'forced' by an external source of the smallest particles. The corresponding self-similar coagulation spectra prove to be power laws. Starting from the classical Smoluchowski coagulation equation, we identify the conditions required for emergence of self-similarity and show that the power-law exponent value for a particular coagulation mechanism depends on the homogeneity index of the corresponding coagulation kernel only. Next, we consider the current wave of mergers of large American banks as an 'unorthodox' application of coagulation theory. We predict that the bank size distribution has propensity to become a power law, and verify our prediction in a statistical study of the available economical data. We conclude this chapter by discussing economically significant phenomenon of capital condensation and predicting emergence of power-law distributions in other economical and social data. Finally, we turn to apparent semblance between cluster coagulation and turbulence and conclude that it is not accidental: both of these processes are instances of nonlinear cascades. This class of processes also includes river network formation models, certain force-chain models in granular mechanics, fragmentation due to collisional cascades, percolation, and growing random networks. We characterize a particular cascade by three indicies and show that the resulting power-law spectrum exponent depends on the indicies values only. The ensuing algebraic formula is remarkable for its simplicity.

  12. MR of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.; Dion, J.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging was performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR images as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of MR of the basal cisterns results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR studies in many cases

  13. Various phases of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of intracerebral hemorrhage except typical putamen thalamic hemorrhage were reported. It is not difficult to diagnose typical attacks of cerebral apoplexy in patients older than 40 years with hypertension by CT. When the condition of the onset is not typical, cerebral infarction must be considered. Though conservative treatment is performed for severe cerebral hemorrhage and cerbral infarction, there is no specific medicine curing these diseases completely. On the contrary, the risk that the administration of fibrinolysis activators and STA-MCA anastomosis may induce cerebral hemorrhage is stressed. Not a few patients with cerebral apoplexy accompanied by small hemorrhagic focuses have been found, especially since CT was used widely. However, treatment for this disease has many inconsistencies. From above-mentioned facts, we recognize excellent roles of CT in an application of surgery for cerebral hemorrhage of early stage, and we, general radiologists, are under an obligation to advise most adequate theraphy for each patient. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. Massive neonatal intracranial hemorrhage caused by bromadiolone: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingsheng; Zhang, Mengqi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-11-01

    Bromadiolone, often called a super-warfarin, is a potent rodenticide with long half-life. Skin and mucosal bleeding is the most common clinical manifestations of its intoxication. Bromadiolone intoxications in adults and children have been reported, but this phenomenon is rarely seen in fetuses. This paper presents a case of neonate with massive intracranial hemorrhage mediated by bromadiolone intoxication, highlighting that the bromadiolone is potentially lethal to the fetus. The male neonate presented with poor respiratory effort, decreased muscle tone, and pallor at birth. He developed generalized seizures on day 1 of life. His mother suffered from bleeding of oral mucosa and the subsequent lab screening for toxicants showed a bromadiolone level of 126 ng/mL. Laboratory tests revealed that prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). A computed tomography (CT) of his head revealed a severe subdural hematoma, which lead to midline shift, bilateral intraventricular hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Serum from cord blood was collected and screened for toxicants. The result returned with a bromadiolone level of 94 ng/mL. The neonate was treated with vitamin K, fresh-frozen plasma, and red blood cells. His parents required termination of all treatments, and the neonate unfortunately died shortly after. Through clinical experience from this case, we believe that bromadiolone can be passed down to the fetus via placenta. Neonatal intracranial hemorrhage caused by bromadiolone is rare but potentially lethal. Pregnant women should be informed of the serious side effects of bromadiolone and this poisonous reagent should be avoided in any period during pregnancy.

  15. Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Mikkelsen, Ronni; Sørensen, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Repeat imaging in patients with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NASAH) remains controversial. We aim to report our experience with NASAH with different hemorrhage patterns, and to investigate the need for further diagnostic workup to determine the underlying cause of hemorrhage. M...... adequate with absence of hematoma and vasospasm. In contrast, a follow-up DSA should be mandatory for confirming or excluding vascular pathology in case of nPMSAH in order to prevent rebleeding....

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei

    2013-08-01

    Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  18. [Analysis and management of postoperative hemorrhage in surgery of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in children using plasma-mediated radio-frequency ablation at low temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To analyze retrospectively cause, prevention and management of postoperative hemorrhage in surgery of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children using plasma-mediated radio-frequency (pmRF) ablation at low temperature. Tonsil and adenoid ablation were carried out in 4028 cases diagnosed with OSAHS, using ENTColator lI plasma system of Arthocare company under general anesthesia. Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 37 cases of 4028 cases, among which 1 case occurred after tonsil ablation and other 36 cases occurred after adenoid ablation. Primary hemorrhage was in 7 cases, while secondary hemorrhage in other 30 cases. Cessation of bleeding was achieved by using different methods of hemostasis in all cases. Tonsil and adenoid ablation were performed by pmRF at low temperature with advantages of less trauma, less bleeding. However, postoperative hemorrhage might occur in a few cases (accounting for 0.92%). Postoperative hemorrhage in these patients was related with preoperatively incomplete control of inflammation of tonsil or adenoid, surgeon's experience, intraoperatively incomplete hemostasis, postoperative crying and restlessness, eating improperly in two weeks after surgery, coagulation factor deficiency. In case of postoperative hemorrhage, good outcome could be achieved by management of compression, pmRF at low temperature, bipolar coagulation.

  19. Perimesencephalic hemorrhage: a nonaneurysmal and benign form of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gijn, J.; van Dongen, K. J.; Vermeulen, M.; Hijdra, A.

    1985-01-01

    We studied 28 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and normal angiograms. On early CT (within 5 days) in 13 cases, blood was seen mainly or only in the cisterns around the midbrain. This pattern of hemorrhage was found in only 1 of 92 patients with a ruptured aneurysm. None of the unexplained

  20. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage (Broken Blood Vessel in Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage (broken blood vessel in eye) Overview A subconjunctival hemorrhage (sub-kun-JUNK-tih-vul HEM-uh-ruj) ... may not even realize you have a subconjunctival hemorrhage until you look in the mirror and notice ...

  1. Hemorrhoidectomy: pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, B.S.; Balaoch, I.B.; Sohu, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcome of pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation haemorrhoidectomy. Methodology: This comparative prospective study was carried out at Department of Surgery, Ghulam Muhammad Maher Medcial College Hospital, Sukkur, Pakistan from January 2011 to January 2013 and included 300 patients of hemorrhoids. After routine workup, patients were randomly divided into two equal groups with one group receiving pedicle ligation and other pedicle coagulation for hemorrhoidectomy. Postoperatively they were followed for a period of 8 weeks for complications including pain, urinary retention, bleeding and anal stricture. Pain was recorded up to 10th postoperative day on the basis of visual analogue scale. Results: Mean age was 45 years and male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Mean operative time in pedicle ligation group was 15 min (range 14-20 min) and 17 min (15-25 min) in pedicle coagulation group. In Pedicle ligation group, pain was worst in 35 patients, moderate in 85 and mild in 30 patients; on the other hand in pedicle coagulation group, just 09 patients experienced worst pain. Urinary retention was observed in 44 patients in pedicle ligation group and 19 in pedicle coagulation group. Five patients in pedicle ligation group developed bleeding after their discharge from hospital; 7 patients in pedicle coagulation group reported secondary bleeding. Anal stricture was a rare complication and was found equally common in both the groups. Conclusion: Conventional hemorrhoidectomy with pedicle coagulation is an effective treatment modality for hemorrhoids and is associated with less chance of postoperative anal pain and urinary retention. (author)

  2. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence...

  3. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  4. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  5. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  6. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  7. Anosmia After Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greebe, Paut; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Algra, Ale

    Background and Purpose-Anosmia frequently occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage not only after clipping, but also after endovascular coiling. Thus, at least in part, anosmia is caused by the hemorrhage itself and not only by surgical treatment. However, it is unknown whether anosmia is

  8. Computed Tomography of Interacerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate and reliable method for the diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the nematoma, associated cerebral edema, ventricular deformity and displacement, and hydrocephalus are all readily assessed. Aside from head trauma, the principal cause of intracerebral hematoma is hypertensive vascular disease. Although hematomas from various causes may present similar CT appearances frequently the correct etiology may be suggested by consideration of patient's age, clinical history, and the location of the hematoma. The analytical study was performed in 180 cases of intracerebral hemorrhages by CT from October 1981 to January 1983. The results were as follows; 1. The most prevalent age group was 6th decade (37.2%). Male was prevalent to female at the ration of 1.6 to 1. 2. The most common symptom and sign was mental disturbance (48.7%), motor weakness (23%), headache (10.6%), nausea and vomiting (9.8%). 3. The causes of hemorrhage were hypertension (53.9%), head trauma (30.6%), aneurysm (6.1%) and A-V malformation (7.2%). 4. The frequent locations of hemorrhage were basal ganglia and thalamus (40.4%), lobes (35%), ventricles (21.8%). 5. The distribution of hemorrhage was intracerebral hemorrhage (65.6%), intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (30.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (4.4%).

  9. Successful Resuscitation Following Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage in a Patient of the Jehovah's Witness Faith: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Richard M; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-06-15

    Hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is especially difficult to treat in patients of the Jehovah's Witness faith because they refuse certain blood products. This case report describes the resuscitation of a parturient Jehovah's Witness whose postcesarean delivery course was complicated by massive hemorrhage from unrecognized arterial bleeding in the intensive care unit with significant hemodynamic instability that necessitated an emergency bedside laparotomy. Her hemoglobin nadir was 1.5 mg/dL. The case demonstrates the key place of preprocedure planning, blood conservation, and coagulation factor management in this specific patient population.

  10. Infrared coagulation: a new treatment for hemorrhoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicester, R.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Mann, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    Many methods, which have effectively reduced the number of patients requiring hospital admission, have been described for the outpatient treatment of hemorrhoids. However, complications have been reported, and the methods are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In 1977 Neiger et al. described a new method that used infrared coagulation, which produced minimal side effects. The authors have conducted a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate infrared coagulation compared with more traditional methods of treatment. The authors' results show that it may be more effective than injection sclerotherapy in treating non-prolapsing hemorrhoids and that it compares favorably with rubber band ligation in most prolapsing hemorrhoids. No complications occurred, and significantly fewer patients experienced pain after infrared coagulation

  11. An updated concept of coagulation with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Gregory; Glick, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Over the past century, a series of models have been put forth to explain the coagulation mechanism. The coagulation cascade/waterfall model has gained the most widespread acceptance. This model, however, has problems when it is used in different clinical scenarios. A more recently proposed cell-based model better describes the coagulation process in vivo and provides oral health care professionals (OHCPs) with a better understanding of the clinical implications of providing dental care to patients with potentially increased bleeding tendencies. The authors conducted a literature search using the PubMed database. They searched for key words including "coagulation," "hemostasis," "bleeding," "coagulation factors," "models," "prothrombin time," "activated partial thromboplastin time," "international normalized ratio," "anticoagulation therapy" and "hemophilia" separately and in combination. The coagulation cascade/waterfall model is insufficient to explain coagulation in vivo, predict a patient's bleeding tendency, or correlate clinical outcomes with specific laboratory screening tests such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio. However, the cell-based model of coagulation that reflects the in vivo process of coagulation provides insight into the clinical ramifications of treating dental patients with specific coagulation factor deficiencies. Understanding the in vivo coagulation process will help OHCPs better predict a patient's bleeding tendency. In addition, applying the theoretical concept of the cell-based model of coagulation to commonly used laboratory screening tests for coagulation and bleeding will result in safer and more appropriate dental care.

  12. The investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants extracted from different strains of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation by adding chemicals are the methods that are usually used for removal of water turbidity. This study is concerned with the coagulation activity of extracts of various strains of bean. The aim was to ascertain if bean varieties influence coagulation activity. Active components were extracted from 1 g of ground sample with 100 ml distilled water. Contents of dry matter and nitrogen were specified in the solid samples, and the content of soluble nitrogen was determined in the extracts. These data were used to calculate the efficiency of extraction of nitrogen-containing compounds. The coagulation activity was assessed by jar test using synthetic turbid water, of the initial pH 9 and turbidity 35 NTU. The jar test was carried out by adding different amounts of extracts to model water, and stirring the content. After sedimentation for 1 h, residual turbidity was determined by turbidimeter and coagulation activity was calculated. The increment of organic matter concentration after the coagulation was also determined. These experiments confirmed that extracts of all investigated strains of bean could be used successfully as natural coagulants.

  13. Protective Role of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Filovirus Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Lyn Warfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with many emerging viruses, such as the hemorrhagic fever disease caused by the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV, and Ebola virus (EBOV, leaves the host with a short timeframe in which to mouse a protective immune response. In lethal cases, uncontrolled viral replication and virus-induced immune dysregulation are too severe to overcome, and mortality is generally associated with a lack of notable immune responses. Vaccination studies in animals have demonstrated an association of IgG and neutralizing antibody responses against the protective glycoprotein antigen with survival from lethal challenge. More recently, studies in animal models of filovirus hemorrhagic fever have established that induction of a strong filovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response can facilitate complete viral clearance. In this review, we describe assays used to discover CTL responses after vaccination or live filovirus infection in both animal models and human clinical trials. Unfortunately, little data regarding CTL responses have been collected from infected human survivors, primarily due to the low frequency of disease and the inability to perform these studies in the field. Advancements in assays and technologies may allow these studies to occur during future outbreaks.

  14. Vitamin K: from coagulation to calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Ilari

    Vitamin K is not only essential for the synthesis of coagulation factors in the liver, but it also strengthens the bones and prevents calcification of the arteries. These effects are mediated through the same mechanism, i.e. carboxylation of Gla target proteins. The discovery of novel Gla proteins that are not associated with blood coagulation or calcium metabolism indicates that vitamin K has additional effects in the pancreas and the central nervous system, for example. As dietary supplements, vitamin K1 of plant origin and vitamins K2 of bacterial origin may exert different effects.

  15. Immunoglobulin G and F(ab')2 polyvalent antivenoms do not differ in their ability to neutralize hemorrhage, edema and myonecrosis induced by Bothrops asper (terciopelo) snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    León Montero, Guillermo; Rojas Céspedes, Gustavo; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    1997-01-01

    The ability of whole immunoglobulin G (IgG) and F(ab')2 polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenoms to neutralize the hemorrhagic, edema-forming and myotoxic activities of Bothrops asper venom was studied. Both antivenoms were adjusted to the same neutralizing potency against lethal and hemorrhagic activities in experiments where venom and antivenoms were incubated before injection. Thus, in these experimental conditions, differences in the neutralizing ability in experiments involving independent inj...

  16. THE RATIONALIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MILK PROTEINS’ THERMO ACID COAGULATION BY BERRY COAGULANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results related to the influence of berry coagulant amount, its proactive acidity and duration of thermo acid coagulation on the process of milk proteins’ sedimentation. In the present work, the regression equations and response surface analysis were used to design and optimize an industrial bioprocess. Increase in the berry coagulant amount to 11 % and reduction of active acidity to 2.4 units were determined. pH up to 3 minutes is characterized by the highest processes of destabilization. Moreover, it improves the organoleptic properties and has the biggest impact on the yield of protein-berry clot (to 25 % and active acidity.

  17. Plasma transfusion for patients with severe hemorrhage: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callum, Jeannie L; Rizoli, Sandro

    2012-05-01

    The following review will detail the current knowledge in massive hemorrhage with regard to the pathophysiology of the coagulation disturbance, the role of plasma, the role of alternatives to plasma, and the clinical value of having a massive transfusion protocol. The coagulation disturbance in trauma patients is more than just the result of consumption of clotting factors at sites of injury and dilution from the infusion of intravenous fluids and red blood cells (RBCs). Even before substantial amounts of fluid resuscitation and RBC transfusion, one-quarter of trauma patients already have abnormal coagulation variables. There is an apparent role for the activation of protein C, hypofibrinogenemia, and fibrin(gen)olysis in the coagulation disturbance after trauma and massive hemorrhage. None of these three disturbances would be completely mitigated by the use of plasma alone, suggesting that there may be an opportunity to improve care of these patients with alternative strategies, such as fibrinogen concentrates and antifibrinolytics. Despite numerous retrospective cohort studies evaluating 1:1 plasma to RBC formula-driven resuscitation, the overall clinical value of this approach is unclear. Studies have even raised concerns regarding a potential increase in morbidity associated with this approach, particularly for patients overtriaged to 1:1 where a massive transfusion is unlikely. We also do not have sufficient evidence to recommend either goal-directed therapy with thromboelastography or early use of fibrinogen replacement, with either cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrates. We have high-quality data that argue against the role for recombinant Factor VIIa that should prompt removal of this strategy from existing protocols. In contrast, we have high-level evidence that all bleeding trauma patients should receive tranexamic acid as soon as possible after injury. This therapy must be included in hemorrhage protocols. If we are to improve the care of massively

  18. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  19. Novel approaches to the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; de Jonge, E.; van der Poll, T.; ten Cate, H.

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. We addressed the issue of whether there is evidence that this fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ

  20. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief. (author)

  1. Neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadahiko; Ogata, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Nakao, Satoshi; Mizue, Hidenari; Kobayashi, Yutaka.

    1982-01-01

    1. We have reviewed 34 cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset, 23 mature and 11 premature infants) experienced in 10-year period from 1971 to 1980, with special reference to gestational age, birth weight, type of delivery, presence or absence of asphyxia, symptoms and cause of death. 2. Regarding 9 autopsied cases and 7 cases diagnosed by CT-scan, 10 mature infants composed of 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 2 intraventricular hemorrhages, 2 subdural hematomas, 2 intracerebral and 1 subependymal hemorrhage; 6 premature infants consisted of 4 subependymal hemorrhages with ventricular rupture and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages. Most of them presented with respiratory distress, vomiting and convulsive seizures which developed within 5 days after birth. 3. Poor outcome including death amounted 49% of mature and 63% of premature infants. Along with degree of intracranial hematoma, prematurity and pulmonary complication were felt to be important prognostic factors. 4. Introduction of CT-scan led to prompt diagnosis and treatment, thus lowering mortality rate of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. (author)

  2. Hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Nobunori; Nakamura, Saburo; Kushi, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Tsubokawa, Takashi; Moriyasu, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the extension and severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage, as demonstrated by computed tomography (CT), and hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage was studied. In 94 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, as analyzed by CT scan performed within 7 days after onset, high-density areas in the subarachnoid space were recognized in 61 cases (64%) and secondary hydrocephalus occurred in 22 cases (23%). 17 cases died within 2 weeks, before the occurrence of the hydrocephalus. The CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage was classified into 5 types, according to its severity and extension; especially the degree of high density in the basal cistern and/or cisterns around the brain stem was remarked. Secondary hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed in 90% of the cases; they had a density higher than a CT number of 60 in the basal cistern and/or cisterns around the brain stem (Type V). The mean interval between the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage and the appearance of hydrocephalus was 20.6 days. We conclude that a significantly high density of extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space, especially in the basal cistern and/or the cisterns around the brain stem, can be predictive of secondary hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage. (author)

  3. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Matsumoto, S [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief.

  4. Hemostatic resuscitation is neither hemostatic nor resuscitative in trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sirat; Brohi, Karim; Chana, Manik; Raza, Imran; Stanworth, Simon; Gaarder, Christine; Davenport, Ross

    2014-03-01

    Trauma hemorrhage continues to carry a high mortality rate despite changes in modern practice. Traditional approaches to the massively bleeding patient have been shown to result in persistent coagulopathy, bleeding, and poor outcomes. Hemostatic (or damage control) resuscitation developed from the discovery of acute traumatic coagulopathy and increased recognition of the negative consequences of dilutional coagulopathy. These strategies concentrate on early delivery of coagulation therapy combined with permissive hypotension. The efficacy of hemostatic resuscitation in correcting coagulopathy and restoring tissue perfusion during acute hemorrhage has not been studied. This is a prospective cohort study of ROTEM and lactate measurements taken from trauma patients recruited to the multicenter Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma (ACIT) study. A blood sample is taken on arrival and during the acute bleeding phase after administration of every 4 U of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), up to 12 U. The quantity of blood products administered within each interval is recorded. Of the 106 study patients receiving at least 4 U of PRBC, 27 received 8 U to 11 U of PRBC and 31 received more than 12 U of PRBC. Average admission lactate was 6.2 mEq/L. Patients with high lactate (≥5 mEq/L) on admission did not clear lactate until hemorrhage control was achieved, and no further PRBC units were required. On admission, 43% of the patients were coagulopathic (clot amplitude at 5 minutes ≤ 35 mm). This increased to 49% by PRBC 4; 62% by PRBC 8 and 68% at PRBC 12. The average fresh frozen plasma/PRBC ratio between intervals was 0.5 for 0 U to 4 U of PRBC, 0.9 for 5 U to 8 U of PRBC, 0.7 for 9 U to 12 U of PRBC. There was no improvement in any ROTEM parameter during ongoing bleeding. While hemostatic resuscitation offers several advantages over historical strategies, it still does not achieve correction of hypoperfusion or coagulopathy during the acute phase of trauma

  5. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J.; Siech, M.

    2000-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  6. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  7. Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal bioassays on Clarias gariepinus were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on weight gain and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 10.5±0.70g) in glass aquaria with aeration system. The concentrations used during the lethal exposure are: ...

  8. Imaging features of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, M.; Vogel, W.; Horger, M.

    2006-01-01

    There are diverse etiologies of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, so specific diagnosis may be difficult. Conventional radiography tends to be misleading as hemoptysis may lacking in patients with hemorrhagic anemia. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage should be differentiated from focal pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, active infection (tuberculosis) neoplasia, trauma, or embolism. (orig.)

  9. Blood Coagulation and Acid-Base Balance at Craniocerebral Hypothermia in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Avakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic therapeutic hypothermia has gained a negative reputation in treating multiple trauma patients and is regarded as one of the factors in the lethal triad of shock, acidosis, and hypothermia. This fact owes to no relationship between acidosis and hypothermia; the effects of the latter on coagulation are evident and complexly reversible in the presence of acidosis.Objective: to determine the impact of noninvasive local brain cooling on the metabolic and blood coagulation indicators of a patient with acute cerebral ischemia.Subjects and methods. The subjects of the study were 113 patients with severe brain injury, including that complicated by the involvement of stem structures, who underwent brain cooling in different modifications. In so doing, the val ues of acidbase balance and coagulation system in arterial and venous blood were investigated.Results. Local brain hypother mia was not found to affect coagulation while the baseline negative values of excess buffer bases showed positive values (a right shift by the end of cooling. Recommendations were given to prevent metabolic shifts.Conclusion. Patients at very high risk for bleeding may be safely cooled to a brain temperature of 32—34°C even in the presence of moderatetosevere acidosis. This is a great advantage of local hypothermia over systemic one.

  10. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  11. Coagulation activity in liver disease | Reza | Internet Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation ...

  12. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, E; Baize, S; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-04-01

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the Filoviridae family of viruses. They are characterized by a long filamentous form that is unique in the viral world. Filoviruses are among the most virulent pathogens currently known to infect humans. They cause fulminating disease characterized by acute fever followed by generalized hemorrhagic syndrome that is associated with 90% mortality in the most severe forms. Epidemic outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola viruses have taken a heavy toll on human life in Central Africa and devastated large ape populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo. Since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola), more than 2,300 cases and 1,670 deaths have been reported. These numbers pale in comparison with the burden caused by malnutrition or other infectious disease scourges in Africa such as malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue or tuberculosis. However, due to their extremely high lethality, association with multifocal hemorrhaging and specificity to the African continent, these hemorrhagic fever viruses have given rise to great interest on the part not only of the international scientific community but also of the general public because of their perceived potential as biological weapons. Much research has been performed on these viruses and major progress has been made in knowledge of their ecology, epidemiology and physiopathology and in development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic schemes. The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade.

  13. Quinine-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R L; Hickton, C M; Sizeland, P; Hannah, A; Bailey, R R

    Recurrent disseminated intravascular coagulation occurred in 3 women after ingestion of quinine tablets for cramp. All had circulating quinine-dependent antibodies to platelets and in 2 there was initial evidence of antibody consumption, with low titres that rose steeply over the next few days and remained high for many months.

  14. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids,

  15. Coagulation-flocculation studies of wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing

  16. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  17. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    . nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  18. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were applied to the exit effluent of a textile factory located at Douala (Cameroon).The investigations were focused on the operational (pH, conductivity) and pollution parameters (COD, total phosphorus, turbidity). The electrolytic treatment was carried out with 0.4 A ...

  19. Mean Platelet Volume and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Koçer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic infection caused by Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV which are simple markers of subclinical inflammation and CCHF. We also investigated the relationship of these markers with coagulation parameters.Methods: Thirty-one suspected CCHF patients, who submitted to Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between 2009 and 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Among thirty-one patients, nineteen were laboratory confirmed CCHF patients diagnosed by RT-PCR or CCHFV-specific IgM positivity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinin phosphokinase (CK, coagulation parameters, white blood cell counts (WBCs, and platelet counts of patient group were compared with twenty-five healthy individuals.Results: MPV, AST, ALT, LDH, CK and coagulation parameters were significantly higher in patients with CCHF than the controls, whereas WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, platelet counts and NLR were significantly lower (p<0.05. We found no significant correlation between MPV, NLR and coagulation parameters.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that MPV and NLR may be beneficial markers in the diagnosis of CCHF. But these parameters should not be considered stand-alone tests for this use owing to nonspecificity with other diseases.

  20. TRAITEMENT DES EAUX USEES PAR COAGULATION-FLOCULATION EN UTILISANT LE SULFATE D’ALUMINIUM COMME COAGULANT

    OpenAIRE

    Nora SEGHAIRI; Leila MIMECHE; Adel BOUZID; Yassir AYACHI

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation is widely used internationally. This treatment reduces color and turbidity, indicating organic and inorganic contaminants, but at acceptable levels for treated waste water discharged into the receiving environment. The objective of this study is to optimize the treatment of wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using aluminum sulphate as a coagulant. Various reaction parameters are taken into account, such as the coagulant dose,...

  1. Low survival of mice following lethal gamma-irradiation after administration of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Pipalova, I.; Hola, J.

    1992-01-01

    An impairment was observed of the survival of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation with a lethal dose of 10 Gy and treated with a repeated postirradiation administration of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (PGSIs) indomethacin or diclofenac. Morphological examination of the gastrointestinal tract and estimation of the blood loss into its lumen in animals treated with diclofenac did not show serious damage such as hemorrhages or perforation, but revealed structural injury to the intestinal mucosa indicating inflammatory processes. The lesions found are supposed to be connected with increased intestinal permeability which leads to endotoxin escape from the gut and a subsequent increased mortality rate of irradiated animals. It may be concluded that PGSIs are not suitable for the management of radiation sickness after an exposure to lethal doses of ionizing radiation. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 20 refs

  2. Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage correlates with preinjury brain atrophy, but not with antithrombotic agent use: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available The impact of antithrombotic agents (warfarin, clopidogrel, ASA on traumatic brain injury outcomes is highly controversial. Although cerebral atrophy is speculated as a risk for acute intracranial hemorrhage, there is no objective literature evidence.This is a retrospective, consecutive investigation of patients with signs of external head trauma and age ≥60 years. Outcomes were correlated with antithrombotic-agent status, coagulation test results, admission neurologic function, and CT-based cerebral atrophy dimensions.Of 198 consecutive patients, 36% were antithrombotic-negative and 64% antithrombotic-positive. ASA patients had higher arachidonic acid inhibition (p = 0.04 and warfarin patients had higher INR (p<0.001, compared to antithrombotic-negative patients. Antithrombotic-positive intracranial hemorrhage rate (38.9% was similar to the antithrombotic-negative rate (31.9%; p = 0.3285. Coagulopathy was not present on the ten standard coagulation, thromboelastography, and platelet mapping tests with intracranial hemorrhage and results were similar to those without hemorrhage (p≥0.1354. Hemorrhagic-neurologic complication (intracranial hemorrhage progression, need for craniotomy, neurologic deterioration, or death rates were similar for antithrombotic-negative (6.9% and antithrombotic-positive (8.7%; p = 0.6574 patients. The hemorrhagic-neurologic complication rate was increased when admission major neurologic dysfunction was present (63.2% versus 2.2%; RR = 28.3; p<0.001. Age correlated inversely with brain parenchymal width (p<0.001 and positively with lateral ventricular width (p = 0.047 and cortical atrophy (p<0.001. Intracranial hemorrhage correlated with cortical atrophy (p<0.001 and ventricular width (p<0.001.Intracranial hemorrhage is not associated with antithrombotic agent use. Intracranial hemorrhage patients have no demonstrable coagulopathy. The association of preinjury brain atrophy with acute intracranial

  3. Effects of Thermal Status on Markers of Blood Coagulation During Simulated Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Generalized Estimating Equations. London: Chapman and Hall; 2003. 30. Ballinger GA : Using generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data analysis...Ventilatory parameters (ventilation, tidal volume and breathing rate) were measured (body temperature and pressure saturated) using an automated gas ...baroreceptors attenuates hyperthermic hyperventilation in some individuals. Nevertheless, this interparticipant variation may also be due to various behavioural

  4. Protocols to Assess Coagulation Following In Vitro Infection with Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    signal standard curves (Figure 1). 4. Analyze qRT-PCR by normalizing TF Ct values to the housekeeping gene (TBP) values. (see Note 6) 3.2 Analysis...likely acceptable. 4. All samples, including standard curve samples, should be run in at least duplicate. 5. To avoid cross contamination between PCR... biosafety cabinet to avoid potentially aerosolizing virus. 8. For this step it is critical to use a wide pipette tip (such as p1000) to avoid

  5. Damage control resuscitation using blood component therapy in standard doses has a limited effect on coagulopathy during trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sirat; Davenport, Ross; Raza, Imran; Glasgow, Simon; De'Ath, Henry D; Johansson, Pär I; Curry, Nicola; Stanworth, Simon; Gaarder, Christine; Brohi, Karim

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of blood component therapy in the correction of trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. Severe hemorrhage remains a leading cause of mortality in trauma. Damage control resuscitation strategies target trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) with the early delivery of high-dose blood components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions. However, the ability of these products to correct TIC during hemorrhage and resuscitation is unknown. This was an international prospective cohort study of bleeding trauma patients at three major trauma centers. A blood sample was drawn immediately on arrival and after 4, 8 and 12 packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. FFP, platelet and cryoprecipitate use was recorded during these intervals. Samples were analyzed for functional coagulation and procoagulant factor levels. One hundred six patients who received at least four PRBC units were included. Thirty-four patients (32 %) required a massive transfusion. On admission 40 % of patients were coagulopathic (ROTEM CA5 ≤ 35 mm). This increased to 58 % after four PRBCs and 81 % after eight PRBCs. On average all functional coagulation parameters and procoagulant factor concentrations deteriorated during hemorrhage. There was no clear benefit to high-dose FFP therapy in any parameter. Only combined high-dose FFP, cryoprecipitate and platelet therapy with a high total fibrinogen load appeared to produce a consistent improvement in coagulation. Damage control resuscitation with standard doses of blood components did not consistently correct trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. There is an important opportunity to improve TIC management during damage control resuscitation.

  6. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  7. Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N

    1975-06-01

    All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.

  8. Factors influencing circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R C; Bozigian, H P; Davies, M H; Merrick, B A; Park, K S; McMillan, D A

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of changes in lighting schedules and food consumption on circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice. Under a normal lighting schedule (light: 06.00-18.00 h), male mice exhibited a circadian rhythm in acetaminophen lethality (peak: 18.00 h; nadir: 06.00, 10.00 h) and an inverse rhythm in hepatic glutathione concentrations (peak: 06.00, 10.00 h; nadir: 18.00 h). Under a reversed lighting schedule (light: 18.00-06.00 h) the glutathione rhythm was reversed and the rhythm in acetaminophen lethality was altered showing greater sensitivity to the drug. Under continuous light, there was a shift in the acetaminophen lethality and the hepatic glutathione rhythms. Under continuous dark, both rhythms were abolished. Under a normal lighting regimen, hepatic glutathione levels were closely correlated with food consumption; i.e., both were increased during the dark phase and decreased during the light phase. Fasting the mice for 12 h abolished the rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels; moreover, the lethality was increased and the hepatic glutathione levels were decreased. These experiments show that both lighting schedules and feeding can alter the circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice.

  9. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-01-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis. (author)

  10. MRI of intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Takemoto, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Hiromi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 23 patients with putaminal or thalamic hematomas were reviewed. Inversion recovery (IR, TR; 2100 - 2500 msec, TI; 600 msec) and long spin echo (SE, TR; 1800 - 2500 msec, TE; 120 msec) images were obtained with a 0.5T MR scanner. Hematomas within 3 hours after hemorrhage were isointense to the gray matter on both IR and long SE images. Two day-old hematomas were hyperintense in part of it on IR images and hypointense on long SE images. In acute hematomas, there was a marked hyperintense crescent area around hematomas on long SE images which marked hypointense on IR images. Hematomas in the resolving stage had peripheral hyperintensity on IR images and then on long SE images. This hyperintensity filled into the center of hematomas with time. In the resolving stage linear hypointensity was recognized at immedeately adjacent to the hematoma on long SE images. In the chronic stage, hematomas were hypointense on both IR and long SE images. In a few cases, the central portion of hematomas demonstrated hyperintensity on long SE images which indicated the presence of fluid in the old hematoma cavity. (author)

  11. Relationship between trauma-induced coagulopathy and progressive hemorrhagic injury in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Heng-Li Tian

    2016-01-01

    Progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) can be divided into coagulopathy-related PHI and normal coagulation PHI.Coagulation disorders after traumatic brain injuries can be included in trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC).Some studies showed that TIC is associated with PHI and increases the rates of disability and mortality.In this review,we discussed some mechanisms in TIC,which is of great importance in the development of PHI,including tissue factor (TF) hypothesis,protein C pathway and thrombocytopenia.The main mechanism in the relation of TIC to PHI is hypocoagulability.We also reviewed some coagulopathy parameters and proposed some possible risk factors,predictors and therapies.

  12. Ebola virus: the role of macrophages and dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mike; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2005-08-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe viral infection characterized by fever, shock and coagulation defects. Recent studies in macaques show that major features of illness are caused by effects of viral replication on macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected macrophages produce proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and tissue factor, attracting additional target cells and inducing vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability and disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, they cannot restrict viral replication, possibly because of suppression of interferon responses. Infected dendritic cells also secrete proinflammatory mediators, but cannot initiate antigen-specific responses. In consequence, virus disseminates to these and other cell types throughout the body, causing multifocal necrosis and a syndrome resembling septic shock. Massive "bystander" apoptosis of natural killer and T cells further impairs immunity. These findings suggest that modifying host responses would be an effective therapeutic strategy, and treatment of infected macaques with a tissue-factor inhibitor reduced both inflammation and viral replication and improved survival.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radio Frequency Coagulation for Vascular Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Purpose. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Coagulation employs the RF heating effect of MRI scanning to coagulate biomaterials for repair of vascular defects. Coagulation of a protein biomaterial by MR-induced RF heating is a novel means to effect repair of defects such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Our novel method is to coagulate a thermosetting material (such as egg white, which can be used for investigating heat coagulation behavior and MR relaxation properties) delivered endovascularly by catheter and coagulated by RF-induced heating of an intracatheter resonant wire antenna in the scanner. Methods. Experiments were performed on a Siemens 1.5 T MRI scanner and a Bruker 14T NMR spectrometer. Egg white was brought to equilibrium at seven temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 37 °C) in sequence. Measurement of the water spin-lattice relaxation time Ti, spin-spin relaxation time T2, spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame T1p, or full width at half maximum of the MT spectrum were performed at each temperature. Relaxation parameters of raw egg white and egg white after coagulation at 70 °C were measured in the scanner at 20 °C to determine optimum inversion time, echo time and offset frequency for good image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated protein. Finally, coagulation of egg white within a glass aneurysm phantom by RF heating in the scanner was performed to demonstrate the MR coagulation methodology and the ability to achieve image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated biomaterial. Results. Water T2, T1p and MT gave the most definitive indication of the change from uncoagulated at low temperature to fully coagulated at 60 °C, while water T1 showed only the expected gradual increase with temperature, and no response to coagulation. MT weighted imaging is expected to be the optimum method to establish the coagulation condition of the biomaterial.

  14. Hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage caused by cryptic angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shinichi; Sano, Keiji; Kwak, Suyong; Saito, Isamu.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 44 patients with hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and nine patients with cerebellar hemorrhage caused by small angiomas is described. Hypertensive hemorrhage occurred most frequently in the patients in their seventies, whereas the onset of angioma-caused hemorrhage was often seen below the age of 40. Clinical syndromes of cerebellar hemorrhages can be categorized into three basic types: the vertigo syndrome, cerebellar dysfunction syndrome and brain stem compression syndrome. Patients with small (>= 2 cm in diameter in CT scans) and medium-sized (2 cm = 3 cm) hematomas deteriorated into unresponsive conditions and developed signs of brain stem compression. Surgical mortality was 32% in the hypertensive group, while it was 0% in the angioma group. Mortality as well as morbidity in both groups was strongly influenced by the preoperative status of consciousness. Our results suggest that substantial improvement could be obtained in the overall outcome of this disease by emergency craniectomy and removal of hematomas in all patients with large hematomas regardless of the levels of consciousness and regardless of the causes of bleeding. Furthermore, when clinical information and CT findings are suggestive of a ''cryptic'' angioma as the causative lesion, posterior fossa surgery may be indicated to extirpate the lesion, even if the hematoma is small. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  16. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  17. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  18. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  19. Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swartz, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    .... The AIT is a unique military medical team capable of worldwide air evacuation and management of a limited number of patients who are potentially exposed to known and unknown lethal communicable...

  20. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  1. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  2. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage-Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2003-01-01

    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 min of CA, using novel clinically relevant outcome models in dogs...

  3. Novel Resuscitation From Lethal Hemorrhage Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation, Year 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochanek, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta after rapid (over 5 min) exsanguination (Ex...

  4. Experiences in therapy for lethal midline granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaka, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Takeru

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of the lethal midline granuloma or malignant granuloma of the nose were treated by irradiation and chemotherapy, which are generally prescribed for malignant lymphomas. Clinical, histological and laboratory examination indicated that they were the lethal midline granuloma and clearly differentiated from Wegener's granulomatosis or malignant lymphoma. All of the cases exhibited primary remission. The four cases were observed up to 38, 22, 14, and 10 months since the beginning of the therapy, showing no local or general recurrence. (author)

  5. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  6. Exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Agata; Chmiel, Anna; Fronczak, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines an exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems. In this approach, cluster sizes and time are discrete and the binary aggregation alone governs the time evolution of the systems. By considering the growth histories of all possible clusters, an exact expression is derived for the probability of a coagulating system with an arbitrary kernel being found in a given cluster configuration when monodisperse initial conditions are applied. Then this probability is used to calculate the time-dependent distribution for the number of clusters of a given size, the average number of such clusters, and that average's standard deviation. The correctness of our general expressions is proved based on the (analytical and numerical) results obtained for systems with the constant kernel. In addition, the results obtained are compared with the results arising from the solutions to the mean-field Smoluchowski coagulation equation, indicating its weak points. The paper closes with a brief discussion on the extensibility to other systems of the approach presented herein, emphasizing the issue of arbitrary initial conditions.

  7. Obstetric hemorrhage: A global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Dena; Nathan, Lisa; Chazotte, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage remains the number one cause of maternal death globally despite the fact that it is largely a preventable and most often a treatable condition. While the global problem is appreciated, some may not realize that in the United States postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of mortality and unfortunately, the incidence is on the rise. In New York, obstetric hemorrhage is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in the state. National data suggests that hemorrhage is disproportionally overrepresented as a contributor to severe maternal morbidity and we suspect as we explore further this will be true in New York State as well. Given the persistent and significant contribution to maternal mortality, it may be useful to analyze the persistence of this largely preventable cause of death within the framework of the historic "Three Delays" model of maternal mortality. The ongoing national and statewide problem with postpartum hemorrhage will be reviewed in this context of delays in an effort to inform potential solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Migration of polypotent hemopoietic stem cells from mouse bone marrow shielded during irradiation after hemorrhage and transfusion of syngeneic erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.A.; Lozovoj, V.P.; Zhuravkin, I.N.

    1977-01-01

    CBA mice have been X-irradiated with a lethal dose of 850 R. The rate of migration of hemopoietic stem cells has been studied at varying times after hemorrhage and administration of syngeneic erythrocytes. Hemorrhage has been shown to enhance markedly the stem cell migration. Administration of syngeneic erythrocytes decreases considerably the rate of stem cell migaration. It is suggested that the erythropoiesis stimulation is responsible for the increased yield of stem cells from the bone marrow, and that the suppression of erythropoiesis inhibits migration of the stem cells

  10. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  11. The trauma patient in hemorrhagic shock: how is the C-priority addressed between emergency and ICU admission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiniger Sigune

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is the leading cause of death in young people with an injury related mortality rate of 47.6/100,000 in European high income countries. Early deaths often result from rapidly evolving and deteriorating secondary complications e.g. shock, hypoxia or uncontrolled hemorrhage. The present study assessed how well ABC priorities (A: Airway, B: Breathing/Ventilation and C: Circulation with hemorrhage control with focus on the C-priority including coagulation management are addressed during early trauma care and to what extent these priorities have been controlled for prior to ICU admission among patients arriving to the ER in states of moderate or severe hemorrhagic shock. Methods A retrospective analysis of data documented in the TraumaRegister of the ‘Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie’ (TR-DGU® was conducted. Relevant clinical and laboratory parameters reflecting status and basic physiology of severely injured patients (ISS ≥ 25 in either moderate or severe shock according to base excess levels (BE -2 to -6 or BE  Results A total of 517 datasets was eligible for analysis. Upon ICU admission shock was reversed to BE > -2 in 36.4% and in 26.4% according to the subgroups. Two of three patients with initially moderate shock and three out of four patients with severe shock upon ER arrival were still in shock upon ICU admission. All patients suffered from coagulation dysfunction upon ER arrival (Quick’s value ≤ 70%. Upon ICU admission 3 out of 4 patients in both groups still had a disturbed coagulation function. The number of patients with significant thrombocytopenia had increased 5-6 fold between ER and ICU admission. Conclusion The C-priority including coagulation management was not adequately addressed during primary survey and initial resuscitation between ER and ICU admission, in this cohort of severely injured patients.

  12. FLAIR images of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Takeshi; Saito, Koji; Okuyama, Tohru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Akira; Shibata, Kazunori [Kushiro Neurosurgical Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We studied MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences in 37 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysmal rupture. FLAIR sequence suppressed the CSF signal and produced very heavy T{sub 2} weighted images. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was able to be demonstrated as high signal intensity on FLAIR sequences in all patients clear visualization of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was able to be obtained by MR FLAIR sequences in not only Fisher`s group 3 or 4, but also Fisher`s group 2. Moreover it was suited for the detection of intraaxial hematoma, Sylvian hematoma, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the posterior fossa and interhemispheric fissure. Especially, it was useful for detecting intraventricular hemorrhage. Therefore, if patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage present slight headache or atypical symptoms, sometimes it may be more suitable to perform MRI FLAIR pulse sequences first. Aneurysms were found in 21 cases (56.8%). When the aneurysmal size is more than 7 mm, the rate of detection becomes 100%. Aneurysms present various MR appearances because of flow characteristics. Aneurysms were demonstrated as low signal intensity except in 3 cases. In one out of 3 cases, aneurysms were revealed as high signal intensity and in the other two cases, it was revealed as mixed signal intensity. According to the previous studies, rapid flow was demonstrated as low signal intensity by vascular flow void, and delayed flow was demonstrated as high or mixed signal intensity by flow related enhancement and even echo rephasing. MR clearly delineates the size, the lumen, the flow, and the extraaxial location of aneurysms. (K.H.)

  13. Coagulation performance of a novel poly-ferric-acetate (PFC) coagulant in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yanxin; Lu, Jinpeng; Dong, Xiongzi; Yao, Chengli [Hefei Normal University, Hefei (China); Hao, Jianwen [Anhui Vocational and Technical College, Hefei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The process of coagulation-flocculation is increasingly applied in wastewater treatment. And the polymerized inorganic coagulants are widely used among these coagulation-flocculation processes. However, conventional coagulants using sulfates or chlorides as counter anion may give rise to corrosion. The purpose of this study was to synthesize PFC coagulants in which acetate is used as counter anion. The influences on the preparation of PFC were optimized. The synthesis was done at the optimum conditions, such as temperature of 60 .deg. C, the Fe/CH{sub 3}COOH molar ratio of 1 : 4.0 and reaction time of 6 h, respectively. The prepared PFC coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PFC was found to mainly form complexation polymeric species and present more cluster and lamellar structure. A series of jar tests were carried out to study the coagulation performance of PFC and PFS in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment. Results showed that the coagulation performance of PFC was more efficient than PFS's in terms of the phosphorus removal efficiency and the residual turbidity. Due to using acetate as counter anion to iron, PFC is less harmful to the processes of water treatment and equipment than that of the conventional coagulants applied chlorides or sulfates. Therefore, PFC is a promising coagulant in the process of corrosion sensitive applications and the process of wastewater containing phosphorus treatment.

  14. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Tomonaga, Masanori; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hiroyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy was studied clinicopathologically, with special attention given to the CT images. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy is characterized, by a lobar-type hemorrhage involving the cortex, with direct extension into the subarachnoid space. Multiple hemorrhages are frequent, and cortical infarctions are present as complications in elderly patients without risk factors. CT scans taken in 5 cases demonstrated lobar hemorrhages in superficial locations, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently, with surrounding edema and mass effect. A subarachnoid extension of the hemorrhage through the superficial cortex, proven pathologically in all cases, was noted by CT in 4 of the 5 cases. However, cortical infarction was not detected by CT in any case. Therefore, CT is of value in the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy based on distinctive findings such as a lobar hemorrhage in superficial regions, with extension into the subarachnoid space, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently. (author)

  15. Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumar, J.; Otero, E.; Castineira, A.; Arrojo, L.; Linares, M.; Castineira, J.A.; Vidal, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

  16. PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gasanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we report the incidence and etiology of pulmonary hemorrhage, and modern classifications according to the literature data. Methods of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage are analyzed.

  17. Pleural liquid during hemorrhagic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Claudio; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2007-02-15

    The effect of approximately 25% or 35% blood loss (b.l.) on volume, pressure, and protein concentration of pleural liquid has been determined in anesthetized rabbits in lateral or supine posture. Volume and pressure of pleural liquid did not change with 25% b.l. 30 and 60 min after beginning of hemorrhage, and with 35% b.l. at 30 min (bleeding time approximately 10 and 12 min, respectively). With 35% b.l. protein concentration of pleural liquid was 85% greater (PPleural liquid seems protected against derangements from hemorrhage up to 25% b.l. for periods shorter than 1 h.

  18. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  19. Coagulation defects in experimental hepatic injury in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbaldiston, G W; Hoffman, M W

    1971-04-01

    Alteration in activity of blood coagulation factors in dogs with acute hepatic injury caused by oral carbon tetrachloride dosing was studied. Coagulation Factors II, VII and IX were dramatically reduced within 48 hours but recovered to normal in the next five days. Because surgery is rarely performed on dogs with hepatic necrosis, the use of fresh whole blood tranfusion to improve the coagulation defect in hepatic injury was also studied. Transfusion was found to have only a temporary beneficial effect.

  20. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  1. Coagulation and flocculation of dissolved organic substances with organic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvinnesland, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation of natural organic matter (NOM) in water is a well-established process, enabling or enhancing the removal of these substances by different particle separation processes. The dominating coagulating agents used are, however, inorganic salts of iron (Fe3+) and aluminium (Al3+). The primary use of organic polymers is as flocculating agents for already coagulated aggregates. However, in recent years the use of cationic organic polymers have received increasing attent...

  2. Eleven cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Asao, Toyohiko; Shibata, Takeo

    1981-01-01

    Eleven cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage were diagnosed and followed up by CT scanning. By CT, hemorrhagic lesions were shown as high density areas in an acute stage and imaged as low density areas after the hemorrhage was absorbed. The time of absorption varies depending upon the site and the severity of hemorrhage. Intraventricular hemorrhage, petechial hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were absorbed rapidly in more than 70% of the exanimed cases, CT scanning 1 - 2 weeks after the onset revealed absorption of hemorrhage. However, the absorption delayed in intracerebral hematoma; CT scan taken after one month showed hemorrhagic lesions remaining in 75% of the cases. In nine cases who survived, following the absorption of the hemorrhagic lesions, cerebral atrophy was observed in 4 cases (44%), ventricular enlargement in 3 cases (33%), and complete recovery in 2 cases (22%). From these results, CT scanning for diagnosis of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage should be done before the hemorrhagic lesion is absorbed (within 7 days of the onset). Follow-up study by CT is important for observing changes and predicting prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  4. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy corresponds to a syndrome characterized by a transient myocardial dysfunction affecting the left ventricular apex that classically occurs after major physical or emotional stress (also called 'broken heart syndrome' or 'stress-induced cardiomyopathy'). The author describes the case of a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage. (author)

  5. Antifibrinolytic treatment in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Lindsay, K. W.; Murray, G. D.; Cheah, F.; Hijdra, A.; Muizelaar, J. P.; Schannong, M.; Teasdale, G. M.; van Crevel, H.; van Gijn, J.

    1984-01-01

    We enrolled 479 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether treatment with the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid improves outcome by preventing rebleeding. At three months there was no statistical difference

  6. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labor...

  7. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  8. Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Astrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms leading to rebleeding and the prevention of rebleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: A literature search was performed to investigate factors associated with rebleeding after SAH. RESULTS: The review of the literature...

  9. Lethality Index 2008-2014: Less shootings, same lethality, more opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Forné

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the use of lethal force by Mexican federal security forces during shootings with presumed members of organized crime from 2008-2014. The authors use official data and press reports on deaths and wounded in shootings to construct indicators such as the number of dead civilians over the number of dead officials from the federal security forces and the number of dead civilians over the number of wounded civilians. In a context where certain factors that contribute to an excessive use of force become more common, the results of the study show a growing use of lethal force. This raises questions over the possible excessive use of lethal force as a normal or systematic practice. The study also shows a growing context of opacity in the information available to evaluate the use of lethal force and the general lack of a legal framework to regulate the use of lethal force in Mexico.

  10. CT differential diagnosis between hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infarction localized in basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Masahiro; Kawase, Takeshi.

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms of hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage and of middle cerebral artery occlusion are sometimes similar to each other. Hemorrhage sometimes occurs following cerebral infarction. We experienced 7 patients with hemorrhages localized in the basal ganglia following cerebral infarction. The CT findings of 55 patients with putaminal hemorrhage and 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction localized at the basal ganglia were investigated retrospectively in order to discuss their characteristics. The high-density area (HD) of a putaminal hemorrhage was homogeneous on a plain CT within a week of the onset. There was a close correlation between the size of the HD and the timing of its disappearance. The HD with a maximum diameter of A cm generally disappeared A weeks after. On the other hand, the HD of a hemorrhagic infarction was lower in density than that of the putaminal hemorrhage. The HD of a hemorrhagic infarction generally disappeared earlier than that of a putaminal hemorrhage. Ring enhancement was visualized on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) from 2 or 3 weeks after the onset in patients with putaminal hemorrhages except in the case of small hemorrhages (less than 1 cm diameter). Ring enhancement was also visualized in 6 out of 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction; one of them was recognized within a week of the onset. Contrast enhancement of the cortex in the territory of the middle cerebral artery was visualized in 4 out of 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction. This finding seems to indicate one characteristic of hemorrhagic infarction. (author)

  11. Computed tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ro; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Sim, Bo Sung

    1981-01-01

    Computed Tomography has become increasingly important diagnostic method as the initial examination in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage with direct detection of extravasated blood in basal cistern and cortical sulci. Furthermore, CT provides better and exact visualization of the presence, localization, extent and degree of intracerebral, intraventricular and subdural hemorrhage, infarction, hydrocephalus and rebleeding which may be associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and also could detect the causative lesions with contrast enhancement in many cases. The purpose of the paper is to describe the CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to various causes and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Authors analysed a total of 153 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage confirmed by lumbar puncture at Seoul National University Hospital from March 1979 to April 1981, with special emphasis on CT findings. All of the cases took CT scan and 125 cases of them angiography. The results are as follows: 1. Most prevalent age group was 4th to 6th decades (78%). The ratio of male to female was 1.1: 1. 2. Of 125 cases with angiography, aneurysm was a major cause (68%). Others were arterio-venous malformation (9.6%), Moya-moya disease (4%) and unknown (18.4%). 3. Of all 153 cases with CT scan, hemorrhage was demonstrated in 98 cases (64.1%); SAH in 72 cases (47.1%), ICH in 65 cases (42.5%), IVH in 34 cases (22.2%) and SDH in 1 case (0.7%). SAH combined with ICH was a major group (34.7%) in SAH. Detection rate of SAH was 68.3% within the first 7 days and 5.8% after 7 dyas. 4. In aneurysms, SAH was detected in 60 of 85 cases (70.6%); 88.1% within the first 7 dyas and 5.6% after 7 dyas. Anterior communicating artery was the most common site of the aneurysms (40%), in which detection rate of SAH was 100% within the first 7 days. SAH was combined with ICH in 38.3%. 5. On CT, SAH of unilateral Sylvian fissure was pathognomonic for ruptured MCA

  12. Computed tomography in intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1984-01-01

    In tracranial hemorrhage in leukemia was clinicopathologically studied in 62 cases of autopsy materials, with special attention paid to a morphological comparison of CT images with pathological findings. Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 32 of the 62 leukemic patients (51.6%), and in 13 of these patients (21.0%) it was responsible for death. Leukemic intracranial hemorrhage occurred more often in the acute leukemic type than in the chronic type, and even more often in younger leukemic patinents; it was pathologically characterized by multiple lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere, prone to combination with SAH or SDH. The hemorrhages could be divided into five types: (1) scattered small hemorrhagic type, (2) hematoma type, (3) fusion type (large hemorrhage composed of assembled small hemorrhages), (4) SAH type, and (5) SDH type. Among these types, the fusion type was considered to be characteristic of leukemia. CT was undertaken in 5 pathologically proven cases, with findings of the scattered small hemorrhagic type in 1, of the SDH type in 3, and of the fusion type in 1. Yet, one case with scattered small hemorrhages and two cases with SDH failed to be detected by CT. However, one case with a typical fusion hemorrhage was found to have multiple, irregular, high-density areas with surrounding edema and a mass effect as well as pathological findings. Therefore, a large-fusion hemorrhage, which is one of the most characteristic types of leukemic intracranial hemorrhage, could be demonstrated as distinctive CT images which reflected neuropathological findings. On the other hand, small parenchymal hemorrhages and relatively thin subdural hemorrhages could not be detected by CT. In conclusion, it seems that CT has value in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  13. Tissue regenerating functions of coagulation factor XIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, C; Kvist, P H; Seidelin, J B

    2013-01-01

    The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged......-receptor 2 and the αVβ3 integrin is important for angiogenesis supporting formation of granulation tissue. Chronic inflammatory conditions involving bleeding and activation of the coagulation cascade have been shown to lead to reduced FXIII levels in plasma. Of particular importance for this review...

  14. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  15. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  16. Migraine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; González-Pérez, Antonio; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    to select 10,000 controls free from hemorrhagic stroke. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we calculated the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with migraine, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, oral contraceptive......BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between hemorrhagic stroke and migraine using data from The Health Improvement Network database. FINDINGS: We ascertained 1,797 incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 1,340 of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Density-based sampling was used...

  17. Microwave tissue coagulation: effects of power and treatment time on coagulation size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seung Pyung; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Dong Man; Kim, Jeong Seok; Park, Seo Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of power and coagulation time on lesion size of ex-vivo bovine liver using microwaves. Six bovine livers were divided into two groups (first group : 30W output, second group : 60W output) and microwave coagulation was performed for 30, 60, and 120 sec. Thermal injury site was then observed by means of sonography, and the maximal transverse diameter of the echo-change portion after microwave coagulation was measured. On the section of specimen, maximal transverse diameters of the thermal injury site were measured by gross inspection and compared with the result of sonographic measurement. Maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions of the first group, as seen on sonography, were 8.3mm, 12.2mm, and 15.6mm, and the maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites on gross specimens were 9.1mm, 12.0mm, and 15.1mm, respectively. Maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions of the second group, as seen on sonography, were 12.1mm, 17.4mm, and 21.2mm and maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites on gross specimens were 13.2mm, 16.0mm, and 20.0mm, respectively. Statistically maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions, as seen on sonography, correlated closely with the gross findings of maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites (P < .05). Maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites were significantly increased as the output of the microwave coagulator and the duration of coagulation time increased (P < .05)

  18. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Hisao

    1983-01-01

    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  19. New treatment strategies for disseminated intravascular coagulation based on current understanding of the pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A variety of clinical conditions may cause systemic activation of coagulation, ranging from insignificant laboratory changes to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC consists of a widespread, systemic activation of coagulation, resulting in diffuse fibrin deposition in small and

  20. Natural organic matters removal efficiency by coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapingi, Mohd Sharizal Mohd; Pishal, Munirah; Murshed, Mohamad Fared

    2017-10-01

    The presence of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in surface water results in unwanted characteristics in terms of color, odor, and taste. NOM content reaction with free chlorine in treated water lowers the water quality further. Chlorine is added for disinfection and produces undesirable disinfection by-products (DPBs). DBPs in drinking water are carcinogenic to consumers and may promote cancerous cell development in the human body. This study was performed to compare the coagulant efficiency of aluminum sulfate (Alum) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) on NOM removal (as in UV254 absorbance) and turbidity removal under three pH conditions (pH 6, pH 7, and sample actual pH). The three sampling points for these studies were Jalan Baru River, Kerian River, and Redac Pond. Additional sampling points, such as Lubuk Buntar and a tubewell located in the Civil Engineering School, were included to observe differences in characteristics. DOC, UV absorbance, and full wavelength were tested, after which samples treated with alum were also tested to further analyze the NOM content. Based on UV254 absorbance and DOC data, specific UV value was calculated to obtain vital synopsis of the characteristics of NOM content, as well as coagulation efficiency.

  1. Temperature effects on flocculation, using different coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C S B; Fradin, E; Gregory, J

    2004-01-01

    Temperature is known to affect flocculation and filter performance. Jar tests have been conducted in the laboratory, using a photometric dispersion analyser (PDA) to assess the effects of temperature on floc formation, breakage and reformation. Alum, ferric sulphate and three polyaluminium chloride (PACI) coagulants have been investigated for temperatures ranging between 6 and 29 degrees C for a suspension of kaolin clay in London tap water. Results confirm that floc formation is slower at lower temperatures for all coagulants. A commercial PACl product, PAX XL 19, produces the largest flocs for all temperatures; and alum the smallest. Increasing the shear rate results in floc breakage in all cases and the flocs never reform to their original size. This effect is most notable for temperatures around 15 degrees C. Breakage, in terms of floc size reduction, is greater for higher temperatures, suggesting a weaker floc. Recovery after increased shear is greater at lower temperatures implying that floc break-up is more reversible for lower temperatures.

  2. Computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bum Shin; Shin, Kyoung Hee; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a new non-invasive diagnostic imaging method, which has ability to differentiate C.S.F., hematoma, and even edematous brain from normal brain tissue. Prior to the introduction of the CT, the diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult and was confirmed by surgery of autopsy. Intracranial hemorrhages are visible on the CT with density higher than brain tissue in acute phase. CT is an accurate method for detecting of intraventricular hemorrhage including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. CT is also useful as a guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematomas by easily performable follow up studies. The causes of the intraventricular hemorrhages are hypertension, rupture of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, head trauma, brain tumor, and others. This study included evaluation of CT of 69 patients who show the high density in cerebral ventricular system during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 69 patient was broad ranging from 1 month to 80 years. 28% of patients were in the 6th decade. The mate to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The consciousness of patients at CT study: Those were conscious in 11 cases, stuporous in 41 cases and unconscious in 17 cases. 3. The causes of intraventricular hemorrhages were hypertension in 28 cases, head trauma in 12 cases, aneurysm in 4 cases, tumor in 2 cases and others in 23 cases. 4. 9 cases showed intraventricular hematomas only, other 60 cases showed associated intracranial hematomas: Those were intracerebral hematomas in 53 cases including 30 cases of basal ganglial and thalamic hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 17 cases, epidural hematomas in 3 cases, and subdural hematomas in 2 cases. 5. All cases of the intraventricular hematomas except one sowed hematoma in the lateral

  3. Effects of Puff-Adder Venom on Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo haematological effects of puffadder (Bitis arietans) venom in the baboon (Papio ursinus) with regard to its effect on coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation were studied. There is a delay in the intrinsic coagulation mechanism with fibrinolysis and in vitro fibrinogenolysis. Normal human ...

  4. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  5. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulation aid for treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the potentials of Moringa oleifera seed powder as a coagulation aid for removal of suspended particles in fish culture effluent. The standard jar test was used to investigate the dosage and mixing intensity required to optimize the use of the coagulant in removing of suspended ...

  6. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, Miquel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, Frank van; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in meningococcal sepsis. Case 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, S.; Zürcher Zenklusen, R.; Hack, C. E.; Wuillemin, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a man (age: 49 years), who died from severe meningococcal sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extended skin necrosis. We discuss in detail the pathophysiology of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during sepsis.

  8. Polyferric sulphate: preparation, characterisation and application in coagulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, A I; Moussas, P A; Vasilakou, F

    2008-07-15

    The process of coagulation is a core environmental protection technology, which is mainly used in the water or wastewater treatment facilities. Research is now focused on the development of inorganic pre-polymerised coagulants. A characteristic example is PFS (polyferric sulphate), a relatively new pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant with high cationic charge. In this paper, the role of major parameters, including temperature, types of chemical reagents, ratio r=[OH]/[Fe], rate of base addition in the preparation stages of PFS were investigated. Furthermore, the prepared PFS was characterised based on typical properties, such as the percentage of the polymerised iron present in the compound, z-potential, pH, etc. Moreover, dynamics of coagulation process were examined by means of the Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Finally, the coagulation efficiency of PFS in treating kaolin suspension and biologically pre-treated wastewater was evaluated in comparison with the respective conventional coagulant agent. The results indicate that certain parameters, such as the r value, the rate of base addition and the duration and temperature of the polymerisation stage, significantly affected the properties of the PFS. Additionally, the prepared PFS polymerised coagulants exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance than the respective non-polymerised one, i.e. ferric sulphate.

  9. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, Miguel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, van F.; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  10. CT findings of fundal hemorrhage in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munemoto, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Shuzo; Kimura, Akira; Futami, Kazuya; Kogure, Yuzaburo; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Demachi, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old man. He lost consciousness as a result of a third subarachnoid hemorrhage attack. On neurological examination, he was found to be comatose and to have no spontaneous respiration. A mydriasis was noticed on both eyes. Bilateral retinal bleeding was also observed, with the bleeding of the left side more severe than that of the right side. After his death, his brain and eyes were examined by means of a CT scan. The CT films showed a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage and ventricular hematoma. The thin-sliced CT films showed left retinal bleeding. Retinal bleeding may be caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Usually we make a sketch of the retinal bleeding on the basis of a doctor's report. A photo of an optic fundus is a good record; however, taking a photo is troublesome for severely ill patients. The CT finding of retinal bleeding is gross, but a CT image is one good way to record retinal bleeding. (author)

  11. Coagulation profile in open and video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer patients are perceived to have a relatively high risk of venous thromboembolic events due to an activation of the coagulation system. In terms of activation of the coagulation system, the difference between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and open lobectomies...... for primary lung cancer has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the impact on the coagulation system in patients undergoing curative surgery for primary lung cancer by either VATS or open lobectomies. METHODS: In total, 62 patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer were allocated...... to either VATS (n = 32) or open lobectomies (n = 30). All patients received subcutaneous injections with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily. The coagulation was assessed pre- and intraoperatively, and the first 2 days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood tests, thromboelastometry (ROTEM...

  12. Interplay between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited hematologic disorder that leads to the irreversible damage of multiple organs. Although sickling of red blood cells and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease the importance of hemolytic anemia and vasculopathy has been recently recognized. Hypercoagulation state is another prominent feature of sickle cell disease and is mediated by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Growing evidence demonstrates that coagulation may not only contribute to the thrombotic complications, but also to vascular inflammation associated with this disease. This article summarizes the role of vascular inflammation and coagulation activation, discusses potential mechanisms responsible for activation of coagulation and reviews recent data demonstrating the crosstalk between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease. PMID:23593937

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Amish lethal microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 500 newborns in the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania. It has not been found outside this population. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ... gene cause Amish lethal microcephaly . The SLC25A19 gene provides instructions for ...

  14. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  15. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  16. A new lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.; Freeman, J.S.; Hall, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    A neonate is described with a lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia associated with prenatal fractures and craniofacial abnormalities including microcephaly, exophthalmos, hypoplastic nose and mid-face, small jaw and nodular hyperplasia of the gums. Parental consanguinity suggests that an autosomal recessive mutation is the likely aetiology. (orig.)

  17. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiri, Sadaf; Daghighi, Amin; Moharramzadeh, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc.) that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN) multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform experimental jar tests

  19. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  20. MR imaging of intraocular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Louis, L.A.; Weiss, R.; Ellsworth, R.; Chang, S.; Deck, M.D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluated with MR imaging 11 globes (nine patients) with spontaneous or traumatic intraocular hemorrhage. Subretinal blood was present in eight. Intravitreal bleeding was associated in seven and three subchoroidal. The ages of the hemorrhages ranged from 1 day to 6 months. Six of the subretinal and two subchoroidal cases had clotted blood with different intensity on the short TE images but were markedly hypointense on long TR/long TE images. The intravitreal blood was hyperintense on all sequences except in one. All imaging was performed with .5 T, 256 matrix, and 4- and 7- mm section thickness. Because of the varied appearance of hemorrhages, the authors scanned and are scanning two rabbits with intravitreal blood in vivo. Parameters include: 3-mm sections, T1, PD, T2 scans in .3-T and 1.5-T imagers. Initial results for the first 2 days show no change in signal intensity (hyperintense on all sequences). The T1 images show a diminishing intensity up to 8 days, and T2 scans remained hyperintense. These results so far correlate with the patient findings. The authors present the clinical findings and experimental correlation

  1. Analysis of angiographic findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage: comparison between intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kwon, Jin Sook; Yoon, Soo Woong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the angioarchitectures of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and to determine whether there was correlation between angioarchitectures and patterns of intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral, intraventricular, and both) in cerebral AVM. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who between November 1989 and December 1994 suffered supratentorial AVM with intracranial hemorrhage were studied retrospectively. Among 128 patients, intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage were seen in 68(53%) and 24 patients(19%), respectively, while both types were seen in the remaining 36 (28%). We analyzed the angioarchitectual characteristics of AVM, namely nidi, feeding arteries and draining veins, in three hemorrhagic groups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and both. The X 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. A cortically located nidus was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while a periventricular location was most common in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001). Location in the corpus callosum, choroid plexus, or intraventricular area was more frequent in the intraventricular than the intracerebral hemorrhagic group (p<0.05). Superficial venous drainage was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.001), and deep venous drainage in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p=3D0.001). The angioarchitectual characteristics of cerebral arteriovenous malformation correlate significantly with patterns of intracranial hemorrhage, and awareness of the type of hemorrhage could help to manage patients and determine prognosis.=20

  2. Use of artificial intelligence to identify cardiovascular compromise in a model of hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Todd F; Knapp, Jason; Amburn, Philip; Clay, Bruce A; Kabrisky, Matt; Rogers, Steven K; Garcia, Victor F

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether a prototype artificial intelligence system can identify volume of hemorrhage in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock. Prospective in vivo animal model of hemorrhagic shock. Research foundation animal surgical suite; computer laboratories of collaborating industry partner. Nineteen, juvenile, 25- to 35-kg, male and female swine. Anesthetized animals were instrumented for arterial and systemic venous pressure monitoring and blood sampling, and a splenectomy was performed. Following a 1-hr stabilization period, animals were hemorrhaged in aliquots to 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50% of total blood volume with a 10-min recovery between each aliquot. Data were downloaded directly from a commercial monitoring system into a proprietary PC-based software package for analysis. Arterial and venous blood gas values, glucose, and cardiac output were collected at specified intervals. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, mixed venous oxygen saturation, temperature (core and blood), mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, pulse oximetry, and end-tidal CO(2) were continuously monitored and downloaded. Seventeen of 19 animals (89%) died as a direct result of hemorrhage. Stored data streams were analyzed by the prototype artificial intelligence system. For this project, the artificial intelligence system identified and compared three electrocardiographic features (R-R interval, QRS amplitude, and R-S interval) from each of nine unknown samples of the QRS complex. We found that the artificial intelligence system, trained on only three electrocardiographic features, identified hemorrhage volume with an average accuracy of 91% (95% confidence interval, 84-96%). These experiments demonstrate that an artificial intelligence system, based solely on the analysis of QRS amplitude, R-R interval, and R-S interval of an electrocardiogram, is able to accurately identify hemorrhage volume in a porcine model of lethal

  3. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0% of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was treated with different doses of coagulants like alum, ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate at constant contact duration (4 hours and room temperature (300 K. Percentage reduction (maximum corresponds to 80.2, 74.0 and 84.9% was obtained for removal of COD, BOD and color respectively.

  4. Removal of Dye in Wastewater by Adsorption-Coagulation Combined System with Hibiscus sabdariffa as the Coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong Ho Nicholas Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional process to treat dye wastewater is the physicochemical treatment such as coagulation, flocculation and adsorption process. A new approach has been demonstrated to treat Congo red dye wastewater, which is the adsorption-coagulation hybrid process. Natural coagulant extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds is used as the coagulant while activated carbon is used as the adsorbent in this case study. The objective of this experiment is to study the significant factors that will affect the efficiency of dye removal. Then, the optimum conditions for the hybrid process is determined using Respond Surface Methodology (RSM. The variables are pH, initial dye concentration, coagulant dosage and adsorbent dosage while the response of experiment is the dye removal percentage. A three-level and four-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD is used for the RSM. A total of 27 sets of experimental results is required to determine the optimum conditions. Jar test is used to conduct the experiment with the addition of coagulant and adsorbent simultaneously. Based on the regression model analysis and ANOVA, the highly significant factors that contribute to the dye removal efficiency through adsorption-coagulation hybrid process are pH of solution and initial dye concentration. The RSM results shows that the optimised process parameters for adsorption-coagulation hybrid process with Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds as the coagulant and activated carbon as the adsorbent are pH 2, initial dye concentration of 385 ppm, coagulant dosage of 209 mg/L and adsorbent dosage of 150 mg/L. The dye removal reaches up to 96.67% under optimum parameters.

  5. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  6. Multiple coagulation defects and the Cohen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichtemeier, T L; Tomlinson, G E; Kamen, B A; Waber, L J; Wilson, G N

    1994-04-01

    A 13-year-old male presented with new onset seizures, sagittal sinus thrombosis with cerebral hemorrhage, and extensive venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Laboratory investigation demonstrated combined deficiency of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III. He and his 17-year-old sister had a mental retardation-multiple anomaly syndrome associated with microcephaly, unusual facies, and lax connective tissue. Their dysmorphology included elongated faces with narrow forehead, arched eyebrows, large mouth with down-turned corners, malformed teeth, and furrowed tongue. Both had Marfanoid habitus with lax joints, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis, and flat narrow feet. The most likely diagnosis for these siblings is the autosomal recessive Cohen syndrome of mental retardation, congenital hypotonia with Marfanoid habitus, microcephaly, pleasant affect, micrognathia, and open mouth with prominent incisors. The sagittal sinus thrombosis, left frontal intracranial hemorrhage, carotid aneurysm, tortuous descending aorta, and deep venous thrombosis suffered by the male sibling adds the Cohen syndrome to genetic vasculopathies that may be associated with stroke.

  7. Intraretinal hemorrhages in cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Kelly, T J; Marcus, D F

    1984-08-01

    Retinal hemorrhages can be associated with typical cystoid macular edema. We examined the fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms of 313 eyes of 264 patients with documented cystoid macular edema to establish the incidence and characteristics of associated intraretinal hemorrhages. As we wanted to study only those hemorrhages unique to cystoid macular edema, we excluded 86 eyes because the patients had diseases known to be associated with retinal hemorrhages. These diseases included diabetes mellitus, branch retinal vein occlusion, hypertensive retinopathy, venous stasis retinopathy, and perifoveal telangiectasia. Of the remaining 227 eyes with cystoid macular edema, 56 (24.7%) were identified with retinal hemorrhages not associated with systemic disease. The hemorrhages were characteristically oval, round, or linear and frequently filled or partially filled the intraretinal cystoid space. In many patients, a blood-fluid level was observed.

  8. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ohno, Masato

    1989-01-01

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author)

  9. MR imaging of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.B.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.R.; Dion, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging were performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of the basal cisterns on MR images results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR in many cases

  10. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program....

  11. Treatment of waste water by coagulation and flocculation using biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, L.; Saravana Kumar, M. P.; Jena, Amarjit; Gulla, Sudiv; Godhwani, Bhagesh

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the determination of physical and chemical parameters in the treatment process of waste water by flocculation and coagulation processes using natural coagulants and assessing their feasibility for water treatment by comparing the performance with each other and with a synthetic coagulant. Initial studies were done on the synthetic waste water to determine the optimal pH and dosage, the activity of natural coagulant, followed by the real effluent from tannery waste. The raw tannery effluent was bluish-black in colour, mildly basic in nature, with high COD 4000mg/l and turbidity in the range 700NTU, was diluted and dosed with organic coagulants, AloeVera, MoringaOleifera and Cactus (O.ficus-indica). The study observed that coagulant Moringa Oleifera of 15 mg/L dose at 6 pH gave the best reduction efficiencies for major physicochemical parameters followed by Aloe Vera and Cactus under identical conditions. The study reveals that the untreated tannery effluents can be treated with environmental confirmative naturally occurring coagulants.

  12. Obstetric Emergencies: Shoulder Dystocia and Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Joshua D; Bhalwal, Asha; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage represent two of the most common emergencies faced in obstetric clinical practice, both requiring prompt recognition and management to avoid significant morbidity or mortality. Shoulder dystocia is an uncommon, unpredictable, and unpreventable obstetric emergency and can be managed with appropriate intervention. Postpartum hemorrhage occurs more commonly and carries significant risk of maternal morbidity. Institutional protocols and algorithms for the prevention and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage have become mainstays for clinicians. The goal of this review is to summarize the diagnosis, incidence, risk factors, and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  14. CT findings of fulminant subarachnoid hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Isayama, Kazuo; Yajima, Kouzo; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yano, Masami; Otsuka, Toshibumi

    1985-01-01

    We studied the clinical features and CT findings of 20 cases with fulminant subarachonid hemorrhages in the acute stage. They were admitted to our hospital within 3 hours after the attack as DOA (dead on arrival) or near DOA. CT-visualized subarachnoid hemorrhages were located in the basal cisterns surrounding the brain stem in all cases. In 90 % of the cases, the subarachnoid hemorrhage formed a clot or a thick layer. Massive intracerebral hematomas were observed in 10 % of the cases. Acute intraventricular hemorrhages were seen in 80 % of the cases. The mechanism of intraventricular hemorrhage in 70 % of the cases was of the reflux type, which was characterized by a reflux of the severe subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cistern. Acute and diffuse brain swelling on CT scan was observed in several cases, which also showed initial increased intracranial pressures. The major mechanisms leading to acute death or a very severe state soon after subarachnoid hemorrhage might be caused by acute brain-stem failure due to severe subarachnoid hemorrhages in the basal cisterns surrounding the brain-stem and an acute increase in intracranial pressure by cerebral edema following subarachnoid hemorrhage and secondary cerebral ischemia due to cardiac and respiratory arrest. (author)

  15. The Roles of Thrombospondins in Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating cerebrovascular disease with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombospondins (TSPs, as matricellular proteins, belong to the TSP family which is comprised of five members. All TSPs modulate a variety of cellular functions by binding to various receptors. Recently, TSPs gained attention in the area of hemorrhagic stroke, especially TSP-1. TSP-1 participates in angiogenesis, the inflammatory response, apoptosis, and fibrosis after hemorrhagic stroke through binding to various molecules including but not limited to CD36, CD47, and TGF-β. In this review, we will discuss the roles of TSPs in hemorrhagic stroke and focus primarily on TSP-1.

  16. Genistein, a general kinase inhibitor, as a potential antiviral for arenaviral hemorrhagic fever as described in the Pirital virus-Syrian golden hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Eric M; Knostman, Katherine A; Mott, Jason M; Warren, Richard L; Garver, Jennifer N; Vela, Lela Johnson; Stammen, Rachelle L

    2010-09-01

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne negative strand RNA viruses and infection of these viruses in humans may result in disease and hemorrhagic fever. To date, supportive care, ribavirin, and in some cases immune plasma remain the foremost treatment options for arenaviral hemorrhagic fever. Research with the hemorrhagic fever causing-arenaviruses usually requires a Biosafety level (BSL)-4 environment; however, surrogate animal model systems have been developed to preliminarily study and screen various vaccines and antivirals. The Syrian golden hamster-Pirital virus (PIRV) surrogate model of hemorrhagic fever provides an opportunity to test new antivirals in an ABSL-3 setting. Thus, we challenged hamsters, implanted with telemetry, with PIRV and observed viremia and tissue viral titers, and changes in core body temperature, hematology, clinical chemistry, and coagulation parameters. Physical signs of disease of the PIRV-infected hamsters included weight loss, lethargy, petechial rashes, epistaxis, ocular orbital and rectal hemorrhage, and visible signs of neurologic disorders. However, treating animals with genistein, a plant derived isoflavone and general kinase inhibitor, resulted in increased survival rates and led to an improved clinical profile. In all, the results from this study demonstrate the potential of a general kinase inhibitor genistein as an antiviral against arenaviral hemorrhagic fever. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  18. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  19. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  20. Distribution functions and moments in the theory of coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pich, J.

    1990-04-01

    Different distribution functions and their moments used in the Theory of coagulation are summarized and analysed. Relations between the moments of these distribution functions are derived and the physical meaning of individual moments is briefly discussed. The time evolution of the moment of order zero (total number concentration) during the coagulation process is analysed for the general kernel of the Smoluchowski equation. On this basis the time evolution of certain physically important quantities related to this moment such as mean particle size, surface and volume as well as surface concentration is described. Equations for the half time of coagulation for the general collision frequency factor are derived. (orig.) [de

  1. Implementation of a microcontroller-based semi-automatic coagulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K; Kirumira, A; Elkateeb, A

    2001-01-01

    The coagulator is an instrument used in hospitals to detect clot formation as a function of time. Generally, these coagulators are very expensive and therefore not affordable by a doctors' office and small clinics. The objective of this project is to design and implement a low cost semi-automatic coagulator (SAC) prototype. The SAC is capable of assaying up to 12 samples and can perform the following tests: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and PT/APTT combination. The prototype has been tested successfully.

  2. Analysis of risk factors for hydrocephalus development in newborn infants with germinal matrix hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L; Ros, B; Arráez, M A; Ríus, F; González, L; Martín, A; Carrasco, A; Segura, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with germinal matrix (GM) hemorrhage. The study comprised 271 patients admitted to Carlos Haya University Hospital in Malaga with GM hemorrhage. The following data were recorded: gestational age, gender, twin birth, head circumference at birth, weight at birth, and Papile grade. Severe obstetrical (abruption, chorioamnionitis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, tocolytic treatment) and neonatal disorders (respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection, coagulation disorder, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis) were also recorded. Symptomatic hydrocephalus was diagnosed in the event of a progressive increase in head circumference and ventricular indices requiring shunting. Of the 271 patients, 139 (51%) developed posthemorrhagic ventriculomegaly; 47 patients (17%) developed symptomatic hydrocephalus and needed shunt implantation. We found a significant relationship between the development of symptomatic hydrocephalus and Papile grade, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, twin birth, and neonatal infection. Awareness of risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with GM hemorrhage should be emphasized in order to enable an early diagnosis of ventriculomegaly and symptomatic hydrocephalus and thus make a correct therapeutic decision.

  3. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle; Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes; Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  4. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-P?rez, Ana; Pablos, Adri?n; Mart?nez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; G?mez-Olivencia, Asier; Berm?dez de Castro, Jos? Mar?a; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  5. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes [Resident of Medical Practice, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz [Unit of Computed Tomography, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  6. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemi Sala

    Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  7. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  8. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004

  9. Intraventricular Hemorrhage Due to Coagulopathy After Vitamin K Administration in a Preterm Infant With Maternal Crohn Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumichi Fujioka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a devastating morbidity in preterm infants and can result in poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Intraventricular hemorrhage usually occurs within 72 hours after birth; post–acute-phase IVH (>1 week after birth is uncommon. Development of the hemostatic system in fetuses and neonates is an age-dependent evolving process, and the neonatal hemostatic system is characterized by low levels of vitamin K–dependent factors, with further reduction caused by prematurity. Importantly, a severe coagulation deficiency can be a major contributing factor of IVH. Active maternal Crohn disease (CD during pregnancy causes malnutrition via enteral malabsorption; this may include vitamin K deficiency, resulting in fetal vitamin K deficiency. We herein describe a preterm infant who was born to a mother with CD and developed post–acute-phase IVH due to coagulopathy despite vitamin K administration.

  10. Brain perihematoma genomic profile following spontaneous human intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH represents about 15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality rates. Our aim was to identify the gene expression changes and biological pathways altered in the brain following ICH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve brain samples were obtained from four deceased patients who suffered an ICH including perihematomal tissue (PH and the corresponding contralateral white (CW and grey (CG matter. Affymetrix GeneChip platform for analysis of over 47,000 transcripts was conducted. Microarray Analysis Suite 5.0 was used to process array images and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis System was used to analyze biological mechanisms and functions of the genes. We identified 468 genes in the PH areas displaying a different expression pattern with a fold change between -3.74 and +5.16 when compared to the contralateral areas (291 overexpressed and 177 underexpressed. The top genes which appeared most significantly overexpressed in the PH areas codify for cytokines, chemokines, coagulation factors, cell growth and proliferation factors while the underexpressed codify for proteins involved in cell cycle or neurotrophins. Validation and replication studies at gene and protein level in brain samples confirmed microarray results. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic responses identified in this study provide valuable information about potential biomarkers and target molecules altered in the perihematomal regions.

  11. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, although the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are largely unknown. Human infection occurs either by direct contact with infected animals or indirectly, through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine, as the spirochetes easily penetrate human skin. The present report exposes the case of a female patient, diagnosed with leptospirosis after having had contact with a dog infected by Leptospira sp. that developed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure.

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  13. Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride and Tobacco Leaf as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Post-Treatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfarahim Rusdizal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to treat stabilized leachate by applying polyaluminium chloride (PAC and tobacco leaf extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Experimental results indicated that the tobacco leaves were positively charged. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand, using 1500 mg/L PAC as a sole coagulant, was approximately 63% and increased to 91% when 1000 mg/L PAC was mixed with 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf. Additionally, 1500 mg/L PAC with 250 - 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf and 54% ammoniacal nitrogen was removed, compared with only 46% reduction using 1500 mg/L with only 46% reduction.

  14. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    .05), but there was no sign of developmental changes in whole blood coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P reach statistical significance. Citrate-anticoagulated blood showed...

  15. coagulation factors level in fresh frozen plasma in rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... Setting: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in ... a major role in blood coagulation process. ... storage conditions and quality control prior to clinical ... instrumentation Laboratory Company USA made in.

  16. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Results: Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority......Background: Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video......-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri...

  17. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2- concentrations for the treated water conforms to the Tanzanian Standards and WHO guidelines for drinking ... that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification. Key words: .... light greenish blue-grey.

  18. Coagulation Factor Tests: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Coagulation Factor Assay; 156–7 p. ...

  19. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Toh, C. H.; Thachil, J.; Watson, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with

  20. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which--in turn--becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules.

  1. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  2. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    clotting enzyme in traditional cheese-making world- wide (Fox, 1987 ... Following pre-brining, the cheeses were packaged in plastic cups (1 kg) containing ..... study the differential degradation of αs-casein by various coagulants.

  3. Hyperglycemia stimulates coagulation, whereas hyperinsulinemia impairs fibrinolysis in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, Michiel E.; van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Levi, Marcel; de Vos, Alex F.; Tanck, Michael W.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance syndromes are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic complications. A disturbed balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis has been implicated in the pathogenesis hereof. To determine the selective effects of hyperglycemia and

  4. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  5. Intravascular volume after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular volume after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a devastating disorder with an often poor prognosis. The occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the most important factors determining outcome in

  6. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Central OMIM: JUVENILE POLYPOSIS/HEREDITARY HEMORRHAGIC TELANGIECTASIA SYNDROME McDonald J, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Pyeritz RE. Hereditary hemorrhagic ... 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3182136d32. Review. Citation on PubMed McDonald J, Wooderchak-Donahue W, VanSant Webb C, Whitehead ...

  7. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  8. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage mimicking an acute scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, O; Mattei, R; Ciardini, E; Centonze, N; Noccioli, B

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-two cases of scrotal hematoma caused by neonatal adrenal hemorrhage are reported in the literature and unnecessary surgical exploration was performed in nine (41%), suspecting testicular torsion. In this paper, we present a newborn male with right adrenal gland hemorrhage causing right scrotal swelling and discoloration of groin managed conservatively.

  9. Primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Miyamoto, Seiji; Kyoi, Kikuo; Utsumi, Shozaburo; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Masuda, Akio.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage were studied in terms of the radiological and histological findings. The cases having hemorrhage in the tumor, as established through CT or histologically, were excluded if their onsets were not sudden due to intracranial hemorrhages. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1) From an anatomical point of view, cerebral subcortical hemorrhages account for 80%; hemorrhages in the cerebellopontine angle, 10%, and hemorrhages in the basal ganglia, 10%. 2) Plain CT findings showed perifocal low-density areas within 24 hours after onset in all 10 cases. 3) Enhanced CT findings showed enhanced areas in 4 or 6 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 5) From a histological point of view, glioblastomas account for 30%; malignant astrocytomas, 20%; astrocytomas, 20%; malignant ependymomas, 10%; hemangioblastoma, 10%, and transitional meningiomas, 10%. In conclusion, a perifocal low-density area on CT within 24 hours after onset is the most meaningful indication of intracranial hemorrhage originating from a brain tumor. A histological 'perinuclear halo' in an astrocytoma as an artifact due to hemorrhage may often be misleading in diagnosing mixed oligo-astrocytomas. (author)

  10. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. In newborns, adrenal hemorrhage is not an uncommon event. The large size of the adrenal cortex contributes to an increased vulnerability to trauma during a difficult delivery [1]. However, the neonatal adrenal hemorrhage may rarely present as inguinoscrotal swelling [2,3]. This condition can simulate torsion of ...

  11. Detecting fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Berkowicz, Adela

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry.......The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry....

  12. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  13. Recurrent Bleeding After Perimesencephalic Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-12-01

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only 1 well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. We describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. To validate the radiologic findings, we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and 2 neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had 2 episodes after the onset headache with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CT scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on 2 subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, the prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrocephalus associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosaka, Yoshiki

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients exhibited a communicating hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms and were treated with shunt procedures. The interval between subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery averaged 9 weeks. Seven of the patients showed improvement. The prognostic value for surgical management was evaluated on the basis of three different diagnostic examinations (computed tomography (CT), cisternography and constant infusion test). A correct diagnosis was obtained in 78 per cent in cisternography, and 63 per cent in infusion test and CT. All patients responding to surgery showed a typical pattern in cisternography, consisting of ventricular retention of radiopharmaceutical tracer for 48 h or longer in association with no radioactivity over the cerebral hemispheres. The constant infusion test correlated well with typical cisternographic patterns. CT is useful in demonstrating pathophysiological changes in hydrocephalus. Periventricular hypodensity was visible in patients with normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, accompanied by fairly rapid deterioration. All of them responded well to shunting. In most cases which benefited from the shunt, the postoperative CT showed not only normal-sized ventricles but also marked regression of the hypodensity over a short period. (author)

  15. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  16. Monitoring soft tissue coagulation by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, A.; Lihacova, I.; Heinrichs, H.; Spigulis, J.; Trebst, T.; Wehner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Laser tissue welding (LTW) or laser tissue soldering (LTS) is investigated since many years for treatment of incisions, wound closure and anastomosis of vessels [1, 2]. Depending on the process, a certain temperature in the range between 65 °C to 85 °C must be reached and held for a few seconds. Care has to be taken not to overheat the tissue, otherwise necrosis or tissue carbonization may occur and will impair wound healing. Usually the temperature is monitored during the process to control the laser power [3]. This requires either bulky equipment or expensive and fragile infrared fibers to feed the temperature signal to an infrared detector. Alternatively, changes in tissue morphology can be directly observed by analysis of spectral reflectance. We investigate spectral changes in the range between 400 nm to 900 nm wavelength. Characteristic spectral changes occur when the temperature of tissue samples increase above 70 °C which is a typical setpoint value for temperature control of coagulation. We conclude that simple spectroscopy in the visible range can provide valuable information during LTS and LTW and probably replace the delicate measurement of temperature. A major advantage is that optical measurements can be performed using standard optical fibers and can be easily integrated into a surgical tool.

  17. Planetesimal formation by sweep-up coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmark, Fredrik; Birnstiel, Til; Ormel, Chris W.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2013-07-01

    The formation of planetesimals is often accredited to collisional sticking of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk. The exact process is however unknown, as collisions between larger aggregates tend to lead to fragmentation or bouncing rather than sticking. These growth barriers tend to halt the dust growth already at millimeters or centimeters in size, which is far below the kilometer-sizes that are needed for gravity to aid in the accretion. To study how far dust coagulation can proceed, we have developed a new collision model based on the latest laboratory experiments, and have used it together with a dust-size evolution code capable of resolving all grain interactions in the protoplanetary disk. We find that for the general dust population, bouncing and fragmenting collisions prevent the growth above millimeter-sizes. However, a small number of lucky particles can grow larger than the rest by only interacting at low, sticky velocities. As they grow, they become increasingly resilient to fragmentation caused by the small grains. In this way, two populations are formed: One which remains small due to the collisional barriers, and one that continues to grow by sweeping up the smaller grains around them.

  18. A Pontential Agriculture Waste Material as Coagulant Aid: Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Abd-Rahim, N.-S.; Tuan-Besar, S.-N.-F.; Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Kumar, V.

    2018-02-01

    All A large amount of cassava peel waste is generated annually by small and medium scale industries. This has led to a new policy of complete utilization of raw materials so that there will be little or no residue left that could pose pollution problems. Conversion of these by-products into a material that poses an ability to remove toxic pollutant would increase the market value and ultimately benefits the producers. This study investigated the characteristics of cassava peel as a coagulant aid material and optimization process using the cassava peel was explored through coagulation and flocculation. This research had highlighted that the Cassava peels contain sugars in the form of polysaccharides such as starch and holocellulose. The FTIR results revealed that amino acids containing abundant of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups which has significant capabilities in removing pollutants. Whereas analysis by XRF spectrometry indicated that the CP samples contain Fe2O3 and Al2O3 which might contribute to its coagulation ability. The optimum condition allowed Cassava peel and alum removed high turbidity up to 90. This natural coagulant from cassava peel is found to be an alternative coagulant aid to reduce the usage of chemical coagulants

  19. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  20. Medulla Oblongata Hemorrhage and Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeske, Kevin T; Sarano, Maurice E; Fugate, Jennifer E; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-12-19

    Acute brain injury with strong surges of adrenergic outflow has resulted in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, but there are surprisingly few reports of takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage, and none have been described from hemorrhage within the brainstem. We describe a patient with reverse and reversible cardiomyopathy following a hemorrhage in the lateral medulla oblongata. While it is limited in size, the location of the hemorrhage caused acute systolic failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27% and vasopressor requirement for cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. There was full recovery after 7 days. Detailed case report. Hemorrhage into medulla oblongata pressor centers may result in acute, reversible, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, affirming the adrenergic origin of this condition.

  1. Neck and scleral hemorrhage in drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Russell T; Jentzen, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the cause and manner of death for a body recovered from the water can be difficult because of a lack of autopsy findings specific for drowning. This case report describes a 30-year-old man found submerged at the bottom of a hotel pool. An autopsy revealed scleral hemorrhages and fascial hemorrhages of multiple muscles of the anterior and posterior neck bilaterally. No evidence of traumatic injury was on the surface of the body. An investigation by law enforcement found no evidence of foul play. The occurrence of petechial and neck hemorrhage in a body recovered from the water is controversial, and a review of this literature will be given. We suggest that fascial hemorrhages of the muscles of the neck, as well as cephalic hemorrhages, can be explained by drowning-related elevated central venous pressure that is communicated to the head through the valveless veins of the neck. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. A case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Hosotani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrhage in young women is caused by the high frequency of ectopic pregnancy and ovarian bleeding. Here, we describe a case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage, which is a rare cause of intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was suspected in a 38-year-old Japanese woman based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Her last menstrual period was 23 days prior, and ovarian bleeding was considered based on bloody ascites revealed by culdocentesis. She underwent emergency surgery for hypovolemic shock. Although both ovaries were of normal size and no abnormal findings were observed, we performed a partial omentectomy because multiple clots were attached only to the greater omentum. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred, and she was discharged 11 days after the surgery. Because she did not have a clear history of trauma and underlying disease, idiopathic omental hemorrhage was diagnosed.

  3. A case of traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Yamakawa, Kazuomi; Nakazawa, Shozo.

    1980-01-01

    CT scan is recognized to be a rapid, noninvasive and informative examination in evaluation of the head injured patient. It is also possible to evaluate the presence of the intracerebral hematoma without remarkable mass effect, cerebral contusion, associated cerebral edema and ventricular hemorrhage. We present a case of traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage. The patient was a 40-year-old male admitted to our hospital in a drowsy state following a fall from about one meter high. Craniogram showed a linear fracture in the left parietotemporal regions. In the CT scan, intraventricular hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage without intracerebral hematoma was shown. A symmetrical moderate dilatation of both lateral ventricles was also shown. Cerebral angiography revealed no abnormality. His condition deteriorated progressively, so ventricular drainage was performed, but he expired 5 days later. Considering this case, the mechanisms of pure intraventricular hemorrhage following head injury were discussed. (author)

  4. Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna R Velez

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a complex disease, potentially induced by several etiologic factors from multiple pathophysiologic pathways. To dissect the genetic risk factors of PTB a large-scale high-throughput candidate gene association study was performed examining 1536 SNP in 130 candidate genes from hypothesized PTB pathways. Maternal and fetal DNA from 370 US Caucasian birth-events (172 cases and 198 controls was examined. Single locus, haplotype, and multi-locus association analyses were performed separately on maternal and fetal data. For maternal data the strongest associations were found in genes in the complement-coagulation pathway related to decidual hemorrhage in PTB. In this pathway 3 of 6 genes examined had SNPs significantly associated with PTB. These include factor V (FV that was previously associated with PTB, factor VII (FVII, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. The single strongest effect was observed in tPA marker rs879293 with a significant allelic (p = 2.30x10(-3 and genotypic association (p = 2.0x10(-6 with PTB. The odds ratio (OR for this SNP was 2.80 [CI 1.77-4.44] for a recessive model. Given that 6 of 8 markers in tPA were statistically significant, sliding window haplotype analyses were performed and revealed an associating 4 marker haplotype in tPA (p = 6.00x10(-3. The single strongest effect in fetal DNA was observed in the inflammatory pathway at rs17121510 in the interleukin-10 receptor antagonist (IL-10RA gene for allele (p = 0.01 and genotype (p = 3.34x10(-4. The OR for the IL-10RA genotypic additive model was 1.92 [CI 1.15-3.19] (p = 2.00x10(-3. Finally, exploratory multi-locus analyses in the complement and coagulation pathway were performed and revealed a potentially significant interaction between a marker in FV (rs2187952 and FVII (rs3211719 (p

  5. A rare and lethal case of right common carotid pseudoaneurysm following whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Bello, Stefania; Serinelli, Serenella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    Whiplash trauma from a car crash is one of the most common causes of neck injury, resulting in pain and dysfunction. We report on an unusual case of post-whiplash pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery, which led to acute massive hemorrhage and death days after the initial trauma. A post-mortem computed tomography angiography showed rupture of the pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery with the contrast agent leaking out into the mouth. The subsequent autopsy confirmed a large hemorrhagic clot extending to the right side of the neck and mediastinum. A rupture of the right wall of the oropharynx was identified with massive bronchial hemoaspiration. The case demonstrates a rare but lethal clinical entity, and is important in providing a better understanding of the potentially fatal consequences of minor trauma, such as whiplash injury, and its physiopathological mechanisms. Thus, changing symptoms after a whiplash injury should be carefully evaluated since they can be related to the underlying severe consequences of a rapid hyperextension-hyperflexion of the neck, as in the reported case.

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics and military implications of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulić, Rosanda; Ropac, Darko

    2002-10-01

    To analyze epidemiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia, including military implications of the disease and measures for its prevention. We analyzed data from obligatory infectious disease reports and notification of deaths due to infectious diseases, data on the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemics in Croatia, and data collected by survey of the population, serological findings, and studies of wild rodents serving as reservoirs of the infection. During the 1987-2001 period, 235 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome were recorded in Croatia, with 147 (62.6%) of them among Croatian Army soldiers. Mortality rate was up to 15.4% (mean 2.2%) (5/235). The highest number of cases was recorded in months of June and July, ie, during the warm season characterized by increased activity of both the animals acting as infection reservoirs and humans as hosts. The known natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome have been Plitvice and Slunj areas, Velika and Mala Kapela mountains, Zagreb area (Velika Gorica and Jastrebarsko), west Slavonia, Novska area, and Dinara Mountain. The disease has not been recorded in the littoral area and Adriatic islands. The identified causative agents include Dobrava and Puumala viruses of the genus Hantavirus, whereas rodents Clethrionomys glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, and Apodemus sylvaticus serve as the main reservoirs of the infection. Typical biotopes of the infection in Croatia are deciduous woods. The measures of prevention in Croatia include pest control, disinfection, hygienic waste disposal, preventing rodent access to food and water, proper choice of camping sites, and health education. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurs predominantly in soldiers, in a sporadic or epidemic form. Because of the course of disease and potentially lethal outcome, the disease has a considerable impact on the field task performance and combat readiness of

  7. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  9. Chronic intravascular coagulation associated with chronic myelocytic leukemia. Use of heparin in connection with a surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, H J; Smith, J A; Lindenbaum, J

    1976-10-01

    A women with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia lived nearly 12 years from the time of diagnosis. During most of this period she received no therapy, and marked cyclic oscillations in the white blood cell count were documented. The last two years of her illness were marked by a hemorrhagic disorder associated with hypofibrinogenemia, thrombocytopenia, increased plasma fibrinopeptide A concentration and markedly elevated serum levels of fibrin degradation products. The coagulation disorder was rapidly reversible on several occasions with heparin therapy. After treatment with heparin and platelet transfusions, the patient underwent successful resection of a large ovarian cyst with excellent hemostasis during the procedure. Postoperatively, the administration of heparin and platelets was discontinued and a large wound hematoma developed. After resumption of therapy with heparin and platelets, the remainder of her postoperative course was uneventful. The literature on the subject is reviewed and tentative guidelines are offered concerning the management of patients with intravascular coagulation who require diagnostic or therapeutic surgical procedures.

  10. Requirement for Serratia marcescens cytolysin in a murine model of hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Juarbe, Norberto; Mares, Chris A; Hinojosa, Cecilia A; Medina, Jorge L; Cantwell, Angelene; Dube, Peter H; Orihuela, Carlos J; Bergman, Molly A

    2015-02-01

    Serratia marcescens, a member of the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, is an important emerging pathogen that causes a wide variety of nosocomial infections, spreads rapidly within hospitals, and has a systemic mortality rate of ≤41%. Despite multiple clinical descriptions of S. marcescens nosocomial pneumonia, little is known regarding the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and the host immune response. To address this gap, we developed an oropharyngeal aspiration model of lethal and sublethal S. marcescens pneumonia in BALB/c mice and extensively characterized the latter. Lethal challenge (>4.0 × 10(6) CFU) was characterized by fulminate hemorrhagic pneumonia with rapid loss of lung function and death. Mice challenged with a sublethal dose (marcescens strains that failed to cause profound weight loss, extended illness, hemorrhage, and prolonged lung pathology in mice. This study describes a model of S. marcescens pneumonia that mimics known clinical features of human illness, identifies neutrophils and the toxin ShlA as a key factors important for defense and infection, respectively, and provides a solid foundation for future studies of novel therapeutics for this important opportunistic pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Enhanced algae removal by Ti-based coagulant: comparison with conventional Al- and Fe-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Zhao, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The water eutrophication caused by cyanobacteria seasonally proliferates, which is a hot potato to be resolved for water treatment plants. This study firstly investigated coagulation performance of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) for Microcystis aeruginosa synthetic water treatment. Results show complete algal cell removal by TiCl 4 coagulation without damage to cell membrane integrity even under harsh conditions; 60 mg/L TiCl 4 was effective in removing the microcystins up to 85%. Furthermore, besides having stronger UV 254 removal capability and the higher removal of fluorescent substances over Al- and Fe-based coagulants, TiCl 4 coagulant required more compact coagulation and sedimentation tanks due to its significantly improved floc growth and sedimentation speed. Meanwhile, its' short hydraulic retention time avoided algal cell breakage and subsequent algal organic matter release. Microcystin concentrations were kept at a low level during sludge storage period, indicating that the TiCl 4 flocs could prevent algal cells from natural lysis. To facilitate water recycling without secondary contamination, the algae-containing sludge after TiCl 4 coagulation ought to be disposed within 12 days at 20 °C and 8 days at 35 °C.

  12. A Lethal Complication of Endoscopic Therapy: Duodenal Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Calhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal intramural hematoma (DIH usually occurs in childhood and young adults following blunt abdominal trauma. It may also develop in the presence of coagulation disorders and may rarely be an iatrogenic outcome of endoscopic procedures. Management of DIH is usually a conservative approach. A case of intramural duodenal hematoma that developed following endoscopic epinephrine sclerotherapy and/or argon plasma coagulation and that was nonresponsive to conservative therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure who died from sepsis is being discussed in this report. Clinicians should be aware of such possible complications after endoscopic hemostasis in patients with coagulation disorders.

  13. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2018-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  14. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities.In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48% which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7% belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP. In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro.We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  15. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carette, Marie-France; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc; Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie; Khalil, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  16. Management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, N; Macdonald, R L

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects people with a mean age of 55 years. Although there are about 9/100 000 cases per year worldwide, the young age and high morbidity and mortality lead to loss of many years of productive life. Intracranial aneurysms account for 85% of cases. Despite this, the majority of survivors of aneurysmal SAH have cognitive deficits, mood disorders, fatigue, inability to return to work, and executive dysfunction and are often unable to return to their premorbid level of functioning. The main proven interventions to improve outcome are aneurysm repair in a timely fashion by endovascular coiling rather than neurosurgical clipping when feasible and administration of nimodipine. Management also probably is optimized by neurologic intensive care units and multidisciplinary teams. Improved diagnosis, early aneurysm repair, administration of nimodipine, and advanced neurointensive care support may be responsible for improvement in survival from SAH in the last few decades. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author)

  18. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-03-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author).

  19. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

    2006-09-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland.

  20. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emadi Koochak H

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was first described in the Crimea in 1944 and then in 1956 in congo. CCHF is a viral hemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group that belongs to Bunyaviridae family virus. It is transmitted to human by tick bite. The most efficient and common tick that is the vectors of CCHF is a member of the Hyalomma genus which infected many mammals such as livestock, this tick is the main reservoire of virus in nature. Humans also become infected with CCHF virus by direct contact with blood or other infected tissues from livestock or human patients (nosocomial infection. Disease has been found in saharic Africa, Eastern Europe, Pakistan, India and Middle East (specially Iran and Iraq. This disease recently spread in Iran so in 1999 to 2001 at least 222 suspected case(81 definite case reported that led to the death of 15 of 81 cases. It is estimated that 30 percent of the country's cattle are contaminated with this virus."nIn humans, after a short incubation period it appears suddenly with fever, chills, myalgia and GI symptoms followed by severe bleeding and DIC that led to death .If the patient improved, has a long {2-4 weeks convalescence period. Disease diagnosed by clinical manifestations, serologic tests, viral culture and PCR and its specific treatment is oral ribavirin for 10 days, for prevention of disease personal protective measures from tick bite, spraying poison of mews to reduce of ticks crowd, isolation of patients and dis-infection of contaminated personal equipments that who suffering from CCHF is recommended.

  2. Hemodynamics in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The author in an attempt to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the clinical stages of Korean hemorrhagic fever measured plasma volume, cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow utilizing radioisoto as during various phases of the disease. Cardiac output was measured by radiocardiography with external monitoring method using RIHSA. Effective renal plasma flow was obtained from blood clearance curve drawn by external monitoring after radiohippuran injection according to the method described by Razzak et al. The study was carried out in thirty-eight cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever and the following conclusions were obtained. 1) Plasma volume was increased in the patients during the oliguric and hypertensive-diuretic phases, while it was normal in the patients during the normotensive-diuretic phase. 2) Cardiac index was increased in the patients during the oliguric phase and was slightly increased in the patients at the hypertensive diuretic phase. It was normal in the other phases. 3) Total peripheral resistance was increased in the hypertensive patients during diuretic phase, while it was normal in the rest of phases. 4) Effective renal plasma flow was significantly reduced in the patients during the oliguric and diuretic phases as well as at one month after the oliguric onset. There was no significant difference between the oliguric and the early diuretic phases. Renal plasma flow in the group of patients at one month after the oliguric onset was about 45% of the normal, however, it returned to normal level at six months after the onset. 5) Clinical syndrome of relative hypervolemia was observed in some patients during the oliguric phase or hypertensive diuretic phase. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were high cardiac output and normal to relatively increased peripheral resistance these cases. Relatively increased circulating blood volumes due to decreased effective vascular space was suggested for the mechanism of relative hypervolemia. 6) Cardiac

  3. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  4. Potentially lethal damage and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms termed fast-and slow-potentially lethal lethal damage (PLD) are introduced and discussed. The effect on the survival of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells (V79) of two different post-treatments is examined in plateau- and in log-phases of growth. The postirradiation treatments used : a) incubation in hypertonic solution, and b) incubation in conditioned medium obtained from plateau-phase. Similar reduction in survival was caused by postirradiation treatment with hypertonic phosphate buffered saline, and similar increased in survival was effected by treatment in conditioned medium in plateau- and in log-phases cells. However, repair of PLD sensitive to hypertonic treatment was faster (half time, 5-10 min)(f-PLD repair) and independent from the repair of PLD (half time, 1-2 hour)(s-PLD repair) observed in conditioned medium. The results indicate the induction of two forms of PLD by radiation. Induction of both PLD was found to decrease with increasing LET of the radiation used. Identification of the molecular processes underlying repair and fixation of PLD is a task of particular interest, since it may allow replacement of a phenomenological definition with a molecular definition. Evidence is reviewed indicating the DNA double strand breaks (directly or indirectly induced) may be the DNA lesions underlying PLD. (author)

  5. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus)

    OpenAIRE

    Puggioni, Giantonella; Cavadini, Patrizia; Maestrale, Caterina; Scivoli, Rosario; Botti, Giuliana; Ligios, Ciriaco; Le Gall-Recul?, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capens...

  6. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively

  7. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  8. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  9. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  10. Hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Kalnin, A.J.; Holodny, A.I. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Schulder, M.; Grigorian, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Sharer, L.R. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1998-11-01

    We describe a hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma involving the sella turcica with suprasellar extension. The CT and MRI appearances mimiked a hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Chondroid chordoma is a variant composed of elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. An uncommon bone neoplasm, located almost exclusively in the spheno-occipital region, it is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of a tumor with acute hemorrhage in the sellar region. We discuss the clinical and radiological characteristics which may allow one to differentiate chondroid chordoma from other tumors of this area. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  11. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  12. Spontaneous muscle hematomas in a patient with Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jency Maria Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and Dengue shock syndrome manifest in various forms, ranging from petechial skin hemorrhage to life threatening cerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and genitourinary hemorrhages. However it is very rare to have muscle hematomas in DHF. We report a rare case of spontaneous Iliopsoas hematoma complicating Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  13. Imaging features of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage; Roentgenmorphologie von diffusen Lungenhaemorrhagien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, M.; Vogel, W.; Horger, M.

    2006-09-15

    There are diverse etiologies of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, so specific diagnosis may be difficult. Conventional radiography tends to be misleading as hemoptysis may lacking in patients with hemorrhagic anemia. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage should be differentiated from focal pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, active infection (tuberculosis) neoplasia, trauma, or embolism. (orig.)

  14. Pre-hospital transfusion of plasma in hemorrhaging trauma patients independently improves hemostatic competence and acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Hanne Herborg; Rahbar, Elaheh; Baer, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    hypothesized that pre-hospital plasma would improve hemostatic function as evaluated by rapid thrombelastography (rTEG). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 257 trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center having received either blood products pre-hospital or in......BACKGROUND: The early use of blood products has been associated with improved patient outcomes following severe hemorrhage or traumatic injury. We aimed to investigate the influence of pre-hospital blood products (i.e. plasma and/or RBCs) on admission hemostatic properties and patient outcomes. We......-hospital within 6 hours of admission. Clinical data on patient demographics, blood biochemistry, injury severity score and mortality were collected. Admission rTEG was conducted to characterize the coagulation profile and hemostatic function. RESULTS: 75 patients received pre-hospital plasma and/or RBCs (PH group...

  15. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm with fundal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kida, Shinya; Nitta, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Shinjiro

    1985-01-01

    CT scan and fundus oculi of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm were investigated in 42 patients who were admitted between January, 1980, and August, 1984. Fundal hemorrhage (FH) was observed in 22 patients. The patients with FH showed a worse clinical grade (Hunt Kosnik) on admission than those without FH. The mortality rate of patients with FH was 64 %, much higher than the 5 % rate of those without FH. Moreover, the patients with FH showed more trouble in daily living than those without FH. CT scans of patients with FH usually showed severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), whereas those of patients without FH showed only mild hemorrhage. These findings suggest that fundal hemorrhage is caused by acute intracranial hypertension following subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. However, no significant correlation between the laterality of FH and the hemispheric dominancy of SAH could be demonstrated. (author)

  16. Small molecule inhibitors of ER α-glucosidases are active against multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinhong; Warren, Travis K; Zhao, Xuesen; Gill, Tina; Guo, Fang; Wang, Lijuan; Comunale, Mary Ann; Du, Yanming; Alonzi, Dominic S; Yu, Wenquan; Ye, Hong; Liu, Fei; Guo, Ju-Tao; Mehta, Anand; Cuconati, Andrea; Butters, Terry D; Bavari, Sina; Xu, Xiaodong; Block, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Host cellular endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidases I and II are essential for the maturation of viral glycosylated envelope proteins that use the calnexin mediated folding pathway. Inhibition of these glycan processing enzymes leads to the misfolding and degradation of these viral glycoproteins and subsequent reduction in virion secretion. We previously reported that, CM-10-18, an imino sugar α-glucosidase inhibitor, efficiently protected the lethality of dengue virus infection of mice. In the current study, through an extensive structure-activity relationship study, we have identified three CM-10-18 derivatives that demonstrated superior in vitro antiviral activity against representative viruses from four viral families causing hemorrhagic fever. Moreover, the three novel imino sugars significantly reduced the mortality of two of the most pathogenic hemorrhagic fever viruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, in mice. Our study thus proves the concept that imino sugars are promising drug candidates for the management of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by variety of viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. WATER PURIFICATION BY COAGULATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASONIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera Borisovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experiments on the in-fluence of ultrasound on the subsidence of suspended materials. The efficiency of coagulation process in wa-ter purification in ultrasound field is estimated. The influence of ultrasound on the water with suspended materials before introducing coagulant was a condition of the experiment. The magnetostriction method for obtaining ultrasound oscillations with the help of ultra-sound generator of batch production was applied. The samples were chosen and the coagulation process was controlled using standard procedures. The experimental data was obtained which estimate the efficiency in-crease in the subsidence of suspended materials de-pending on the duration of ultrasound processing. Dur-ing one minute of ultrasound processing the following results were obtained: the subsidence efficiency in-creased by 25.83 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 2.5 mg/l; the subsidence efficiency increased by 23.70 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 5.0 mg/l.

  18. Vegetable coagulants as alternative for treatment of wastewater in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando López-León

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the various properties of natural coagulants, water, the chemical substance essential for life and the ideal solvent for a large number of compounds, it is commonly used with domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. After its use, it presents sewage to be retired before use it once again. To remove pollutant, water is subject to different physical, chemical and biological processes. Here, the clarification process uses aluminum and iron materials to remove the solids present; these materials are reported as health hazardous and toxic. In Mexico, regulatory frame work stablish that treated wastewater should do not exceed 0.2 mg/L of aluminum even though has been reported an increased risk of Alzheimer's in populations when water exceeds 0.1 mg/L. Natural coagulants have showed coagulation properties when are used in the clarification process, proven its advantages over traditional ones; such as low cost, good coagulant properties and safe health and non-toxic properties. Here, we enlist some vegetable species as alternatives to the traditional based on aluminum and iron. Additionally, these species are known to have origins on Mexico or being present extensively in the territory, making possible to think about them as alternative coagulants in the clarification process of the wastewater treatment process.

  19. Contribution of placenta accreta to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K S

    2015-04-01

    To quantify the contribution of placenta accreta to the rate of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. All hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec) for the years 2009 and 2010 (N=570,637) were included in a retrospective cohort study using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Placenta accreta included placental adhesion to the uterine wall, musculature, and surrounding organs (accreta, increta, or percreta). Severe postpartum hemorrhage included postpartum hemorrhage with blood transfusion, hysterectomy, or other procedures to control bleeding (including uterine suturing and ligation or embolization of pelvic arteries). Rates, rate ratios, population-attributable fractions (ie, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage attributable to placenta accreta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between placenta accreta and risk factors. The incidence of placenta accreta was 14.4 (95% CI 13.4-15.4) per 10,000 deliveries (819 cases among 570,637 deliveries), whereas the incidence of placenta accreta with postpartum hemorrhage was 7.2 (95% CI 6.5-8.0) per 10,000 deliveries. Postpartum hemorrhage among women with placenta accreta was predominantly third-stage hemorrhage (41% of all cases). Although placenta accreta was strongly associated with postpartum hemorrhage (rate ratio 8.3, 95% CI 7.7-8.9), its low frequency resulted in a small population-attributable fraction (1.0%, 95% CI 0.93-1.16). However, the strong association between placenta accreta and postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy (rate ratio 286, 95% CI 226-361) resulted in a population-attributable fraction of 29.0% (95% CI 24.3-34.3). Placenta accreta is too infrequent to account for the recent temporal increase in postpartum hemorrhage but contributes substantially to the proportion of postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  1. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (pstopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  2. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  3. Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGerminal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is the most common variety of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and is characteristics of the premature infant. The importance of the lesion relates not only to its high incidence but to their attendant complications (IC: hydrocephalus. Brain sonography is the procedure of choice in diagnosis of germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study we have used brain sonography for detection of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and their incidences. The studied population was consisted of premature neonate (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks who admitted in Mofid Hospital NICU (Tehran, Iran during a one year period. For all neonate (including criteria brain sonography in first week of life was done and in presence of IVH, serial Brain sonography was done weekly for detection of hydrocephalus. A total of 57 neonate entered the study. Intraventicular-germinal matrix hemorrhage was seen in 64.4% (35 patients. Forty percent of patients with intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage had grade I, 11% grade II, 25.7% grade III, 2.8% grade VI. Hydrocephalus was detected in 20 percent of patients who had intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage. That incidence of IVH in our study in comparison with other area and situation is higher. Hydrocephaly had direct relation with severity of IVH. This shows that with control of risk factor of IVH, we can control Post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

  4. An autopsy case of methanol induced intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jeong; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Young-Jik; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The major component of car washer fluid is a methanol. Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but lethal complication in methanol poisoning. We report a case of massive bilateral basal ganglia hematoma in a 32-year-old man with methanol poisoning. He drank car washer solution twice time (about 500 ml), and was admitted to a territorial hospital 10 hours post-ingestion for depressed mental status, lower blood pressure, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed lesions in both putamen and cerebral deep white matter. Twenty-one days after methanol exposure, he suddenly developed cardiorespiratory arrest. In autopsy, external examination revealed moderate cerebral edema, but no evidence of herniation. Coronal sections of the brain showed softening and about 34 g hematoma in the bilateral putamen and 3rd ventricles. The toxic effect of methanol on the visual system has been noted in the absence of neurologic manifestations; however, there have also been a report of concomitant brain in Korea.

  5. Hemorrhagic Retinopathy after Spondylosis Surgery and Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Francis, Andrew W; Setlur, Vikram; Chang, Peter; Mieler, William F; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    To report bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy in an adult female subject after lumbar spinal surgery and seizure. A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral blurry vision and spots in the visual field. The patient had lumbar spondylosis surgery that was complicated by a dural tear with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Visual symptoms started immediately after witnessed seizure-like activity. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/25 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy with subhyaloid, intraretinal, and subretinal involvement. At 4-month follow-up, visual acuity improved to 20/60 and 20/20 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination and fundus photography showed resolution of retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. The first case of bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy after lumbar spondylosis surgery and witnessed seizure in an adult was reported. Ophthalmic examination may be warranted after episodes of seizure in adults.

  6. Intracerebral hemorrhage complicating viral hepatitis A | Belfquih ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HVA IgM. Eight 8 weeks after, she developed hemorrhagic syndrome coupled with fever associated and persistent jaundice. The blood count showed aregenerative pancytopenia secondary to aplastic anemia confirmed by bone marrow biopsy.

  7. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care includes careful management of the patient’s fluid (hydration) and electrolyte (e.g., sodium, potassium, chloride) levels, ... TG, Peters CJ. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 1997;8(Suppl 1):64-73 . ...

  8. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved...

  9. Glioblastoma Multiforme Presenting as Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Ozdol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage are rarely encountered. Hemorrhage as the initial presentation of a brain tumour may pose some diagnostic problems, especially if the tumour is small or the hemorrhage is abundant. We present a 47-year-old man who admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset headache, right blurred vision and gait disturbance. A non-contrast cranial computerized tomography scan performed immediately after his admission revealed a well circumscribed right occipitoparietal haematoma with intense peripheral edema causing compression of the ipsilateral ventricles. On 6th hour of his admission the patient%u2019s neurological status deteriorated and he subsequently underwent emergent craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation of the haematoma. The histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a glioblastoma multiforme. Neoplasms may be hidden behind each case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Histological sampling and investigation is mandatory in the presence of preoperative radiological features suggesting a neoplasm.

  10. Previously undiagnosed hemophilia patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Atalay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial bleeding in hemophilia patients is a rare but a mortal complication. Diagnosis of hemophilia in adulthood is an uncommon occurrence. In this case report an adult patient with intracranial hemorrhage is presented.

  11. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.

  12. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takamatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities.

  13. Potentialities of embolization of life threatening hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvichev, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author analysed experience in the embolization of the abdominal vessels in 79 patients with diseases and lesions of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by life threatening hemorrhage. In 51 cases embolization was used as an independent method of hemorrhage arrest and in 28 cases for patients' preoperative preparation. A hemostatic sponge combined with a superselective administration of 150-200 ml of aminocaproic acid was used as an emboilizing material. Complications attributed to embolization were noted in 5 patients: pancreatitis, subdiaphragmatic abscess, paranephritis, ischemia of the gluteal soft tissues, sciatic neuritis. An analysis has shown that urgent embolization of the abdominal vessels in diseases and lesions of the organs of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by massive hemorrhage, can be used as an independent method for hemorrhage arrest

  14. How I treat patients with massive hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Oliveri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Massive hemorrhage is associated with coagulopathy and high mortality. The transfusion guidelines up to 2006 recommended that resuscitation of massive hemorrhage should occur in successive steps using crystalloids, colloids and red blood cells (RBC) in the early phase, and plasma and platelets...... in the late phase. With the introduction of the cell-based model of hemostasis in the mid 1990ties, our understanding of the hemostatic process and of coagulopathy has improved. This has contributed to a change in resuscitation strategy and transfusion therapy of massive hemorrhage along with an acceptance...... outcome, although final evidence on outcome from randomized controlled trials are lacking. We here present how we in Copenhagen and Houston, today, manage patients with massive hemorrhage....

  15. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p hemorrhage after 72 h, overall mortality, mortality from pulmonary hemorrhage, surfactant use, intubation time, hospitalization duration, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), severe IVH, patent ductus arteriosus rates, or short-term complication rates. rFVIIa administration was observed to be effective in stopping pulmonary hemorrhage, reducing blood product requirement, and improving coagulation test parameters. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and long-term results of rFVIIa in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants.

  16. Computed tomography of lethal medline granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Suk; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1991-01-01

    In order to clarify the CT findings of lethal midline granuloma (LMG) diagnosed clinically or histopathologically, the authors retrospectively analyzed 12 patients who were seen at Kyungpook National University Hospital from February 1985 to August 1989. CT showed nasal mucosal thickening and / or soft tissue mass (9 case), spreading of the lesions along the facial subcutaneous fat plane (8 cases), invasion into the paranasal sinuses (5 cases), bone destruction (5 cases), nasopharyngeal mass lesion (2 cases), and extension of the lesion into the infratemporal fossa (1 case). In spite of the fact that CT does not make definitive diagnosis of LMG, it permits evaluation of the extent of the lesion, detection of the combined lesion, differential diagnosis, and close monitoring of its evolution under treatment

  17. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U- 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis. (author)

  18. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1983-02-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis.

  19. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  20. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  1. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  2. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  3. Fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc; Marquette, Gerald P; Varin, Jocelyne; Champagne, Josette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version for term breech singleton fetuses and to identify risk factors involved with this complication. A prospective observational study was performed including all patients undergoing a trial of external cephalic version for a breech presentation of at least 36 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2001 in our center. A search for fetal erythrocytes using the standard Kleihauer-Betke test was obtained before and after each external cephalic version. The frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage were calculated. Putative risk factors for fetomaternal hemorrhage were evaluated by chi(2) test and Mann-Whitney U test. A Kleihauer-Betke test result was available before and after 1,311 trials of external cephalic version. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive in 67 (5.1%) before the procedure. Of the 1,244 women with a negative Kleihauer-Betke test before external cephalic version, 30 (2.4%) had a positive Kleihauer-Betke test after the procedure. Ten (0.8%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 1 mL, and one (0.08%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL. The risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage was not influenced by parity, gestational age, body mass index, number of attempts at version, placental location, or amniotic fluid index. The risk of detectable fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version was 2.4%, with fetomaternal hemorrhage more than 30 mL in less than 0.1% of cases. These data suggest that the performance of a Kleihauer-Betke test is unwarranted in uneventful external cephalic version and that in Rh-negative women, no further Rh immune globulin is necessary other than the routine 300-microgram dose at 28 weeks of gestation and postpartum. II.

  4. Treatment for Supra-tentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    長島, 梧郎; 藤本, 司; 鈴木, 龍太; 浅井, 潤一郎; 松永, 篤子; 張, 智為; 永井, 美穂; Goro, NAGASHIMA; Tsukasa, FUJIMOTO; Ryuta, SUZUKI; Jun-ichiro, ASAI; Atsuko, MATSUNAGA; Tomoo, CHANG; Miho, NAGAI; 昭和大学藤が丘病院脳神経外科

    2002-01-01

    Only vague guidelines exist for the surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the indications for surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage and compared the outcomes of computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration with those after hematoma removal under craniotomy. Our indications for CT-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration were an age < 80 years old, a hematoma volume ≧ 10 ml, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≦ 14. Those for hemat...

  5. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  6. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.; Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI

    1988-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography. (orig.)

  7. A Case of Rivaroxaban Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chin-Yu Lo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban is a newer anticoagulant initially approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Rivaroxaban has several characteristics that are more favorable than warfarin. One of the characteristics is decreased risk of hemorrhage. We report one of the first case reports of severe intracranial hemorrhage associated with rivaroxaban in an elderly patient with decreased renal function. We aim to alert emergency medicine providers regarding the likelihood of encountering these patient as newer anticoagulants rise in popularity.

  8. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  9. Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)

  10. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbal, F.; Camci, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. By chemical coagulation, Cu-, Cr-, and Ni-removal of 99.9 % was achieved with aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride dosages of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Removal of metals by electrocoagulation was affected by the electrode material, wastewater pH, current density, number of electrodes, and electrocoagulation time. Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}, electrocoagulation time of 20 min, and pH 3.0 resulted in 99.9 % Cu-, 99.9 % Cr-, and 98 % Ni-removal. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Exploration by radioactive fibrinogen of intrarenal coagulation phenomena. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The participation of fibrin deposits in kidney pathology was studied by the use of a radioactive tracer involved in the coagulation phenomenon: iodine 131-labelled fibrinogen. The isotopic exploration consists of a fibrinogen kinetics study combined with external counting over the kidney regions. The different stages of the procedure are described: separation, purification and labelling of fibrinogen; characteristics of the radioactive fibrinogen used; practical details of the examination itself; data analysis method. A chapter devoted to verifications and discussions of the procedure is followed by a report on the exploration of intrarenal coagulation phenomena in 30 kidney disease patients. In conclusion, the study of fibrinogen kinetics is considered as the most suitable method to detect local or slight intravascular coagulation phenomena. The sensitivity of the isotopic exploration is very satisfactory. The main criticism directed against this method is that the exploration is general and therefore blind [fr

  12. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TRAITEMENT DES EAUX USEES PAR COAGULATION-FLOCULATION EN UTILISANT LE SULFATE D’ALUMINIUM COMME COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora SEGHAIRI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation is widely used internationally. This treatment reduces color and turbidity, indicating organic and inorganic contaminants, but at acceptable levels for treated waste water discharged into the receiving environment. The objective of this study is to optimize the treatment of wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using aluminum sulphate as a coagulant. Various reaction parameters are taken into account, such as the coagulant dose, the pH of the solutions, the conductivity, the BOD5, the nitrates, the ammonium and the phosphates. We found from the different results obtained the optimal dose of aluminum sulphate is 400 mg/l with a reduction of 96.31%, 82.44% 90.95% and 78.74% respectively for phosphates, nitrates, ammonium and BOD5. It is recognized that pH influences the abatement rates of pollution contained in wastewater. For each water, there is a pH range for which coagulation- flocculation takes place rapidly. For our study, the optimum pH for removal of BOD5 and ammonium is between 6 and 7.

  14. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  15. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Coagulation-flocculation studies of laboratory wastewater using different combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M. T.; Khan, R. A.; Khokar, A.; Iqbal, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted on the wastewater of PCSIR Laboratories complex Lahore. Both single as well as blended form was used in order to achieve maximum results and to reduce the cost. These experiments were conducted in Hudson Jars of one liter capacity using the coagulation technique for the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. The pH range was 6-8 and 4-10 for treatment. Four coagulants were used such as FeCl 3 , AlCl 3 . Alum and FeSO 4 , to remove the turbidity in single and blended form. Results of single coagulant are FeCl 3 from 39.7 to 11.51 NTU; AlCl 3 from 47.48 to 11.8 NTU. Alum 43 to 25.3NTU.FeSO 4 showed increasing trend in turbidity 53 to 120 NTU. The blended set of coagulants AlCl 3 +Alum turbidity from 45 to 18.55 NTU. The AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 showed almost similar results but after overnight settling results were excellent and alum showed also good results. The turbidity was removed from 54 to 27 NTU, 48 to 22 NTU, 44 to 17 NTU, and after overnight settling 33 to 4 NTU. The results of blended coagulants FeCl 3 +AlCl 3 after one, two and three hours settling were also studied and found best and blend AlCl3+Alum showed also similar trend and the blend of Alum+FeCl 3 after overnight settling was excellent. The same coagulants and its blended form were used for TSS removal and results are 278 to 7 mg/L, in blended form AlCl 3 +Alum show similar results but Alum + FeCl 3 showed excellent results. The TSS and turbidity removal was 87%, 97.5%. (author)

  18. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  19. Reincarnation of ancient links between coagulation and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E M

    2015-06-01

    Throughout evolution, organisms have developed means to contain wounds by simultaneously limiting bleeding and eliminating pathogens and damaged host cells via the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. Disease emerges when there is unchecked activation of innate immune and/or coagulation responses. A key component of innate immunity is the complement system. Concurrent excess activation of coagulation and complement - two major blood-borne proteolytic pathways - is evident in numerous diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, venous thromboembolic disease, thrombotic microangiopathies, arthritis, cancer, and infectious diseases. Delineating the cross-talk between these two cascades will uncover novel therapeutic insights. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. CT findings of falical and tentorial subdural hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Jung, Nam Keun; Kim, Kab Tae; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography has been established as an indispensable tool in the detection of intracranial hemorrhages. Extra axial fluid collections are usually easily distinguished from intracerebral hemorrhages. However, hemorrhages in atypical locations, such as in falx and tentorial regions, can be difficult to diagnose with CT. The tentorial and falcial collection of subdural blood are rather unusual. Authors report here 84 cases of falcial and tentorial subdural hemorrhages with reference data that we have encountered in the last two years. The results were as follows; 1. In 589 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, the incidence of subdural hemorrhage was 372 cases (63.2%). 2. Among 372 cases with subdural hemorrhage, 84 cases (22.6%) had falcial and/or tentorial subdural hemorrhage. In 84 cases with falcial and/or tentorial subdural hemorrhage, there were 50 cases (13.4%) of falcial subdural hemorrhages, 21 cases (5.7%) of tentorial subdural hemorrhage and 13 cases (3.5%) of combined falcial and tentorial subdural hemorrhage. 3. The location of falcial subdural hemorrhage was anterior in 30 cases (60%), posterior in 15 cases (30%) and middle in 5 cases (10%). 4. The location of tentorial subdural hemorrhage was petrous edge in 7 cases (33.3%), occipital attachment in 6 cases (28.6%), tentorial hiatus in 5 cases (23.8%), and diffuse in 3 cases (14.3%). 5. In 13 cases showing combined falcial and tentorial subdural hemorrhage, there was 3 cases (23.1%) of posterior falx and tentorial hiatus, 2 cases (15.4%) of anterior falx and petrous edge, 2 cases of anterior falx and tentorial hiatus, 2 cases of posterior falx and petrous edge, 2 cases of posterior falx and occipital attachment, 1 case (7.7%) of posterior falx and diffuse, and 1 case of posterior, middle falx and diffuse. 6. In the cases with falcial and/or tentorial subdural hemorrhage, the incidence of associated intracranial hemorrhage were intracrania subdural hemorrhage in 40 cases (47.6%), hemorrhagic brain

  1. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Fc Fusion Protein Protects Guinea Pigs against Lethal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Bradfute, Steven B.; Nakamura, Siham; Bavari, Sina; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV) GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc) protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge. Here, we show that the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine formulated with QS-21, alum, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) adjuvants induced strong humoral immune responses in guinea pigs. The vaccinated animals developed anti-GP total antibody titers of approximately 105−106 and neutralizing antibody titers of approximately 103 as assessed by a BSL-2 neutralization assay based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes. The poly-ICLC formulated EBOVgp-Fc vaccine protected all the guinea pigs against EBOV lethal challenge performed under BSL-4 conditions whereas the same vaccine formulated with QS-21 or alum only induced partial protection. Vaccination with a mucin-deleted EBOVgp-Fc construct formulated with QS-21 adjuvant did not have a significant effect in anti-GP antibody levels and protection against EBOV lethal challenge compared to the full-length GP construct. The bulk of the humoral response induced by the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine was directed against epitopes outside the EBOV mucin region. Our findings indicate that different adjuvants can eliciting varying levels of protection against lethal EBOV challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with EBOVgp-Fc, and suggest that levels of total anti-GP antibodies elicit by protein-based GP subunit vaccines do not correlate with protection. Our data further support

  2. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Fc Fusion Protein Protects Guinea Pigs against Lethal Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Shurtleff, Amy C; Bradfute, Steven B; Nakamura, Siham; Bavari, Sina; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV) GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc) protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge. Here, we show that the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine formulated with QS-21, alum, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) adjuvants induced strong humoral immune responses in guinea pigs. The vaccinated animals developed anti-GP total antibody titers of approximately 105-106 and neutralizing antibody titers of approximately 103 as assessed by a BSL-2 neutralization assay based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes. The poly-ICLC formulated EBOVgp-Fc vaccine protected all the guinea pigs against EBOV lethal challenge performed under BSL-4 conditions whereas the same vaccine formulated with QS-21 or alum only induced partial protection. Vaccination with a mucin-deleted EBOVgp-Fc construct formulated with QS-21 adjuvant did not have a significant effect in anti-GP antibody levels and protection against EBOV lethal challenge compared to the full-length GP construct. The bulk of the humoral response induced by the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine was directed against epitopes outside the EBOV mucin region. Our findings indicate that different adjuvants can eliciting varying levels of protection against lethal EBOV challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with EBOVgp-Fc, and suggest that levels of total anti-GP antibodies elicit by protein-based GP subunit vaccines do not correlate with protection. Our data further support

  3. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Fc Fusion Protein Protects Guinea Pigs against Lethal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Konduru

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV, a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge. Here, we show that the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine formulated with QS-21, alum, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC adjuvants induced strong humoral immune responses in guinea pigs. The vaccinated animals developed anti-GP total antibody titers of approximately 105-106 and neutralizing antibody titers of approximately 103 as assessed by a BSL-2 neutralization assay based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV pseudotypes. The poly-ICLC formulated EBOVgp-Fc vaccine protected all the guinea pigs against EBOV lethal challenge performed under BSL-4 conditions whereas the same vaccine formulated with QS-21 or alum only induced partial protection. Vaccination with a mucin-deleted EBOVgp-Fc construct formulated with QS-21 adjuvant did not have a significant effect in anti-GP antibody levels and protection against EBOV lethal challenge compared to the full-length GP construct. The bulk of the humoral response induced by the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine was directed against epitopes outside the EBOV mucin region. Our findings indicate that different adjuvants can eliciting varying levels of protection against lethal EBOV challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with EBOVgp-Fc, and suggest that levels of total anti-GP antibodies elicit by protein-based GP subunit vaccines do not correlate with protection. Our data

  4. [Hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, G; Buffone, A; Cicciarella, G; di Mari, P; Cirino, E

    2004-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are usually asymptomatic; they are usually identified occasionally during ultrasound or C.T. scans (incidentaloma). Among adrenal cysts the most common types are epithelial cysts and pseudocysts. Intracystic haemorrhage is one of the possible complications of adrenal pseudocysts. We report a case of a young woman with right superior abdominal pain, fever and acute anemia. A C.T. scan showed a 10 cm. mass between the liver and the right kidney. To be sure of the nature of this mass also M.R., urography and C.T.-guided biopsy were carried out. This latter only let us make the final diagnosis of hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst. Thereafter, a laparotomic right adrenalectomy was performed, with full recovery of the patient. Adrenal cysts may cause differential diagnostic problems with masses of contiguous organs like kidney, liver and gallbladder. For this reason, ultrasound and C.T. scans may not be sufficient and must be completed by M.R., urography and/or C.T.-guided biopsy. Intracystic hamorrhage, spontaneous or post-traumatic, may cause to the patient acute anemia which, as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, indicates surgery. The operation usually is a laparotomic adrenalectomy, since the laparoscopic approach is not sufficient to control large masses with active bleeding inside.

  5. The pro-coagulant fibrinogenolytic serine protease isoenzymes purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom coagulate the blood through factor V activation: role of glycosylation on enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis K Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Proteases from Russell's viper venom (RVV induce a variety of toxic effects in victim. Therefore, four new RVV protease isoenzymes of molecular mass 32901.044 Da, 333631.179 Da, 333571.472 Da, and 34594.776 Da, were characterized in this study. The first 10 N-terminal residues of these serine protease isoenzymes showed significant sequence homology with N-terminal sequences of snake venom thrombin-like and factor V-activating serine proteases, which was reconfirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. These proteases were found to be different from previously reported factor V activators isolated from snake venoms. These proteases showed significantly different fibrinogenolytic, BAEE-esterase and plasma clotting activities but no fibrinolytic, TAME-esterase or amidolytic activity against the chromogenic substrate for trypsin, thrombin, plasmin and factor Xa. Their Km and Vmax values towards fibrinogen were determined in the range of 6.6 to 10.5 µM and 111.0 to 125.5 units/mg protein, respectively. On the basis of fibrinogen degradation pattern, they may be classified as A/B serine proteases isolated from snake venom. These proteases contain ∼ 42% to 44% of N-linked carbohydrates by mass whereas partially deglycosylated enzymes showed significantly less catalytic activity as compared to native enzymes. In vitro these protease isoenzymes induce blood coagulation through factor V activation, whereas in vivo they provoke dose-dependent defibrinogenation and anticoagulant activity in the mouse model. At a dose of 5 mg/kg, none of these protease isoenzymes were found to be lethal in mice or house geckos, suggesting therapeutic application of these anticoagulant peptides for the prevention of thrombosis.

  6. The Coagulant Type Influence on Removal Efficiency of 5- and 6-Ring Pahs During Water Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results on investigation of the removal efficiency of selected 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene from water during coagulation and sedimentation process. Two pre-hydrolyzed aluminum coagulants: PAX XL 19H and FLOKOR 105V were chosen for research. Process was carried out at optimum process parameters: rapid-mixing - 3 min at the rotational speed of 200 rpm, slow mixing - 10 min at 30 rpm, sedimentation - 60 min. The removal effectiveness was dependant on coagulant type and its composition. Better results in the removal of 5-and 6-ring PAHs were obtained after application of FLOKOR 105V (lower aluminum content than after using PAX XL 19H.

  7. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora. The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1 TSS (25 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1 TSS (83 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  8. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  9. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  10. Networks of enzymatically oxidized membrane lipids support calcium-dependent coagulation factor binding to maintain hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauder, S.N.; Allen-Redpath, K.; Slatter, D.A.; Aldrovandi, M.; O'Connor, A.; Farewell, D.; Percy, C.L.; Molhoek, J.E.; Rannikko, S.; Tyrrell, V.J.; Ferla, S.; Milne, G.L.; Poole, A.W.; Thomas, C.P.; Obaji, S.; Taylor, P.R.; Jones, S.A.; Groot, P.G. de; Urbanus, R.T.; Horkko, S.; Uderhardt, S.; Ackermann, J.; Jenkins, P.V.; Brancale, A.; Kronke, G.; Collins, P.W.; O'Donnell, V.B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation functions as part of the innate immune system by preventing bacterial invasion, and it is critical to stopping blood loss (hemostasis). Coagulation involves the external membrane surface of activated platelets and leukocytes. Using lipidomic, genetic, biochemical, and mathematical

  11. Therapeutic intervention in disseminated intravascular coagulation: have we made any progress in the last millennium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert; van der Poll, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. Recent knowledge on important pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to DIC has resulted in novel preventive and

  12. Evaluation of Resuscitation Fluids on Endothelial Glycocalyx, Venular Blood Flow, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Associateship at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, and I.T.F. was employed by Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro and Premier Consulting...Dawley rats (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA; body weight, 220 T 10 g) breathing spontaneously 100% oxygen were maintained under isoflurane (2...diffusion of small solutes. Microvasc Res. 2010;80(3):394Y401. 22. Harris PD, Longnecker DE , Greenwald EK, Miller FN. Small vessel constriction in the

  13. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean

  14. Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Jordan; Dobson, James; Casewell, Nicholas R; Romilio, Anthony; Li, Bin; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Mardon, Karine; Weisbecker, Vera; Nouwens, Amanda; Kwok, Hang Fai; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-05-19

    Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang ( Dispholidus typus ) and the twig snakes ( Thelotornis species) are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D. typus , and the mechanisms of action of both venoms have been understudied. In this study, we investigated the venom of D. typus and T. mossambicanus utilising a range of proteomic and bioactivity approaches, including determining the procoagulant properties of both venoms in relation to the human coagulation pathways. In doing so, we developed a novel procoagulant assay, utilising a Stago STA-R Max analyser, to accurately detect real time clotting in plasma at varying concentrations of venom. This approach was used to assess the clotting capabilities of the two venoms both with and without calcium and phospholipid co-factors. We found that T. mossambicanus produced a significantly stronger coagulation response compared to D. typus . Functional enzyme assays showed that T. mossambicanus also exhibited a higher metalloprotease and phospholipase activity but had a much lower serine protease activity relative to D. typus venom. The neutralising capability of the available boomslang antivenom was also investigated on both species, with it being 11.3 times more effective upon D. typus venom than T. mossambicanus . In addition to being a faster clotting venom, T. mossambicanus was revealed to be a much more complex venom composition than D. typus . This is consistent with patterns seen for other snakes with venom complexity linked to dietary complexity. Consistent with the external

  15. Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Debono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D. typus, and the mechanisms of action of both venoms have been understudied. In this study, we investigated the venom of D. typus and T. mossambicanus utilising a range of proteomic and bioactivity approaches, including determining the procoagulant properties of both venoms in relation to the human coagulation pathways. In doing so, we developed a novel procoagulant assay, utilising a Stago STA-R Max analyser, to accurately detect real time clotting in plasma at varying concentrations of venom. This approach was used to assess the clotting capabilities of the two venoms both with and without calcium and phospholipid co-factors. We found that T. mossambicanus produced a significantly stronger coagulation response compared to D. typus. Functional enzyme assays showed that T. mossambicanus also exhibited a higher metalloprotease and phospholipase activity but had a much lower serine protease activity relative to D. typus venom. The neutralising capability of the available boomslang antivenom was also investigated on both species, with it being 11.3 times more effective upon D. typus venom than T. mossambicanus. In addition to being a faster clotting venom, T. mossambicanus was revealed to be a much more complex venom composition than D. typus. This is consistent with patterns seen for other snakes with venom complexity linked to dietary complexity. Consistent with the

  16. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  17. Modeling Acute Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Injury: Challenges and Guidelines for Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L; Watts, Sarah A; Reynolds, Penny S; Thiemermann, Christoph; Brohi, Karim

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is responsible for a large proportion of the world's burden of disease, and is by far the biggest killer of young adults. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death and its effects are directly correlated with the incidence multi-organ failure in survivors. Trauma research is challenging due to patient heterogeneity, limited randomized controlled trials, and in vitro studies that fail to mimic the systemic injury response. Preclinical research remains essential for mechanistic and therapeutic discovery. Yet modeling the multifaceted nature of traumatic injury poses important experimental and welfare challenges associated with the onset of injury and prehospital and intra-operative care, the limited inter-species validation of coagulation profiles, the use of anesthesia/analgesia, and its impact on the systemic response to trauma; and the challenge of sustaining intensive care in recovery models. Proper model selection depends on the purpose of a given model and the criteria by which the experimental readouts will be clinically relevant. Such complexity warrants further refinement of experimental methodology and outcome measures to improve its clinical efficacy, while ensuring animal well-being. We review the experimental methodologies currently used for modeling traumatic hemorrhagic shock and addressing their impact on clinical translation. The aim of the review is to improve transparency and form a consensus when reporting methodology in trauma modeling.

  18. [Risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage in the neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Hei, Ming-Yan; Huang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a municipal hospital, and to provide a basis for the early identification and treatment of NPH. A total of 112 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Shaoyang Central Hospital of Hunan Province and diagnosed with NPH were enrolled as the case group. A nested case-control method was used to select, as a control group (n=224), the neonates who underwent the treatment with an assisted mechanical ventilator and did not experience pulmonary hemorrhage. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to identify the high risk factors for NPH. The univariate analysis showed that compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher incidence rates of gestational diabetes and cholestasis in mothers, cesarean delivery, gestational age <34 weeks, 5-minute Apgar score ≤5, birth weight <2 500 g, heart failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) before the development of NPH, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (oxygenation index, OI) ≤100, and a reduction in mean platelet volume. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that DIC, heart failure, and OI ≤100 were independent risk factors for NPH (OR=33.975, 3.975, 1.818 respectively; P<0.05). Heart failure, OI ≤100, and DIC are risk factors for the development of NPH in the NICU of the municipal hospital.

  19. Liver repair and hemorrhage control using laser soldering of liquid albumin in a porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Yasmin; Xie, Hua; Kajitani, Michio; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser soldering using liquid albumin for welding liver lacerations and sealing raw surfaces created by segmental resection of a lobe. Major liver trauma has a high mortality due to immediate exsanguination and a delayed morbidity and mortality from septicemia, peritonitis, biliary fistulae and delayed secondary hemorrhage. Eight laceration injuries (6 cm long X 2 cm deep) and eight non-anatomical resection injuries (raw surface 6 cm X 2 cm) were repaired. An 805 nm laser was used to weld 53% liquid albumin-ICG solder to the liver surface, reinforcing it with a free autologous omental scaffold. The animals were heparinized to simulate coagulation failure and hepatic inflow occlusion was used for vascular control. For both laceration and resection injuries, eight soldering repairs each were evaluated at three hours. A single suture repair of each type was evaluated at three hours. All 16 laser mediated liver repairs were accompanied by minimal blood loss as compared to the suture controls. No dehiscence, hemorrhage or bile leakage was seen in any of the laser repairs after three hours. In conclusion laser fusion repair of the liver is a quick and reliable technique to gain hemostasis on the cut surface as well as weld lacerations.

  20. How Hemorrhage Control Became Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alan James

    2018-02-27

    Just over 200 years ago, surgeons were puzzled that the use of the tourniquet to control hemorrhage as common sense during surgery was a relatively recent development. Within the last 20 years, much progress has been made to controlling hemorrhage in the prehospital context. Then, as now, it was surprising that progress on something that appeared obvious had occurred only recently, begging the question how controlling blood loss was common sense in a surgical context, but not for emergency treatment. Paper is a historical survey of the evolution of the medical understanding of hemorrhage along with technological response. The danger of blood loss had historically been consistently underestimated as physicians looked at other explanations for symptoms of how the human body responded to trauma. As the danger from hemorrhage became apparent, even obvious, responsibility for hemorrhage control was delegated down from the surgeon to the paramedic and eventually to individual service members and civilian bystanders with training to "Stop the Bleed." Hippocratic medicine assumed that blood diffused centrifugally into periphery through arteries. William Harvey's observation in 1615 that blood ran through a closed circulatory system gradually transformed conventional wisdom about blood loss, leading to the development of the tourniquet about a century later by Jean-Louis Petit, which made amputation of limbs survivable. However, physicians were cautious about their application during the First World War over concerns over effects on patient recovery. Hemorrhage had generally been seen as symptom to be managed until the patient would be seen by a surgeon who would stop the bleeding. More thorough collection and analysis of data related to case histories of soldiers wounded during the Vietnam Conflict transformed how surgeons understood the importance to hemorrhage leading to development of the doctrine of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the late 1990's. economic

  1. Fast FLAIR MR images of intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Hye Young; Cho, Young A; Kim, Wha Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging according to various stages, and to compare FLAIR imaging with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images along with spin-echo T1- and T2 weighted MR images of 32 lesions in 25 patients (12 males and 14 females, aged 3 - 84 yrs) with intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. For imaging, 1.5 T unit was used, and the nature of the lesions was found to be as follows : intracranial hemorrhage (n=15); tumor (n=9); infarction (n=4); arteriovenous malformation (n=3); and arachnoid cyst with hemorrhage (n=1). On the basis of spin-echo MR imaging, lesions were classified as acute, early subacute, late subacute, early chronic, or late chronic stage. The signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage were analysed in accordance with each staging, as seen on MR FLAIR imaging, and compared to the staging seen on spin-echo T1- and T-2 weighted MR imaging. The signal intensity of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on FLAIR imaging, was not characteristic; it was similar to that of T2WI during the acute and subacute stages, and similiar to that of T1WI during the chronic stage. When used together with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging, however, FLAIR imaging may be useful for the classification of chronic intracranial hemorrhage as either early or late stage. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Surgical evacuation of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ashraf Shaker; Abdel-Hady, Hesham

    2011-03-01

    Although the incidence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in neonates has dramatically decreased in the developed world since the adoption of routine vitamin K prophylaxis, in developing countries the incidence is still high. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most dangerous complication. Early recognition and management are important to decrease the mortality rate and neurological sequelae. The authors conducted a prospective study between January 2008 and June 2010. They included all full-term neonates referred to the Department of Neurosurgery at Mansoura University Children's Hospital with ICH complicating VKDB and necessitating surgical evacuation. The objective was to evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, hospital course, and outcome of ICH in full-term neonates with VKDB after surgical evacuation. Thirty-two neonates with ICH due to VKDB were included. Diagnosis and classification of ICH were based on detailed history, physical examination, and the interpretation of CT or MR imaging studies. The diagnosis of VKDB was based on pretreatment coagulation studies (prothrombin time [PT] and partial thromboplastin time [PTT]), which are grossly abnormal, together with a normal platelet count and correction of coagulation results to normal after vitamin K administration. The mean age (± SD) at onset of symptoms was 20.4 ± 4.9 days. Two neonates (6.25%) had early VKDB, 7 (21.9%) had classic VKDB, and 23 (71.9%) had late VKDB. The most common neurological manifestations included focal seizures, disturbed consciousness level, and tense anterior fontanel. The most common general manifestations included pallor, respiratory distress, and bleeding from other sites. Radiological findings varied from acute subdural hemorrhage (SDH) in 18 cases (56.3%), intracerebral hemorrhage in 10 (31.3%), and acute SDH with underlying intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in 4 (12.5%). Before administration of vitamin K

  3. Characterization of coagulation factor synthesis in nine human primary cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty, Monireh; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Spek, C. Arnold; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    The coagulation/fibrinolysis system is essential for wound healing after vascular injury. According to the standard paradigm, the synthesis of most coagulation factors is restricted to liver, platelets and endothelium. We challenged this interpretation by measuring coagulation factors in nine human

  4. Demonstration of the Coagulation and Diffusion of Homemade Slime Prepared under Acidic Conditions without Borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Naho; Fueda, Kazuki; Miyagawa, Korin; Kanno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precipitates in many kinds of aqueous salt solutions. While sodium sulfate, a coagulant for PVA fiber, precipitates PVA to yield a white rigid gel, coagulation of PVA with aluminum sulfate, a coagulant for water treatment, yields a slime-like viscoelastic fluid. One type of homemade slime is prepared under basic…

  5. Coagulation profile of children with sickle cell anemia in steady state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may lead to alterations in a coagulation profile. Measurements of coagulation factors are known to have some predictive value for clinical outcome. Objectives: To determine the coagulation profile of children with SCA in steady state and crisis ...

  6. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  7. Preferential effects of low volume versus high volume replacement with crystalloid fluid in a hemorrhagic shock model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponschab, Martin; Schöchl, Herbert; Keibl, Claudia; Fischer, Henrik; Redl, Heinz; Schlimp, Christoph J

    2015-10-06

    Fluid resuscitation is a core stone of hemorrhagic shock therapy, and crystalloid fluids seem to be associated with lower mortality compared to colloids. However, as redistribution starts within minutes, it has been suggested to replace blood loss with a minimum of a three-fold amount of crystalloids. The hypothesis was that in comparison to high volume (HV), a lower crystalloid volume (LV) achieves a favorable coagulation profile and exerts sufficient haemodynamics in the acute phase of resuscitation. In 24 anaesthetized pigs, controlled arterial blood loss of 50 % of the estimated blood volume was either (n = 12) replaced with a LV (one-fold) or a HV (three-fold) volume of a balanced, acetated crystalloid solution at room temperature. Hemodynamic parameters, dilution effects and coagulation profile by standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry at baseline and after resuscitation were determined in both groups. LV resuscitation increased MAP significantly less compared to the HV, 61 ± 7 vs. 82 ± 14 mmHg (p controlled blood loss, a one fold LV crystalloid replacement strategy is sufficient to adequately raise blood pressure up to a mean arterial pressure >50 mm Hg. The concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR) with permissive hypotension may be better met by using LV as compared to a three fold HV resuscitation strategy. High volume administration of an acetated balanced crystalloid does not lead to hyperchloraemic acidosis, but may negatively influence clinical parameters, such as higher blood pressure, lower body temperature and impaired coagulation parameters, which could potentially increase bleeding after trauma. Replacement of acute blood loss with just an equal amount of an acetated balanced crystalloid appears to be the preferential treatment strategy in the acute phase after controlled bleeding.

  8. Comparison of coagulation activity tests in vitro for selected biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeveren, W; Haan, J; Lagerman, P; Schoen, T

    Testing of coagulation induced by external communicating medical devices is an International Standardisation Organization (ISO) requirement for products exposed to human blood. Four categories of tests are indicated by ISO 10993/4: a clotting test (partial thromboplastin time; PTT), thrombin

  9. Bladder perforation owing to a unipolar coagulating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakter, J; Budnick, L D

    1981-09-15

    A report on a patient who sustained a burn and perforation of the urinary bladder from visible sparks emanating from a unipolar coagulating device during the couse of laparoscopic sterilization is presented. It is the first report of urinary bladder burns using a unipolar coagulating device. A 24-year-old woman, gravida 10, para 3, abortus 7, underwent a laparoscopic sterilization with a unipolar coagulating device. As the physician was finishing the coagulation, a spark from the device caused a 1-2 cm burn with a central area of perforation into the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment was recommended, and consisted of Foley catheterization and drainage for 5 days. Initial urine culture revealed Klebsiella species, and oral ampicillin was prescribed. Hematuria was noted throughout the patient's hospitalization, and blood clots were present in the urine on Day 2 postoperation. The patient had no abdominal or flank pain, was afebrile, and had a stable hemoglobin level during the hospital stay. Cystography was performed on Day 5 postoperatively and demonstrated no perforation. Foley catheter was removed. Patient was discharged 2 days later and remains in good health 3 months postoperatively.

  10. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  11. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD), soap oil and grease (SOG), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from the MOW were used as the response variables for the coagulation flotation process. This was done with a standard dissolved air flotation jar test. The results show that the actual COD, SOG, TSS ...

  12. The Inflammatory Actions of Coagulant and Fibrinolytic Proteases in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schuliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aside from their role in hemostasis, coagulant and fibrinolytic proteases are important mediators of inflammation in diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. The blood circulating zymogens of these proteases enter damaged tissue as a consequence of vascular leak or rupture to become activated and contribute to extravascular coagulation or fibrinolysis. The coagulants, factor Xa (FXa, factor VIIa (FVIIa, tissue factor, and thrombin, also evoke cell-mediated actions on structural cells (e.g., fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells or inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages via the proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs. Plasmin, the principle enzymatic mediator of fibrinolysis, also forms toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 activating fibrin degradation products (FDPs and can release latent-matrix bound growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Furthermore, the proteases that convert plasminogen into plasmin (e.g., urokinase plasminogen activator evoke plasmin-independent proinflammatory actions involving coreceptor activation. Selectively targeting the receptor-mediated actions of hemostatic proteases is a strategy that may be used to treat inflammatory disease without the bleeding complications of conventional anticoagulant therapies. The mechanisms by which proteases of the coagulant and fibrinolytic systems contribute to extravascular inflammation in disease will be considered in this review.

  13. Reduction of Turbidity of Water Using Locally Available Natural Coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Hossain, Md. Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed. PMID:23724307

  14. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  15. Valproic acid modulates platelet and coagulation function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E; Halaweish, Ihab

    2017-01-01

    of coagulopathy, it remains unknown whether this is a direct effect of the drug, or the establishment of an overall prosurvival phenotype. We thus conducted an ex-vivo experiment to determine if VPA has an effect on coagulation and platelet function. Ten swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI...

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Sysmex CS-5100 Automated Coagulation Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation testing is widely applied clinically, and laboratories increasingly demand automated coagulation analyzers with short turn-around times and high-throughput. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Sysmex CS-5100 automated coagulation analyzer for routine use in a clinical laboratory. The prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), and D-dimer were compared between the Sysmex CS-5100 and Sysmex CA-7000 analyzers, and the imprecision, comparison, throughput, STAT function, and performance for abnormal samples were measured in each. The within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) for the PT, APTT, INR, and D-dimer analyses showed excellent results both in the normal and pathologic ranges. The correlation coefficients between the Sysmex CS-5100 and Sysmex CA-7000 were highly correlated. The throughput of the Sysmex CS-5100 was faster than that of the Sysmex CA-7000. There was no interference at all by total bilirubin concentrations and triglyceride concentrations in the Sysmex CS-5100 analyzer. We demonstrated that the Sysmex CS-5100 performs with satisfactory imprecision and is well suited for coagulation analysis in laboratories processing large sample numbers and icteric and lipemic samples.

  17. Dust Coagulation in Infalling Protostellar Envelopes I. Compact Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, H.; Lin, D.; Suttner, G.

    1999-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the optical, thermodynamic and gas dynamical behavior of collapsing molecular cores. Because of relative velocities of the individual dust grains, coagulation and shattering can modify the grain size distribution and -- due to corresponding changes in the medium's opacity significantly -- influence the evolution during early phases of star formation.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize the removal of natural organic matter in water (Case study: drinking water of Mashhad's ... and in addition to giving taste, color and odor to the water, they can intervene in the oxidization and removal of heavy metals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

  19. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczyk, Jeremi; Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Kowalik, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the treatment process of three cosmetic wastewater types has been investigated. Coagulation allowed to achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 74.6%, 37.7% and 74.0% for samples A (Al2(SO4)3), B (Brentafloc F3) and C (PAX 16), respectively. The Fenton process proved to be effective as well - COD removal was equal to 75.1%, 44.7% and 68.1%, respectively. Coagulation with FeCl3 and the subsequent photo-Fenton process resulted in the best values of final COD removal equal to 92.4%, 62.8% and 90.2%. In case of the Fenton process, after coagulation these values were equal to 74.9%, 50.1% and 84.8%, while in case of the H2O2/UV process, the obtained COD removal was 83.8%, 36.2% and 80.9%. High value of COD removal in the Fenton process carried out for A and C wastewater samples was caused by a significant contribution of the final neutralization/coagulation. Very small effect of the oxidation reaction in the Fenton process in case of sample A resulting from the presence of antioxidants, 'OH radical scavengers' in the wastewater.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF FLOCCULATION PROCESS BY MICROBIAL COAGULANT IN RIVER WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Nabilah Murad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing process of coagulation and flocculation are using chemicals that known as cationic coagulant such as alum, ferric sulfate, calcium oxide, and organic polymers.  Thus, this study concentrates on optimizing of flocculation process by microbial coagulant in river water. Turbidity and suspended solids are the main constraints of river water quality in Malaysia. Hence, a study is proposed to produce microbial coagulants isolated locally for river water treatment. The chosen microbe used as the bioflocculant producer is Aspergillus niger. The parameters to optimization in the flocculation process were pH, bioflocculant dosage and effluent concentration. The research was done in the jar test process and the process parameters for maximum turbidity removal was validated. The highest flocculating activity was obtained on day seven of cultivation in the supernatant. The optimum pH and bioflocculant dosage for an optimize sedimentation process were between 4-5 and 2-3 mL for 0.3 g/L of effluent concentration respectively. The model was validated by using a river water sample from Sg. Pusu and the result showed that the model was acceptable to evaluate the bioflocculation process.

  1. Application of Moringa peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamed.B

    aqueous effluents from various manufacturing processes such as petroleum and ... rubber, plastics, paper, oil refineries and phenol-producing industries. ... coagulation, phenolic contaminants can damage ... al., 2008), enzymatic treatments (Mao et al., 2006), .... important not only for process economy but also for lower.

  2. Coagulation changes following traumatic brain injury and shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In these studies, we have shown that coagulation and innate immunity pathways respond to trauma within minutes. Furthermore, the appearance of dysfunction of platelets as well as activation of the endothelium is rapidly manifested. Interestingly, many of these changes were attenuated by treatment...

  3. Production and characterization of water treatment coagulant from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base on high cost in coagulant for treating both domestic and industrial water in the recent time. There is need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminant as the demand for clean water increases. A study was carried out to investigate the use of locally sourced Kaolinite clay from Okefomo ...

  4. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  5. Blood coagulation in hemophilia A and hemophilia C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawthern, K. M.; van 't Veer, C.; Lock, J. B.; DiLorenzo, M. E.; Branda, R. F.; Mann, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF)-induced coagulation was compared in contact pathway suppressed human blood from normal, factor VIII-deficient, and factor XI-deficient donors. The progress of the reaction was analyzed in quenched samples by immunoassay and immunoblotting for fibrinopeptide A (FPA),

  6. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered central composite design (FCCD) was used to optimize the four variables. Increase in the colour removal efficiency was higher in acidic solution pH. Accurate control of coagulant dosages gave optimum destabilization of charged particles and re-stabilization ...

  7. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  8. Evaluation of Chitin as Natural Coagulant in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saritha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic coagulants is not regarded as suitable due to health and economic considerations. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitin as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The experiment was conducted at three different pH conditions of 6, 7 and 8. The dosages chosen were 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg/l. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction. Hardness removal efficiency was observed to be 93% at pH 7 with 1mg/l concentration by alum whereas chitin was stable at all the pH ranges showing highest removal at 1 and 1.5mg/l with pH 7. At low concentration chitin showed marginally better performance on hardness. In conclusion, using natural coagulants results in considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  9. The effects of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on coagulation activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Catherine S. C.; de Pont, Anne-Cornélie J. M.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Bakhtiari, Kamran; Roem, Dorina; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wolbink, Gertjan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mechanism of coagulation activation during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) has not yet been elucidated. Insight into the mechanism(s) of hemostatic activation within the extracorporeal circuit could result in a more rational approach to anticoagulation. The aim of the

  10. optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE. ... The ability of organic polymer rich coagulants for colour removal from acid dye was studied. ... Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered ...... successfully applied for modeling and optimizing the.

  11. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  12. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Laura P. B.; Wijnberge, Marije; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Fliers, Eric; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal coagulation tests have been observed in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) suggesting a prothrombotic effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Vitamin D deficiency (VIDD) is the most frequent cause of secondary HPT. Aim of our study was to investigate the influence of HPT secondary

  13. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  14. Effect of cyanobacterial peptides and proteins on coagulation of kaolinite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Kateřina; Barešová, Magdalena; Čermáková, Lenka; Načeradská, Jana; Pivokonský, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 83-89 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : cellular organic matter * coagulation * complex formation * Microcystis aeruginosa * water treatment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/271/123

  15. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  16. [Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by jaundice: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulmaati, A; Hays, S; Mory-Thomas, N; Bretones, P; Bensaid, M; Jordan, I; Bonfils, M; Godbert, I; Picaud, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The clinical presentation of adrenal hemorrhage varies, depending on the extent of hemorrhage as well as the amount of adrenal cortex involved by the hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by late onset of neonatal jaundice. This adrenal hemorrhage most probably resulted from shoulder dystocia. The aim of this work was to focus on the fact that jaundice can be caused by adrenal hemorrhage and to emphasize the crucial importance of abdominal ultrasound in cases of persistent jaundice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  18. Reprodaetion of an animal model of multiple intestinal injuries mimicking "lethal triad" caused by severe penetrating abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-fei WANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of multi-intestinal injuries with "lethal triad" characterized by low body temperature,acidosis and coagulopathy.Methods Six female domestic outbred pigs were anesthetized,and the carotid artery and jugular vein were cannulated for monitoring the blood pressure and heart rate and for infusion of fluid.The animals were shot with a gun to create a severe penetrating abdominal trauma.Immediately after the shooting,50% of total blood volume(35ml/kg hemorrhage was drawn from the carotid artery in 20min.After a 40min shock period,4h of pre-hospital phase was mimicked by normal saline(NS resuscitation to maintain systolic blood pressure(SBP > 80mmHg or mean arterial pressure(MAP > 60mmHg.When SBP > 80mmHg or MAP > 60mmHg,no fluid infusion or additional bleeding was given.Hemodynamic parameters were recorded,and pathology of myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver was observed.Results There were multiple intestinal perforations(8-10 site injuries/pig leading to intra-abdominal contamination,mesenteric injury(1-2 site injuries/pig resulted in partial intestinal ischemia and intra-abdominal hemorrhage,and no large colon and mesenteric vascular injury.One pig died before the completion of the model establishment(at the end of pre-hospital resuscitation.The typical symptoms of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock were observed in survival animals.Low temperature(33.3±0.5℃,acidosis(pH=7.242±0.064,and coagulopathy(protrombin time and activated partial thromboplasting time prolonged were observed after pre-hospital resuscitation.Pathology showed that myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver were severely injured.Conclusions A new model,simulating three stages of "traumatic hemorrhagic shock,pre-hospital recovery and hospital treatment" and inducing the "lethal triad" accompanied with abdominal pollution,has been successfully established.This model has good stability and high reproducibility.The survival animals can be

  19. Lethal endomyocarditis caused by chronic "Krokodil" intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Antonella; Trotta, Silvia; Colucci, Anna Pia; Aventaggiato, Lucia; Marzullo, Andrea; Solarino, Biagio

    2018-03-19

    "Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive necrotic ulcerative lesions on the forearms, and autopsy showed a hypertrophic heart with ample endocardial vegetation on the aortic valve and patency of the foramen ovale. Histopathological examination of the heart showed ulcero-vegetative lesions of the aortic valve with an abscess on the annulus and extension to the periaortic adipose tissue, as well as diffuse myocardial interstitial inflammatory neutrophilic infiltrates. Toxicological analysis demonstrated a desomorphine metabolite in urine. On the basis of all these findings the cause of death was ruled to be congestive heart failure caused by endocarditis and myocarditis, correlated with chronic abuse of krokodil.

  20. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  2. Putaminal hemorrhage: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Elliott, D.; Shamsnia, M.; Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of 100 patients with putaminal hemorrhage were hypertensive. Of the eight normotensive patients, seven were substance abusers or had bilateral putaminal hemorrhages. The one other normotensive patient was less than 40 years old. The 100 hemorrhages had the following locations: 1. Medial putaminal (17 cases; six were normotensive and less than 40 years old and five were substance abusers); 2. lateral putaminal extending through the external capsule (eleven cases); 3. putaminal-capsular and subcortical white matter (32 cases); 4. putaminal cerebral hemispheric (19 cases); 5. putaminal-thalamic (19 cases); 6. bilateral (two cases). A disproportionate number of black patients suffered hematoma extension to the cerebral hemispheres or thalamus (46%) compared to Caucasians (23%). Overall mortality was 20% (17 blacks and three Caucasians) and occurred in patients with hematoma extension to the thalamus or cerebral hemispheres. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in all 100 patients and provided no additional diagnostic yield. This indicates limited use for enhanced CT in hypertensive patients with putaminal hemorrhage who have a characteristic appearance of the acute hemorrhage on the nonenhanced CT. (orig.)

  3. Freehand technique for putaminal hemorrhage. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosuka, Kimihiko; Uno, Masaaki; Hirano, Kazuhiro; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Matsubara, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    We designed a new endoscopic surgical procedure for putaminal hemorrhage (freehand technique) and evaluated its effectiveness and safety in patients with putaminal hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) data sets from 40 healthy patients were used. The CT data were transformed into three-dimensional images using AZE VirtualPlace Plus. The nasion and external auditory foramen were the intraoperative reference points. The median point from medial of the globus pallidus to the insula was the target point. The location of the burr hole point was 80-125 mm above and 27.5 mm lateral to the nasion, and the direction was parallel to the midline and a line drawn from the burr hole to the ipsilateral external auditory foramen. This point was used for 15 patients with putaminal hemorrhage. In all cases, only one puncture was required, and there were no complications. The median surgical time was 91.7 minutes, and the median hematoma removal rate was 95.9%. No recurrent bleeding or operative complications occurred. The freehand technique is a simple and safe technique for patients with putaminal hemorrhage. We believe that this technique of endoscopic hematoma evacuation may provide a less-invasive method for treating patients with putaminal hemorrhage. (author)

  4. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Voort Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factor – factor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin. The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced

  5. Computed tomography and intracranial hemorrhages in the neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Kushida, Yoshimasa; Shishido, Masaru; Nagasawa, Sadatsugu; Seiki, Yoshikatsu

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-two of 290 neonates admitted to the Perinatal Intensive Care Unit, Toho University Medical School, were examined by CT scan because of tentative clinical diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. CT scanner employed in this study was TCT-60 A from the Toshiba The Electric Co., Ltd. Fourteen cases (44%) were confirmed by the CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. Four cases had hemorrhage in the ventricle, while the remaining ten cases had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subdural hemorrhage was not revealed in our series. Three of the four cases with intraventricular hemorrhage showed a typical subependymal germinal matrix hemorrhage. The prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates seemed to be poor; two of the four cases died within a week. Their body weight at birth was apparently under the standard, and their Apgar score was 3 points. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was the main type of intracranial neonatal hemorrhages. In our series, it was constituted approximately 70% of the intracranial hemorrhages. The CT images of the subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonate were greatly different from those in adults. An irregular, wide high-density area around the falxtentorial junction was characteristic of the CT in many neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. In severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, a characteristic Y-shaped, high-density figure was demonstrated. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage from the deep venous system, high-density spreading immediately ventral to the falx-tentrium junction was demonstrated. These high-density areas due to blood in the subarachnoid space rapidly disappeared with the lapse of time. On the other hand, high-density areas in cerebral cisterns and/or fissures were rarely demonstrated in neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. The prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonates was fairly good in the sense of life and cerebral functions. (author)

  6. Cerebral microbleeds and intracerebral hemorrhages in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Recently, it has become clear that the presence of cerebral microbleeds (MBs) on T2 * -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is closely related to intracerebral hemorrhages. This study investigated the incidence of MBs in chronic dialysis patients and prospective hemorrhagic complications of chronic dialysis patients with old intracerebral hemorrhages. Eighty patients (34 males, 46 females) with chronic renal failure, whose mean age was 62.9±11.4 years, were examined by MRI. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 7.8±6.3 years. MBs were found in 28 patients (35%) by T2 * -weighted MRI. Old intracerebral hemorrhages were seen in seven of the patients, and MBs were found in five (71%) of these seven patients. The frequency of old intracerebral hemorrhages was significantly higher in patients with MBs than in those without (p=0.048), and the numbers of MBs were significantly larger in patients with old intracerebral hemorrhages than in those without (p=0.0065). Three of the seven patients with old intracerebral hemorrhages had new hemorrhagic complications (two intracerebral hemorrhages and one cerebral microbleed) within a year. These intracerebral hemorrhages occurred in areas without MBs on the first T2 * -weighted MRI. T2 * -weighted MRI is useful for the detection of MBs, which may be a predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage. When a patient has a large number of MBs and old intracerebral hemorrhages, the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage undoubtedly increases. (author)

  7. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications

  8. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Antov Mirjana G.; Klašnja Mile T.; Šćiban Marina B.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH ...

  9. Arterial embolization therapy of traumatic renal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changxu; Chen Xiaolin; Huang Changhai; Pu Ge

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the angiographic manifestations and arterial embolizatin for traumatic renal hemorrhage when conservative treatment had failed. methods: 5 cases, all male, ranging in age from 12-29 years. All cases had history of injury. the main symptoms included severe abdominal pain, hematuria or coffee colored urine, rapid heart rate, hypotension. 3 suffered hemorrhagic shock. All cases underwent angiographic exam and the diagnosis was confirmed. Embolization materials were mainly self-blood clot and gelfoam. Results: Symptoms in all cases subsided quickly after embolization. Blood pressure recovered to normal within 12 hours; Hematuresis and abdominal pain disappeared or reduced in 1-2 days. One month later, intravenous urographic exam revealed recovered function of the injured kidneys. Conclusion: Renal arterial embolization in treating traumatic renal hemorrhage can control the bleeding while preserving the injured kidneys

  10. Frequency and determinants for hemorrhagic transformation of posterior cerebral stroke : Posterior ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Francesca; Gentile, Luana; Terruso, Valeria; Mastrilli, Sergio; Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Sarno, Caterina; Savettieri, Giovanni; D'Amelio, Marco

    2017-11-13

    hemorrhagic transformation is a threatening ischemic stroke complication. Frequency of hemorrhagic transformation differs greatly among studies, and its risk factors have been usually studied in patients with anterior ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated, in a hospital-based series of patients with posterior ischemic stroke not treated with thrombolysis, frequency and risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation. Patients with posterior circulation stroke were seen in our Department during the period January 2004 to December 2009. Demographic and clinical information were collected. We estimated risk for spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation by means of uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. 119 consecutive patients were included (73 males, 61.3%). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7 patients (5.9%). Only clinical worsening was significantly associated with hemorrhagic transformation (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.3-34.5). Our findings indicate that patients with posterior have a low risk of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation, suggesting that these patients might have greater advantage from intravenous thrombolysis.

  11. Modulation of Acetylation: Creating a Pro-survival and Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype in Lethal Hemorrhagic and Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    regulating kinase 1,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 7721–7730, 2002. [85] A. L. Joly , G. Wettstein, G. Mignot, F. Ghiringhelli, and C... Martin , and G. D. Wu, “Inhibition of IL-8 gene expression in Caco-2 cells by compounds which induce histone hyperacetylation,” Cytokine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp

  12. A DNA Vaccine for Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Protects Against Disease and Death in Two Lethal Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    as above. Data were analyzed as previously reported using 238 GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software) (33). 239 CCHFVLP ELISA 240 High Bind... ELISA plates (Corning) were coated overnight at 4°C with approximately 1 ng N 241 equivalent of CCHFVLP diluted in PBS per 96-well plate. The...deep anesthesia, and sera were collected for post-challenge 276 analysis. 277 N ELISA 278 N antibodies in challenged mice were detected by ELISA

  13. Evaluation of Xstat and Combat Gauze in a Swine Model of Lethal Junctional Hemorrhage in Coagulopathic Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-19

    standards of ethical conduct for all DoD personnel and their interactions with other non-DoD entities. organizations , societies. conferences, etc...following examples are provided as a guideline: For presentations before professional societies and like organizations . the 59 MOW Public Affairs Office...swine were used in all experiments. Dilutional coagulopathy was induced by replacing 60% of the animal’s estimated blood volume with room

  14. Alterations of Mg2+ After Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun-Young; Yang, Dong Kwon; Kim, Shang-Jin

    2017-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is generally characterized by hemodynamic instability with cellular hypoxia and diminishing cellular function, resulting from an imbalance between systemic oxygen delivery and consumption and redistribution of fluid and electrolytes. Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant cation overall and second most abundant intracellular cation in the body and an essential cofactor for the energy production and cellular metabolism. Data for blood total Mg (tMg; free-ionized, protein-bound, and anion-bound forms) and free Mg 2+ levels after a traumatic injury are inconsistent and only limited information is available on hemorrhagic effects on free Mg 2+ as the physiologically active form. The aim of this study was to determine changes in blood Mg 2+ and tMg after hemorrhage in rats identifying mechanism and origin of the changes in blood Mg 2+ . Hemorrhagic shock produced significant increases in blood Mg 2+ , plasma tMg, Na + , K + , Cl - , anion gap, partial pressures of oxygen, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen but significant decreases in RBC tMg, blood Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - , pH, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and plasma/RBC ATP. During hemorrhagic shock, K + , anion gap, and BUN showed significant positive correlations with changes in blood Mg 2+ level, while Ca 2+ , pH, and T-CHO correlated to Mg 2+ in a negative manner. In conclusion, hemorrhagic shock induced an increase in both blood-free Mg 2+ and tMg, resulted from Mg 2+ efflux from metabolic damaged cell with acidosis and ATP depletion.

  15. Differences in Neuropeptide Y Secretion Between Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, Karl-M; Bründl, Elisabeth; Schödel, Petra; Hochreiter, Andreas; Scheitzach, Judith; Bele, Sylvia; Brawanski, Alexander; Störr, Eva-M; Lohmeier, Anette; Proescholdt, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors, and its contribution to the multifactorial cascade of cerebral vasospasm due to nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not yet fully understood. This experimental study compared the hemorrhage-specific course of NPY secretion into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and into plasma between 2 groups: patients with SAH and patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) or cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) over the first 10 days after hemorrhage. Seventy-nine patients were prospectively included: SAH patients (n=66) (historic population) and intracerebral hemorrhage patients (n=13). All patients received an external ventricular drain within 24 hours of the onset of bleeding. CSF and plasma were drawn daily from day 1 to day 10. The levels of NPY were determined by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The CSF samples of 29 patients (historic population) who had undergone spinal anesthesia due to orthopedic surgery served as the control group. NPY levels in CSF were significantly higher in the 2 hemorrhage groups than in the control group. However, the 2 hemorrhage groups showed significant differences in NPY levels in CSF (SAH mean, 0.842 ng/mL vs. BGH/CH mean, 0.250 ng/mL; P<0.001) as well as in the course of NPY secretion into CSF over the 10-day period. NPY levels in plasma did not differ significantly among SAH, BGH/CH, and controls. Our findings support the hypothesis that excessive release of NPY into CSF but not into plasma is specific to aneurysmal SAH in the acute period of 10 days after hemorrhage. In BGH/CH, CSF levels of NPY were also increased, but the range was much lower.

  16. Early Vitrectomy for Vitreous Hemorrhage Associated With Retinal Tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome of early surgery in vitreous hemorrhage, presumably associated with retinal tears. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series. METHODS: We included 40 consecutive cases in 39 patients treated with early vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage. Main

  17. Magnetic resonance appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemse, A.P.P.; Feldberg, M.A.M.; Witkamp, T.D.; Coppes, M.J.; Kramer, P.P.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate is described and compared with Ultrasound (US). The value of US studies in adrenal neonatal hemorrhage is well known. We present the MR appearance of this common condition. (orig.)

  18. Hemorrhage Detection and Segmentation in Traumatic Pelvic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Pavani; Wu, Jie; Tang, Yang; Cockrell, Charles H.; Ward, Kevin R.; Najarian, Kayvan; Hargraves, Rosalyn H.

    2012-01-01

    Automated hemorrhage detection and segmentation in traumatic pelvic injuries is vital for fast and accurate treatment decision making. Hemorrhage is the main cause of deaths in patients within first 24 hours after the injury. It is very time consuming for physicians to analyze all Computed Tomography (CT) images manually. As time is crucial in emergence medicine, analyzing medical images manually delays the decision-making process. Automated hemorrhage detection and segmentation can significantly help physicians to analyze these images and make fast and accurate decisions. Hemorrhage segmentation is a crucial step in the accurate diagnosis and treatment decision-making process. This paper presents a novel rule-based hemorrhage segmentation technique that utilizes pelvic anatomical information to segment hemorrhage accurately. An evaluation measure is used to quantify the accuracy of hemorrhage segmentation. The results show that the proposed method is able to segment hemorrhage very well, and the results are promising. PMID:22919433

  19. Fatal hemorrhage in irr[iated esophageal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ariga, Hisanori; Matsushita, Haruo; Wada, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shogo

    1998-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1994, 423 patients with esophageal cancer were given curative r[iation therapy. Of these patients, 31 died of massive hemorrhage and were used as the subjects of analysis in this study. The incidence of massive hemorrhage in all patients was 7% (31/423). In the 31 patients who died of massive hemorrhage, 27 h[ local tumors and two h[ no tumors at hemorrhage (two unknown cases). The mean time interval from the start of r[iation to hemorrhage was 9.2 months. In 9 autopsy cases the origin of hemorrhage was a tear of the aorta in 5 cases, necrotic local tumor in 3 cases and esophageal ulcer in 1 case. The positive risk factors for this complication seemed to be excess total dose, infection, metallic stent, and tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest pain or sentinel hemorrhage proceeding to massive hemorrhage was observed in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  20. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  1. [Haplotype Analysis of Coagulation Factor VII Gene in a Patient with Congenital Coagulation Factor VII Deficiency with Heterozygous p.Arg337Cys Mutation and o.Aro413Gin Polymorphism..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keijiro; Yoshioka, Tomoko; Obara, Takehiro; Suwabe, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Congenital coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare hemorrhagic disease with an autosomal reces- sive inheritance pattern. We analyzed coagulation factor VII gene (F7) of a patient with FVII deficiency and used expression studies to investigate the effect of a missense mutation on FVII secretion. The proband, a 69-year-old Japanese woman, had a history of postpartum bleeding and excessive bleeding after dental extrac- tion. She was found to have mildly increased PT-INR (1.17) before an ophthalmic operation. FVII activity and antigen were reduced (29.0% and 32.8%). Suspecting that the proband was FVII deficient, we analyzed F7 of the patient. Sequence analysis revealed that the patient was heterozygous for a point mutation (p.Arg337Cys) in the catalytic domain and polymorphisms: the decanucleotide insertion at the promoter re- gion, dimorphism (c.525C >T) in exon 5, and p.Arg413Gln in exon 8. Haplotype analysis clarified that p.Arg337Cys was located on the p.Arg413 allele (Ml allele). The other allele had the p.Arg413Gln polymor- phism(M2 allele) which is known to produce less FVII. Expression studies revealed that p.Arg337Cys causes impairment of FVII secretion. Insufficient secretion of FVII arising from both the p.Arg337Cys/M1 allele and the p.Arg337/M2 allele might lower the FVII level of this patient(<50%). The FVII level in a heterozygous FVII deficient patient might be influenced by F7 polymorphisms on the normal allele. There- fore, genetic analyses are important for the diagnosis of heterozygous FVII deficiency.

  2. Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, E; De Petris, L; Zorzi, G; Paoletti, P; Mambelli, G; Carlucci, A

    2013-01-01

    The adrenal hemorrhage is a relatively rare event in newborns but must be considered in the presence of a persistent unexplained jaundice, especially in presence of predisposing factors. Serial ultrasonography is the modality of choice for initial diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We report two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. The causes of the neonatal adrenal hemorrhages were a difficult vaginal delivery in macrosomic infant and a neonatal infection.

  3. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  4. Identification of eight novel coagulation factor XIII subunit A mutations: implied consequences for structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Biswas, Arijit; Bevans, Carville; Schroeder, Verena; Kohler, Hans Peter; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Petrides, Petro E; Lenk, Harald; Krause, Manuele; Miterski, Bruno; Harbrecht, Ursula; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2010-06-01

    Severe hereditary coagulation factor XIII deficiency is a rare homozygous bleeding disorder affecting one person in every two million individuals. In contrast, heterozygous factor XIII deficiency is more common, but usually not associated with severe hemorrhage such as intracranial bleeding or hemarthrosis. In most cases, the disease is caused by F13A gene mutations. Causative mutations associated with the F13B gene are rarer. We analyzed ten index patients and three relatives for factor XIII activity using a photometric assay and sequenced their F13A and F13B genes. Additionally, structural analysis of the wild-type protein structure from a previously reported X-ray crystallographic model identified potential structural and functional effects of the missense mutations. All individuals except one were heterozygous for factor XIIIA mutations (average factor XIII activity 51%), while the remaining homozygous individual was found to have severe factor XIII deficiency (<5% of normal factor XIII activity). Eight of the 12 heterozygous patients exhibited a bleeding tendency upon provocation. The identified missense (Pro289Arg, Arg611His, Asp668Gly) and nonsense (Gly390X, Trp664X) mutations are causative for factor XIII deficiency. A Gly592Ser variant identified in three unrelated index patients, as well as in 200 healthy controls (minor allele frequency 0.005), and two further Tyr167Cys and Arg540Gln variants, represent possible candidates for rare F13A gene polymorphisms since they apparently do not have a significant influence on the structure of the factor XIIIA protein. Future in vitro expression studies of the factor XIII mutations are required to confirm their pathological mechanisms.

  5. Spinal vascular malformations in non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, M. R.; Pennings, F. A.; Sprengers, M. E. S.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and no evidence for a cerebral aneurysm on angiography, a frequent cause of the hemorrhage is perimesencephalic hemorrhage or other cerebral vascular pathology. In some patients no cause is found. The exact incidence of a spinal

  6. Angiographic diagnosis of hemorrhage tumours of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadon, G.; Ehngloner, L.; Petri, K.

    1980-01-01

    2 angiographic investigations in small intestine tumors, accompanied with hemorrhage are considered. Conclusion is made that the most suitable moment for estimation of small intestine hemorrhage, according to the proper and literature data, is selective angiography. Wide application of the technique for preoperative detection of gastro-inestinal hemorrhage is recommended

  7. A new type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-01-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature. (orig.)

  8. Back to the future: revisiting HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of eliminating HIV-1 infectivity by elevating the viral mutation rate was first proposed over a decade ago, even though the general concept had been conceived earlier for RNA viruses. Lethal mutagenesis was originally viewed as a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treating HIV-1 infection in which use of a viral mutagen would over multiple rounds of replication lead to the lethal accumulation of mutations, rendering the virus population non infectious – known as the slow mutation accumulation model. There have been limitations in obtaining good efficacy data with drug leads, leaving some doubt into clinical translation. More recent studies of the APOBEC3 proteins as well as new progress in the use of nucleoside analogs for inducing lethal mutagenesis have helped to refocus attention on rapid induction of HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis in a single or limited number of replication cycles leading to a rapid mutation accumulation model. PMID:23195922

  9. New type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-05-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature.

  10. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis.

  11. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  12. Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    during the Vietnam War. US; emulsifying agents are used in food processing, drilling fluids, cosmetics , pharmaceuticals, heavy- duty cleaners, textile...conducted in a professional manner, with no threat to public safety or the environment. 11 References [1] Fenton , G., (2001). NLW Technology Taxonomy...W.A., Mason, R.L., Collins, K.R., (2000). Non-Lethal Applicants of Slippery Substances. NDIA Non-Lethal Defense IV. [24] Fenton , G., (2000). Overview

  13. Lethal synergy involving bicyclomycin: an approach for reviving old antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad; Li, Liping; Zhao, Xilin; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-12-01

    One way to address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance is to revive old compounds that may have intrinsic lethal activity that is obscured by protective factors. Bicyclomycin is an old inhibitor of the Rho transcription terminator that by itself shows little rapid lethal activity. However, bicyclomycin participates in bacteriostatic synergy, which raises the possibility that conditions for lethal synergy may exist, perhaps through a suppression of protective factors. Bicyclomycin was combined with bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression, and bactericidal activity was measured with several cultured Gram-negative pathogens. When used alone, bicyclomycin failed to rapidly kill growing cultures of Escherichia coli; however, the additional presence of bacteriostatic concentrations of tetracycline, chloramphenicol or rifampicin led to rapid killing. Four other pathogen species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae, also exhibited enhanced killing when bicyclomycin was combined with tetracycline or rifampicin. This lethal synergy was achieved at low concentrations (slightly above the MIC) for all agents tested in combinations. Follow-up work with E. coli indicated that lethal synergy arose from a blockage of transcription elongation. Moreover, lethal synergy was reduced when bicyclomycin was added 60 min before tetracycline, suggesting that bicyclomycin induces a protective factor. The action of bicyclomycin illustrates the potential present in a largely abandoned antibacterial agent; it exhibits lethal synergy when coadministered with known, bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression. The identification of protective factors, which are currently uncharacterized, may reveal new ways to promote the lethal action of some old antibiotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved

  14. Sonographic features of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 14 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chan, Gavin Shueng Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Tang, Mary Hoi Yin

    2005-06-01

    Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare inherited disorder. Previous reports suggest that the diagnosis may be based on prenatal sonographic demonstration of severe limb flexion, absence of fetal motion, and a large cystic hygroma in the second and third trimesters. We present the sonographic features and postmortem features of a fetus with lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation, which shows that the condition can possibly be diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  15. Ethnic Disparities in Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on the incidence of stroke subtypes among ethnic minority groups are limited. We assessed ethnic differences in the incidence of stroke subtypes in the Netherlands. METHODS: A Dutch nationwide register-based cohort study (n=7 423 174) was conducted between 1998 and 2010....... We studied the following stroke subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence differences between first-generation ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population (ethnic Dutch). RESULTS: Compared.......16-0.72), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.42; 0.20-0.88 and 0.34; 0.17-0.68) compared with ethnic Dutch counterparts. The results varied by stroke subtype and sex for the other minority groups. For example, Turkish women had a reduced incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas Turkish men had an increased incidence...

  16. Ex-vivo assessment and non-invasive in vivo imaging of internal hemorrhages in Aga2/+ mutant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolayev, Vladimir [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Building 56, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Cohrs, Christian M. [Institute for Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Building 56, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Hrabé de Angelis, Martin [Institute for Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ntziachristos, Vasilis, E-mail: v.ntziachristos@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Building 56, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Aga2/+ mice, model for Osteogenesis imperfecta, have type I collagen mutation. ► Aga2/+ mice display both moderate and severe phenotypes lethal 6–11th postnatal. ► Internal hemorrhages studied in Aga2/+ vs. control mice at 6 and 9 days postnatal. ► Anatomical and functional findings in-vivo contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance. -- Abstract: Mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1/2) typically lead to Osteogenesis imperfecta, the most common heritable cause of skeletal fractures and bone deformation in humans. Heterozygous Col1a1{sup Aga2/+}, animals with a dominant mutation in the terminal C-propeptide domain of type I collagen develop typical skeletal hallmarks and internal hemorrhages starting from 6 day after birth. The disease progression for Aga2/+ mice, however, is not uniform differing between severe phenotype lethal at the 6–11th day of life, and moderate-to-severe one with survival to adulthood. Herein we investigated whether a new modality that combines X-ray computer tomography with fluorescence tomography in one hybrid system can be employed to study internal bleedings in relation to bone fractures and obtain insights into disease progression. The disease phenotype was characterized on Aga2/+ vs. wild type mice between 6 and 9 days postnatal. Anatomical and functional findings obtained in-vivo were contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance of the same tissues under cryo-slicing.

  17. Ex-vivo assessment and non-invasive in vivo imaging of internal hemorrhages in Aga2/+ mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Cohrs, Christian M.; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aga2/+ mice, model for Osteogenesis imperfecta, have type I collagen mutation. ► Aga2/+ mice display both moderate and severe phenotypes lethal 6–11th postnatal. ► Internal hemorrhages studied in Aga2/+ vs. control mice at 6 and 9 days postnatal. ► Anatomical and functional findings in-vivo contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance. -- Abstract: Mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1/2) typically lead to Osteogenesis imperfecta, the most common heritable cause of skeletal fractures and bone deformation in humans. Heterozygous Col1a1 Aga2/+ , animals with a dominant mutation in the terminal C-propeptide domain of type I collagen develop typical skeletal hallmarks and internal hemorrhages starting from 6 day after birth. The disease progression for Aga2/+ mice, however, is not uniform differing between severe phenotype lethal at the 6–11th day of life, and moderate-to-severe one with survival to adulthood. Herein we investigated whether a new modality that combines X-ray computer tomography with fluorescence tomography in one hybrid system can be employed to study internal bleedings in relation to bone fractures and obtain insights into disease progression. The disease phenotype was characterized on Aga2/+ vs. wild type mice between 6 and 9 days postnatal. Anatomical and functional findings obtained in-vivo were contrasted to the ex-vivo appearance of the same tissues under cryo-slicing

  18. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cieslak

    Full Text Available One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS, caused by the VHS virus (VHSV. For the past few decades, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971-2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population and the strong mixing of Ia isolates, assumed to be the result of the Europe-wide trout trade. For example, the Ia lineage underwent a radiation into nine Ia clades, most of which are difficult to allocate to a specific geographic distribution. Furthermore, we found indications for two rapid, large-scale population growth events, and identified three polytomies among the Ia clades, both of which possibly indicate a rapid radiation. However, only about 4% of Ia haplotypes (out of 398 occur in more than one European country. This apparently conflicting finding regarding the Europe-wide spread and mixing of Ia isolates can be explained by the high mutation rate of VHSV. Accordingly, the mean period of occurrence of a single Ia haplotype was less than a full year, and we found a substitution rate of up to 7.813 × 10-4 nucleotides per site per year. Finally, we documented significant differences between Germany and Denmark regarding their VHS epidemiology, apparently due to those countries' individual handling of VHS.

  19. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  20. Change of particle size distribution during Brownian coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Change in particle size distribution due to Brownian coagulation in the continuum regime has been stuied analytically. A simple analytic solution for the size distribution of an initially lognormal distribution is obtained based on the assumption that the size distribution during the coagulation process attains or can, at least, be represented by a time dependent lognormal function. The results are found to be in a form that corrects Smoluchowski's solution for both polydispersity and size-dependent kernel. It is further shown that regardless of whether the initial distribution is narrow or broad, the spread of the distribution is characterized by approaching a fixed value of the geometric standard deviation. This result has been compared with the self-preserving distribution obtained by similarity theory. (Author)